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SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

1.0

INTRODUCTION

This SOLTEQ Free and Forced Vortex (Model: FM42) has been designed for students
experiments to produce and measure free and forced vortices. It consists of a clear acrylic
cylinder where the free vortex is generated by water discharging through an interchangeable
orifice in the base of the cylinder. The resulting profile is then measured using a combined
caliper and depth scale. The forced vortex is induced by a paddle rotated by jets of water at
the cylinder base.
The profile of the forced vortex is then determined using a series of depth gauges. Velocity at any
point in the free or forced vortices may be measured using the appropriate pitot tube supplied. A
secondary flow at the base of the free vortex may be demonstrated by means of dye crystals (not
supplied).

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

2.0

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
2.1

Unit Assembly

The accessory is designed to be positioned on the side channels of the hydraulics bench
top channel.
The apparatus consists of a cylindrical vessel having two pairs of diametrically opposed
inlet tubes. Overflow cut-outs ensure a constant level in the tank during experiments. A
smooth outlet is centrally positioned in the base of the vessel, and a set of push-in orifices
of various diameters are supplied.
The 12.5mm diameter inlet tubes, which are angled at 15 degrees, impart a swirling motion
to the liquid entering the vessel, and are used as entry tubes for the free vortex experiment.
The forced vortex is created by using the 9mm inlet tubes which are angled at 60 degrees
to the diameter. The input from these tubes impinges on a paddle which acts as a
stirrer/flow straightener. The paddle rotates on a stud mounted on a bushed plug inserted
in the central orifice.
A bridge piece incorporating with measuring needles is used to determine the profile of the
forced vortex. The needles are set at fixed distances from the side of the tank. The
distances are given below.
If the profile of the free vortex is required this can be determined by replacing the
measuring needles with a gauge which measures the depth of the vortex at different
diameters.
Velocity heads may be visualized by the insertion of pitot tube in the measuring bridge.
2.2

Assembly View

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1
2
3
8

4
5
6

9
10
11
12

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

1
3
5
7
9
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2.3

Bridge
9.0mm dia. Nozzle
12.5mm dia. Nozzle
Surface Probe
Outlet
Orifice

2
4
6
8
10
12

Profile Measuring Gauge


Three Way Inlet Valve
Inlet
Outlet valve
Pitot Tube
Paddle

Experimental Capabilities
i.
ii.
iii.

Experiment to plot the shape of a free vortex by measurement of surface


profile co-ordinates, and thus verity that vr constant where v is the
speed and r is the radius of the vortex
Experiment to plot the surface profiles of various forced vortices formed
under different speed conditions
Verification of the formula h

2r 2
for forced vortices where h is the
2g

height of the surface of the water above the datum point,


angular velocity and r is vortex radius
2.4

2.5

is the vortex

Specifications
Overall Dimension:
Length
:
Width
:
Height
:

550mm
350mm
350mm

Storage Dimension:
Diameter
:
Overflow Height
:
Orifice Diameter
:

245mm
180mm
8mm, 12mm, 16mm, 24mm

Distance of Forced Vortex


Measuring Gauge from
Reservoir Center
:

0, 30mm, 50mm, 70mm, 90mm, 110mm

Pitot Tube Length

15mm

General Requirements
Water supply from Hydraulic Bench

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

3.0

SUMMARY OF THEORY
3.1

Free Cylindrical Vortex

When a liquid is flowing out of a tank through a hole at the bottom of the tank, free vortex is
formed with the number of oscillation depending on the distortion that created the flow. The
liquid is moving spirally towards center following current, energy per unit mass is assumed
to be constant when energy loss by viscosity is neglected. If, while the mass of water is
rotating, the central exit hole is plugged, the flow of water in the vertical plane ceases and
the motion becomes one of simple rotation in the horizontal plane. This is known as free
cylindrical vortex.
Bernoullis theorem can be used because the movement is along the flow axis,
p V2

z Constant
g 2 g

For horizontal plane, the relation becomes


p
V2

Constant
g 2 g

Integration of the above relation with r gives


1 dp V dV

0
g dr g dr

(1)

Next, consider a pair of stream line being divided with distance r and is in same
horizontal plane and are linked by a fluid tube wide A . The centrifugal force of the tube is
balanced by the pressure difference between both ends, that is
g A r

V 2 dp

r A
gr
dr

gV 2
dp

gr
dr

(2)

Combine (1) and (2) to produce


V 2 V dV

0
gr
g dr

dV V
0
dr
r

Integrate above relation to obtain

ln r ln V Constant
vr K (Constant)
K
V
r

(3)

In free cylinder vortex, velocity is inversely proportional to distance from spiral axis.
Bernoullis theorem is used to determine surface profile as follow:

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

V2
z C (Constant)
2g

(4)

Substitute (3) into (4)


K2
zC
2 gr 2
K2
2gr 2

Cz

(5)

That is, equation for hyperbolic curve yx 2 A that is symmetry to axis of rotation and is
horizontal to z = C
3.2

Free Vortex

Movement in free vortex is different with free cylindrical vortex because free vortex
contains radial velocity towards center. Equation for such situation can be generated by
considering the water passes through round segments towards its diameter, where energy
passing any tube and is kept constant until
p V2

z Constant
g 2 g

If A and V is surface area and velocity of a particular position while A1 and V1 are surface
area and velocity at distance r from center circle,
AV A1V1 Constant
By taking A Kr ,

r1V1
r

If

is constant,
2

p r1 V1

C
g 2 gr 2
2

r1 V12
p
C
g
2gr 2

(6)

Also,
2

p1 V1

C
g 2 g
2

p p1 V1
r V

1 12
g
2 g 2 gr

2
2
p p1 V1
r1

(7)

g
2g
r2
Free vortex can be said as combination of cylinder vortex and radial flow. Velocity is
inversely proportional to radius in every case. Angle between flow axis and radius vector at
any point is constant and these axis form the spiral pattern.

