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Please email me if you have questions or corrections: steph.simoes@gmail.com.

2
Introduction

Sanskrit is an inherently vague language: not only are there various possible renderings for individual words,
but the word order is quite loose. Because of this, many translations are often possible for a given passage.
This translation allows readers with no knowledge of Sanskrit to explore the different possible meanings of
the text with the help of the Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, which can be accessed online.

The format of this translation closely follows that of Winthrop Sargeants translation of the Bhagavad-Gt.
At the top of the left-hand column is the transliterated text, and beneath this is a suggested translation. In
the right-hand column, each Sanskrit word is listed without sandhi1, followed by bracketed grammatical
notes and a few possible renderings.

The grammatical notes are structured as follows: After nouns, I have listed the gender, case, and number,
followed by the stem (or, for pronouns, the base). It is generally the noun stem (with or without prefixes)
that must be entered into the online Monier-Williams Dictionary in order to obtain results. In many cases, I
have listed the verbal root from which the stem is derived, and have written any prefixes or suffixes
separately. After verbs, I have listed the person, number, mood, voice, and, when applicable, secondary
conjugations. This is followed by the root (again separated from prefixes and suffixes).

Often, more than one case, gender, etc. is possible for a word. To list all of these possibilities in every case
would have been cumbersome, but I did make note of different possibilities at times. It is important to note
that Sanskrit texts often omit derivatives of to be, so the reader must usually add these at their discretion.
For example, the line in Kena III.1 which I have translated as Ours, indeed, is this victory is, if translated
exactly, Ours indeed this victory.

I chose to transliterate using the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration) because I find this to
be the most readable of the Romanized Sanskrit alphabets. One downside is that this alphabet cannot be
typed into the search box of the online Monier-Williams Dictionary: text must be inputted using ITRANS
(Indian Languages Transliteration), HK (Harvard-Kyoto), or SLP1 (Sanskrit Library Phonetic Basic). IAST can be
easily converted into HK according to the chart on the following page.

1
A Sanskrit term meaning holding together, sandhi (or sadhi) is the alteration of soundsboth across word
boundaries (external sandhi) and within words (internal sandhi)that simplifies pronunciation. English uses sandhi,
too: for example,the changing of a to an before vowels. The Sanskrit sandhi rules have not been included here
because they can be be found in many books. For a basic outline of the rules, see McComas Taylors The Little Red
Book of Sanskrit Paradigms. For an understanding of why these changes occur, I recommend Robert P. Goldmans
Devavpraveik.

3
Conversion of the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration to Harvard-Kyoto

IAST HK
A
D
h Dh
H
I
l lR
l lRR
M
N
J
G
R
RR
S
z
T
h Th
u U

4
Abbreviations

. tmanepada voice inj. injunctive mood


AB. avyaybhva compound instr. instrumental case
abl. ablative case KD. karmadhraya
acc. accusative case lit. literally
act. active loc. locative case
adj. adjective m. masculine gender
adv. adverb n. neuter gender
aor. aorist tense nom. nominative case
ben. benedictive mood opt. optative mood
BV. bahuvrh P. parasmaipada voice
comp. compound p. participle
cond. conditional mood pass. passive
dat. dative case peri. periphrastic future tense
DV. dvandva pf. perfect tense
f. feminine pl. plural
fut. future pres. present
gen. genitive case prob. probably
ger. gerund pron. pronoun
impf. imperfect tense sing. singular
impv. imperative mood TP. tatpurua (vyadhikaraa)
ind. indeclinable voc. vocative case
inf. infinitive mood

5
Explanation of Grammatical Terms

NOUN CASES / VIBHAKTI-S (separations, divisions)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Ablative pancam (5th) or apdna From (and occasionally than) the
(taking away, giving away) noun.

Accusative dvitya (2nd) or karman Identifies the object.


(action; object)

Dative caturth (4th) or sampradna For, to (the indirect object).


(giving over completely,
bestowing)

Genitive ahi (6th) or sambandha Of the noun.


(binding together)

Instrumental ttya (3rd) or karaa (doing, By or with the noun (in either the
making, acting) instrumental sense or in the sense of
accompaniment).

Locative saptam (7th) or adhikaraa Expresses location: in, on, at, etc.
(location; lit. over-making) the noun.

Nominative pratham (1st) or kart Identifies the subject.


(doer, maker, agent)

Vocative sabodhana (awaking, Identifies the addressee.


arousing; calling to)

6
PARTICIPLES / KDANTA-S (ending in kt-s)2

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Future active bhaviyatkle kdanta E.g., The about-to-remember man
participle (participle in future time) asked a question.

Future passive ktya (to-be-done) This implies ought.


participle (a.k.a. E.g., The words are to-be-
gerdundive) remembered (i.e., The words ought to
be remembered).

