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Tokyo Model

Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

- The history and strengths of improving municipal waste management operations November 2014

Supervised by: 23 Cities of Tokyo


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
Issued by: Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

-1-

Former Conditions

Present Conditions

1930s
Fukagawa Garbage
Treatment Plant

2010s
Shin-Koto
Incineration Plant

1957
Bell collection
by handcarts

2010s
Waste collection

1970s
Direct landfill disposal
of large-sized waste

2010s
Landfill site

What is the
Tokyo Model?

23 Cities of Tokyo refers to 23 individual municipal authorities which make up an


area within Tokyo Metropolitan (provincial) Area. It is the central area of Tokyo, in
which political, administrative, and economic core functions of Japan are allocated.
The Tokyo Model systematically explains municipal waste management systems
and their strengths within 23 Cities of Tokyo.
The main organizations which play a major role in the Tokyo Model are the 23
Cities of Tokyo and Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities(a special-purpose local
government basically to deal with intermediate treatment of municipal solid waste).

Tokyo Metropolitan
(provincial) Area

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Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

23 Cities of Tokyo

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1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

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Introducing Tokyo

Tokyo is one of the largest cities in the world in terms of its economy, and it has a
high reputation for its environment.

Population

City GDP

Main industries

Approx. 9 M

85,201.6 B Yen

Finance, information
and service industries

(No. 1 city by GDP globally)

The worlds largest city in terms of


its economy
The Global Power City Index ranks
Tokyo in 1st place in terms of the size
of economy

High reputation in terms of its


environment
The Global Power City Index ranks
Tokyo in 6th place in terms of its
environment

New York: 2nd place

New York: 24th

London: 4th

London: 12th

Paris: 7th

Paris: 15th

Geneva: 10th

Geneva: 1th

Note: The population stated here is that for the 23 Cities area of Tokyo, all other data shown are those for the whole of Tokyo Metropolitan (provincial) Area.
Source: Tokyo Statistical Yearbook (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2009), Global Power City Index (MMF, 2011)
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-5-

1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

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Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

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Japan - a country generating low amount of municipal waste

As countries grow, they either become high-polluters or low-polluters, and Japan


produces relatively low amount of waste compared to other countries, despite of its
high economic output.
Relationship between municipal waste output and GDP (values for the year 2000)
Per capita municipal waste output (kg/ year)

800
USA
France

600

Singapore

UK

Germany

Korea

400
Malaysia

Japan

Thailand
Philippines

200

China
Vietnam Indonesia

0
0

10

20

30

40

GDP per capita (Unit: thousand US dollars/ year)


Note: Data are actual values for 2000. Also, municipal waste volumes are adjusted considering differences in the definition of municipal waste among countries.
Source: Masaru Tanaka et al., Estimates of the Volume of Generated Waste throughout the World, and Research on Future Forecasts
(Graduate School, Okayama University 2004)

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History of reducing the volume of generated municipal waste in Tokyo

Tokyo has been successful in reducing the volume of per capita waste generation
while maintaining economic growth by taking various measures.
Changes in the volume of generated waste and GDP (1950-2008)
30,000

Per capita GDP of Japan


Per capita municipal waste output in Tokyo

-41%

400

25,000

20,000

15,000

200

10,000

5,000

Per capita GDP of Japan(Unit:GK dollars / year)

Per capita municipal waste output in Tokyo (kg/year)

600

0
1950

1955

Commencement of
periodic waste collection
using bins (volume of
approximately 40 liters)

1960

1965

Commencement of
separated collection of
bulky waste

1970

1975

Commencement of
separated collection of
incombustible waste
(such as plastics)

1980

1985

Commencement of Tokyo
SLIM campaign

1990

1995

Establishment of full-scale
waste intermediate
treatment system

2000

2005

Full implementation
of recycling waste
collection project
(used papers,
bottles, and cans)

