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Geographical Information Systems (GIS)

and
Building Stock Survey
winter semester 2013/2014
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Willfried Schwarz
Bauhaus-Universitt Weimar
Fakultt Bauingenieurwesen
Professur Geodsie und Photogrammetrie

Bauhaus-Universitt
Weimar

Marienstrae 9
99423 Weimar
Tel.: 03643/584530
Fax: 03643/584534
E-Mail: willfried.schwarz@uni-weimar.de
Homepage:
http://www.uni-weimar.de/de/bauingenieurwesen/ professuren/geodaesieund-photogrammetrie/
Course program:
Natural Hazards and Risks in Structural
Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section
1: Fundamentals (NHRE)
Engineering

Contents of the lecture


1.

Fundamentals

2.

Three-Dimensional Positioning

3.

Fundamentals of Photogrammetry

4.

GIS/Cartography

5.

Landmanagement/Cadastre

6.

Monitoring of Structures

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Literature
Literature
[Bauer, M. 2003 ] Vermessung und Ortung mit Satelliten. 5., neubearb. u. erw. Aufl., 62,00 EUR, Wichmann Verlag 2003, ISBN 3-87907-360-0..
[Baumann, E. 1999 ] Vermessungskunde, Band 1: Einfache Lagemessung und Nivellement. 5., bearb. u. erw. Aufl., 22,40 EUR, Dmmler Verlag, Bonn 1999,
ISBN 3-427-790444 (nicht mehr lieferbar).
[Baumann, E. 1998 ] Vermessungskunde, Band 2: Punktbestimmung nach Hhe und Lage. 6., bearb. u. erw. Aufl., 24,10 EUR, Dmmler Verlag, Bonn 1998,
ISBN 3-427-790568
[Deumlich, F.; Staiger 2002 ] Instrumentenkunde der Vermessungstechnik. 9., neubearb. Aufl., 86,00 EUR, Wichmann Verlag 2002, ISBN 3-87907-305-8.
[Frhlich, H. 1995 ] Vermessungstechnische Handgriffe. 4., neubearb. Aufl., 11,20 EUR, Dmmler Verlag 1995 (nicht mehr lieferbar).
[Gelhaus, R.; Kolouch, D. 1997 ] Vermessungskunde fr Architekten und Bauingenieure. 2. Aufl., 21,00 EUR, Werner Verlag, Dsseldorf 1997, ISBN 3-804-17937-7,
(momentan nicht lieferbar, Verlag plant Nachdruck).
[Hennecke, F.; Meckenstock, H.; Pollmer, G. 1993 ] Vermessung im Bauwesen Grundlagen, Techniken, Beispiele. 11., berarb. u. erw. Aufl., 19,90 EUR,
Dmmler Verlag 1993.
[Kahmen, H. 2006 ] Vermessungskunde. 20., neu bearb. Aufl., 49,95 EUR , Gruyter Verlag 2006, ISBN 3-11-018464.
[Matthews, V. 2003 ] Vermessungskunde Teil 1. 29., neubearb. Aufl., 24,90 EUR, Teubner Verlag 2003, ISBN 3-519-25252-x.
[Matthews, V. 1997 ] Vermessungskunde Teil 2. 17., neubearb. Aufl., 24,90 EUR, Teubner Verlag 1997, ISBN 3-519-15253-3.
[NN 1996 ] DINTaschenbuch Nr. 111 Vermessungswesen. Neuaufl., BeuthVerlag 1996, in Bibliothek.
[Prasuhn, K.B. 1995 ] Vermessungstechnik im Gartenbau und Landschaftsbau. 6., neubearb. Aufl., 44,95 EUR, Blackwell WissenschaftsVerlag 1995,
(nicht mehr im Buchhandel).
[Resnik, B.; Bill, R. 2003 ] Vermessungskunde fr den Planungs, Bau und Umweltbereich. 29,80 EUR, 2. neubearb. u. erw. Aufl., Herbert Wichmann Verlag,
Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 3-87907-399-6.
[Witte, B.; Schmidt, H. 2006 ] Vermessungskunde und Grundlagen der Statistik fr das Bauwesen. 6., berarb. Aufl., 29,80 EUR, Konrad Wittwer Verlag,
Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-87907-418-6.
[Konecny, G.; Lehmann, G. 1984 ] Photogrammetrie. 4., neubearb. Aufl., 42,95 EUR, Gruyter Verlag 1984 (nicht mehr im Buchhandel).
[Luhmann, Th. 2003 ] Nahbereichsphotogrammetrie; Grundlagen, Methoden und Anwendungen. 88,00 EUR, Herbert Wichmann Verlag, Heidelberg 2003,
2. berarb. Aufl., ISBN 3-87907-398-8.
[Regensburger, K. 1990 ] Photogrammetrie Anwendungen in Wissenschaft und Technik. 1. Aufl. 1990, Wichmann Verlag 1990, in Bibliothek.
[Rger, W u.a. 1987 ] Verfahren und Gerte zur Kartenherstellung. 5., bearb. Aufl., Wichmann Verlag 1987, in Bibliothek.
[Schwidefsky, K.; Ackermann, F. 1976 ] Photogrammetrie Grundlagen, Verfahren. 7., neubearb. u. erw. Aufl., Teubner Verlag 1976, in Bibliothek.
[Hake, G.; Grnreich, D. 2002 ] Kartographie. 8., neubearb. u. erw. Aufl., 42,95 EUR, Gruyter Verlag 2002, ISBN 3-11-016404-3.
[Kahmen, H.; Gaig, W. 1988] Surveying. Walter de Gruyter 1988, ISBN 3-11-008303-5.
[Bird, R. G. 1989] EDM TRAVERSES: Measurement, Computation and Adjustment. Longman Scientific@Technical, ISBN 0-582-02379-3.