Gerund (a.k.a. ktvanta (ending in tva) / This signals an action that was
indeclinable lyabanta (ending in ya) completed before some other event.
participle or Gerunds are always used with a verb.
absolutive) E.g., Having remembered, Rama went
to the forest or, After remembering,
Rama went to the forest.

Past active Past active participle (a.k.a. These are adjectives:


participle and perfect active participle): E.g., The arisen demon walked,
and perfect ktavatu (ending in tavat) Having-remembered Rama arrived.
active participle Some authors suggest these be used as
Perfect active-P participle: simple past tense verbs when there is
kvasu (ending in vas) no verb present in the sentence:
E.g., The demon arose; Rama
Perfect active- participle: remembered.
knac (ending in na) However, this is not necessary if a
verbal form of to be is taken as
implied:
E.g., The demon (is) arisen; Rama (is)
having-remembered.3

Past passive bhute kdanta (participle in The usage is the same as above, except
participle the past) in a passive sense:
E.g., The arisen demon walked;
Remembered Rama arrived.

Present active vartamne kdanta kartari Like the gerund, this is always used with
participle prayoga (participle in the a verb. It differs in that it is more
present, active construction) imperfectivei.e., it refers to an action
that is in progress at the time of the
verb.
E.g., Remembering Rama went to the
forest.

2
Participles can be used adjectivially without nouns, as nouns can be implied. E.g., The remembered [one] arrived.
3
The more eloquent Rama (is) remembered would not be acceptable here, as this would imply a passive sense
(i.e. that Rama is being remembered). Perhaps the English present perfect tense (Rama has remembered) is a
suitable translation in these cases.

7
Present passive vartmne kdanta karmai Like the present active participle, this
participle prayoga (participle in the expresses simultaneous activity, but in a
present, passive construction) passive sense:
E.g., Being-remembered Rama went to
the forest; or simply, Remembered
Rama went to the forest.

8
VERB TENSES / KLA-S (times)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Aorist adyatana-bhuta (of today Indicates an action that has recently
past) been completed.4
Pinis term: lu E.g., The horse spoke this morning.

Imperfect anadyatana-bhuta (not of Indicates an action that was not


today past) performed today and was witnessed by
Pinis term: la the speaker.4
E.g., The horse spoke a year ago.

Perfect (a.k.a. paroka-bhuta (beyond the Indicates an action that was not
distant past eye past) performed today and was not witnessed
tense) Pinis term: li by the speaker.4
E.g., He says that the horse spoke a
year ago; or He said that the horse
had spoken a year ago.

Periphrastic anadyatana-bhaviyat (not of Refers to an event in the distant future.


future (a.k.a. today future) It has a sense of certainty.
distant future) Pinis term: lu E.g., When I journey beneath the earth,
the horse will (certainly) speak.

Present vartamna (present) Used like the English present tense.


indicative Pinis term: la E.g., The horse speaks.

Simple future smnya-bhaviyat (general Refers to a future event that is


future) contiguous with present time. It has a
Pinis term: l sense of likelihood.
E.g., The horse will (likely) speak any
minute now.

4
In actual usage, the disctinction between the aorist, imperfect, and perfect is not generally maintained.

9
VERB VOICES / PADA-S (words; lit. steps)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Active voice parasmaipada (word for Describes verbs of activity and verbs used
another with an object.

Middle voice tmanepada (word for the Generally describes reflexive verbs, but
self) this distinction is not stricttmanepada
verbs can take external objects, too.

Note: Some verbs always take the parasmaipada endings, some always take the tmanepada endings, and
somecalled ubhayapada verbscan occur in both forms. In the case of ubhayapada verbs, I simply
indicated which ending was taken in each particular occurrence.

10
VERB MOODS (a.k.a. MODES) / ARTHA-S (purposes, aims)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Benedictive r (blessing, benediction; Used for uttering blessings or prayers.
prayer) E.g., May she slay the demon.
Pinis term: li

Conditional atipatti (going Used for hypotheses or situations


beyond)/saketa contrary to fact. It expresses a desire to
(condition) have done things differently in the past.
Pinis term: l E.g., If she had slain the demon, it
would not have arisen.

Imperative jna (order, command) Indicates that the verb is a command.


Pinis term: lo E.g., Slay the demon!

Injunctive This is a usage made of the In Vedic, the injunctive expresses


aorist (lu). intentions (I will slay the demon),
imperatives (Slay the demon!), and
wishes (Let her slay the demon). In
Classical Sanskrit, it functions as a
negative imperative, being used with
the prohibitive particle m.
E.g., Do not slay the demon!

Optative (a.k.a. vidhi (rule, injunction) The optative can be used for
potential) prescription (should, ought) or
(includes Pinis term: li5 possibilities (might, may).
benedictive) E.g., She ought to slay the demon;
She might slay the demon.

The benedictive (r li) is used for


uttering blessings or prayers.
E.g., May she slay the demon.

