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A Summer Training Project Report

On
Employee Job Satisfaction
in Indian oil Corporation Limited

Under Supervision of:

Submitted By

Priyanka Setia

Sanjana Dalal
(04921303914)

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements


For the award of the degree
Of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

TECNIA INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES


(Approved byAICTE,Affiliated by GGS Indraprastha University,Delhi
3 PSP, Institutional Area,Madhuban Chowk,Rohini,New Delhi-110085)

CERTIFICATE

I certified that this project report titled EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION ON INDIAN
OIL CORPORATION. is the bonafide work of SANJANA DALAL who carried out the
research under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work
reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of
which a degree or award was confirmed on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.

MISS PRIYANKA SETIA


(Project guide)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to take this opportunity to sincerely thank to Miss Priyanka Setia
for her valuable support, guidance and suggestion. Under her guidance I was able
to accomplish my project with confidence. I would also like to thanks my friends
and my siblings who directly or indirectly helped me in my project. I would also
like to sincerely thank our institute Tecnia Institute Of Advanced Studies
where I spend my time to access to wide information on internet.

Sanjana dalal
(04921303914)

Declaration
3

I Ms. Sanjana Dalal, hereby declare that this project report is the record of authentic work carried
out by me during the academic year 2014-2016 and has not been submitted to any University or
Institute towards the award of any degree.

Ms. Sanjana Dalal


(04921303914)

CONTENT

TOPICS

Page no.

CERTIFICATE FROM COLLEGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
DECLARATION
CONTENT
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
RESEARCH METHDOLOGY
LITERATURE REVIEW

INDUSTRIAL PROFILE
CORPORATE PROFILE
DATA ANALYSIS
CONCLUSION
FINDINGS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ANNEXURE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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This project aims at studying job satisfaction at Indian Oil Corporation. This project
contains five sections. The first section contains the Objective of the project and
Research methodology. Second section Literature Review contains information about
the job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards ones job: the
difference between the amount of reward workers receive and the amount they believe
they should receive. Third section is the Company Profile which contains the
information about the company. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. is India's

largest

company by sales with a turnover of Rs. 4,14,909 crore and profit of Rs 5,005 crore
for the year 2012-13. Indian Oil is the highest ranked Indian company in the latest
Fortune Global 500 listings, ranked at the 88th position. Indian Oil's vision is driven
by a group of dynamic leaders who have made it a name to reckon with. The forth
chapter is the Finding and Analysis, which is shown with the help of pie charts and bar
graphs. Fifth chapter may contain the project limitation and conclusion and at last
bibliography and annexure.

The data has been collected by the researcher using

questionnaire and it has been analyzed.

OBJECTIVES
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To study the concept and importance of job satisfaction.

To study job satisfaction towards Indian Oil Corporation Limited and their expectation
from Indian Oil.

To study job satisfaction in terms of salary and promotional opportunities provided by the
company.

To study job satisfaction in terms of relationship of employees with co -workers and


management.

To study job satisfaction in terms of working condition and nature of job.

To determine the reasons behind doing job in Indian Oil Corporation Limited.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
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Research methodology is considered as the nerve of the project. Without a proper well-organized
research plan, it is impossible to complete the project and reach to any conclusion.
Therefore, research methodology is the way to systematically solve the research problem. Research
methodology not only talks of the methods but also logic behind the methods used in the context of
a research study and it explains why a particular method has been used in the preference of the
other methods.

2.1 Research design


A research design specifies the methods and procedures for conducting a particular study.
According to Kerlinger, Research Design is a plan, conceptual structure, and strategy of
investigation conceived as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance.
Research design is important primarily because of the increased complexity in the market as well
as marketing approaches available to the researchers. In fact, it is the key to the evolution of
successful marketing strategies and programmers. It is an important tool to study buyers
behaviour, consumption pattern, brand loyalty, and focus market changes. A research design
specifies the methods and procedures for conducting a particular study. According to Kerlinger,
Research Design is a plan, conceptual structure, and strategy of investigation conceived as to
obtain answers to research questions and to control variance

2.2 Type of Research


Descriptive:

Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major
purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. In
social science and business research we quite often use the term Ex post facto research for
descriptive research studies.

2.3 Sampling Technique

Random Sampling:
Random sampling is a process of selecting the sample size randomly and no choice or
preference to be made about the selection of respondents for the market survey and questionnaire
to be put forth against him. Here, Random sampling being adopted by me.

2.4 Data collection tools


Primary Data: The primary data has been collected by using questionnaires to be filled by the
employees. Questionnaires are prepared and distributed to 100 customers of rilc.

Secondary DataSecondary Data has been collected from company manuals, news papers,
magazines and documents, companys website, journals and by internet.

Sample Size: - Sample of 100 respondents was taken.

2.5 Data analysis and interpretation


Pie chart:
This is very useful diagram to represent data, which are divided into a number of categories. This
diagram consists of a circle of divided into a number of sectors, which are proportional to the values
they represent. The total value is represented by the full create. The diagram bar chart can make
comparison among the various components or between a part and a whole of data.

Bar chart:

This is another way of representing data graphically. As the name implies, it consist of a number of
whispered bar, which originate from a common base line and are equal widths. The lengths of the
bards are proportional to the value they represent

Questionnaires:
This is the most popular tool for the data collection. A questionnaire contains question that the
researcher wishes to ask his respondents which is always guided by the objective of the survey.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

LITERATURE REVIEW
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Its a well known fact that no business can exist without employees. In the business of Website
design, its important to work closely with your employees to make sure the site or system you
create for them is as close to their requirements as you can manage. Because its critical that you
form a close working relationship with your employees, employees service is of vital
importance. What follows are a selection of tips that will make your employees feel valued,
wanted and loved.

JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction is a general attitude towards ones job: the difference between the amount of
reward workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive.

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Job satisfaction represents the constellations of persons attitude towards or about the job. In
general, job satisfaction is the attitude towards the job as a whole. Job satisfaction is a function
of satisfaction with different aspects of job, i.e. supervision, pay, works itself, co-workers,
promotion, etc., and of the particular weighting or importance one attaches to these respective
components.

The study of job satisfaction is a relatively recent phenomenon. It can perhaps be said to have
begun in earnest with the famous Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton Mayo at the western
Electronic Company in 1920s during the course of investigations.

However they become convinced that factors of a social nature were affecting satisfaction with
the job and productivity. Since the Hawthorne studies there has been an enormous output of work
on the nature, causes and correlates of job satisfaction.

The traditional model of job satisfaction is that it consists of the total body of feelings that an
individual has about his job. This total body of feelings involves, in effect, weighting up the sum
total of influences of the job, the nature of job itself, the pay, the promotion.

The promotion prospects, the nature of supervision and so on. Where the sum total of influences
gives rise to feelings of satisfactions the individual is job satisfied. Where in total they give rise
to feelings of job dissatisfaction the individual is job dissatisfied. Improving any one of these
influences will lead in the direction of job satisfaction, making less satisfactory any one of the
influences will lead in the direction of the job dissatisfaction.