2008
Actual roll-out of
thermal recycling of
waste plastics

Source: Angus Maddison Historical Statistics of the World Economy 1-2008 AD (University of Groningen) Centurial Chronology of Waste Management by Tokyo Metropolitan Government (Tokyo Environmental
Public Service Corporation, 2000), Statistical Information of Tokyo Metropolitan Government, The History of Waste Management in 23 Cities of Tokyo (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities, 2013)

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Issues and measures taken at different times

Appropriate measures have been taken as required in dealing with issues which
arose at different times.
Stages
The early
period of
waste issues

Issues

Measures

Public health measures taken for dealing with the epidemics of


cholera and black plague throughout the world
Drastic increase in waste volume accompanying the growth of
cities

Feculence Cleansing Act (1900) was promulgated, asking local


governments to be responsible for municipal waste management.
Collection contractors were registered. (1900)
Obligation of waste incineration (1930)

(1900-1955)

Rapid economic
growth issues
becoming
apparent
(1955-1973)

Stable growth
period dealing with
Environmental
issues

Increasing necessity of fundamental


waste measures due to drastic changes
in society and economic situations
Shortage of final disposal site due to
mass production / mass disposal
Acceptance of waste containing high
water content for incineration
Tokyo Waste War(1971)

Dealing with environmental issues


Increasing requirement for reuse of waste and converting it into a
resource

Full operation of new and innovative incineration plant


equipped with pollution measures
Commencement of separated collection (1973)
Promotion of recycling campaigns
The commencement of community-based voluntary collection
In-depth dialogues with residents through explanatory meetings
and construction / operating committees

Further rapid increase in waste volumes and changes in quality


such as use of PET bottles

Commencement of the Tokyo SLIM campaign (1989)


Progress with waste volume reduction and recycling (3Rs) due
to the amendment of Waste Management and Public Cleansing
Act

(1973-1985)

Significant
increase in
volume of waste

Enactment of the Cleaning Act (1954)


Act on Urgent Measures for Improving the Living Environment and
Related Facilities (1963)
Progress with waste incineration and land-filling of residues
Development and introduction of incineration technologies
Improvement of efficiency in collection and transport
Principle to treat waste within each municipality gained consensus

(1985-1990)

Opening
of 3R era

Commencement of charging for all bulky waste(1991)


Act on Special Measures against Dioxins (1999)
Basic act on Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society (2000)
Establishment of various recycling acts
Transfer of municipal waste management duties to 23 Cities(2000)
Development / introduction of gasification furnaces, ash melting
facilities and others (2008)
Commencement of waste plastic thermal recycling (2009)

Dealing with environmental issues (dioxins)


Promotion of a sound recycling-oriented society
Clearly defining 23 Cities of Tokyo as basic municipal
governments

(1990- present)

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Source: Whitepaper using Diagrams on the Environment, a Recycling-Oriented Society and Biodiversity (Ministry of Environment, 2011),
Centurial Chronology of Waste Management by Tokyo Metropolitan Government (Tokyo Environmental Public Service Corporation,
2000), Analysis of Approaches Taken in Japan and Other Developed Countries to Waste Incineration Technologies and Report on
Research on the Possibility of Applying such Technologies to Developing Countries (JICA 2012), website of the Clean Authority of
TOKYO 23cities

1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

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- 10 -

An overall picture of the Tokyo Model

Residents, public as well as private sectors worked together in exploring ideal models for
municipal waste management in large cities throughout the history of waste management
improvement over the last century, with a view to implementing such models.
Waste generation

Collection/transport

Incineration/
energy recovery

Final disposal

Working on reducing waste


volume, sorting waste at
source, and recycling based on
the 3R approach
Classifying waste inappropriate
for incineration by ensuring
sorting and turning waste into
resources

Efficiently collect all generated


waste within the day and
transport it to treatment
facilities such as waste
incineration plants
Collection/transportationcollection rate: 100%

Waste is treated safely by


brought into incineration plants
situated in the center of cities
Generating and collecting a
large amount of power and
thermal energy using thermal
recycling technology

Setting and operating hygienic


management type landfill site
Newly reclaimed land has
been created by disposing of
incombustible waste,
incineration ash etc. to sea
surface area