Subjunctive (prayer, wish, blessing) Used in older Sanskrit, the subjunctive


has a variety of functions including the
Pinis term: le requisition and the expression of
wishes.
E.g., I wish that she would slay the
demon; I request that she slay the
demon.

5
The benedictive and optative are both called li by Pini because they generally function in the same way.

11
SECONDARY CONJUGATIONS / DHTU VTTI-S (root modes)

English Term Sanskrit Term Usage


Causative ijanta (ending in ic) Indicates that someone is being caused to
do the action.

Denominative nmadhtu (noun-root) Derives verbs from nouns. Generally


means becomes X, acts like X, turns
(something else) into X, or treats as X.

Desiderative sannanta (ending in san) Indicates that someone desires to do the


action.

Intensive yaanta (ending in ya) Indicates that the action is repeated or


performed with intensity.

12
COMPOUNDS / SAMSA-S (throwing togethers)

Term Usage
avyaybhva (indeclinable This functions as an adverb, with an indeclinable as the prior
state) member and a nominal stem as the latter.
E.g., every-day, with-anger, as-long-as-a-year.

bahuvrhi (much-rice)6 This is an application of other compounds: The last member


loses its independence and the compound as a whole
qualifies some noun outside the compound, which is often
implicit.
E.g., I approached Much-Rice (i.e., I approached the man
who has much rice).

dvandva (pair) A list of nouns that would ordinarily be connected by and


or or.
E.g., mother-father (i.e., mother and father).

tatpurua (his person)6: A compound in which the last member is qualified by the
vyadhikaraa (different prior members while remaining independent of them.
case) and karmadhraya In a vyadhikaraa tatpurua compound, the prior member is
(action bearing) in a different case than the last when the compound is
dissolved: e.g., god-son (i.e., son of the god).
In the karmadhraya tatpurua compound, the members
are in the same case. Often, the former member(s)
describes the last (e.g., small-man), but it can also be
equated to it (e.g., king-man i.e., the man is the king).

6
The name of the compound is an example of it.

13
1

vsyamida sarva yatkinca jagaty (m. inst. sing. ): by the ruler, master,
jagat lord.
vsyam (n. nom. sing. vsya): inhabited by;
Inhabited by the Lord is this all, in whatever full of.
is moving, the moving. idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
sarvam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. sarva):
whole, entire, all, every.
yat kim ca (expression): whatever.
jagatym (f. loc. sing. jagat; from gam): in
the moving, movable, living.
jagat (mn. nom. sing. jagat; from gam):
moving, movable, living; mankind; the
world.

tena tyaktena bhujth m gdha tena (mn. ins. sing. pron. tad): with/by this.
kasyasviddhanam tyaktena (mn. ins. sing. tyakta; past pass. p.
tyaj): with/by the abandoned,
You should enjoy with the renounced; do surrendered, renounced.
not covet the riches of anyone else. bhunj th (2nd sing. opt. . bhuj): you
should/might/may enjoy.
m (ind.): not; do not; no.
gdha (2nd sing. injunctive P. gdh): you
covet, endeavour to gain.
kasya-svid: of someone, of anyone.
kasya (mn. gen. sing. kim/ka): whose?
svid (ind.): a particle of interrogation; a
word that makes the preceding
interrogative indefinite.
dhanam (n. acc. sing. dhana): prize, booty,
wealth, riches, treasure, property.

14
2

kurvanneveha karmi jijviet ata sam kurvan (pres. act. p. P. k): doing, acting,
performing.
Even performing actions here, one should eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only, even.
wish to live a hundred years. iha (ind.): here.
karmi (n. acc. pl. karman; from k):
actions.
jijviet (3rd sing. opt. desiderative jv):
should/might/may wish to live.
atam (n. acc. sing. ata): a hundred.
sam (f. acc. pl. sam): years, lit. the
same.

eva tvayi nnyatheto'sti na karma lipyate evam (ind.): thus, in this way, in such a manner,
nare such.
tvayi (loc. sing. pron. yumad): in you, on you.
In this wayit is not otherwise in this na (ind.): not.
worldon you, on a man, action was not anyatha (ind.): otherwise.
stained. itas (ind.): hence; in this world; now;
therefore.
asti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. as): is.
na (ind.): not.
karma (n. nom. sing. karman; from k):
action.
lipyate (3rd sing. pass. lip): was smeared,
stained, tainted, defiled; was attached
to.
nare (mn. loc. sing. nara): in/on a man,
person.