However, what makes a job satisfying does not depends only on the nature of the job, but on the
job expectations that individuals have of what their job should provide.

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Expectancy theory points to the importance of the individuals expectations of his job in
determining job satisfaction. For individuals who have expectations that their job should give
them opportunities for pay, challenge, a failure of the job to meet this expectation will lead to
dissatisfaction compared to a situation where no such expectation is involved. What expect
expectation of individuals will have of a job may vary.

For a large number of reasons, some deriving form social others from individual causes. These
proposing an expectancy theory usually regarded over all job satisfaction as a function of
satisfaction with various elements of the job.

Another theory that has dominated the study of the nature of job satisfaction is Herzbergs
famous
Two factory Theorys of job satisfaction. In this he claims that the factors which cause job
satisfaction are separate and distinct from the factors which job dissatisfaction.

The factors causing job satisfaction, which level factors such as there relating to satisfaction with
the job itself. The factors which cause job dissatisfaction called hygiene factors are more
concerned with conditions of work such as pay and supervision. At no time does Herzberg argue
a job satisfactory, except may be for a short run. Philip apple while has listed five major
components of job satisfaction as,

1.Attitude towards work group.


2. General workings conditions.
3. Attitude towards company.

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4. Monetary benefits and


5. Attitude towards supervision

Other components that should be added to these five are the individuals state of mind about the
work itself and about life in general. The individuals health, age, level of aspiration, social status
and political and social activities can all contribute to job satisfaction.
A person attitude toward the job may be positive or negative. Job satisfaction is not synonymous
with organizational morale, which is the possession of felling of being accepted by and
belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in
desirability of these goals.
Morale is the byproduct of a group, while job satisfaction is more of an individual stage of mind.
How ever the two concepts are interrelated in that job satisfaction can contribute to morale and
morale can contribute to job satisfaction.
For many years managers generally have believed that a satisfied worker is necessarily a good
worker. In other works if management could keep all the employees HAPPY, good
performance would automatically follow.
Charles Greene has suggested that many managers subscribe to this be life because it represent
the path of least residence. Greenes thesis is that if a performance problem exists, increasing
an employees happiness is for more pleasant than discussing with the worker his or her failure to
meet standards. Although happiness eventually results from satisfaction, this feeling goes much
deeper and is far less tenuous than happiness.
Recent research evidence generally rejects the more popular view that satisfaction causes
performance. The evidence does, however, provide moderate support for the view that job effort
causes satisfaction. The evidence also strongly indicates that rewards constitute a more direct
cause of satisfaction that performance does and that rewards based on current effort causes
subsequent performance.

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Effect of Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an
individuals physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism,and turnover.

Physical and Mental Health:

The degree of job satisfaction affects an individuals physical and mental health. Since job
satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favourableness or unfavourablesness affects the
individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical health.
For example, Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism and mental and physical health
result from psychologically harmful jobs. Further, since a job is an important part of life, job
satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is spillover effect which
occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction.

Productivity:

There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity:
1. A happy worker is a productive worker
2. A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker
The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and
productivity; when job satisfaction increases, productivity increases; when satisfaction decreases,
productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put more efforts
for job performance.

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However, this may not be true in all cases. For example, a worker having low expectations from
his jobs may feel satisfied but he may not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low
expectations from the job. Therefore, this view does not explain fully the complex relationship
between job satisfaction and productivity.

The another view:


That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the relationship
between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also support this view. This
relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job performance
on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job performance.
1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The basic factor for this
phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with performance. There are two
types of rewardsintrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward stems from the job itself which may
be in the form of growth potential, challenging job, etc. The satisfaction on such a type of reward
may help to increase productivity. The extrinsic reward is subject to control by management such
as salary, bonus, etc. Any increase in these factors does not hep to increase productivity though
these factors increase job satisfaction.
2. A happy worker does not necessarily contribute to higher productivity because he has to
operate under certain technological constraints and, therefore, he cannot go beyond certain
output. Further, this constraint affects the managements expectations from the individual in the
form of lower output. Thus, the work situation is pegged to minimally acceptable level of
performance. However, it does not mean that the job satisfaction has no impact o productivity. A
satisfied worker may not necessarily lead to increased productivity but a dissatisfied worker
leads to lower productivity.

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Absenteeism:
Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of job holder from the workplace either
unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some unavoidable
reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. This absence is due to lack
of satisfaction from the job which produces a lack of will to work and alienate a worker form
work as for as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to absenteeism.

Employee turnover:
Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given
period of time. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tries to overcome
this through the various ways of defense mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he opts to leave
the organization.
For example, in the present context, the rate of turnover of computer software professionals is
very high in India. However, these professionals leave their organizations not simply because
they are not satisfied but because of the opportunities offered from other sources particularly
from foreign companies located abroad.

Improving job satisfaction:


Job satisfaction plays significant role in the organization. Therefore, manager should take
concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction.
1. Re-designing the job.
2. Improving the quality of work life.
3. Linking rewards with performance.
4. Improving overall organizational climate.

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Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. In modern society the needs
and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. When the people are ever
increasing and ever changing, when the peoples needs are not fulfilled they become dissatisfied.
Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Job satisfaction of
industrial workers us very important for the industry to function successfully.

Apart from managerial and technical aspects, employers can be considered as backbone of any
industrial development. To utilize their contribution they should be provided with good working
conditions to boost their job satisfaction.

Any business cab achieve success and peace only when the problem of satisfaction and
dissatisfaction of workers are felt understood and solved, problem of efficiency absenteeism
labour turnover require a social skill of understanding human problems and dealing with them
scientific investigation serves the purpose to solve the human problems in the industry.

a) Pay.
b) The work itself.
c) Promotion
d) The work group.
e) Working condition.
f) Supervision.

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PAY
Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. Pay is instrumental in fulfilling so
many needs. Money facilities the obtaining of food, shelter, and clothing and provides the means
to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. More over, pay can serve as symbol of
achievement and a source of recognition. Employees often see pay as a reflection of
organization. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on job satisfaction as
direct wages.

THE WORK ITSELF


Along with pay, the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how
satisfied employees are with their jobs. By and large, workers want jobs that are challenging;
they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. The two most important aspect of the work
itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work place. In
general, job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction. Jobs with too
little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Jobs with too much variety and stimulation
cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and burnout.

PROMOTION
Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. A promotion to a higher
level in an organization typically involves positive changes I supervision, job content and pay.
Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with more freedom,
more challenging work assignments and high salary.

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SUPERVISION
Two dimensions of supervisor style:
1. Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal
relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them.
2. The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making, employee
who participates in decision that affect their job, display a much higher level of satisfaction with
supervisor an the overall work situation.

WORK GROUP
Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to individual
employees. The working groups also serve as a social support system of employees. People often
used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a source of comfort.

WORK CONDITION
The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort. The
working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of work.
If people are require to work long hours and / or overtime, they will have very little felt for their
families, friends and recreation outside work.

Thus, all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and
situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors are.

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Individual factors:
Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the jobs,
they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individuals level of education, age and
other factors.

