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REFERENCE BOOK
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ERNA WIDYASTUTI
6.

M. ILHAM BAHRUNSJAH

Design Strength

Steel Connection
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Bracing Connection
Beam Column Connection (pin)
Beam Beam Connection (Splice)
B
Beam
Column
C l
C
Connection
ti (E
(End
d Pl
Plate)
t )
Column Rafter Connection
Rafter Rafter Connection
Base Plate Connection (Pin)
Base Plate Connection (Fix)

Safety factor and resistance


factor values
Strength

AISC 360-10 Specification for Structural Steel Building


AISC Design Example Version 14.0, 2011
AISC Steel Design Guide 1 Base Plate and Anchor
Rod Design 2nd edition, 2006
AISC Steel Design Guide 4 Extended End Plate
Moment Connection 2nd edition, 2003
AISC MBMA Steel Design Guide 16 Flush and
Extended Multiple Row Moment End Plate
Connection, 2003
ACI 318-11 Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete and Commentary

Safety factor
()

Resistance factor
()

Tensile
Yield
Rupture

1,67
2

0,90
0 75
0,75

Shear
Yield
Rupture

1,5
2

1
0,75

Block Shear

0,75

Compression

1,67

0,9

Ra Rn /
(ASD)
Where
Ra
= Required Strength
Rn
= Nominal Strength

= Safety Factor
Rn / = Allowable Strength
Ru Rn
(LRFD)
Where
Ru
= Required Strength
Rn
= Nominal Strength

= Resistance factor
Rn
= Design Strength

BOLT CONNECTION
Bolt holes (Table J3.3 or J3.3M AISC 360-10)

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Minimum spacing (Sect J3.3 AISC 360-10)


= 8/3 d
Minimum edge distance (Table J3.4 or J3.4M AISC 360-10)

High Strength Bolts in Slip-Critical


Connection (Section J3.8 AISC 360-10)
Rn = .Du.hf.Tb.ns
Where:

= slip coefficient, for class A surface = 0.3


Du = 1.13
Tb = minimum fastener tension (Table J3.1 or Table
J3.1M)
hf
= hole factor = 1
Ns = number of slip planes

= 1,5 (ASD)

= 1 (LRFD)

Bolt Friction Capacity


ASD

LRFD

Weld
Minimum size of fillet weld ( Table J2.4 AISC 360-10)

AFFECTED ELEMENTS OF MEMBER AND


CONNECTING ELEMENTS (Sec. J4 AISC 360-10)
1.

Strength of elements in tension


For tensile yielding of elements
Rn = Ag.fy
where :
Ag = gross area (mm2)
fy = yield stress (MPa)
For tensile rupture of elements
Rn = Ae. fu
where :
Ae = net area (mm2) for bolted splice plate, Ae= An 0,85 Ag
fu = rupture stress (MPa)

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2.

Strength of Elements in Shear


For shear yielding of the elements
Rn = 0,6.fy.Agv
where :
Agv
= gross area subject to shear (mm2)
fy
= yield stress (Mpa)
For shear rupture of the elements
Rn = 0,6.fu.Anv
where :
Anv
= net area subject to shear (mm2)
fu
= rupture stress (Mpa)

3.

Block Shear Strength


Rn = 0,6 fu.Anv + Ubs.fu.Ant 0,6.fy.Agv + Ubs.fu.Ant
Where:
fu
= rupture stress (MPa)
Anv
= net area subject to shear (mm2)
Ubs
= 1 (when the tension stress is uniform)
0,5 (when the tension stress is non uniform)
Ant
= net area subject to tension (mm2)
fy
= yield stress (MPa)
Agv
= gross area subject to shear (mm2)

FLOW CHART TO DESIGN BRACING CONNECTION


Define material properties
- material characteristic of steel, bolt and weld
- material section of member
- gusset thickness and weld thickness

Define number of bolt and check the distance


based on code

Check capacity of member

Check capacity of connection (Plate, Bolt, Weld)

Check ratio of connection


to member

CONNECTOR IN THE MIDDLE OF DOUBLE


BRACING (2L,2C)

Bracing

Distance each connector :


(Ka/ri )single tee 0,75 (KL/rmin)double tee
Where:
K
= effective length factor
a
= distance between connectors
gyration of individual component
p
ri
= minimum radius of gy
rmin
= minimum radius of gyration of build up member
L
= laterally unbrace length of the member

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ANGLE BRACING

DOUBLE ANGLE BRACING

CHANNEL BRACING

DOUBLE CHANNEL BRACING

WF BEAM PIN (STRUCTURAL)

WF BEAM PIN (STRUCTURAL)

Beam Shear Connection to Column

Beam Shear Connection to Main Beam

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CHANNEL BEAM PIN (STRUCTURAL)

DESIGN SPLICE CONNECTION

CHANNEL BEAM PIN (NON STRUCTURAL)

Design of Splice Connection


1. Web Plate Splice

Flow Chart to Design Splice


Calculate static moment of
member (Sx )

Beam pin connection shear


2. Flange Plate Splice
Tension and moment

Calculate remain tension flange based


on splice web plate of beam pin
connection
Define number bolt for one
flange

Define thickness of splice


flange plate

Checked capacity of
connection

Design Splice Web


Shear Capacity by member and plate
Yield shear
Rn = Ag.fy
; = 1.5
Rupture shear
Rn = An.fu
; = 2
2. Shear Capacity by bolt
Rn = m x n x Fv
3. Block shear by member
Rn = 0,6 fu.Anv + Ubs.fu.Ant 0,6.fy.Agv + Ubs.fu.Ant
4. Bearing by bolt and plate
Rn = 2.4Fu x db x t
Rn = 1.2Fu x Lc x t
1.