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Internet

Internet:
http://www.uni-weimar.de/de/bauingenieurwesen/professuren/geodaesie-und-photogrammetrie/

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Internet

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Motivation
fallen buildings, e. g. in Haiti

earthquakes 12 of January 2010


Methods of surveying
Polar Surveys
Terrestrical Laserscanning
Photogrammetry

Ruined cathedral in Port-au-Prince

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Definition of Geodesy

Friedrich Robert Helmert (1843 1917):


Surveying or Geodesy is the teaching to take the
measurements of the surface of the earth with all
changes and their presentation in registers, maps
and plans.

GEOA

earth

DASEI

share

from Greek:
to share the earth.

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

History of Surveying
Babylonia and Egypt

Cheops pyramid near Gizeh,


about 2500 before Christ (B. C.)

Quelle: Bachmann (1965)


Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

History of Surveying
City map of Nippur
about 1500 B. C.

ll

Quelle: Bachmann (1965)

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Engineering Surveys in antiquity


Hiskia-Tunnel near Jerusalem
705-701 B. C.
Supply of water of Jerusalem
Tunnel construction of two sites

Eupalinos-Tunnel at Samos
6th century B. C.

holy graves

Quelle: Grewe (1998)

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

10

History of Surveying
World map of
Eratosthenes, 240 B. C.

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

11

Map of Thuringia by Mellinger (1580)

Magnification of the cutout

Quelle: Vom Knigreich der Thringer zum Freistaat


Thringen. Verlagshaus Thringen 1999.