Level of education: Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree
of job satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the
level of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible
reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations
from their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peters principle which suggests that
every individual tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly.

Age: Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life.
Job satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising upto certain stage,
and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this.

Other factors: Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job
satisfaction. If an individual does not have favourable social and family life, he may not feel
happy at the workplace. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his
level of job satisfaction. Personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job
satisfaction.

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Nature of job:
Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job
content.
Occupation level: Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. This
happens because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes
source of satisfaction for the job holders.
For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory
workers are least satisfied.
Job content: Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement
of skills for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. A higher content
of these factors provides higher satisfaction.

For example, a routine and repetitive lesser satisfaction; the degree of satisfaction progressively
increases in job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.

Situational variables:
Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context formal and
informal. Formal organization emerges out of the interaction of individuals in the organization.
Some of the important factors which affect job important factors which affect job satisfaction are
given below:
1.Working conditions: Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like
conditions of workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job
satisfaction. These work in two ways. First, these provide means job performance. Second,
provision of these conditions affects the individuals perception about the organization. If these
factors are favourable, individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction.

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2. Supervision: The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision;
the degree of importance attached to individuals varies. In employee-oriented supervision, there
is more concern for people which is perceived favourably by them and provides them
moresatisfaction. In job oriented supervision, there is more emphasis on the performance of the
job and people become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction.
3. Equitable rewards: The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and
rewards determines the degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on the
job performance and equitable, it offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based
on considerations other than the job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely.
4. Opportunity: It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job
nature and work environment by they also attach importance to opportunities for promotion that
these job offer. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion is lacking, it reduces
satisfaction.
5. Work group: Individuals work in group either created formally of they develop on their own
to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. To the extent such groups are cohesive; the
degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is low. In a cohesive
group, people derive satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes
satisfying leading to job satisfaction.

FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION

Environmental factors
Communication overload and communication underload

One of the most important aspects of an individuals work in a modern organization concerns the
management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job. Demands can be
characterized as a communication load, which refers to the rate and complexity of
communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame.

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According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not
receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is
more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a
low level of job satisfaction.

Superior-subordinate communication
Superior-subordinate communication an important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace.
The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor's behavior can positively or negatively
influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal
expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship. Nonverbal
messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation,
deception, attraction, social influence, and emotional.

Conversely, a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and unwilling to communicate will


naturally receive negative feedback and create low job satisfaction in their subordinates in the
workplace.

Strategic Employee Recognition


A Watson Wyatt Worldwide study identified a positive outcome between a collegical and flexible
work environment and an increase in shareholder value. Suggesting that employee satisfaction is
directly related to financial gain. Over 40 percent of the companies listed in the top 100 of
Fortune magazines,
Employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It's about changing the corporate culture
in order to meet goals and initiatives and most importantly to connect employees to the
company's core values and beliefs. Strategic employee recognition is seen as the most important
program not only to improve employee retention and motivation but also to positively influence
the financial situation.

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The difference between the traditional approach (gifts and points) and strategic recognition is the
ability to serve as a serious business influencer that can advance a companys strategic objectives
in a measurable way.

Individual factors
Emotion
Mood and emotions form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer
lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, shortlived and have a clear object or cause.
Some research suggests moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative
emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction.
Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job
satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced.
Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various types of efforts to manage emotional
states and displays. Emotion management includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts
to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion.
It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the
amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction.

The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models:

Emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public


displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the process
of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional
exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction.

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Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers emotion
regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that
subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of
favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job
satisfaction.

Genetics
It has been well documented that genetics influence a variety of individual differences.Some research
suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic, direct experiences of job satisfaction like challenge or
achievement (as opposed to extrinsic, environmental factors like working conditions).

One experiment used sets of monozygotic twins, reared apart, to test for the existence of genetic
influence on job satisfaction. While the results indicate the majority of the variance in job satisfaction was
due to environmental factors (70%), genetic influence is still a minor factor.
Genetic heritability was also suggested for several of the job characteristics measured in the experiment,
such as complexity level, motor skill requirements, and physical demands.

Personality
Some research suggests an association between personality and job satisfaction. Specifically, this
research describes the role of negative affectivity and positive affectivity.
Negative affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of neuroticism. Individuals high in
negative affectivity are more prone to experience less job satisfaction. Positive affectivity is
related strongly to the personality trait of extraversion. Those high in positive affectivity are
more prone to be satisfied in most dimensions of their life, including their job.
Differences in affectivity likely impact how individuals will perceive objective job circumstances
like pay and working conditions, thus affecting their satisfaction in that job.

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There are two personality factors related to job satisfaction, alienation and locus of control.
Employees who have an internal locus of control and feel less alienated are more likely to
experience job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment.
A meta-analysis of 135 studies of job satisfaction concluded that there is a positive relationship
between internal locus of control and job satisfaction. The study also showed characteristics like
high self-esteem, self-efficacy and low neuroticism are also related to job satisfaction.

Psychological factors
Psychological well-being (PWB) is defined as the overall effectiveness of an individuals
psychological functioning as related to primary facets of ones life: work, family, community,
etc. There are three defining characteristics of PWB.
First, it is a phenomenological event, meaning that people are happy when they subjectively
believe themselves to be so.
Second, well-being involves some emotional conditions. Particularly, psychologically well
people are more prone to experience positive emotions and less prone to experience negative
emotions.
Third, well-being refers to one's life as a whole. It is a global evaluation. PWB is primarily
measured using the eight-item Index of Psychological Well-Being developed by Berkman
(IPWB). IPWB asks respondents to reply to a series a questions on how often they felt pleased
about accomplishing something, bored, depressed or unhappy, etc.
PWB in the workplace plays an important role in determining job satisfaction and has attracted
much research attention in recent years.These studies have focused on the effects of PWB on job
satisfaction as well as job performance.

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MEASURING JOB SATISFACTION :

How job satisfaction is measured depends on whether affective or cognitive job satisfaction is of
interest. The majority of job satisfaction measures are self-reports and based on multi-item
scales.
Several measures have been developed over the years, although they vary in terms of how
carefully and distinctively they are conceptualized with respect to affective or cognitive job
satisfaction. They also vary in terms of the extent and rigour of their psychometric validation.

The Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction (BIAJS) is a 4-item, overtly affective as opposed
to cognitive, measure of overall affective job satisfaction. The BIAJS differs from other job
satisfaction measures in being comprehensively validated not just for internal consistency
reliability, temporal stability, convergent and criterion-related validities, but also for crosspopulation invariance by nationality, job level, and job type. Reported internal consistency
reliabilities range between .81 and .87.
The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), is a specifically cognitive job satisfaction measure. It
measures ones satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities,
coworkers, supervision, and the work itself.
The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or cant decide (indicated by ?) in
response to whether given statements accurately describe ones job.
Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ),
the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale.The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20
facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with
20 questions (one item from each facet).
The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the
Faces Scale of job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job
satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face.