The 3R principle

Compact waste collection cars

Waste processing facilities located in


the center of large cities

Sea surface land-filling and land


reclamation

Power Heat

Environmental education provided


to school children

Waste collection visits


for old residents

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Generating power and


thermal energy recovery
- 11 -

Facilities built on reclaimed land


after the end of landfill service life

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Given that waste volume peaked during the bubble economy period in the 1980s,
good progress has been made in measures for reducing waste generation , sorting
waste and recycling based on the concept of 3Rs.
Main measures for waste volume reduction
and recycling taken since the end of Japanese bubble

1989

Commencement of the Tokyo SLIM campaign

1991

Commencement of charging for all bulky wastes

1993

Starting use of semi-transparent waste bags

1995

Commencing consideration of setting up Tokyo Rules (resource


collection, waste collection by waste-generating businesses, and PET
bottle collection)

1996

Commencement of charging for all types of business-related waste


Completion of Keihinjima Island Incombustible Wastes Processing
Center (A system for full-volume intermediate processing of
incombustible waste was established)

1997

Commencement of in-store PET bottle collection

2000

Overall roll-out of resource collection projects (newspapers,


magazines, glass bottles and cans; resource collection to be once
a week)

2009

Actual implementation of thermal recycling of waste plastic and


others
2008

Overview of measures
Implementing
campaigns using
various types of
media such as TV,
newspapers and
exhibitions during
the 11 years from
1989

Break up waste into


small pieces so that it
can be efficiently landfilled

Select and separate


out iron, aluminum and
other types of metals,
and collect them as
resources

Approximately 13% of
generated waste is
collected as resources
The photo on the left
shows a newspaper
magazine collection
vehicle

The background to successful incineration/energy conversion models at present is the fact that stable progress has
been made with separating-out waste inappropriate for incineration, with processing it, and turning it into resources
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Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Source: Centurial Chronology of Waste Management by Tokyo Metropolitan Government ( Tokyo Environmental Public Service Corporation,
2000), The History of Waste Management in 23 Cities of Tokyo (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities 2013), Suginami City website

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Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Incombustible waste is transported to an incombustible waste processing center, which is an


intermediate processing facility, and is appropriately processed (pulverization and separation).
In particular, thanks to thermal recycling of waste plastics, which commenced in 2006,
processing volume was significantly reduced by approximately 80%.
Change in incombustible waste processing volumes (volume transported to incombustible waste processing centers)

Processing volume
(unit: thousand tons)

600
500

300

84

441

453

21
77

64

65

462
48

15

459

459

65

66

462

451
54
13 40

Non-ferrous metals

Rubber/ leather

Glass

Plastic

451
39

13 375
15
15 33 7 35 16 37
14
45
17
42
41
11 21 11 47
6 51 6 48 7 25 6 21 6 20 6 18 20 22
14
15
13
20
21
16
32
17
23
21
24
11
21 23
19
15
272

259

277

303

1998

1999

2000

2001

293

295

317

2002

2003

2004

314

237

2007

2008

315

0
2006

Commencement of
a model project
for thermal recycling of
waste plastics

Source: Internal documents of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

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2005

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-77%
184
47 6
20 13 106 16 104 9 104
28
12 33
32
14
17
82 4 21 18
20
16 12

200
100

Others

Stones/ pottery

507

400

Iron

2009

2010

Full implementation of
thermal recycling of
waste plastics

2011

7
19
16
13

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

In order to make progress with reducing waste generation, Tokyo is focusing on faceto-face communication, particularly working on education to the next generation of
waste generators, aiming at building a further-improved resource recycling-oriented
society.
Awareness raising and education for residents
Examples of work
Raising awareness of waste generators

Focusing on face-to-face communication


- Holding briefings with town-based groups and local communities

Planning stage

- Visits by members of staff from waste management offices to residents


houses, etc.