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

12

Surveying about 1800

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

13

Main area of work


higher geodesy
determination of the figure of the earth
and of the outside gravity field

governmental survey
creation of horizontal networks and of the
official maps

detail survey
plane survey and mapping
cadastral surveying (real-estate surveying)

engineering surveys
surveying for buildings
adjustments for industry

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

14

Perception of the surveying tasks


as sovereign tasks by the German states
Creation and monitoring of the networks
Editing of the offical maps
Survey and continuance of the cadastre
Administrations
Federal Agency of Cartography and Geodesy = BKG
State Survey Offices
Land registries
Chartered Surveyor or Registered Land Surveyor (bVI)
other official surveying administrations
land consolidation authority
management of state forests
road building administrations
Deutsche Bahn AG (railway organisation)
Waterways- and shipping administrations

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

15

Principles of work

Principle of neighbourhood
from great to little
protection of proximity principle

Principle of reliability
all measurements and calculations are to ensure
by independent checkings

Principle of economy
As accurately as possible,
but not more accurate as required!

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

16

Shape of earth

Eratosthenes

plain

sphere
Newton

ellipsoid of rotation

Gau
Listing

geoid

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

17

Circumference of the earth by Eratosthenes (250 B.C.)


north pole
obelisk in
Alexandria

sun

b
well in Syene
bottom of the well
was illuminated

Determination of the circumference of the earth


by Eratosthenes 250 B.C.
Quelle: Resnik/Bill (2000)

Eratosthenes
(284 202 v. Chr.)

b = 5 000 Stadien (1 Stadie = 148.5 m)


= 1/50 of the full circle
circumference u = 50 * s = 37 125 km
radius R = 5 909 km
Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

18

Geoid
Geoid
The geoid is that equipotential
surface which would coincide
exactly with the mean ocean
surface of the earth, if the oceans
were in equilibrium, at rest, and
extended through the continents
(such as with very narrow canals).
Quelle: www.google.deli

Quelle: GFZ Potsdam

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Gravity field of the earth


Lotlinien
plumb
line
R
R

sichtbare
actual
Erdoberearth
Flche
surface

actual earth surface

Geoid

Tbig
opographie
mountain
(Bergmassiv)
Rechter angle
Winkel
RR== right

Lotabweichung
deflection
to the vertical

Geoid

Lotabweichung
deflection to the vertical

S
trbig
masse
mass
ocean
Meer

Ellipsoidperpendicular
to thenormale
ellipsoid

Niveauflchesurface
equipotential

Ellipsoid

wahre
Meer
actual
ocean
Lotrichtung
Ellipsoidplumb
line
perpendicular
normale
to the ellipsoid

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Reference surfaces for positioning


Ellipsoid of rotation (mean ellipsoid)
Mathematical surface of the whole earth.
a b
Axis of rotation is identical with axis of the earth.
f =
Deviations between IUGG 1980 und Geoid maximal 100 m.
a
A local ellipsoid replaces only a limited area of the surface of the
earth.
geometric flattening f of the earth:
1 : 298.257
dimensions of semi-major axis
the earth by
a
Bessel 1841
6 377 397 m
Hayford 1924
6 378 388 m
Krassowskij 1944 6 378 245 m
IUGG 1980
6 378 137 m

semi-minor axis
b
6 356 079 m
6 356 912 m
6 356 863 m
6 356 752 m

comparison:
By a globe with an equator radius of
3.00 m the distance from the poles to
the equator plane is only 2.99 m.

Sphere (osculating sphere)


For an area with a circumcircle of about 100 km.
Plain (tangent plane)
For an area with a circumcircle of about 10 km.

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Influence of earth curvature


--> see black board
21

Shape of the earth


sphere

plain
sphere

ellipsoid of rotation

ellipsoid of rotation
-120 m
(maximal geoid
undulation
actual
plumb line

geoid
best shape of earth:

ellipsoid of rotation
with a
geometric flattening of 1: 300
exercise:
circumference: 40 000 km

drawing: without scale!

rope with a length of


40 000 km + 1 m

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Regional and world-wide Ellipsoids

North
America

Europa

North
America

Europa

The geodetic datum defines the orientation of the


ellipsoid of rotation to the body of the earth.