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RELATIONSHIP AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS:Job Satisfaction can be indicative of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, and
withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism and turnover.Further, job satisfaction can partially
mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors.
One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. This
correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their
job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life.
However, some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life
satisfaction when other variables such as nonwork satisfaction and core self-evaluations are
taken into account.
An important finding for organizations to note is that job satisfaction has a rather
tenuous correlation to productivity on the job. This is a vital piece of information to researchers
and businesses, as the idea that satisfaction and job performance are directly related to one
another is often cited in the media and in some non-academic management literature.
In short, the relationship of satisfaction to productivity is not as straightforward as often
assumed and can be influenced by a number of different work-related constructs, and the notion
that "a happy worker is a productive worker" should not be the foundation of organizational
decision-making.
For example, employee personality may even be more important than job satisfaction in regards
to performance.

JOB SATISFACTION AND ABSENTEEISM:Numerous research was done to discover the correlation of job satisfaction and absenteeism. 244
employees of a Hospital having different positions, professional and blue collar participated in a
following study.

Goldberg and Waldman looked at absenteeism in two dimensions as total time lost (number of
missed days) and the frequency of time lost. Self-reported data and records-based data were
30

collected and compared. Following absenteeism measures were evaluated according to


absenteeism predictors.
1. Self-report time lost
2. self-reported frequency
3. records-based time lost

Only three categories of predictors had a significant relationship ratio and were taken in account
further:

Wages

Position level

This research results revealed that absenteeism cannot be predicted by job satisfaction, although
many researches are proving opposite hiding details.

JOB SATISFACTION LEADS TO:

31

COMPANY PROFILE
32

COMPANY PROFILE

INTRODUCTION

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. is India's largest company by sales with a turnover of
4,14,909 crore and profit of Rs 5,005 crore for the year 2012-13.

33

Rs.

IndianOil is the highest ranked Indian company in the latest Fortune Global 500 listings, ranked
at the 88th position. IndianOil's vision is driven by a group of dynamic leaders who have made it
a name to reckon with. In this section, read about IndianOils business and its spread across the
country & abroad. You can also know about IndianOil's current financial performance, special
initiatives and recognitions & awards that have come its way.
Indian Oil is India's flagship national oil company with business interests straddling the entire
hydrocarbon value chain from refining, pipeline transportation and marketing of petroleum
products to exploration & production of crude oil & gas, marketing of natural gas and
petrochemicals. It is the leading Indian corporate in the Fortune 'Global 500' listing, ranked at the
83rd position in the year 2012.

At Indian Oil, operations are strategically structured along business verticals - Refineries,
Pipelines, Marketing, R&D Centre and Business Development E&P, Petrochemicals and
Natural Gas. To achieve the next level of growth, Indian Oil is currently forging ahead on a well
laid-out road map through vertical integration upstream into oil exploration & production
(E&P) and downstream into petrochemicals and diversification into natural gas marketing and
alternative energy, besides globalization of its downstream operations. Having set up subsidiaries
in Sri Lanka, Mauritius and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Indian Oil is simultaneously
scouting for new business opportunities in the energy markets of Asia and Africa.

34

REACH AND NETWORK


Indian Oil and its subsidiary (CPCL) account for over 48% petroleum products market share,
34.8% national refining capacity and 71% downstream sector pipelines capacity in India.

The Indian Oil Group of companies owns and operates 10 of India's 20 refineries with a
combined refining capacity of 65.7 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA, .i.e. 1.30 million
barrels per day approx.). Indian Oil's cross-country network of crude oil and product pipelines
spans 10,899 km with a capacity of 75.26 MMTPA of crude oil and petroleum products and 10
MMSCMD of gas. This network is the largest in the country and meets the vital energy needs of
the consumers in an efficient, economical and environment-friendly manner. It has a portfolio of
powerful and much-loved energy brands that include Indane LPG Gas, SERVO lubricants, Xtra
Premium petrol, Xtra Mile diesel, PROPEL, petrochemicals, etc.

Validating the trust of 56.8 million households, Indane has earned the coveted status of
'Superbrand' in the year 2009 and now has a customer base of 61.8 million.

Indian Oil has a keen customer focus and a formidable network of customer touch-points dotting
the landscape across urban and rural India. It has 20,421 petrol and diesel stations, including
3517 Kisan Seva Kendras (KSKs) in the rural markets. With a countrywide network of 36,900
35

sales points, backed for supplies by 140 bulk storage terminals and depots, 3,960 SKO/LDO
dealers (60% of the industry), 96 aviation fuel stations and 89 LPG bottling plants, Indian Oil
services every nook and corner of the country. Indane is present in almost 2764 markets through
a network of 5456 distributors (51.8% of the industry). About 7780 bulk consumer pumps are
also in operation for the convenience of large consumers, ensuring products and inventory at
their doorstep.
With a steady aim of maintaining its position as a market leader and providing the best quality
products and services, Indian Oil is currently investing Rs.47,000 crore in a host of projects for
augmentation of refining and pipelines capacities, expansion of marketing infrastructure and
product quality upgradation.

Indian Oil -The Energy of India


With facilities at multiple locations and ever-expanding market opportunities, Indian Oil is
poised to become an integrated energy company. As the flagship public sector enterprise of India,
Indian Oil has also successfully combined its corporate social responsibility agenda with its
business offerings, meeting the energy needs of millions of people every day, across the country.

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
During the year 2011-12, Indian oil maintained its leadership position in the industry on
the basis of superlative performance on all operational indices. The overall sale of petroleum
products grew by 5% over the previous year. Capacity utilization of 102.6%was achieved. The
overall capacity utilization was 100% for the 5th year in a row, while pipelines throughput of
crude oil and petroleum products grew by 10.2%.
Indian oils gross turnover for the financial year 2011-12 was Rs.4,09,957 crore, an increase of
24.7% as compared to the gross turnover of Rs.3,28,652 crore during 2010-11. The profit after
tax for the year 2011-12 was Rs.3,955 crore. The profit has been affected due to the higher
36

interest cost of Rs.2,918 core, on account of delay in receipt of compensation from the
government of India and higher interest rate; and keeping a provision of Rs.8,157 crore for UP
entry tax. The corporations earnings per share (EPS) were Rs16.19 as compare to rs.30.67 for
2010-11.
For the year 2011-12, Indian oil has accounted for government assistance of Rs.45,486 crore. In
addition, the company has been granted discount of Rs.29,961 crore from PSU companies/
refiners, as per the under recovery mechanism.

MISSION
To cater the customer needs in dynamic hydrocarbon market through continuous upgradation of
skills, capabilities and technologies to attain global benchmarks

VISION AND VALUES


To be the preferred business entity contributing to national energy security and delivering high quality
products and services with care for environment.