Various types of tools for raising awareness and providing education


- Multilingual advertisements/ leaflet on 3Rs
- Special articles on waste management in newsletters and others issued by
City Offices

Building a system with which it will ensured that


announcements are sent to residents

Implementation
stage
(collection/
transport)

Educating the
next generation

Fostering
childrens
awareness on
environment

- Setting up an interactive advice group which gives advice on the way of


waste disposal by waste management administration

Suginami City held 83 sessions on plastic


thermal recycling per year, communicating
with approximately 3,500 residents in total

- Setting up waste volume reduction promotion teams based on residents


volunteer activities

Ensuring that indirect announcements are sent to a larger number of


residents

Patrolling waste collection sites and making reports to government


administrative organizations and bodies

Providing education to the next generation of waste


generators
- Providing school children with opportunities to learn about
environment
- Holding environment summits with junior high school students,
and handling issues related to environment, energy and others

Suginami City provided a total of 18 opportunities


in 2011 for schoolchildren to learn about
environment, with 3,101 participants; and 21
opportunities in 2012, with 4,992 participants (as
of October 2012)

Activities for awareness raising and education are being continuously provided over a long-term,
and efforts have been made in raising residents awareness and shaping their habits
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Source: Interviews to Suginami City, Suginami City website, Internal documents of Suginami City

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Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

In order to achieve a waste collection rate of 100% on a daily basis, 23 Cities are
taking various measures based upon plans by quantitative data as well as on-site
experiences
Measures for collection/transport to assist 100% collection
Planning

Set up plans for


implementing collection and
transport
Create plans for allocating vehicles
and staff, transportation routes, etc.
based on waste volume estimates,
disposal rules, data such as
population density as well as on-site
experiences

Waste collection vehicles

Compaction of waste using


waste collection vehicles
There are approximately 1500 waste
collection vehicles covering
approximately 340,000 waste collection
stations (depots)
70% of the waste collection vehicles are
small-sized trucks with a small turning
circle equipped with compactors which
have a high waste compression ratio

Source: Interviews to Suginami City, Chiyoda City website, internal documents of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

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Door-to-door collection

Door-to-door collection
Staff visit homes of elderly and disabled
residents who have difficulty in taking out
waste for collection

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Reference) Procedures for sorting and disposing of waste

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Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Reference) Procedures for sorting and disposing of waste

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- 17 -

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

There are 21 waste processing facilities* in stable and safe operation in city center
areas, where there are a large number of residential and office buildings.
There are 21 waste incineration plants
in city center areas

Kita City

Katsushika
City

Toshima
City

Sumida City

Shibuya
City

Minato City

Incineration
Plants

Incombustible Waste
Processing Center

Pulverization Processing Plant


for Large-sized Waste

Efficient operation of municipal waste management is achieved. This includes reducing collection/transportation
costs by incinerating waste and converting energy close to where it is produced,.
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Note: Out of 21 waste incineration plants, those in Suginami and Nerima are currently being rebuilt (as of September 2012)
Source: Skills & Passion for Clean Environment (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities)

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Waste incineration plants in Tokyo have introduced newest plants of the day,
achieving safe and stable operation
Reducing harmful gas
emissions
Average measured value of
dioxins:
0.000019ng-TEQ/m3N
(FY2012)
*Regulation limit: 0.1ng-TEQ/m3N

Treating large amount of


waste

High power generation


capacity

Daily treatment capacity:


Total of 7,580 tons

Total power produced:


1.1B kWh
Revenue from power sales:
Approximately 6.3 B Yen

(FY2012)

Reduce the volume of waste by


approximately one twentieth
with incineration

(FY2012)

Long service life

Achieving stable operation

Operating life:
25 to 30 years

Continuous 24-hour operation

Achieving a long operating life


through appropriate renovation and
repair, and by expanding usable
years of major machines
*Usually it is approximately 15 years
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Thanks to advanced automation,


achieving continuous 24-hour
operation while reducing burden on
plant operators

- 19 -

Note: The 15-year operation period is based on Technical Guidance Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (World Bank, 1999)
Source: Results of questionnaire survey to plant manufacturers, and the website of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Waste volume reduction and energy recovery (power and heat) through incineration,
and remove harmful substances from emitted gas / wastewater in subsequent
processes