Quelle: Landkarten verstehen und richtig nutzen


www.brk.nrw.de

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Geodetical Reference System ITRSxx/ITRFxx


Global system with an accuracy of a few centimeter
ITRS = International Terrestrial Reference System
ITRF = International Terrestrial Reference Frame

Definition (ITRS.xx)

Realization (ITRF.xx)

3D-coordinate axis
geocentric
axis

measurement methods
VLBI, SLR, GPS and other

Parameter
semi-major axis a
geometric flattening of the earth
GM

problem: registration
of the changes plate tectonics:
2 cm to 10 cm per year
e. g. continental drift
One set of coordinates per year or
frequently.

Reduction of the observations


to the model earth
polar motions
deformations
Quelle: Augath, W.: Beitrge des Vermessungswesens zur Ortung und Navigation im Wandel.
Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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VLBI = Very Long Baseline Interferometry


Quasars emit
radio signals

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Geodetic datum, ETRS89


The geodetic datum defines the orientation of the
ellipsoid of rotation to the body of the earth.
Current reference system in Germany:
ETRS89 (= European Terrestrial
Reference-System 1989)
The ERTS89 is a geocentric reference system which is based on the
global International Terrestrial Reference System (= ITRS).
ellipsoid of rotation:

GRS80 = IUGG 1980

fixing:

fundamental stations of the global ITRF-Net


in Europe, for example in Wettzell

projection:

UTM

band size:

Measuring methods:

VLBI (= Very Long Baseline Interferometry),


SLR (= Satellite-Laser-Ranging) und
GPS (= Global Positioning System)

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Geodetical Reference System ETRS89/ETRF89


Current global reference system in Europa
continental drifts
ETRS = European Terrestrial Reference System
ETRF = European Terrestrial Reference Frame

Changes of the ITRF

Reference System of the European


State Survey Offices
identical with ITRS89/ITRF89
Status of the ITRF89 will fixed
for the date 01.01.1989
transformation parameters for latent
epochs are existing

Changes of the ETRF89

advantage: Europa is situated predominant


on the solid eurasian plate
realization with delimited points
(EUREF)
realization with the positioning services
EUREF Permanent
in Gemany: SAPOS

Quelle: Augath, W.: Beitrge des Vermessungswesens zur Ortung und Navigation im Wandel.

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Geodetical Reference System WGS84


Current global Reference System
WGS = World Geodetic System 1984

WGS84 as Reference System of the GPS-Satellites


and of the points on the earth
determination of the WGS84-coordinates
a) coordinates of the Tracking-Stations
(12 fundamental stations distributed over the earth)
b) GPS-observations + algorithm
(inclusive the global gravity field of the earth model)
c) coordinates of the GPS-Satellites
d) absolut positioning with GPS-observations

Quelle: Augath, W.: Beitrge des Vermessungswesens zur Ortung und Navigation im Wandel.
Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Fundamentals of horizontal geodetic networks


Assembly of the horizontal
geodetic network with triangles.

TP-Net
1. order
2. order
3. order
4. order

brief description
TP(1)
TP(2)
TP(3)
TP(4)

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

distance
in km
30-70
10-20
3-5
1-2

29

German first-order horizontal network DHDN 90

Quelle: Landesvermessungsamt NordrheinWestfalen http://www.lverm.nrw.de

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Station monuments
granite stone
with protecting
pillar

Quelle: Resnik/Bill (2000)

granite stone
with signal

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Geopotential number
Under the influence of gravity only
geopotential numbers are
determinable without any hypotheses.

potential = geopotential number


= gravity * H (differential levelling)

actual earth surface

Quelle: Normalhhen in Nordrhein-Westfalen http://www.lverm.nrw.de

dimension of geopotential number = [m]/[s]


normal gravity = gravity of the reference ellipsoid

( * gravity) = geopotential number of P


To have the geopotential number in the dimension meter, it has to be divided
the geopotential number by a gravity value.
orthometric height
= geopotential number / actual gravity (mean value)
normal orthometric height =
normal height
= geopotential number / normal gravity
Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Water gauge of Amsterdam and mean sea level (Normal Null)


1879: Levelling from the datum point of
Amsterdam to Berlin (cue at observatory
of Berlin = normal heights point)
normal null point = 37.000 m under the
normal heights point measured along the
plumb line
level surface in the normal null point is
be termed as normal null (NN).