37

BUSINESS DIVISIONS
(INDIAN OIL)

Refine
ry

Marketin
g

Pipelin
e

R&D

38

BD

AOD

IBP

REFINERY
Indian Oil controls 10 of Indias 20 refineries. The group refining capacity is 65.7 million metric
tonnes per annum (MMTPA) or 1.30 million barrels per day the largest share among refining
companies in India. It accounts for 34.8% share of national refining capacity. The strength of
Indian Oil springs from its experience of operating the largest number of refineries in India and
adapting to a variety of refining processes along the way. The basket of technologies, which are
in operation in Indian Oil refineries include: Atmospheric/Vacuum Distillation; Distillate
FCC/Reside FCC; Hydrocracking; Catalytic Reforming, Hydrogen Generation; Delayed Coking;
Lube Processing Units; Visbreaking; Merox Treatment; Hydro-Desulphirisation of Kerosene&
Gasoil streams; Sulphur recovery; Dewaxing, Wax Hydro finishing; Coke Calcining, etc.

REFINERIES IN INDIA:In Assam

Digboi Refinery, in Assam, is Indias oldest refinery and was commissioned in 1901.
Originally a part of Assam Oil Company, it became part of Indian Oil in 1981. UOP
licensed the technology for the Coking process in this refinery.

Guwahati Refinery, the first public sector refinery of the country, was built with
Romanian collaboration and was inaugurated by Late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first
Prime Minister of India, on 1 January 1962. Its capacity is 1 MMTPA.

Bongaigaon Refinery became the eighth refinery of Indian Oil after merger of
Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Limited w.e.f. 25 March 2009. It is located at
Dhaligaon in Chirang district of Assam, 200 km west of Guwahati.

In Bihar

39

Barauni Refinery, in Bihar, was built in collaboration with Russia and Romania. It was
commissioned in 1964 with a capacity of 1 MMTPA. Its capacity today is 6 MMTPA.

In Gujarat

Gujarat Refinery, at Koyali (near Vadodara) in Gujarat in Western India, is IndianOils


second largest refinery. The refinery was commissioned in 1965. It also houses the first
hydrocracking unit of the country. Its present capacity is 13.70 MMTPA.

In West Bengal

Haldia Refinery is the only coastal refinery of the Corporation, situated 136 km
downstream of Kolkata in the Purba Medinipur (East Midnapore) district. It was
commissioned in 1975 with a capacity of 2.5 MMTPA, which has since been increased to
7.5 MMTPA

In Uttar Pradesh

Mathura Refinery was commissioned in 1982 as the sixth refinery in the fold of
IndianOil and with an original capacity of 6.0 MMTPA. Located strategically between
the historic cities of Delhi and Agra, the capacity of Mathura refinery was increased to
8.8 MMTPA.

In Haryana

Panipat Refinery is the seventh and largest refinery of IndianOil. The original refinery
with 6 MMTPA capacity was built and commissioned in 1998. Panipat Refinery has since
expanded its refining capacity to 15 MMTPA.

MARKETING
Indian Oil has one of the largest petroleum marketing and distribution networks in Asia, with
over 35,000 marketing touch points. Its ubiquitous petrol/diesel stations are located across
different terrains and regions of the Indian sub-continent. From the icy heights of the Himalayas
40

to the sun-soaked shores of Kerala, from Kutch on Indias western tip to Kohima in the verdant
North East, Indian Oil is truly in every heart, in every part. Indian Oils vast marketing
infrastructure of petrol/diesel stations, Indane (LPG) distributorships, SERVO lubricants &
greases outlets and large volume consumer pumps are backed by bulk storage terminals and
installations, inland depots, aviation fuel stations, LPG bottling plants and lube blending plants
amongst others. The countrywide marketing operations are coordinated by 16 State Offices and
over 100 decentralized administrative offices.

Domestic sales: 71.248 million tones (1.66% growth)

No. of new ROs commissioned, excluding KSK outlets: 860

No. of outlets added: 1050 (24% of total retail network)

No. of LPG connection added: About 69 lakh

Indane distributiorships added under RGGLV scheme: 422

PIPELINES
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. Operates a network of 11,214 km long crude oil, petroleum product
and gas pipelines with a capacity of 77.26 million metric tonnes per annum of oil and 10 million
metric standard cubic meter per day of gas. Cross-country pipelines are globally recognised as
the safest, cost-effective, energy-efficient and environment-friendly mode for transportation of
crude oil and petroleum products.
The operational throughput of pipelines was recorded at 75.49 million metric tonnes during
2009-10. The offshore terminals of Indian Oil at Vadinar, Mundra and Paradip have handled 218
tankers including 128 VLCCs during the year.

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT


41

The R&D Centre continues to provide significant support to the Indian Oil Group refineries in
product quality improvement, evaluation of catalysts and additives, health assessment of
catalysts, material failure analysis, troubleshooting and in improving overall efficiency of
operations. In-house developed FCC models are not only being used in Indian Oil refineries for
process optimisation but a similar model has also been sold to a multinational company. Indian
Oil has formed a joint venture company, Indo Cat Pvt. Ltd., with Intercat, USA, for
manufacturing 15,000 tonnes per annum of FCC (fluidised catalytic cracking) catalysts &
additives in India, for catering to rising global demand.
As a step towards ensuring energy security for the nation, Indian Oil has launched several
initiatives to exploit alternative sources of energy such as Hydrogen and Bio-fuels. Subsequent to
commissioning Indias first experimental H-CNG (Hydrogen-Compressed Natural Gas)
dispensing unit at the R&D Centre campus at Faridabad, demonstration projects are underway on
use of H-CNG blends in heavy and light vehicles.

Patents applied for: 52

No. of lubricant formulations developed: 120

Active patents: 254

Patents granted:

PRODUCTS
INDANE GAS
Indane is today one of the largest packed-LPG brands in the world and has been conferred the
coveted Consumer Superbrand status by the Superbrands Council of India.
42

AUTO GAS
Auto Gas (LPG) is a clean, high octane, abundant and eco-friendly fuel. It is obtained from
natural gas through fractionation and from crude oil through refining. It is a mixture of petroleum
gases like propane and butane. The higher energy content in this fuel results in a 10% reduction
of CO2 emission as compared to MS.
NATURAL GAS
Drawing on its vast experience and carefully nurtured skill sets, Indian Oil has made successful
forays in diverse areas such as Natural Gas, Petrochemicals, Exploration & Production,
Renewable Energy, etc.

PETROL/GASOLINE
Automotive gasoline and gasoline-oxygenate blends are used in internal combustion sparkignition engines. These spark ignition engine fuels are primarily used for passenger cars. They
are also used in off-highway utility vans, farm machinery and in other spark ignition engines
employed in a variety of service applications.
CRUDE OIL
Crude oil as petroleum directly out of the ground is called is a remarkably varied substance,
both in its use and composition. Crude oil is formed from the preserved remains of prehistoric
zooplankton and algae, which have been settled to the sea (or lake) bottom in large quantities
under anoxic conditions.

KEROSENE
Kerosene is distillate fraction of crude oil in the boiling range of 150-250C. They are treated
mainly for reducing aromatic content to increase their smoke point (height of a smokeless flame)
and hydrofining to reduce sulphur content and to improve odour, colour & burning qualities
(char value).
43

ATF JET FUEL


Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) is dispensed from specially designed refuellers, which are driven up
to parked airplanes and helicopters. Major airports have hydrant refuelling systems that pump the
fuel right up to the filling outlets on the tarmac through underground pipelines for faster
refuelling.

