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Polymer Science


Subject Code

Name of the Subject



Fundamentals of Polymer Science



Polymer Processing



Polymer Blends



Polymers Composites



Polymer Characterization



Polymer Testing



Research Methodology



Fundamentals of Polymer Science

General introduction to polymers with emphasis on important concepts such as monomer, functionality, micro-structure and average-molecular weight. Classification of polymers on the basis of source, elemental composition, chemical reactivity, chemical/ monomer composition, geometry, stereo regularity, effect of heat and pressure (along with names and structures of few important thermoplastics, thermo-sets, elastomers, engineering polymers and specialty polymers). Polymer Nomenclature. Advantages of polymeric materials over other class of materials.


Chemistry and Mechanism of Polymerization- Definition of polymerization, raw materials used in polymerization, chain polymerization (free radical, ionic and co-ordination polymerizations), step polymerization (polyaddition and polycondensation), copolymerization–free radical, ionic and co- polycondensation.


Methods of Polymerization– Bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion, melt polycondensation, interfacial polymerization, solid phase, gas phase. Isolation and purification of polymers.


Special topics in polymer synthesis- electrochemical polymerization, group-transfer polymerization, plasma polymerization, and ring opening polymerization. Polymer reactions: hydrolysis, acidolysis, addition, substitution, halogenations, hydrogenation, crosslinking.


Crystallinity and Transition temperatures: Crystalline and amorphous nature of polymers. Transitional behaviors in polymers– Glass transition temperature (T g ) & Melting temperature (T m ). Factors effecting crysttallinity, T g and T m of polymers (chemical structure, molecular weight, branching, crosslink density, diluents, etc). Methods of measurements of crystallinity and Tg Text books:


1. Introduction to polymers - R.J.Young & P.A.Lovell, Chapman & Hall, London.

2. Text book of Polymer Science - Fred W.Billmeyer, J.R.John Wiley & Sons, New York.

3. Principles of Polymer Systems - F. Rodrignek, McGraw Hill, N.Y.

4. Polymer Chemistry - Seymour & Carreher, Marcel Dekkar, NY.

5. Principles of Polymerization - Odian G., Wiley Inter Science, New Delhi

6. Fundaments of Polymer Science and Engineering - Anil Kumar & S.K.Gupta, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi

7. Introduction to polymerization chemistry, G.S. Mishra, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.

8. Properties of Polymers, Correlations with chemical structure by Van Krevelen, Elsevier Pub., NY.

9. Polymers-structure and bulk properties, Patrick Mares, Van Nostrand, Pub., NY

10. Structure -properties relationships of polymers, Raymond B. Seymour and E.C.Charles, Plenum Press, NY.

11. Plastic Additives – Gachtor/ Muller, Hanser Publishers.

Polymer modifiers and additives. R.F. Grossman, Edited by John T.L., Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 2001.

14PHDPS002: Polymer Processing


Introduction: Introduction to different molding and forming techniques used in polymer industry for elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosets (examples of products, polymers and techniques).

Extrusion: Different types of extruders, general constructional features of single screw extruders, machine design features- drives, types of screw, L/D ratio, compression ratio, flight depth, pitch, helix angle, screw clearance. General constructional features of dies, sizing and haul-off equipment for extrusion of monofilaments, rods, profiles, tubes, blown film, flat film, sheet, wire coating, extrusion coating, melt coating and laminating. Heating, cooling and temperature control methods. Vented extruders, screw elements, vacuum and heated hoppers, co-extrusion.


Injection Moulding: General constructional features of Injection moulding machines- specifications of machines. Types of Injection moulding machines, types of clamping- Toggle and hydraulic clamps. Analysis of the time cycle. Factors influencing the product quality.

Compression moulding: The machines, sources of heat and pressure. Compression press, the moulds, types and action. The Compression moulding cycles, bulk factor, the interplay of heat, pressure, friction, catalysts etc. For thermosetting materials, Moulding faults, Compression moulding of thermoplastics. Auxiliary processes like preheating and deflashing.


Blow Moulding: General principles of machines and processes for manufacture of bottles and other hollow products by extrusion blow moulding, injection blow moulding and stretch blow moulding. Parison, cycle times, trimming and finishing. Blow moulding Nomenclature, Bottle terminology, Control for blow molding, Trouble shooting, Multi layer containers.