Normal heights point


(be lacking)
Quelle: Heyde, H. (1999): Die Hhennullpunkte der
amtlichen Kartenwerke europischer Staaten und ihre
Lage zu Normal-Null. Schriftenreihe des Frderkreises Vermessungstechnisches Museum e. V.
Band 28, Dortmund 1999.

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Reference system for heights


Old german states

New german states

Between 1912 und 1956: German levelling base


network 1912 (DHHN12) is because of
inhomogeneous calculation methods and of
network differences involved absolute insufficient.

Since 1979 normal heights of the national


levellings base network 1976 (SNN76) referring to
the water gauge of Kronstadt near St. Petersburg).
The reference system is termed as hight zero (HNheights).

1980-1985: renewal of the whole levelling base


network first order (DHHN85)
base: normal orthometric height referring to
Amsterdam water gauge. The reference system is
termed as mean sea level (NN-heights).

Mean sea level of Kronstadt is about 15 cm


higher than the mean sea level of Amsterdam.

Federal Republic of Germany (after 1992)


In October 1993 the AdV-plenum (AdV = Working Committee of the Surveying Authorities of the States of
the Federal Republic of Germany) decided to establish a uniform reference system for heights for the
whole area of the new Federal Republic of Germany. Levellings between the both levelling base networks
were taken out. Description: Deutsches Haupthhennetz 92 (DHHN92). Point of attachment: church
Wallenhorst near Osnabrck. The new heights will be calculated as normal heights with measured
gravity values. The reference system is termed as normal heights zero (NHN-heights). Introduction of
the NHN-heights in 2002.

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Water gauges and reference systems in Europe


Water gauges of the national
reference systems in Europe

Reference systems in Europe

Quelle: Normalhhen in Nordrhein-Westfalen; http://www.lverm.nrw.de


Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

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Water gauges
Example:
city church in Weimar, side datum post,
east side, 0.7 m above road pavement
217.339 m ber NN (Old System)
217.404 m ber NN (New System/System 1912)
217.387 m ber NN (56)
Neighbouring countries:
217.244 m ber HN (56)
Averaged heights neighbouring countries in
217.238 m ber HN (76)
relation to NN-system
217.374 m ber NHN (92)
Denmark
-0.09 m (North Sea)
Netherlands
+0.02 m
Eastern neighbours

+0.16 m (Baltic Sea)

France

Bridge near Laufenburg

-0.25 m
(Mediterranean Sea)
Austria
-0.31 m
Switzerland
-0.30 m
In the pipeline: United European
Levelling Network (REU)

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

36

German first-order levelling network (DHHN 92


Classification of the levelling networks:
levelling
network

brief
description

diameter
of the meshes
in km

1. order

NivP(1)

30 - 50

2. order

NivP(2)

15 - 20

3. order

NivP(3)

2 - 10

Renewal of the DHHN 2006 - 2011

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37

Station monuments for geodetic points


Touchdown point for the levelling rod:
the highest point of the bolt

Monument at the Herder


church in Weimar

granite stone

bolt in a wall
(diameter:
20 mm - 55 mm)
Quelle: Resnik/Bill (2000)

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38

What is the height of a point?


ellipsoidical height

orthometric height
geoid height

mean sea level (geoid)

mountain

actual earth surface

hight above sea


in m

Chimborazo
Nevado Huascaran
Cotopaxi
Kilimandscharo
Cayambe
Mount Everest

6 267
6 768
5 897
5 895
5 796
8 850

distance from the geocenter


in km
6 384.557
6 384.552
6 384.190
6 384.134
6 384.094
6 382.414

(Ecuador)
(Peru)
(Ecuador)
(Tansania)
(Ecuador, Vulkan)
(Nepal/Tibet)