Power generation monitor (kW)

Stack
Furnace

Crane

Central Control Room

Boiler

Waste bunker / crane

Cooling tower
Gas scrubber
Bag filter

Platform

Incinerator

Catalyst reaction
tower
Wastewater treatment facilities

Waste bunker
Incineration/
energy recovery
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Removal of harmful substances from emitted gas,


wastewater, and others
Source: Skills & Passion for Clean Environment (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23 cties)

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Incineration reduces waste volume by one twentieth, and contributes to resolving the
shortage issue of final disposal sites.
Waste volume reduction effects through incineration

Change in landfill disposal volumes

Waste volumes can be reduced by approximately


1/20 through incineration

Before incineration

Landfill disposal volumes (thousands of tons)

Waste volume

1/20

Landfill volumes have been reduced by an average


of 7% per year due to waste volume reduction
effect of incineration
-

250
200

-7%

150
100
50
0

1987

After incineration

Source: Waste Report 2012 (Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities), internal documents of Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

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In particular, there is a significant year-on-year reduction in


disposal volumes in years in which relevant policies are
implemented

1990

Commencement
of Tokyo SLIM
campaign

1995

2000

Commencement
of charging for all
business-related
waste

2005

2008

Full implementation
of thermal
recycling of
waste plastics

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

By ensuring strict compliance with antipollution standards and sufficient attention


paid to residents as well as surrounding environment, construction and operation of
waste incineration plants within residential areas are made possible.
Anti-pollution measures

Considering residents and the environment

&

Strict standards for anti-pollution


measures

Stricter standards for anti-pollution measures


are set compared with gas emission regulation
values set by the government and other
municipal authorities.
- Introduction of pollution-prevention facilities
securely ensures the treatment of dioxins,
soot and dust, mercury, hydrochloric acid,
sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides to keep
them under the set value
Plant operation is immediately stopped if
pollution standard values exceed the set value

A thorough communication with residents


- Hold explanatory meetings and construction
committees with residents on multiple occasions at
the time of construction and rebuilding, in order to
gain consensus with them
- Continuously provide follow-up to residents during
plant operation, to ease residents mind
- Organize plant tours open to public

Environmental conservation at the time of


construction and demolition

Information disclosure systems

- Adopt building designs and color variations


harmonized with local area and use "green" walls

Environmental measurements are regularly


carried out, and the results are disclosed on the
website
Real-time display of gas emissions
measurement results, excluding those on
dioxins

- Prevent noise and vibration by limiting entry/exit


times of vehicle, and by adopting low-noise, lowvibration type construction machines
- Adopt a dome-type tent for demolition works

Considering the surrounding


environment at the time of operation
- Ensure that measures are taken to prevent
noise, vibration, and odors
- Improvement of routes taken by waste collection
vehicles, and thereby prevent traffic congestion,
etc.

Gas emission measurement value display


(Setagaya Plant)

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- 22 -

Source: Results of questionnaire survey to plant manufacturers,


and the website of the Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Incineration heat is efficiently used at each waste incineration plant. In addition to creating
profits from power sales equivalent to that used by approximately 160,000 households, this
efficient use contributes to local communities also by supplying heat to sports centers, warmwater swimming pools, and botanical gardens, as well as elsewhere in the community, as a part
of using excess heat.
Power company, households etc.

Waste incineration plant


Power
Company
Heat
Supplying
Company

Power
In-house use

Sale

Heat
Apartment complex

Hot water
and others

Nearby facilities

Provided for
free or sold
[Results compiling all plants (2012)]
Total power produced: 1.1B kWh
Power sold: 574.48 MWh (approximately
equivalent to that for 160,000 households)
Income from power sales: 6,331.17 M Yen
Heat supply volume (paid) 546,000 GJ
Income from heat sales: 183.86 M Yen

The Itabashi Tropical


Environment Museum

Source: Results of questionnaire survey to plant manufacturers, and the website of the Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