MARINE FUELS & LUBRICANTS


Indian Oil caters to all types of bunker fuels and lubricants required by various types of vessels
operating throughout the world in the shipping industry. Bunker supplies are made at all major
ports of India; Mumbai, Kandla, Vasco, Chennai, Tuticorin, Kakinada, Visakhapatnam, Kochi,
New Mangalore, Kolkata, Paradip, JNPT, Port Blair and Haldia.

BULK/INDUSTRIAL FUELS
Indian Oils provides complete Fuel Management Solutions to customers who require fuels in
bulk and have dedicated facilities for storage and handling.

COMPETITORS
Indian Oil Corporation has two major domestic competitors, Bharat Petroleum and Hindustan
Petroleum. Both are state-controlled, like Indian Oil Corporation.
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited

44

HPCL, a Government of India undertaking and a Fortune 500 company, is one of the major
integrated oil refining and marketing companies in India. It is a Mega Public Sector Undertaking
(PSU)

with

Navaratna

status.

HPCL accounts for about 20% of the market share and about 10% of the nation's refining
capacity with two coastal refineries, one at Mumbai (West Coast) having a capacity of 6.5
Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum (MMTPA) and the other in Vishakapatnam (East Coast) with
a capacity of 8.3 MMTPA. HPCL also holds an equity stake of 16.95% in Mangalore Refinery &
Petrochemicals Limited (MRPL), a state-of-the-art refinery at Mangalore with a capacity of 9
MMTPA. In addition, HPCL, in collaboration with M/s Mittal Energy Investment Pte.Ltd. has set
up

MMTPA

refinery

at

Bathinda.

HPCL owns the country's largest Lube Refinery with a capacity of 335,000 Metric Tonnes which
amounts to 40% of the national capacity of Lube Oil production. HPCL has given India a firm
ground in this sector with its world class standard of Lube Base Oils. Presently HPCL produces
over

300+

grades

of

Lubes,

Specialities

and

Greases.

HPCL has earned "Excellent" performance for fifteen Consecutive years upto 2005-06, since
signing of the first MOU with the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas. HPCL won the
prestigious MOU Award for the year 2007-08 for Excellent Overall Performance, and for
being one of the Top Ten Public Sector Enterprises who fall under the 'Excellent' category.
HPCL's performance for the year 2010-11 also qualifies for "Excellent" rating.
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited

45

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is an Indian state-controlled oil and gas
company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. BPCL has been ranked 225th in the Fortune
Global 500 rankings of the world's biggest corporations for the year 2012
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. was formed on 24th January, 1976 when the Government
of India took over the Burmah Shell Group of Companies. On 1st August, 1977 the company was
renamed as Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL). It was the first refinery to process
newly found indigenous Crude (Bombay High) in the country. The core business of BPCL is
Petroleum Refining. Bharat Petroleum produces a diverse range of products, from
petrochemicals and solvents to aircraft fuel and specialty lubricants and markets them through its
wide network of Petrol Stations, Kerosene Dealers, LPG Distributors, Lube Shoppes, besides
supplying fuel directly to hundreds of industries, and several international and domestic airlines.

The core strength of Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited has always been the ardent pursuit of
qualitative excellence for maximization of customer satisfaction. Thus Bharat Petroleum, the
erstwhile Burmah Shell, has today become one of the most formidable names in the petroleum
industry. Opening up of the Indian economy in the nineties brought with it more competition and
Challenges, kindled by the phased dismantling of the Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM)
and emergence of additional capacities in the region in refining and marketing. In 1996, Bharat
Petroleum went through a process of visioning, involving people at all levels, which evolved a
shared vision and a set of shared values.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY:

46

CSR: A Cornerstone of our Enduring Success.


At IndianOil, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been the cornerstone of success right
from inception in the year 1964. The Corporations objectives in this key performance area are
enshrined in its Mission statement: "to help enrich the quality of life of the community and
preserve ecological balance and heritage through a strong environment conscience." which
succinctly portrays the commitment of the Corporation to its Corporate Social Responsibility
(CSR). CSR and working with the communities has been the cornerstone of success for
IndianOil right from inception. The three thrust areas of the Corporations CSR initiatives are
Clean Drinking Water, Health & Medical Care and Expansion of Education. CSR projects
are mostly undertaken in the vicinity of IndianOils installations or establishments for improving
the quality of life of the community, which include marginalised groups viz., SCs, STs, OBCs,
etc.

IndianOils annual CSR budget has gradually increased from 0.5% of previous years net profit
in 1991 to 2% of previous years retained profit effective 2009.
We at IndianOil have defined a set of core values for ourselves Care, Innovation, Passion and
Trust to guide us in all we do. We take pride in being able to claim almost all our countrymen
as our customers.
Thats why, we coined the phrase, IndianOil India Inspired", in our corporate campaigns.
Public corporations like IndianOil are essentially organs of society deploying significant public
resources. We, therefore, are aware of the need to work beyond financial considerations and put
in that little extra to ensure that we are perceived not just as corporate behemoths that exist for
profits, but as wholesome entities created for the good of the society and for improving the
quality of life of the communities we serve.
As a constructive partner in the communities in which it operates, IndianOil has been taking
concrete action to realise its social responsibility objectives, thereby building value for its
shareholders and customers.

47

The Corporation respects human rights, values its employees, and invests in innovative
technologies and solutions for sustainable energy flow and economic growth. In the past five
decades, IndianOil has supported innumerable social and community initiatives in India.
Touching the lives of millions of people positively by supporting environmental and health-care
projects and social, cultural and educational programmes.
Besides focusing primarily on the welfare of economically and socially deprived sections of
society, IndianOil also aims at developing techno-economically viable and environment-friendly
products & services for the benefit of millions of its consumers, while at the same time ensuring
the highest standards of safety and environment.

PIPELINES DIVISION

48

INTRODUCTION
In Indias infrastructure, the petroleum pipelines form a crucial part enabling sustained
availability of petroleum products in all parts of the country for economic growth. The pipelines
transport petroleum products from refineries to demand areas and crude oil from import
terminals as well as domestic sources to the inland refineries. India being a vast country, a wide
network of pipelines becomes the paramount requirement of transporting petroleum products to
interiors from refineries and crude oil to the land locked refineries.
Indian Oil, the pioneer in cross-country petroleum product pipeline in the Indian sub-continent
constructed and commissioned its first petroleum product pipeline, Guwahati - Siliguri Pipeline
in the year 1964. Since then Indian Oil has mastered the art and technology of pipeline
engineering. Over the last four decades the pipeline network of Indian Oil has grown to 11,140
km.
Indian Oils sustained pursuit and implementation of proven safety and environmental
management systems have brought rich results.
All operating pipeline units have been accredited with ISO 9000 and ISO 14001 certificates.
Various initiatives in the field of project management, operations and maintenance including
training in countries like Oman, Ethiopia, Kuwait and Sudan have been undertaken.
Indian Oil is well placed to provide seamless services in the entire spectrum of petroleum
pipelines covering techno-economic feasibility studies, design and detailed engineering, project
execution, operations and maintenance, consultancy services in augmentation and modernization.
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and application software expertise are
available from project implementation to commissioning including field services, maintenance
and operational support. Tanker handling, petroleum product and crude oil accounting, quality
control, ocean loss control, pigging procedure development and analysis of pigging data,
selection, testing and evaluation of drag reducers, operations and maintenance of tank farm and
pump stations are other areas of expertise available with Indian Oils Pipelines Division.