15
3

asury nma te lok andhena tamas vt asury (f. nom. sing. asurya): incorporeal,
spiritual, divine; demoniacal, belonging
Demoniacal are called those worlds that to or relating to the asuras (spirits or
are covered by blindness, by darkness. demons who are sometimes considered
the opponents of the gods).
nma (n. acc. sing. nman): named, called.
te (m. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, those.
lok (m. nom. pl. loka): worlds.
andhena (mn. ins. sing. andha): with/by
blindness.
tamas (mn. ins. sing. tamas): with/by
darkness, gloom; with/by ignorance,
illusion, error.
vt (m. nom. pl. vta; past pass. p. v):
concealed, screened, hidden, enveloped.

tste pretybhigacchanti ye ke ctmahano tn (m. acc. pl. pron. tad): them.


jan te (m. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, those.
pretya (ger. pre): having died; lit. having
The self-slayers, having departed, approach proceeded/gone on/departed, having
them. come forth/appeared.
abhigacchanti (3rd pl. pres. abhi gam): (they)
go near, approach.
ye ke ca (expression): any person whatsoever.
ye (m. nom. pl. relative pron. yad): who,
which, what.
ke (m. loc. sing. ka): in who? in what?
ca (ind.): and; makes ka indefinite.
tma-hana (m. nom. pl. tma-han, TP.
comp.): self-slayers.
tma (grammar not specified; from an,
at, or v): of the self, in the self,
for the self, etc.
hana (m. nom. pl. han): killers, slayers.
jan (mf. nom. pl. jana): creatures, men,
people.

16
4

anejadeka manaso javyo nainaddev anejat (n. nom. sing anejat; the pres. act. p. an
pnuvanprvamarat ej): unmoving, immovable.
ekam (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. eka):
Unmoving, one, quicker than the mind one.
this the deities have not reached, (it) manasa (n. abl./gen. sing. manas): from the
flowing in front. mind, than the mind; of the mind.
javya (n. nom. sing. javyas): quicker.
na (ind.): not.
enat (n. acc. sing. pron. idam): this.
dev (m. nom. pl. deva): deities, gods.
pnuvan (3rd pl. impf. P. p): (he/she/it)
reached, overtook, meet with; obtained,
gained.
purvam (ind): in front; former, preceding;
first.
arat (n. acc. sing. arat; pres. act. p. ):
flowing, gliding, moving quickly.

taddhvato'nynnatyeti tihat tasminnpo tat (n. nom./acc. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
mtariv dadhti dhvata (m. acc. pl. dhvat; pres. act. p.
dhv): running, flowing, streaming.
Standing still, it passes by the flowing anyn (m. acc. pl. pronominal adj. anya):
others; in it Matarishvan places action. others.
atyeti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. at):
(he/she/it) passes by, passes over,
passes through, elapses, overflows.
tihat (n. nom sing. tihat; pres. act. p. P.
sth): standing, standing firm, staying,
remaining, standing still; being present.
tasmin (n. loc. sing. pron. tad): in that.
apa (n. acc. sing. apas): work, action.7
mtariv (m. nom. sing. mtarivan; from
mtari-van): air, wind; the fire-stick of
Agni; an epithet of Vyu (wind); lit. prob.
growing in the mother.
mtari (m. loc. sing. mtr): in the mother,
in the measurer.
svan (prob. from svi): swelling, growing,
increasing.
dadhti (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. dh):
(he/she/it) places, puts; holds,
possesses.

7
Apa is also the feminine ablative and genitive singular of ap, meaning waters or water divinities.

17
5

tadejati tannaijati taddre tadvantike tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
ejati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. ej): moves,
It moves, it moves not; it is far, it is near! trembles, shakes.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
na (ind.): not.
ejati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. ej): moves,
trembles, shakes.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
dure (n. loc. sing. dura): in the distance. (ind.)
far.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
u (ind.): an expression of emphasis; an expletive.
antike (ind.): near.

tadantarasya sarvasya tadu sarvasysya tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
bhyata antar (ind.): within, between, amongst, in.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron idam): of this.
It is inside of this all; it is, of all this, sarvasya (mn. gen. sing. pronominal adj.
outside! sarva): of all.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
u (ind.): an expression of emphasis; an expletive.
sarvasya (mn. gen. sing. pronominal adj.
sarva): of all.
asya (mn. gen. sing. pron. idam): of this.
bhyatas (ind.): outside, externally.

18
6

yastu sarvi bhtnytmanyevnupayati ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
tu (ind.): but.
But he who, all beings in the self, indeed, sarvi (n. nom. pl. pronominal adj. sarva):
beholds, whole, entire, all, every.
bhutni (n. nom. pl. bhta; past pass. p. bhu):
beings.
tmani (m. loc. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): in the self.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only, even.
anupayati (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. anu d):
(he/she/it) beholds; foresees.

sarvabhteu ctmna tato na vijugupsate sarva-bhuteu (mn. pl. loc. sarva-bhuta, KD.
comp.):
And in all beings, the selffrom him it does sarva (grammar not specified; pronominal
not wish to conceal itself. adj.): whole, entire, all, every,
everything.
bhuteu (mn. pl. loc. bhuta; past pass. p.
bhu): in beings; lit. in the
been/become ones.
ca (ind.): and.
tmnam (m. acc. sing tman; from an, at,
or v): the self.
tata (m. abl./gen. sing. tat): from him; of him.
na (ind.): not.
vijugupsate (3rd sing. pres. desiderative . vi
gup): (he/she/it) wishes to shrink
away, hide, conceal (itself).

