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New Era University

College of Law

Introduction to Law

Academic Year 2015-2016


First Semester
Atty. Alfierri E. Bayalan1
Reading Materials:
Dante B. Gatmaytan, Legal Method Essentials 2.0, UP College of Law 2014
[Gatmaytan].
Joaquin G. Bernas, S.J., The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the
Philippines: A Commentary, Rex Book Store, Inc. 2003 [Bernas].
I.

Introduction
a. Class decorum
b. Preparation for class
c. Case digesting and analysis
d. Recitation
e. Preparation for and taking an exam

II.

Philippine History and the Legal System


- Gatmaytan, Chapter 2.
- In re Application of Max Shoop for admission to practice
law, November 29, 1920, 41 Phil. 213
a. Branches of government
i. Legislative Department
o Bernas, 653-673
o Government v. Springer, GR No. L-26979, April 1, 1927, 50
Phil. 259
ii. Executive Department
o Bernas, 793-808
o Marcos v. Manglapus, GR No. 88211, September 15, 1989,
177 SCRA 668
iii. Judicial Department
o Bernas, 914-924
o In re Cunanan, March 18, 1954, 94 Phil. 534
b. Judicial hierarchy
o Const., Art. VIII, 1-6
o BP 129, 4, 9(3), 22, 23, 25, 28, 31
c. Separation of powers
o Bernas, 655-656
o Angara v. Electoral Commission, GR No. L-45081, July 15
1936, 63 Phil. 139
d. Checks and balances

This syllabus is a product of the collaboration of Attys. Gene Edward DC. Lopez and Alfierri E.
Bayalan.

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III.

IV.

The Constitution and its Construction


- Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
- Gatmaytan, Chapter 3
- Bernas, xxxvii-xliv
- Essential parts of a written constitution: Isagani Cruz, Constitutional
Law (1993), pages 6-7.
a. Definition and Nature of a Constitution
o Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, GR No. 122156, February 3,
1997
o Nitafan v. CIR, GR No. L-78780, July 23, 1987
b. Constitutional Construction
i. No need for construction when the law is clear
o Amores v. HRET, GR No. 189600, June 29, 2010
ii. Verba Legis
o Francisco v. HRET, GR No. 160261, Nov. 10, 2003
iii. Ratio legis est anima
o Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, GR No.
83896, February 22, 1991
iv. Ut magis valeat quam pereat
o Chiongbian v. De Leon, GR No. L-2007, January 31, 1949
v. Applicability of rules of statutory construction to constitutional
construction
o Macalintal v. COMELEC, GR No. 157013, July 10, 2003
Areas of Law
- Political Law
o Definition:
People v. Perfecto 43 Phil. 887 (1922);
Macariola v. Asuncion A.M. No. 133-J, May 31,
1982
- Civil Law
Definition: Arturo Tolentino, Civil Code of the Philippines
Comments and Jurisprudence (1990) Volume 1, page 4
- Criminal Law
o Definition:
Lacson v. Exec. Sec., G.R. No. 128096, Jan.
20, 1999;
Hernandez v. Albano,
G.R. N o. L-19272, January 25, 1967
U.S. v. Taylor, G.R. No. 9726. December 8, 1914,
28 Phil 599, 604
- Commercial Law
o Definition:
Jose C. Vitug, Commercial Laws and
Jurisprudence Vol. 1 (2006), page 1.
- Law on Taxation
Definition:
- Labor Law
Definition:
Labor Standards Mariveles Shipyard Corp. v. Court
of Appeals, GR No. 144134, November 11, 2003, 415 SCRA 573
Labor Relations C.A. Azucena, Jr., The Labor Code with
Comments and Cases, Vol II (2007), page 10.
- Remedial Law

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Definition:
Bustos v. Lucero, GR No. L-2068, October
20, 1948, 81 Phil. 640
Legal Ethics
Definition: Ruben E. Agpalo, Legal and Judicial Ethics (2009),
page 2, citing G.A. Malcolm, Legal and Judicial Ethics, p. 8 (1949)
o

V.

Judicial Review
- Gatmaytan, Chapter 4
- Bernas, 935-949; 952;962-964
- Const., Art. VIII, 1, 2
- Marbury v. Madison, 5 US 137 (1803)
- Angara v. Electoral Commission, supra

VI.

Case
-

Law and Precedent


Gatmaytan, Chapter 5
Civil Code, Art. 8
-Caltex vs. Palomar G.R. L-19650, September 29, 1966
Spouses Gauvain vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 97973,
January 27, 1992
- Barrera vs. Barrera, G.R. No. L-31589, July 31, 1970.
Stare Decisis
-Villena vs. Sps. Chavez, G.R. No. 148126, November 10, 2003
-Olaguer vs. Military Commission No. 34, G.R. No. L-54558, May

22,1987
Res Judicata
-Development Bank of the Philippines vs La Campaa
Development Corporation, G.R. No. 137694, January 17, 2005
Law of the Case
-Sps. Sy vs Young, G.R. No. 169214, June 19, 2013
VII.

Supreme Court Decision


- Gatmaytan, Chapter 7

VIII.

Dissenting Opinion
- Gatmaytan, Chapter 8

IX.

Ratio Decidendi and Obiter Dictum


- Gatmaytan, Chapter 9

X.

Authorities
Gatmaytan, Chapter 10

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