49

PIPELINES DIVISION ASSETS


Pipeline network having total length of 11,140 km, comprising pipelines of sizes ranging
from 8 to 48 diameter and capacity of 75.26 MMTPA for Crude oil and Petroleum
products & 10 MMSCMD for Gas.
76 stations
14 Windmills (21 MW)
3 Single Point Mooring systems
Around 4 Million KL Crude Oil tankage
Dedicated Telecom (with over 6,500 km OFC), SCADA system
2,400 employees

INCOME AND EXPENSES OF IOCL- PIPELINE DIVISION


INCOME

Freight Recovery. This is a contra item in Divisional Accounts and is nullified at


corporate level. Since Pipeline freight includes an element of profit, the margin is

eliminated for closing stock valuation.


Consultancy Income/ Training & Development
Sale of Scrap/Wind Power
Recoveries from employees/contractors
Unspent/ Unclaimed Liabilities written back
Interest on Employee advances

EXPENSES

50

Establishment Cost
Power & Fuel
Repairs & Maintenance
Chemical Consumption
Depreciation
General Administration expense

IOCLS EXISTING PIPELINE NETWORK

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

PIPELINE
51
DIVISIONS

ERPL

WRPL

NRPL

GSPL
(921
0)

SMPL
(9270
)

PBPL
(9250
)

HRMB
PL
(9220)

KAPL
(9240
)

PRPL
(925
0)

BKPL
(9230
)
PHBP
(9280
)
ER
Admn.
Office
(9201)

MPPL
(9250
)

SRPL

CTMPL
(9291)

CBPL
(9291
)

PIPELINE
HO
PLHO
(9200
)

Jaipur
Construction
Office
(9290)

PJPL
(9250
)

DPPL
(933
0)

PRRPL
(9320)

OPERATIONAL INTERVENTION FOR IMPROVING PROFITABILITY


Increased Crude Handling at Paradip
13.296 MMT pumped in Paradip-Haldia section of Paradip-Haldia-Barauni
pipeline against design capacity of 11 MMTPA
52

Lighterage reduced from 2.97 MMT (2010-11) to 0.95 MMT (2011-12)


Substantial saving in Lighterage and allied services

Increase in Cairn Crude Blending Ratio


Blending ratio increased from 8 to 12% (2010-11) to 10 to 14% (2011-12)
Resulted in higher off-take of Cairn crude (958 TMT) through regular pigging
during winter to remove wax deposits
Reduction in Minimum Batch Length
Segregation of rich SKO-MS interface and blending with HSD resulted in

reduction (about 35%) of minimum batch length


Implemented in CBPL due to tankage constraints
Annual saving on account of rail linkage - Rs. 2.93 Crore

Evacuation of surplus SKO at Bijwasan


Surplus SKO received at Bijwasan - 66 TKL/annum requiring disposal through

road
Receipt facility at Panipat modified to receive SKO through Bijwasan-Panipat

pipeline
Saving Rs. 5.76 Crore /annum

SWOT ANALYSIS OF IOCL

53

SOT
W
PETH
RRPA
EEOK
NAR
TEGT
UST
HNS
S I
T
I
E
S

54

DATA ANALYSIS &


INTERPRETATION

1) From how long you are a member of Indian Oil Corporation?

55

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
From 1 year

30

30%

From 2 years

20

20%

From 5 years

50

50%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE

FROM 1 YEAR

30%

FROM 2 YEARS
FROM 5 YEAR

50%
20%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

30% of employees are member of Indian Oil Corporation from 1 year.

20% of employees are member of Indian Oil Corporation from 2 years.

50% of employees are member of Indian Oil Corporation from 5 years.

56

2) In which department do you work ?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Human resourse

13

13%

Finance

22

22%

Marketing

65

65%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE
13%

HR
FINANCE
MARKETING

22%
65%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

13% of employees are in hr.

57

22% of employees are in finance.

65% of employees are in marketing.

3) Are you satisfied with your working environment ?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

80

80%

Satisfied

15

15%

Dissatisfied

5%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE
5%
STRONGLY SATISFIED

15%

SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

80%

58

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

80% of employees are strongly satisfied.

15% of employees are satisfied.

5% of employees are dissatisfied.

4) Are you satisfied with the opportunities (promotion) given to you?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

55

55%

Satisfied

25

25%

Dissatisfied

20

20%

Total

100

100%

59

RESPONSE

20%

STRONGLY SATISFIED
SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED
55%

25%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

55% of employees are strongly satisfied.

25% of employees are satisfied.

20% of employees are dissatisfied.

5) Are you satisfied with the payment of salary on time?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

82

82%

Satisfied

10

10%

Dissatisfied

8%

Total

100

100%

60

RESPONSE
8%
10%

STRONGLY SATISFIED
SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

82%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

82% of employees are strongly satisfied.

10% of employees are satisfied.

8% of employees are dissatisfied.

6) Are you satisfied with the infrastructure of the company?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

60

60%

Satisfied

25

25%

Dissatisfied

15

15%

61

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE
15%
STRONGLY SATISFIED
SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED
25%

60%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

60% of employees are strongly satisfied.

25% of employees are satisfied.

15% of employees are dissatisfied.

7) Are you satisfied with the canteen facility available to you ?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

62

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

50

50%

Satisfied

30

30%

Dissatisfied

20

20%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE
DISSATISFIED

SATISFIED

STRONGLY SATISFIED
0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

50% of employees are strongly satisfied.

30% of employees are satisfied.

20% of employees are dissatisfied.

8) Are you satisfied with the rules and responsibilities given to you ?

63

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

45

45%

Satisfied

40

40%

Dissatisfied

15

15%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
STRONGLY SATISFIED

SATISFIED

DISSATISFIED

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

45% of employees are strongly satisfied.

40% of employees are satisfied.

15% of employees are dissatisfied.

64

9) Are you satisfied with the freedom given to you at work ?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

80

80%

Satisfied

15

15%

Dissatisfied

5%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
STRONGLY SATISFIED

SATISFIED

DISSATISFIED

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

65

80% of employees are strongly satisfied.

15% of employees are satisfied.

5% of employees are dissatisfied.

10) Are you satisfied with the job security?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

80

80%

Satisfied

15

15%

Dissatisfied

5%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE

5%

STRONGLY SATISFIED

15%

SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

80%

66

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

80% of employees are strongly satisfied.

15% of employees are satisfied.

5% of employees are dissatisfied.