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Hot Plaza Harumi

Waste
generation

Collection
/Transport

Incineration
/energy recovery

Final disposal

Controlled-type final disposal sites are built on the sea surface in Tokyo. Ninety per cent (90%)
of municipal waste incineration residue is put into landfill. Reclaimed land areas after service
life are used for regional development such as site for parks.
Final waste disposal in Tokyo

Features
Constructed final disposal
sites on the sea surface
- Sea-surface landfill
technology was developed
due to difficulties in securing
inland landfill areas

Carrying out environmentfriendly landfill disposal


- Appropriately carry out processing such
as that on seeping water, and
implement stable management
- Collect methane gas to generate
electricity and reduce greenhouse
gases
- Work on increasing operating life

100 million tons of waste has been put into landfill at a


total of seven sea-surface disposal sites since 1927
Currently, the final disposal of 90% of municipal waste
incineration residue is done on the sea surface

Using landfill areas


- Construct waste processing
facilities and places such as
tropical gardens and parks, in
landfill areas

Source: Tokyo Metropolitan Government Landfill Site brochure (Bureau of Environment , TMG)
Website of Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG)
Work by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
on forming a recycling-oriented society (2011)

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1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

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- 25 -

Provided services

23 Cities of Tokyo and Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities are collaborating with private businesses
and other entities in providing various options on municipal solid waste management.
Investigation phase for improvement on municipal waste management
Learning from precedents outside Japan

Collect information

Setting up an
overall plan

Feasibility study/
project formulation

Bidding

- Such as legal systems, facilities


implemented, cost sharing, and
methods of public/private collaboration
Set up overall plans for enhancing
municipal waste processing projects.

Support options

- System design, WTE plant introduction


plans
Carry out a preliminary study on the
feasibility of new facilities and new
operations

Giving information on history, strengths, and case studies


on overcoming difficulties in Tokyo

Support to build basic waste management plans and facility


installment plans
-

Start up related facilities

Facility start-up

- Such as WTE plants and waste


transportation vehicles

Operation

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Design and construct facilities at an appropriate level in-line with the situation in the area
where it is to be built without being particular about facility to be high-quality or expensive
Advice on communication with local residents

Advice on safe facility operation and on operations management


-

Continuously improve operations

Look into the system of evaluating proposals by taking into account considerations
on operating costs, the period of warranty against defects, and the environment
Creating documents on specifications for orders

Starting up the facility/providing advice in-line with the local


situation
-

Start up WTE plants and commence the


operation of new waste processing
operations

Waste volume estimates, study on the form of waste, investigations into project operating
models, setting up revenue/expense plans, investigating methods of financing (utilizing the
Japan Finance Corporation, international finance, private finance, and others), and setting
up project schedules

Support in investigating appropriate/fair evaluation methods


-

Hold bidding for vendor selection

Legal system design, setting up various plans, methods of raising awareness amongst
residents and communication with them on facility construction, approaches to waste
separation, methods of cost sharing

Support in feasibility studies through linkages with related


organizations such as the Japanese government

Create project plans after study


Decide the bidding system/method of
proposal evaluation

Exchanging human resources and providing training, accepting tours of facilities in


Japan, and others

Operating plants and training on-site technicians


Advice on communication with local residents, waste separation, progress with the 3Rs,
waste volume reduction measures, collection/transport systems, setting up collection plans,
and environmental considerations

Implementation plan
A case of implementation plan
Host country

Japan
Policy dialogue/signing an MOU

Process towards project commencement

HR exchanges

Central government

Government of Japan

(accepting trainees and dispatching technicians)

Acceptance of site visits to Japan

Tokyo

Advice on system and facility plans

(23 Cities of Tokyo, Clean


Authority of TOKYO23cities)

Local governments

Joint formation and participation in feasibility studies

Local companies

Project feasibility study


Participation in
feasibility study Governments from both
countries/local
governments/companies jointly
conduct study
Participation in
financing/project
Project

Participation in
feasibility study

Participation in
financing/project

commencement

Local public/ private


financial institutions

Loan provision

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Facility construction/ project


operation
JV consisting of entities from
both countries will build and
operate the facilities