19
7

yasminsarvi yasmin (mn. loc. sing. relative pron. yad): in


bhtnanytmaivbhudvijnata whom, in which.
sarvi (n. nom. pl. pronominal adj. sarva):
In whom all beings have become the self whole, entire, all, every, everything.
from discerning, bhutan i (n. nom./acc. pl. bhuta; past pass. p.
bhu): beings.
tm (m. nom. sing. tman; from an, at, or
v): the self.
eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only, even.
abhut (3rd sing. aor. P. bhu): became, was.
vijnata (mn. abl./gen. vijnat; pres. act. p.
vi jn): from/of understanding,
knowing, discerning, discriminating;
from/of the knower, the discerner, the
sage.

tatra ko moha ka oka tatra (ind.): there; therein.


ekatvamanupayata ka (m. nom. sing. interrogative pron. kim):
who? which?
Therein, what is the delusion, what is the moha (m. nom. sing. moha; noun from
sorrow of the oneness seeing one? muh): loss of consciousness,
bewilderment, delusion.
ka (m. nom. sing. interrogative pron. kim):
who? which?
oka (m. nom. sing. oka; from uc):
burning, hot; flame, glow, heat; sorrow,
affliction, grief.
ekatvam (n. acc. sing. eka -tva): oneness.
anupayata (mn. abl./gen. sing. anupayat;
from anu d): from the seeing (one);
of the seeing (one).

20
8

sa paryagcchukramakyamavraam- sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he, it.


asnvira uddhamappaviddham paryagt (3rd sing. impf. P. pari g): went
round, went through; circumambulated,
He went round, he is bright, bodiless, permeated; entered; came near,
unblemished, without sinews, purified, not approached.
afflicted by evil. ukram (m. acc. sing. ukra; from uc):
bright, resplendent.
akyam (m. acc. sing. a kaya; from a ci):
bodiless (one).
avraam (m. acc. sing. a vraa): unscarred,
unwounded; unblemished, unflawed.
asnviram (m. acc. sing. a snvira; refer to
asnvaka): without sinews.
uddham (m. acc. sing. uddha; past pass. p.
udh): bright; lit. cleaned, cleared,
purified.
appaviddham (m. acc. sing. appaviddha;
past pass. p. a papa vyadh): not-evil-
pierced, not-evil-afflicted.

kavirman paribh kavi (m. nom. sing. kavi; from ku):


svayambhrythtathyato'rthn intelligent, knowing, wise, cunning;
vyadadhcchvatbhya sambhya thinker, intelligent man; sage, seer,
prophet.
He is the prophet, the thoughtful one, the man (m. nom. sing. manin): thoughtful,
surrounding being, self-existingtruly, intelligent, wise, sage.
objects he placed apart for eternal years. paribhu (mf. nom. sing. pari bhu): the
surrounding being, the pervading being.
svayambhu (mf. nom. sing svayam bhu):
independent, self-existing, being/arising
of its own accord.
yathtathyatas (ind.): from the truth, really,
truly.
arthn (m. acc. pl. artha): aims, purposes;
causes, motives; things, objects; uses.
vyadadht (3rd sing. impf. P. vi dh):
distributed, lit. placed apart.
vatbhya (f. dat./abl. pl. vat):
for/from eternal, all.
sambhya (f. dat./abl. pl. sama/sam):
for/from years, even (ones), same
(ones).

21
9

andha tama pravianti ye'vidymupsate andham (n. acc. sing. andha): blind.
tama (n. acc. sing. tamas): darkness, gloom.
Blind darkness enter those who worship pravianti (3rd pl. pres. indic. pra vi): enter,
unwisdom. reach.
ye (m. pl. relative pron. yad): who, which,
what, that.
avidym (f. acc. sing. avidy; from a vid -ya):
ignorance, unwisdom; lit. not-coming-
from-knowing, not-coming-from-
perceiving.
upsate (3rd pl. pres. indic. . upa s): (they)
worship; lit. (they) sit near, lie near.

tato bhya iva te tamo ya u vidyy rat tata (n. abl. sing. pron. tat): from that; than
that.
More than that, as it were, do those the bhuy a (n. nom. sing. bhuyas): becoming;
darkness who in wisdom are delighted! becoming in a greater degree, more;
abounding in.
iva (ind.): like, in this sense; as if; as it were.
te (m. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, those.
tama (n. acc. sing.): darkness, gloom.
ye (m. pl. relative pron. yad): who, which,
what, that.
u (ind.): an expression of emphasis; an expletive.
vidyym (f. sing. loc. vidy; from vid -ya): in
learning, scholarship, philosophy;
knowledge, wisdom, perception; lit. in
the coming-from-knowing, in the
coming-from-perceiving.
rat (mf. nom. pl. rata): pleased, amused,
gratified, delighted.