Thermoforming: definition, significance and types. Vacuum forming, drape forming, plug -assist forming, snap-back vacuum forming, pressure snap- back vacuum forming, plug and ring vacuum forming, blow back forming, Pressure, Matched mould forming, Continuous forming methods.


Calendering: Consideration of materials , General constructional features of calenders, 2 roll, 3 roll, 4 roll and 5 roll calenders, vertical, inclined, L type, Z type configurations, embossing and laminating machines, skim coating and frictioning processes.

Spinning, Rotational moulding, Coating, And Casting: Introduction to the process, significance, types and examples of products made under each technique.


Introduction to: Transfer moulding, Slush moulding, Reaction Injection moulding, Structural foam moulding, SMC, DMC, Fabrication, finishing and decorating of plastics, assembly of fabricated parts (process, significance and examples of products made under each technique).

Text Book:

1. ‘Plastics- Materials and Processing’, A. Brent Strong, Prentice-Hall Englewood cliffs.


1. Polymer Processing– Good Mann

2. Handbook of Polymer processing– Joel Fredos

3. Calendaring of plastics- Elden & Swan

4. Polymer processing- D.H. Morton Jones, Chapman & Hall

5. Basic principles of Rotational moulding- Bruins.

Thermoforming- James L. Throne, Hanser Publications.

14PHDPS003: Polymer Blends


Introduction: Definition of polymer blends, types of blends, reasons for blending, classification of polymer blends, methods of blending, selection criteria of blending, Designing of polymer blends. Thermodynamic relationships: combinatorial entropy of mixing, Enthalpy of mixing, Flory-Huggins theory, Phase behavior- miscible and immiscible blends.


Mechanism of phase separation: Spinodal decomposition, Nucleation and Growth, Solubility parameter concept.

Miscibility of polymers: effect of specific interactions- Hydrogen bonding interaction, Dipole-Dipole interaction,

Ion-Dipole and Ion-Ion interaction. Measurement of degree of miscibility.


Compatibility of polymers: Compatibilization (Alloying) - introduction, types and role of compatibilizer,

compatibilization methods, mechanism and properties of compatibilized blends.


Polymer Toughening: Mechanism and theory of toughening, Toughening of thermoplastics and thermosets.


Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs): Introduction, classification, method of formation of IPNs, properties

and uses, role of cross links, and their importance.

Characterization of Polymer blends: Glass transition, Dynamic mechanical characterization, Calorimetric methods,

Morphology/ Microscopy, Scattering methods/ spectroscopy.

Text book:

1. Polymer blends and alloys, Utracki, Hanser Publication.


1. Polymer blends: Paul & Newman Academic press

2. Polymer blends – A comprehensive review, Lloyd M.Robeson, Hanser publishers

3. Polymer blends and composites, John A Manson and Lesliw H Sperling, Plenum Press, New York.

14PHDPS004: Polymers Composites

Introduction: Definition, need of composites, classifications, raw materials and chemistry.

Thermoplastic Matrix- Raw materials, physical and chemical properties, Thermal behaviour and Mechanical properties.

Thermoseting Matrix-

Epoxy: Curing reactions, hardener, gel time, viscosity modifications, Prepeg making. Unsaturated polyester resin: Catalyst, curing reactions, viscosity modifier.

Physical properties, Chemical properties, Thermal behaviour, Mechanical properties and Uses of: Alkyd resin, vinyl ester, polyimides, etc;

Reinforcements: Types, properties, chemistry and applications of fillers such as silica, titanium oxide, talc, mica, etc., Fibers: types- Natural and synthetic, short and long, general purpose and high performance, organic and inorganic. Properties, structure and uses of: Glass, Carbon, Aramid, Nylons, Boron, aluminium-carbide, silk, jute, sisal, cotton etc.,

Coupling agents- Function, chemistry, methods of applications, advantages and disadvantages.

Factors influencing the performance of polymer composites– aspect ratio, void content, length of the fiber, nature of the fiber, structure property relationship between fiber and matrix, modifications of the fiber surface, degree of interaction between fiber and matrix, wetting behaviour, degree of cross linking etc.,

Processing of Thermoplastic composites- Types of processing methods, solution, film, lamination, sandwitch etc., Processing conditions, advantages and disadvantages.

Fabrications of Thermoset composites– Hand layup method, compression and transfer moulding, pressure and vacuum bag process, filament winding, protrusion, reinforced RIM, RRIM, Injection moulding of thermosets, SMC and DMC, Advantages and disadvantages of each method.