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Japanese companies

Loan provision

Governmental / private
financial institutions
of Japan

1. Introducing Tokyo
2. Waste management development process
3. The strengths of the Tokyo Model
4. Provided services and supporting schemes
5. Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

- 28 -

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

Participated in a study on an Waste to Energy project in Malaysia


Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)

Implementation
period

Study details
Requests
made to Clean
Authority of
TOKYO
23cities

Malaysia

Conceptual design (investigating specification)

Survey and future estimates on forms of waste

Explanations on activities for reaching


agreements with residents

Apr Nov, 2012

Study type

A study hosted by Ministry of Economy, Trade,


and Industry, Japan on setting up private
sector-development infrastructure projects

Study overview
Participants

Provided services

A study on an Waste to Energy project

JGC Corporation, Hitachi Zosen Corporation,


Hitachi Ltd., JX Nippon Oil & Energy
Corporation, Smart Energy Co., Ltd., and
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Collecting waste

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Waste characteristics
survey

Meeting
- 29 -

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

Participation in a study on a municipal waste management project using a cement


kiln in Vietnam.
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)

Implementation
period

Study details
Requests
made to Clean
Authority of
TOKYO
23cities

Vietnam

May 2012 March 2013

Study type
Study overview

Provided services

A study hosted by the Japanese Ministry of


Environment for overseas advancement

A study on a municipal waste processing


project using a cement kiln

Explanation on municipal waste management in Tokyo

Proposal on model pilot on waste collection and


transport

Explanations on activities for consensus building with


residents

Explanations on environmental systems and extracting


items for considering the environment

Collecting waste

Participants

Disposal site
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Marubeni, Clean
Authority of TOKYO 23cities

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Meeting
- 30 -

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

Participation in a study on a local-friendly waste management in Brazil


Project overview

Study details

Location
(Country/ city)

Implementation
period

Brazil

Requests

made to Clean
Authority of

TOKYO
23cities

Aug 2012 Feb 2013

Study type
Study overview

A study on local-friendly waste management

Participants

Provided services

A study hosted by Ministry of Economy, Trade,


and Industry, Japan on setting up private
sector-led infrastructure projects

Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Nippon Koei,


Japan Consulting Institute, Clean Authority of
TOKYO 23cities

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Understanding the local situation of waste processing


at the relevant area
Making proposals for raising awareness on separation
and recycling, as the measures to promote them
Explanations on activities for reaching agreements
with residents
Providing information related to analyzing the types of
waste

Collecting waste

Disposal site

- 31 -

Meeting

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

Cooperated in a study on an Waste to Energy project in Kazakhstan


Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)

Implementation
period

Study details

Kazakhstan

Requests
made to Clean

Authority of
TOKYO

23cities

Sep 2013 Feb 2014

Study type
Study overview

A study on an Waste to Energy project

Participants

Provided services

A study hosted by Ministry of Economy, Trade,


and Industry, Japan on setting up private
sector-development infrastructure projects

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Environmental &


Chemical Engineering Corporation, EX
Research Institute, Japan Consulting Institute,
Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Introduction and explanations on Tokyo Model


Survey on forms of waste
Survey on items for considering environmental society

Meeting

Waste characteristics survey

- 32 -

Disposal site

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

Participated in a study on a comprehensive energy recovery from municipal solid


waste in Russian Federation
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)

Implementation
period

Study details

Russia

Requests
made to Clean

Authority of
TOKYO
23cities

Sep 2014 Mar 2015

Study type
Study overview

Provided services

Ministry of the Environment, Japan


Study on Advancement of Material Cycle
Businesses to Overseas

Study on Integrated Energy Recovery from


Municipal Solid Waste

Explanation on municipal waste management in Tokyo

Meeting

Disposal site
Participants

Toyota Tsusho Corporation , Hitachi Zosen


Corporation ,EX Research Institute, Japan
Consulting Institute , Clean Authority of
TOKYO 23cities