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

3.3

Forced Vortex

As we know, angular velocity is constant,


V r
Increase in radial pressure is given by
dp
V2

2 r
dr
r

p2

p1

r2

dp 2 rdr
r1

1
2
2
p 2 p1 2 (r2 r1 )
2

(8)

By taking p1 p 0 , when r1 0 , and p 2 p when r2 r ,


p p0
w2 2

r
g
2g

p
Because g h , so
2 2
r
2g
2 2
h h0
r
2g
h ho

This is a parabolic equation.


Surface profile for forced vortex can be represented by equation:
z

2r 2
2g

Distribution of total head can be represented by equation:


H

2r 2
g

Where:
Z
=
=

r
=
g
=
H
=
Angular velocity can be calculated by:

Surface profile
Angular velocity
Radius
Gravity
Total Head

Where:
Z

=
=
=

Surface profile
Angular velocity
Radius
6

(9)

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

4.0

Gravity

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
4.1

General Start-up Procedures


1. Place the study bench on the hydraulic bench.
2. Set up the inlet and outlet hose.
3. Adjust the stand of the equipment to reach the horizontal position.

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

4.2

General Shut-down Procedures


1. Close the valves and switch off the pump.
2. Remove the orifices, paddle and other accessories from the cylindrical vessel.

4.3

Experiment 1: Free Vortex


Objectives:
1. To study on surface profile and speed.
2. To find a relation between surface profile and speed.
Procedures:
1.

Perform the general start-up procedures.

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

2.

Select an orifice with diameter 24mm and place it


on the base of cylinder tank.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Close the output valve and adjust the inlet 3-way


valve to let the water flows into the tank from two pipes with 12.5 mm diameter.
The water can flow out through the orifice.
Switch on the pump and open the control valve
on the hydraulic bench slowly until the tank limit. Maintain the water level by
adjusting the control valve.
When the water level is stable, collect the vortex
profile by measuring the vortex diameter for several planes using the profile
measuring gauge.
Push down the profile measuring gauge until the
both of sharp point touch the water surface.
Record the measured height, h (from the top of
the profile measuring gauge to the bridge). Obtain the value of a (distance
from the bridge to the surface of the water level (bottom level of the cutout)).
Use the pitot tube to measure the velocity by
sinking it into the water at the depth of 5mm from the water surface. Measure
the depth of the pitot tube in the water, H.
Repeat step 3 - 8 for another three orifice with diameter 12mm, 16mm and
8mm respectively.
Plot the coordinates of vortex profile for all diameter of orifice in graph and
calculate the gradient of graph as shown below:

X=
Where X is the pressure head / depth of the pitot tube.
11. Plot graph of velocity which is calculated from the pitot tube reading versus the
radius of the profile.
V = (2gH) 0.5
Theoretically, the velocity can be calculated by using the following equation:
V

Diameter at
Centre, D
(mm)

4.4

Measured
Height, h
(mm)

K
r

Pitot Tube
Head
Difference,
H (mm)

Pressure
Head / Depth
of the pitot
tube, X (mm)

Experiment 2: Forced Vortex


Objectives:
1. To study on surface profile and angular velocity.
2. To find a relation between surface profile and total head.

SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

Procedures:
1. Perform the general start-up procedures.
2. Place a closed pump with two pedals on the base of the cylinder tank.
3. Close the output valve and adjust the inlet 3-way valve to let the water flows
into the tank from two pipes with 9.0 mm diameter. The water can flow out
through another two pipes with 12.5mm diameter.
4. Make sure that the water flow out from the tank with the siphon effect by
raising the hose to above the water level in the tank.
5. Make sure the outlet hose is fill with water before letting the water to flow into
the sump tank in the hydraulic bench
6. Measure the angular speed of the pedals by counting the number of circles in
a certain times.
7. Push down the surface probe until the sharp point touch the water surface.
8. Record the measured height, h0 (from top of the measuring gauge to bridge).
9. Repeat step 4 - 8 with different volumetric flow rate.
10. Plot the coordinates of vortex profile for different angular velocity.
11. Plot the calculated vortex profile in the same graph as they relate as

h = h0 +

r2

Compare both experimental and calculated profile.


Distance from
Centre (mm)
0
30
70
110
No of revolutions
in 60s
Angular Velocity
(rad/s)

5.0

st

1 (___LPM)

ho (mm)
2 (___LPM)
nd

3rd (___LPM)

MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


1.

Little maintenance is required but it is important to drain all water from the cylindrical
vessel and associated pipe work when not in use.

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SOLTEQ FREE AND FORCED VORTEX (MODEL: FM 42)

2.

The orifices, paddle and other accessories should be removed from the cylindrical
vessel when not in use.

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