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10

anyadevhurvidyay anyadhuravidyay anyat (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. anya):


other, other, another, different from,
Other indeed, they said, than wisdom; opposed.
other, they said, than unwisdom. eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only, even.
hu (3rd pl. pf. P. ah): they said, spoke.
vidyay (f. abl. sing. vidy; from vid -ya):
than learning, scholarship, philosophy;
knowledge, wisdom, perception; lit.
than the coming-from-knowing, than
the coming-from-perceiving.
anyat (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. anya):
other, other than, another.
hu (3rd pl. pf. P. ah): they said, spoke.
avidyay (f. abl. sing. vidy; from vid -ya):
than ignorance, unwisdom; lit. than the
not-coming-from-knowing, than the
not-coming-from-perceiving.

iti uruma dhr yenastadvicacakire iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
Thus we heard from the steady ones who uruma (1st pl. pf. P. ru): (we) heard.
showed it to us. dhrm (mfn. gen. pl. dhra; prob. from dh
or dh): of the wise, skillful, clever; of the
steady, constant.
ye (m. pl. relative pron. yad): who, which,
what, that.
na (acc./dat./gen. pl. short pron. asmad):
(to) us, for us, of us, our.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
vicacakire (3rd pl. pf. . vi cak): appeared,
shone; saw distinctly, perceived; made
manifest, showed; proclaimed, told.

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11

vidy cvidy ca yastadvedobhayam vidym (f. sing. acc. vidy; from vid -ya):
saha learning, scholarship, philosophy;
knowledge, wisdom, perception; lit.
And wisdom and unwisdomone who coming-from-knowing, coming-from-
perceives those both together, perceiving.
ca (ind.): and.
avidym (f. acc. sing. avidy; from a vid -ya):
ignorance, unwisdom; lit. not-coming-
from-knowing, not-coming-from-
perceiving.
ca (ind.): and.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vid): knows,
perceives.
ubhayam (mn. acc. sing. ubhaya): both.
saha (ind.): together, along with, with.

avidyay mtyu trtv avidyay (f. ins. sing. avidy; from a vid
vidyaymtamanute ya): with/by ignorance, unwisdom; lit.
with/by the not-coming-from-
Having crossed over death with unwisdom, knowing, with/by the not-coming-
Reaches the immortal with wisdom. from-perceiving.
mtyum (mf. acc. sing. mtyu; from m):
death.
trtv (ger. t ) : having passed across, having
crossed over.
vidyay (f. ins. sing. vidy from vid -ya):
with/by learning, scholarship,
philosophy; knowledge, wisdom,
perception; lit. in the coming-from-
knowing, in the coming-from-
perceiving.
amtam (n. acc. sing. amta; past pass. p. a
m): the immortal.
anute (3rd sing. pres. indic. . a): reaches,
arrives at, gets, obtains.

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12

andha tama pravianti andham (n. acc. sing. andha): blind.


ye'sambhtimupsate tama (n. acc. sing. tamas): darkness, gloom.
pravianti (3rd pl. pres. indic. P. pra vi):
Blind darkness enter those who worship enter, reach.
the non-origin. ye (m. nom. pl. relative pron. yad): who,
which, what, that.
asambhutim (f. acc. sing. asambhuti; from a
sam bhu): non-existence, destruction,
non-origin, non-production; lit. not-
being-together.
upsate (3rd pl. pres. indic. . upa s): (they)
worship; lit. (they) sit near, (they) lie
near.

tato bhya iva te tamo ya u sambhtym tata (n. abl. sing. pron. tat): from that; than
rat that.
bhuy a (n. nom. sing. bhuyas; from bhu):
More than that, as it were, do those the becoming; becoming in a greater
darkness who in the origin are delighted! degree, more; abounding in.
iva (ind.): like, in this sense; as if; as it were.
te (m. nom. pl. pron. tad): they, those.
tama (n. nom. sing. tamas): darkness,
gloom.
ye (m. nom. pl. relative pron. yad): who,
which, what, that.
u (ind.): an expression of emphasis; an expletive.
sambhutym (f. loc. sing. sambhuti; from sam
bhu): in birth, origin; lit. in being-
together.
rat (mf. nom. pl. rata; past pass. p. ram):
pleased, amused, gratified, delighted.