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Gravity networks in the states


gravity
= resulting from gravity and centrifugal acceleration
direction of gravity = plumb line
measurement of gravity: with gravimeter
reference system: Potsdamer gravity system

g (mean value)

= 9.81 m/s

g at pole

= 9.84 m/s

g at equator

= 9.78 m/s

decrease of g with height:

measurement precision
absolut gravimeter:
20 - 30 nm/s
= 2 - 3 Gal

0,3 / 1000 m

superconducting gravimeter: < 0.1 nm/s

1 Gal = 1 cm / s

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Coordinate systems
Greenwich meridian

three-dimensional cartesian
coordinates:
X, Y, Z

north pole
earth surface

geographical coordinates
geographic latitude: B
geographic longitude: L
geocentre

ellipsoidic height:

equator

Quelle: Witte u. Schmidt (2004)

hell

astronomic coordinates
astronomic latitude:
astronomic longitude:

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geographic coordinates
Ellipsoid
(e. g. by Bessel)

sphere ellipsoid
geographic longitude

geographic latitude

The geographic longitude of a point P is the angle between the plain of the zero
meridian (e.g. Greenwich meridian) and the meridian plain at the point P.
The geographic latitude is the angle between the normal of the ellipsoid at P and
the equator plain.
The angle between a curve of the surface on the ellipsoid and the meridian in point P
is termed out as azimuth A (from the Greenwich meridian (north pole) clockwise).
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Centre point of Europe


geographic coordinates of the
centre point of europe:
northern latitude: 5451 54
eastern longitude: 2519 00

Quelle: Weih, W. (2005): Noch einmal: Europas


centras. In VDV 56(2005)4, Seite 305.

Centre point of Europe is in Lithuania


about 26 km northern of Vilnius.
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Plain coordinate systemes


polare coordinates (s, )

cartesian coordinates (x, y)

x
x
P

0
y

grid bearing (tAB)


quadrant IV

quadrant I
y
x

tA B

tB A

quadrant III

quadrant II

Table of sign
y
+
+
-

x
+
+

Quadrant
I
II
III
IV

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Projection of the surface of earth in the plain


Mathematical congruence cannot be obtained because the
ellipsoid cannot be mapped onto a plane without distortions.

azimuthal projection

normal position

cylinder projection

cone projection

transversal position

inclined position
Quelle: Resnik/Bill (2000)

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Gauss-Krger-coordinate system
Johann Carl Friedrich
Gauss (1777-1855)

Projection of the surface of the ellipsoid to the


boundary surface of the touches cylinder from the
centre point M (contact of the main meridian).

offset 500 km

scale factor= 1.0000

main meridian

Sheet blank of the cylinder in the plain.


To have small distortions the width of the meridian
strap will be limited to 3.

R
equator

The declaration of the meridian strap takes place


with a code number in the R-value (y = easting).
Translation of the H-Axis (x = northing) in each case
at 500 km to west to avoid negativ R-values.

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Distortions by Gau-Krger
Reduction of distances

ym = (y1 + y2)/2

sGK = sgem (1 + ym2 / 2r 2 )

r = 6381 km (radius of the earth)

mean y-coord. ym [km]

10

20

40

60

80

100

correction
(for s = 1 km)

-0.1

-0.5

-2.0

-4.4

-7.9

-12.3

[cm]

Reduction of areas

FUTM = FEll (1 + ym2 / r 2 )


FEll = area onto the ellipsoid

mean y-coordinate =
scale factor for area =

100 km
1.000246

Distortions in the directions:


are negligible
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Gau-Krger-coordinate system
Lneburg