Introduction to: Hybrid polymer composites, Advanced polymer composites, Green composites and Nanocomposites- Definition, Types, methods of fabrication, Characterization, uses and applications.

Important Tests for composites- like: ILSS, impact strength, Tensile properties, HDT, etc and basic concepts of fracture mechanism.

Text Books:

1. Composite manufacturing, materials, product and process engineering, Sanjay K Mazumdar, CRC Press, London, 2002.

2. Handbook of Composites by S T Peters, Published by Chapman and Hall, London, 1998.


1. Designing with Reinforced composites – Technology - Performance, Economics, Rosato,


2 nd Ed.

2. Engineering Plastics & Composites by John C. Bittence, 1990.

3. Polymers & Polymer Composites in Construction by L.C. Holleway, 1990.

14PHDPS005: Polymer Characterization


Introduction to polymer analysis, evaluation and characterization; need and types. Physical methods: colour, density, bulk density, solvent extraction method. Chemical methods: systematic qualitative analysis of plastics, rubbers and fillers by chemical methods.


X-ray diffractometry: Introduction, principle, theory, instrumentation, procedure, applications,

advantages and disadvantages.

Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy: Introduction, principle, theory, instrumentation, procedure,

applications, advantages and disadvantages.


Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic spectroscopy (NMR): Introduction, principle,

theory, instrumentation, procedure, applications, advantages and disadvantages.

Chromatographic technique: Introduction, principle, theory, instrumentation, procedure, applications,

advantages and disadvantages of Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography (GC).


Thermal Methods: Introduction, principle, theory, instrumentation, procedure, applications, advantages

and disadvantages of Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA),

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA). Applications of all

thermoanalytical techniques.


Morphological studies: Introduction, principle, theory, instrumentation, procedure, applications,

advantages and disadvantages of - Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), TEM and


Text Book:


Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis, Gurdeep Chatwal and Sham Anand, Himalaya, 1986


1. Instrumental Methods of Analysis, Willard, Merritt, Dean and Settle, 7 th Ed. CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 1986.

2. Text book of Polymer Science - Fred W. Billmeyer, J.R., John Wiley & Sons, New York. 2002

3. Physical Chemistry of polymers, A. Tager, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1978

4. Polymer characterization - Physical Techniques by D. Campbell Hall)

5. The Identification of Plastics and Rubber - K.J. Saunders

6. Analysis of Rubber and Rubber like Polymers – William, C. Wake (Maclaren and sons)

7. Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials - E.A. Turi (Academic Press), New York, 1981.

8. J.Brandrup and E.H.Immergut, eds., Polymer Handbook, 3 rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York,

and J. R. White (Chapman and

(Chapman & Hall).


9. Analysis of Rubber and Rubber like Polymers – William C. Wake (Maclaren and Sons).

10.Principles of Polymer Chemistry, P.J. Flory, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY 1953.

14PHDPS006: Polymer Testing





for testing, types of testing, need





natural and international

control, limitation of test data, accuracy and validity of test

methods. Conditioning of specimens.

Specimen preparation- Shape and size of test specimen, standards for test specimen preparation like molding, machining,

stamping and punching of specimens and effect of these preparation techniques on test results.

Mechanical properties:

Short term strength- Tensile properties, compression properties, flexural properties shear properties, impact resistance, toughness, tear resistance, abrasion resistance and hardness.

Long term strength- Creep, stress relaxation, fatigue properties.














Optical properties: Gloss, haze, refractive index, degree of

yellowness, transmittance, colour, photo elastic properties.

Electrical properties: Insulation resistance, volume resistivity, surface resistivity, breakdown voltage, dielectric strength, arc resistance, dielectric constant, power factor.


properties: Oxygen index, critical temperature index, smoke

properties, surface burning characteristics.


flammability test, ignition

Environmental properties: Environmental stress cracking, weathering properties, toxicity, resistance to chemicals.

Non-destructive testing methods: X-rays, ultrasonic testing.

Text Book:

1. Plastics Testing Technology Hand book- Vishu Shah, John Wiley, NY.



Hand book of Plastics Test methods - R.P. Brown, John Wiley & sons, NY


Hand book of Rubber Test methods

- R.P. Brown, John Wiley & Sons, NY


ASTM and ISO standards