Design Splice Flange


1.
2.
3.
4
4.

Calculate static moment of member (Sx)


Calculate tension at one flange (T)
Tf = Ag.fy/ , = 1.67
Design number of bolt at one flange, = Tf/ Fv
Design thickness of splice plate

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5.

6.

Check capacity of splice flange plate


Tension
- Yield
Ra = Ag.fy/
Rupture
Ra = An.fu/
Block shear
R = 0,6
Rn
0 6 fu.Anv
f A + Ubs.fu.Ant
Ub f A t 0,6.fy.Agv
06f A +
Ubs.fu.Ant ; = 2
Check capacity of Bolt T = n x Fv

7.

Check Moment Capacity

8.

Check connection Capacity


Shear
Connection Capacity = Q min (shear,block shear,bearing)
Moment
Connection Capacity = M min (M1-M3)

DESIGN END PLATE CONNECTION

WF SPLICE

(AISC Steel Design Guide 4 2nd edition,2003)

1.

Design Step
Compute the moment at
the connected member

Select the type of end plate moment


connection, and define the connection
geometry and bolt grade

Determine the
required bolt diameter

2.
Check beam flange force
at one row bolt to
allowable shear yielding

Check beam flange force at


one row bolt to allowable
shear rupture

Calculate the
factored beam
flange force

Calculate end plate


stiffener thickness

Calculate web
buckling strength

Calculate local
web yielding
strength

Calculate web
crippling strength

Determine stiffener
design force (if any)

Determine the
required end plate
thickness

Calculate the no
prying bolt moment
strength, Mnp

Check compression bolt


shear rupture strength

Calculate strength of
unstiffened column flange to
determine stiffener design force

3.

Compute the moment at the connected member


M = 1,1 Fy Ry Zx
1,1 = (Fu+Fy)/Fy
Ry = 1,5 (for Fy = 50 Ksi)
= 1,1 (for Fy = 36 Ksi)
Zx = Plastic moment of member
Define type of end plate connection (4E, 4ES, 8E, 8ES, or 16E), then
define connection geometry ( g,pfi,pfo,pb,etc)
Determine the required bolt diameter

Check compression
bolts bearing/ tear out

Check the column


flange for flexural
welding

beam
column

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4.

Calculate the no prying bolt moment strength, Mnp

5.

Determine the required end plate thickness

6.

Calculate the factored beam flange force

7.

Check shear yielding of end plate

8.

Check shear rupture of end plate

9.

Determine end plate stiffener thickness and length and design


stiffener welds (if any)

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10.

Check compression bolt shear rupture strength

11.

Check compression bolts bearing/ tear out

14.

Calculate local web yielding strength

16.

Calculate web crippling strength

17.

Determine stiffener design force (if column stiffener required)

12.

Check column flange for flexural welding

13
13.

Calculate strength of unstiffened column flange to determine


stiffener design force

15.

Check web buckling strength

WF END PLATE

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RAFTER COLUMN WITHOUT HAUNCH

RAFTER-COLUMN WITH HAUNCH

DESIGN BASE PLATE CONNECTION


(AISC Steel Design Guide 1 second edition,2006)

RAFTER RAFTER

Define member
properties

Calculate allowable compress


of beam, concrete, and weld

Calculate allowable bearing strength


0.85fc A1/c A2/A1 1.7 fc A1/ c
A1 = N x B; A2 = PN x PB; c = 2,31

Define base plate properties


m = N-0.95 d / 2
n=B-0.8 bf / 2
n = d bf / 4
X = (4d bf/(d+bf)2) c Pa /Pp
=2X / (1+1-X) 1
l= max (m, n, n)

PIN BASE PLATE

Type HA

Type HF

Type HB

Define dimension of base


plate (N x B)
A1 req = c.Pa
c Pa /0.85
/0 85 ffcc
c = 2,31

Define base plate thickness


tmin = l (3.33 fpa/ Fy)
Fpa = Pa/BN

WF PIN BASE PLATE

Type HC

Type LA

Calculate allowable shear of


beam, bolt, and weld

Type HD

Type LB

Type CA

Type HE

Type CB

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ANGLE PIN BASE PLATE

CHANNEL PIN BASE PLATE

FIX BASE PLATE

WF FIX BASE PLATE

Type HA

Type HB

Type LA

Type HC

Type CA

Type HD

Type CB

ANGLE FIX BASE PLATE

ANGLE FIX BASE PLATE

TERIMA KASIH

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