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13

anyadevhu anyat (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. anya):


sambhavdanyadhurasambhavt other, other, another, different from,
opposed.
Other, indeed, they said, than the origin; eva (ind.): so, indeed, truly, only, even.
other, they said, than the non-origin. hu (3rd pl. pf. P. ah): they said, spoke.
sambhavt (mn. abl. sing. sam bhava; from
bhu ): than the origin, than the source;
lit. than the being-together.
anyat (n. nom. sing. pronominal adj. anya):
other, other, another, different from,
opposed.
hu (3rd pl. pf. P. ah): they said, spoke.
asambhavt (mn. abl. sing. sambhava; from
sam bhu): than the non-origin, from
the source; lit. than the being-
together.

iti uruma dhr yenastadvicacakire iti (ind.): thus; an indication that the previous
words were said or thought.
Thus we heard from the steady ones who uruma (1st pl. pf. P. ru): (we) heard.
showed it to us. dhrm (mfn. gen. pl. dhra; prob. from dh
or dh): of the wise, skillful, clever; of the
steady, constant.
ye (m. pl. relative pron. yad): who, which,
what, that.
na (acc./dat./gen. pl. short pron. asmad):
(to) us, for us, of us, our.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
vicacakire (3rd pl. pf. . vi cak): appeared,
shone; saw distinctly, perceived; made
manifest, showed; proclaimed, told.

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14

sambhtica vinaca yastadvedobhaya sabhutim (f. acc. sing. sambhuti; from sam
saha bhu): birth, origin, production; lit.
being-together.
The origin and the destructionone who ca (ind.): and.
perceives those both together, vinam (m. acc. vinza; from vi na): utter
loss, annihilation, destruction, removal.
ca (ind.): and.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
tat (n. nom. sing. pron. tad): it, that.
veda (3rd sing. pres. indic. P. vid): knows,
perceives.
ubhayam (mn. acc. sing. ubhaya): both.
saha (ind.): together, along with, with.

vinena mtyu trtv vinena (m. ins. sing. vina; from vi na):
sambhty'mtamanute with/by utter loss, annihilation,
destruction, removal.
Having crossed over death with mtyum (mf. acc. sing. mtyu; from m):
destruction, reaches the immortal with the death.
origin. trtv (ger. t ) : having passed across, having
crossed over.
sambhuty (f. ins. sing. sambhuti; from sam
bhu): with/by birth, origin; lit. with/by
being-together.
amtam (n. acc. sing. amta; past pass. p. a
m): immortal.
anute (3rd sing. pres. indic. . a): reaches,
arrives at, gets, obtains.

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15

hiramayena ptrea satyasypihita hiramayena (mn. ins. sing. hiramaya):


mukham with/by the golden.
ptrea (mn. ins. sing. ptra): with/by the
By the golden goblet is covered the face of goblet, bowl, cup, plate, vessel.
the real; satyasya (mn. gen. sing. satya; pres. act. p. as -
ya): of the true, of the real; lit. of the
coming-from-being.
apihitam (n. nom. sing. apihita; past pass. p.
api dh): put onto; covered, concealed.
mukham (n. nom. sing. mukha): the mouth,
the face.

tattva pannapvu satyadharmya tattvam (n. acc. sing. tattva; from tat -tva):
daye truth, reality; lit. that-ness.
puan (m. voc. sing. puan): O Pushan (a Vedic
That-ness, O Pushan, unveil for real- deity; the guardian of livestock, sometimes
dharma, for seeing. the sun or the one who drives it).
apvu (2nd sing. impv. apv; from apa
v): uncover! reveal! unveil!
satya-dharmya (comp.): for Real-Dharma8;
for the dharma of the real, for the
dharma from the real, etc.
satya (grammar not specified; pres. act.
p. as -ya): of/for/from/etc. the
real, the true; lit. of/for/from/etc.
the coming-from-being.
dharmya (mn. dat. sing. dharma; from
dh): for moral or religious law,
virtue; for Dharma, the god of law
and justice.
daye (f. dat. sing. di; from d): for
seeing, beholding.

8
In his translation of The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Robert Ernest Hume suggests that the poet was referring
to himself as satya-dharma.

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16

pannekare yama srya prjpatya puan (m. voc. sing. puan): O Pushan (a Vedic
vyha ramn samha teja deity; the guardian of livestock, the sun or
the one who drives it).
O Pushan, O Solitary-Sage, O Yama, O ekare (m. voc. sing eka-i, KD. comp.): O
Surya, O Descendent of Prajapati, spread Solitary-Sage.
apart the ray of light, bring together the eka (grammar not specified; pronominal
brilliance! adj.): one, solitary, single.
e (m. voc. sing. i; from ): O poet,
O sage.
yama (mn. voc. sing. yama): O Yama (the god
of death), O Charioteer.
surya (m. voc. sing. surya): O Surya (the sun
or its deity).
prjpatya (mn. voc. sing. prjpatya): O
Descendant of Prajapati (the creator
god, the god of procreation).
vyuh a (2nd sing. impv. P. vi uh (with sadhi,
vyuh)): move apart, push apart.
ramn (m. acc. pl. rami): string, rope; ray of
light, beam.
samuh a (2nd sing. impv. P. sam uh ): move
together.
teja (n. acc. sing. tejas): sharp edge, top of
flame or ray; glow, splendour, brilliance;
fiery energy, ardour.

