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Characteristic Of Laminar flow

Laminar is characterized by smooth streamlines and highly ordered


motion.Under most practical conditions, the flow in a circular pipe is laminar for Re
< 2300.In fully developed laminar flow, each fluid particle moves at a constant axial
velocity along a streamline and the velocity profile remains unchanged in the flow
direction. There is no motion in the radial direction and the velocity component in
the direction normal to flow is zero. There is no acceleration since the flow is steady
and fully developed. The steady laminar flow of an incompressible fluid with constant
properties in the fully developed region of a straight circular pipe.
Laminar flow in a straight pipe may be considered as the relative motion of a
set of concentric cylinders of fluid, the outside one fixed at the pipe wall and the
others moving at increasing speeds as the centre of the pipe is approached. Smoke
rising in a straight path from a cigarette is undergoing laminar flow. After rising a
small distance, the smoke usually changes to turbulent flow, as it eddies and swirls
from its regular path.
Laminar flow is common only in cases in which the flow channel is relatively
small, the fluid is moving slowly, and its viscosity is relatively high. Oil flow through
a thin tube or blood flow through capillaries is laminar. Most other kinds of fluid flow
are turbulent except near solid boundaries, where the flow is often laminar,
especially in a thin layer just adjacent to the surface

Characteristic of turbulent flow


There are some characteristic of turbulent flow, if the flow velocity exceeds a
certain boundary value, the flow becomes turbulent. A turbulent flow can also be
characterized by the following properties, according to [Ferziger et al., 1999]. The
process of turbulence is highly unsteady, so that the flow velocity at a given point
is show to great variance over time. Turbulence is a three-dimensional phenomenon.
Vortices are an essential part of flow, and the interaction of vortices and it is also
called vortex stretching. There are basic mechanisms that increase and widen
turbulence. The mixing processes due to common diffusion are often multiplied by
turbulence. The contact between fluid balls with small and large motion moment
also increases because of the strong mixing processes. The acting viscous forces
can lead to a loss of kinetic energy. The energy loss is transfer into inner energy
such as heat energy is produced. This process is thus irreversible and dissipative. It
is confirm the occurrence also called coherent structures.