Michaelis-church in Lneburg
in system of 9. longitude:
H = 59 02 863.21 m
R = 35 93 571.20 m
code number 3 (= 9)
The church is situated eastward of the
9. longitude and the Gau ordinate is
+93 571.20 m.

in system of 12. longitude:


H = 59 03 137.40 m
R = 43 93 360.64 m
code number 4 (= 12)
In the system of the 12. longitude the church is
situated westward of the 12. longitude and the
Gau ordinate is -106 639.36 m.
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Universal-Transversale-Merkator-system (UTM-system)
N

lines of true scale

Projection of the surface of the ellipsoid to the


boundary surface of the cylinder from the centre
point M (contact of the two intersection meridians).

central meridian

Gerardus Mercator
(1512-1594)

offset 500 km

scale factor = 0,9996

Gerhard Kremer
called:

E
equator

Scale factor in the central meridian = 0.999 600.


Sheet blank of the cylinder into the plain.

UTMZonenbildung

The width of the meridian strap is be limited to 6.


The declaration of the meridian strap takes place
with the number of zone in the E-value (y).
Translation of the N-Axis (x) in each case at
500 km to west to avoid negativ E-values (y).
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Distortions by UTM
UTM-Reduction
UTM-Streckenreduktion
of distances

ym = (y1 + y2)/2

sUTM = sgem 0.9996 (1 + ym2 / 2r 2 )

r = 6381 km (earth radius)

mean y-ordinate ym [km]


correktion
(fr s = 1 km)

[cm]

10

40

80

120

160

200

+39.9

+38.0

+32.1

+22.3

+8.6

-9.1

UTM-Reduction of areas

FUTM = FEll 0.99962 (1 + ym2 / r 2 )


FEll = area on the ellipsoid

mean y-ordinate
=
scale factor for areas =

0 km
0.999 200 160

Distortions in the directions:


are negligible
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Reductions of distances in GK- and UTM-Projection

Quelle: Europisches Terrestrisches Referenzsystem 1989. Landesamt fr Vermessung und Geoinformation, Erfurt 2007.

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Differences between GK- and UTM-system


width of zones
zones in Germany
central meridian
cylinder

GK-system
3

UTM-system
6

2, 3, 4, 5

31, 32, 33

6, 9, 12, 15
touch cylinder

3, 9, 15
intersection cylinder

scale factor

1,0000

0,9996

ellipsoid

Bessel

GRS80

Coordinates of the well on the market place in Weimar


coordinate system
geograhical coordinates
GK-System
UTM-System

geod.Datum
WGS84
Potsdam-Datum
ETRS89

Long./R/East
1119 47
44 53 032 m
32:663 539 m

Building Stock Survey WS 2013/2014, Section 1: Fundamentals

Lati./H/North
5058 46
56 49 570 m
56 50 123 m

52

Coordinate transformations

AllTrans 2.321
GEOTRANS 3.0
TRANSDAT 13.43
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Coordinate transformations

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Coordinate transformations

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Coordinate transformations

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56

Height reduction
All distances measured at an
elevation h have to be reduced onto
the surface of the rotation ellipsoid.

llmgem

lrlred

Rotationsellipsoid
rotation ellipsoid
bzw. Geoid

Erd
ra

d iu

or geoid

r=

lm
lr
=
r+h r
lm lr lr
lr
=
r+h r r+h
r+h
l = lm lr = lr
lr
r
h
l lm
r
example:
radius of the earth r = 6380 km
lm = 1 km, h = 500 m

l = 7.8 cm

lm = 10 km, h = 1000 m

l = 1.57 m

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geographic north, grid north, magnetic north