yatte rpa kalyatama tatte paymi yat (n. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who,
yo'svasau purua so'hamasmi which, what.
te (dat./gen. sing. short pron. yumad): for
That which is your form most illustrious, you, of you.
that of you I behold. He who is that, that rup am (mn. acc. sing rup a): form, shape,
Purusha, he I am. figure.
kalyatamam (n. acc. sing. kalya-tama):
most beautiful, most agreeable, most
illustrious, most noble, most excellent.
tat (n. nomacc. sing. tad): that, it.
te (dat./gen. sing. yumad): for you, of you.
paymi (1st sing. pres. indic. P. d): I see,
behold, regard.
ya (m. nom. sing. relative pron. yad): who.
asau (mf. nom. sing. pron. adas): that.
asau (mf. nom. sing. pron. adas): that.
purua (m. nom. sing. purua): man, person;
Purusha, the primeval being who is the
source of the universe.
sa (m. nom. sing. pron. tad): he.
aham (nom. sing. pron. asmad): I.
asmi (1st sing. pres. indic. as): am.

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17

vyuranilamamtamatheda bhasmnta vyu (3rd pl. opt. P. v): we should blow. 9


arram anilam (m. acc. sing. anila; from an): air,
wind; Anila (the god of wind, sometimes
We should blow the immortal air, equated with Vayu).
Now, this is ending in ashesthe body. amtam (m. acc. sing. amta; past pass. p. a
m): the immortal.
atha (ind.): now, then, moreover.
idam (n. nom. sing. pron. idam): this.
bhasmntam (n. nom. sing. bhasmnta):
ending in ashes, finally burnt.
arram (n. nom. sing. arra; from ri or
) : the body.

o krato smara kta smara krato smara om (ind.): Om; the sacred syllable, an auspicious
kta smara salutation.
krato (mf. voc. sing. kratu; from k): O Kratu
Om (intelligence, a son of Brahm).
Kratu remember the done remember, smara (2nd sing. impv. P. sm): remember!
Kratu remember the done remember! recollect! call to mind!
ktam (mn. acc. sing. kta; from k): done,
made, performed.
smara (2nd sing. impv. P. sm): remember!
recollect! call to mind!
krato (mf. voc. sing. kratu; from k): O Kratu
(intelligence, a son of Brahm).
smara (2nd sing. impv. P. sm): remember!
recollect! call to mind!
ktam (mn. acc. sing. kta; from k): done,
made, performed.
smara (2nd sing. impv. P. sm): remember!
recollect! call to mind!

9
Alternatively, vyu (m. nom. sing. vyu; from v): air, wind; Vayu (the god of wind); breath.

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18

agne naya supath rye asmn vivni deva agne (m. voc. sing. agni): O Agni.
vayunni vidvn naya (2nd sing. impv. n): lead!10
supath (m. ins. sing. supathin): with/by a
O Agni, lead us by a good path for wealth, good path.11
O deity, having wist all ways. rye (m. dat. sing. rai): property, possessions,
wealth.
asmn (acc. pl. pron. asmad): us.
vivni (n. nom./acc./voc. pl. viva): all,
every; whole, entire; all-pervading,
omnipresent.
deva (mn. voc. sing. deva): O deity!
vayunni (n. nom./acc./voc. pl. vayuna):
waving, agitated, restless (ones); paths,
ways.
vidvn (m. nom. sing. vidvas; the pf. act. p.
vid): knowing, understanding, wise;
having known, having understood,
having wist.

yuyodhyasmajjuhurameno bhuy ih te yuyudhi (2nd impv. sing. P. yu): separate!


namauktim vidhema drive away! ward off!
asmat (abl. pl. pron. asmad): from us.
Ward off from us crookedly gone mischief; juhuram (n. acc. sing. juhura; the pf. act.
may we offer most abundant homage to you! p. . hvar, cf. hv): gone astray,
stumbled, gone crookedly.
ena (n. acc. sing. enas): mischief, crime, sin,
fault; evil, unhappiness, misfortune,
calamity; censure, blame.
bhuy ihm (f. acc. sing. bhuy iha; from
bhu iyas12): most abundant, the most
important; much.
te (dat./gen. sing. pron. yumad): for/of you.
namauktim (f. acc. sing. namaukti; from
namas ukti): homage, veneration.
vidhema (1st pl. opt. P. vidh): we
should/might/may/might worship, offer.

10
Alternatively, naya (2nd sing. impv. nay): go!
11
Alternatively, supath (f. nom. sing. supatha): having a good road, having beautiful paths; supath (m.
nom. pl. supatha): good roads, virtuous courses; or supath (mf. nom./acc. pl. supath (those) having a
good road, (those) having beautiful paths.
12
A comparative suffix.

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