11) Are you satisfied with the working hours in which you are working?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

70

70%

Satisfied

25

25%

Dissatisfied

5%

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE
5%

STRONGLY SATISFIED
SATISFIED

25%

DISSATISFIED
70%

67

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

70% of employees are strongly satisfied.

25% of employees are satisfied.

5% of employees are dissatisfied.

12) Are you satisfied with the targets achievable?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

35

35%

Satisfied

15

15%

Dissatisfied

50

50%

Total

100

100%

68

RESPONSE

STRONGLY SATISFIED
35%

SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

50%

15%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

35% of employees are strongly satisfied.

15% of employees are satisfied.

50% of employees are dissatisfied.

13) Are you satisfied with the training programme arranged by the company?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

55

55%

Dissatisfied

15

15%

Satisfied

30

30%

Total

100

100%

69

RESPONSE
15%
STRONGLY SATISFIED
SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED
30%

55%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

55% of employees are strongly satisfied.

30% of employees are satisfied.

15% of employees are dissatisfied.

14) Are you satisfied with the performance appraisal system?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

65

65%

Dissatisfied

15

15%

Satisfied

20

20%

70

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE

STRONGLY
SATISFIED
SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

65% of employees are strongly satisfied.

15% of employees are satisfied.

20% of employees are dissatisfied.


15) Are you satisfied with the forum for face to face communication?

RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

70

70%

Dissatisfied

15

15%

Satisfied

15

15%

71

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE

STRONGLY SATISFIED
SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

70% of employees are strongly satisfied.

15% of employees are satisfied.

15% of employees are dissatisfied.

16) Overall, are you satisfied with your job?


RESPONSE

NO.

OF

SHARE (%)

RESPONDENTS
Strongly satisfied

85

85%

Satisfied

10

10%

Dissatisfied

05

05%

72

Total

100

100%

RESPONSE

10%

5%
STRONGLY SATISFIED
SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

85%

INTERPRETATION:
The above table reveals that

85% of employees are strongly satisfied.

10% of employees are satisfied.

5% of employees are dissatisfied

73

FINDINGS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

FINDINGS

Most of the employees work in the marketing and finance and the percentage is 65 & 22
respectively and rest are in hr department.

74

80% of employees are strongly satisfied with the working environment and 15 % are
satisfied and rest are dissatisfied.

60% of employees are strongly satisfied with the infrastructure of the company and 25 %
are satisfied and are dissatisfied.

Half of the employees are strongly satisfied(50%) with the canteen facility and 30% are
satisfied and 20% are dissatisfied.

Most of the employees are strongly satisfied with the rules & responsibilities given to
them and rest are dissatisfied.

80% of the employees are feel freedom while working in the organization and 15 % are
satisfied and rest 5% are not satisfied.

The job security given to the employees in which 80% are strongly satisfied and rest of
the employees are dissatisfied.

70% of the employees are strongly satisfied with the working hours and 25 % are
satisfied and rest 5% are dissatisfied.

35% of the employees are strongly satisfied with the targets achievable and 15% are
satisfied and 50% are dissatisfied.

75

55% of the employees thinks that the opportunities given to them are strongly satisfied
and 25 % thinks satisfied and rest are not satisfied with these promotion opportunities.

82% of employees are strongly satisfied with the payment of the salary is on time and 10
% are satisfied and rest of the employees are dissatisfied.

55% of the employees are strongly satisfied with the training programs done in the
organization and 30% are satisfied and rests 15% are dissatisfied.

Overall, 85% of the employees are strongly satisfied with their job and rest are
dissatisfied.

76

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
From the study, the researcher has come to know that most of the respondents have job satisfaction; the
management has taken the best efforts to maintain cordial relationship with the employees. Due to the
working conditions prevailing in this company, job satisfaction of each respondent seems to be the
maximum.
From the study, the researcher has come to know that most of the employees were satisfied with the
welfare measures provided by company. The employees of genesis colors pvt. Ltd. get more benefits
compare to other companies. The main problem of shortage of man power is less in the genesis colors pvt.
Ltd. compare to other companies. To employees of the company are totally agree that they have the
capability to achieve the targets on time and do not feel over burden on the job.

77

Most of the employees also have the salary satisfaction and also satisfied with the promotional
opportunities. The employees have taken the best efforts to maintain the good relationship with their coworkers.
This is also concluded that the employees think that nature of their job is satisfied and also as per their
convenience.
Moreover, most of employees are satisfied with the canteen facility given to the employees by the
company. As I have also seen when I have visited there for my project work. Employees like the canteens
because of the space and the food they provide in a very low and reasonable prices and the quality and
quantity is also really very good.
And most of the employees are strongly satisfied with the working environment because the company
provides a very family kind of environment to their employees and the space they provide is really very
good. The job satisfaction is important for every company.
Half of the employees are satisfied with the training programme which the company is providing to the
employees and they provide a good trainer to their employees.
IOC provides a job security to the employees and in short most of the employees are strongly satisfied
with the job security.Most of the employees are satisfied with the forum for face to face communication
and rest are dissatisfied.

LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH

The research is confined to a certain parts of Delhi and does not necessarily shows a
pattern applicable to all of Country.

Some respondents were reluctant to divulge personal information which can affect the
validity of all responses.

In a rapidly changing industry, analysis on one day or in one segment can change very
quickly. The environmental changes are vital to be considered in order to assimilate the
finding.
78

79

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:

PRASAD L.M HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.

CHOPRA R.K, ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR.

CHHABRA T.N, BUSSINESS ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT.

MAGAZINES:
80

India Today

Business World

Business Economics

NEWSPAPER:

The Economics times

The Hindustan times

Times of India

Business line

REFERENCES:

http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/employeerelations/Pages/jobsat.aspx

http://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/job-satisfaction-survey/

http://www.iocl.com

81

ANNEXURE

ANNEXURE

PERSONAL BACKGROUND

Name of the employee:_____________________

82

Age :___________________

Gender :

Male ______ Female _______

Educational Qualification :

Martialstatus :

Married _____ Single ________

Family size :

Nature of job :

_________________

____________________

___________________

1)From how long you are a member of IOCL ?

From 1 years

From 2 years

From 5 years

2)In which department do you work ?


83

Human resourse

Finance

Marketing

3)Are you satisfied with your working environment ?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

4)Are you satisfied with the infrastructure of the company?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

5)Are you satisfied with the canteen facility available to you ?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied
84

6)Are you satisfied with the rules and responsibilities given to you ?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

7)Are you satisfied with the freedom given to you at work ?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

8)Are you satisfied with the job security?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

9)Are you satisfied with the working hours in which you are working?

Strongly satisfied
85

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

10)Are you satisfied with the targets achievable?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

11)Are you satisfied with the opportunities (promotion) given to you?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

86

12)Are you satisfied with the payment of salary on time?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

13)Are you satisfied with the training programme arranged by the company?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

14) Are you satisfied with the performance appraisal system?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

15) Are you satisfied with the forum for face to face communication?

87

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

16) Overall, are you satisfied with your job?

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Dissatisfied

88