http://geo.phys.uit.no/articl/roadto.html

In TK25 the annually


changes are registered.
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58

Definition of the meter


1792: arc measurement
Arc measurement between Barcelona and
Dnkirchen to define the meter.
Geometric flattening of 1 : 334
Quadrant of the earth:
5 130 740 Toisen = 10 000 000 m!
Archive Meter
Problem: The length of the quadrant of the
earth was 2288 m too long and therefore
the Archive Meter is 0.2 mm too short.
In the following decades, several countries adopted the system. In 1875 these nations formed the
International Metric Convention to spread international recognition of the metric system. The nations also
agreed on the formation of an International Bureau for Measure and Weight in Paris. As the first major
project, the Bureau produced a new meter prototype of platinum-iridium with an x-shaped cross section. This
prototype was designed to define the metre more exactly than the Archive Meter, and it was accepted by
the first general conference in 1889 as the new International Meter prototype.

Later on different definitions of the meter were given.

20.10.1983: 17. General Conference


for Measure and Weight
1 Meter has been defined as the
distance light travels through a vacuum
in 1/299 792 458 of a second.

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5102

Measurements to define the meter


since 1792
Job for the two scientists Delambre und
Mchain:

1075 km

To determine one ten millionth of the


earth meridian between north pole and
equator.

Delambre
(1749 - 1822)

Mchain (1744 - 1804)

4121
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60

Dimension units
From unit of length Meter [m] derived measures of length:
kilometer
1 km = 1000 m
hektometer
1 hm = 100 m
dekameter
1 dam = 10 m
decimeter
1 dm = 0.1 m
centimeter
1 cm = 0.01 m
millimeter
1 mm = 0.001 m
micrometer
1 m = 0.000001 m
nanometer
1 nm = 0.000000001 m
From unit of area square meter [m] derived measures of area:
square kilometer
1 km = 1000000 m
hectare
1 ha = 10000 m
are
1 a = 100 m
square decimeter 1 dm = 0.01 m
square centimeter 1 cm = 0.0001 m
square millimeter 1 mm = 0.000001 m
From unit of volume cubic meter [m] derived measures of volume:
cubic decimeter
1 dm = 0.001 m = 1 Liter
cubic centimeter
1 cm = 0.000001 m

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Units of angles
0
360
400 gon

Radiant-System
The derived SI-unit of a plain angle is
Radiant [rad].
1 Radiant equates to the angle at
centre, where the radius is re = 1 m and
the arc of the circle is also be = 1 m.

6 rad

5 rad

Gon-System
Full circle = 400 gon
Decigon 1 dgon
=
Centigon 1 cgon
=
Milligon 1 mgon =

270
300 gon

0.1 gon
0.01 gon
0.001 gon

Grad-System
Full circle = 360 Grad ()
arc minute
1 = (1/60)
arc second
1 = (1/60)

57,29578
63,66198 gon

=1

1 rad
re

=1

90
100 gon
2 rad

4 rad
3 rad

180
200 gon

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62

Conversion from Grad to gon


1 gon = 0.9

Example:
36 12 37 = ? gon
36+ (12 + (37/60))/60
= 36.210278
= 40.2336 gon

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63

Radian measure
b/r=/
with as conversion factor

[gon] = 200 gon /


= 63.66197 gon
= 6366.197 cgon
= 63661.97 mgon

[] = 180/
= 57.2957795
= 3437.74677
= 206264.806

Application: estimation of small angles


r = 100 m

r = 100 m

b = 1 cm

= 1 cgon

= 6.3 mgon

b = 1.6 cm

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64

Ratios of scales

Distance in the map or in the plan


Distance in nature

=M=1/m

M = scale
m = dimensional ratio = number of scale

Example:
10 cm
100 m

= 0.001 = 1 : 1000

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Measure for inclination

p
h

100

opposite leg

tan = 1 / n = h / e = p [%] / 100

adjacent leg

= angle of inclination

1 : n = gradient of slope
p

= percent- or per mill declaration


(to 100 m) (to 1000 m)

h : e = ratio of slope

Example:
h : e = 4.75 / 75.50

= 4 gon = 3.6
1 : n = 1 : 15.89
p
= 6.29 %

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