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Collecting waste
- 33 -

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

Inviting Malaysian Government officials and implemented a training course aiming at capacity
development related to waste management.
Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)

Malaysian government

Implementation
period

Dec 03 Dec 14, 2012


Oc 21 Nov 1, 2013
Oc 20 Oc 30,2014

Implementation
scheme

Training jointly hosted by the Japan


International Corporation Agency (JICA) and
the Government of Malaysia by use of
Japan/Malaysia Economic Partnership
Program (EPP)

Photos

President Nishikawa and participants

Training
overview

Provided services

Lectures: The history of waste collection projects


in 23 Cities of Tokyo, waste management and
recycling policies as part of environmental policies
in Japan, consensus building with residents, etc.
Observations: waste incineration plants,
incombustible waste processing centers,
collection sites etc.

Workshop

Participants

Officials from the Malaysian government


(National Solid Waste Management
Department, Ministry of Housing and Local
Government; Waste Management and Public
Cleansing Corporation)

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

- 34 -

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

JICA Partnership Program is implemented, targeting Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)

Implementation
period

Photos

Malaysia Kuala Lumpur

Dec 2013 Mar 2016

Implementation
scheme

Japan International Cooperation Agency


JICA

Meeting

Partnership Program

Training
overview

Provided services

Partnership Building with Local Residents on


Waste Management in Malaysia
Exchange program between residents
Acceptance of Kuala Lumpur citizens

One of target areas

Dispatch of 23 Cities citizens to Kuala Lumpur

Participants

4 Residential Associations in Kuala Lumpur,


Malaysian Society of Waste Management and
Environment
Arakawa City, Koto City, Setagaya City,
Sumida City

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Waste collection
- 35 -

Reference: Achievement in international cooperation / support

A workshop on solid waste management was held in Jakarta, Indonesia


Project overview
Location
(Country/ city)

Implementation
period

Photos

Indonesia Jakarta

Mar 4,2014

Implementation
scheme

Implemented jointly with Ministry of the


Environment, Japan and Japan International
Cooperation AgencyJICA.

Keynote Speech

Training
overview

Provided services

Keynote Speech Deputy Minister, Ministry of


Environment, Republic of Indonesia
PresentationsBureau of Cleansing, Capital City of
Jakarta, Clean Authority of TOKYO 23 cities
Discussion TopicVision on Solid Waste
Management in Indonesia, Advantages of Japan and
Support

Participants

Government of Indonesia (Ministry of


Environment, Ministry of Public Works),
Capital City of Jakarta, Economic Research
Institute for ASEAN and East Asia,
Residential Representatives of Japanese
Trading Companies , Study Council members

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

Discussion

Workshop participants
- 36 -

For your inquiries:


The Tokyo Model that we have now introduced systematically explains an institutional framework of municipal solid
waste management implemented in 23 Cities of Tokyo as well as its strengths/advantages.
Once, Tokyo indeed has faced various difficulties on waste management, but we had made efforts in our step by
step approach to solve such issues one after another, which eventually brought us to our on-going municipal solid
waste management. We would say, with proud, that the Tokyo Model, at the moment, is the goal of what we had
worked for.
Your countries / cities might be struggling with various difficulties regarding municipal solid waste management.
We would be happy to be your good partner to tackle issues in your countries / cities based upon our strengths of
municipal solid waste management carried out in Tokyo, despite of limitations on our side to work with you through
our budget alone by itself.

International Cooperation Office for Waste Management,


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities
12th floor, Tokyo Kusei Kaikan, Iidabashi 3-5-1,
Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0072, Japan
TEL
: +81-3-6238-0572
FAX
: +81-3-6238-0580
E-Mail
: t23kokusai@union.tokyo23-seisou.lg.jp

2014 Study Council on International Cooperation for Waste Management


Clean Authority of TOKYO 23cities

[THINGS BY WHICH WE CAN COLLABORATE WITH YOU]


Site visit to incineration plants
Feasibility Study
Acceptance of training course participants
/ Implementation of training courses
Counseling Service, etc

- 37 -