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FAKULTI TEKNOLOGI KEJURUTERAAN

FOOD TECHNOLOGY
(BNN 40304)
(Sem I, 2015/2016)

Dr. Noor Akhmazillah bt Mohd Fauzi

CHAPTER 1:
Introduction to Food Technology
and Food Preservation
1.1 Industrial Revolution
1.2 Factors Affecting Food Technology
1.3 Principles Underlying Food Contamination
and Spoilage
1.4 Causes of Food Spoilage
1.5 Principles and Methods of
Food Preservation.

1.1 The Industrial Revolution.


The Industrial Revolution brought many
technologies together, and provided new
possibilities for investigation.
Mechanisation took place, increasing the volume of
production of goods, including food products.

As more and more factories were built for mass


production of goods, so towns and cities grew and
populations expanded. This also meant that there
were more people to feed.

A convergence of factors has made food


security one of the most important global
issues.
An increasing population wants a more

varied diet, but is trying to grow


more food on less
land with limited access to
water, all the time facing increased
costs for fertiliser, and
fuel for storage and
transport.

The worlds population is predicted to hit


9Bn by 2050, up from todays total of
nearly 6.8Bn, and with it food demand is
predicted to increase substantially
More people die each year from hunger
and malnutrition than from AIDS,
tuberculosis and malaria combined, and
the World Bank estimates that cereal
production needs to increase by 50% and
meat production by 85% between 2000
and 2030 to meet demand

Put simply, the world needs to grow


more food now.

Food Science?
Food Science is an applied science
used to study the:
1. nature of foods
2. causes of their
deterioration
3. principles underlying
food processing

VS

Food Technology?
Food Technology is the application of food science to the:

selection
preservation
processing
packaging
distribution
use of safe, nutritious,
and wholesome food.

1.2 Factors Affecting Food Technology


Today, factors affecting food technology include:

a. domestication of animals and crops


b. preservation methods
c. development of villages and towns
d. transport and travel
e. war
f. religion and culture
g. Famine (extreme scarcity of food).
h. flood, disease

Factors affecting food technology also include:

a.electricity
b.discovery and use of raw materials
c.understanding of scientific principles
d.research and development of food
ingredients
e.increasing technological capabilities
f. economic understanding and trade

Discussion-30 min (section 1.1 & 1.2):


Work in pairs;
How does technological capabilities can:
(i) increase food supply
(ii) improve food nutritional
. share your points in the class

1.3 Principles underlying food


contamination and spoilage
1. Approximately 1/3rd of all food manufactured in world
is lost to spoilage/ contamination
2. Change in appearance, smell, or taste that makes it
unacceptable to consumers, although not necessarily
harmful to consumers.
3. There are 3 ways which food can be
contaminated/spoiled:
(i) Physical
(ii) Chemical
(iii) Bacterial

(i) Physical contamination


This can occur in a variety of ways at different stages of food
processing and production. Some examples are:

soil from the ground when harvesting;


a bolt from a processing plant when packaging;
a hair from a cook in the kitchen.
Care must be taken at each stage to prevent physical
contamination.

(ii) Chemical contamination


This can occur in a variety of ways at different stages of food
processing and production. Some examples are:
chemicals from the farm;

a cleaning product used in the processing plant when packaging;


fly spray used in the kitchen when preparing food.
Care must be taken at each stage of food production to prevent
chemical contamination.

(iii) Bacterial contamination


As soon as food is harvested, slaughtered or
manufactured into a product it starts to change. This
is caused by two main processes:
autolysis self destruction, caused by enzymes
present in the food;

microbial spoilage caused by the growth of


bacteria, yeasts and moulds.

Desirable food changes


Autolysis and micro
bacterial changes are
sometimes desirable
(and are not referred
to as spoilage), eg:
enzymes cause fruit
to ripen.

Here are some positive


micro bacterial changes
below.

Autolysis - enzymes
Enzymes are chemical compounds that are found in food.
They can cause food to deteriorate in three main ways:
ripening this will continue until the food becomes
inedible, e.g. banana ripening;
browning enzymes can react with air causing the skin
of certain foods, e.g. potatoes and apples discolouring;
oxidation loss of certain nutrients, such as vitamins A,
C and thiamin from food, e.g. over boiling of green
vegetables.

Microbial spoilage
(i) Bacteria

These are single celled micro-organisms (they cannot


be seen by the naked eye) which are present
naturally in the environment.
There are many different kinds, some are useful, e.g. in
the production of yogurt, and some harmful.
The presence of bacteria in food can lead to
digestive upset.
Some bacteria produce toxins which can lead to this
also.

Spores can also be produced by some bacteria


leading to toxins being produced.

Microbial spoilage
(ii) Yeasts

Yeasts are single celled fungi which can reproduce


by budding. This means that a small offshoot or
bud separates from the parent yeast cell.
Yeasts can also form spores which can travel
through the air. These are easily killed by heating to
100C.
In warm, moist conditions in the presence of sugar,
yeasts will cause foods like fruit to ferment producing
alcohol and carbon dioxide gas.
Yeast is used in the production of bread and wine.

Yeasts
Spoil the taste of food but don't make it
harmful
Grow on sugary foods.

Cannot grow at low temperatures


Cannot survive in sugar concentration above
50%

Cannot survive in vinegar


Are destroyed by temperatures above 70C

Microbial spoilage
(iii) Mould
Moulds are fungi which grow as filaments in food.
They reproduce by producing spores in fruiting
bodies which can be seen on the surface of foods.
These fruiting bodies sometimes look like round furry
blue-coloured growths, e.g. mould on bread.
Some moulds can be seen by the naked eye, e.g.
on bread.

Moulds
Are a type of fungus. They....
oSettle on food and grow into a visible plant which looks like fluff
oGrow on many foods including bread, cheese and meat.
oLike slightly acid conditions
oNeed moisture
oNeed warm temperatures between 20C and 40C
oAre destroyed above 70C
oCan survive in the fridge but not the freezer.
oMould on food means it is not very fresh and has been badly stored .Some
moulds can make you sick or cause allergic reactions.
oSome moulds are used to give cheese its blue veins and to make quorn

Food spoilage
involves predictable succession of microbes
different foods undergo different types of spoilage
processes
toxins are sometimes produced algal toxins may
contaminate shellfish and finfish

We distinguish:

Perishable food: meats, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, most fruit


and vegetables
Semi-perishable food: potatoes, apples, nuts
Nonperishable food: sugar, flour, rice, dry beans

Related to water content (water activity) and


implies storage conditions

Toxins
ergotism
toxic condition caused by growth of a fungus in grains
aflatoxins
carcinogens produced in fungus-infected grains and nut products
fumonisins
carcinogens produced in fungus-infected corn

Food-borne Illness
Food-Borne Infection
ingestion of microbes, followed by growth, tissue invasion, and/or release of
toxins

Food-Borne Intoxications
ingestion of toxins in foods in which microbes have grown
include staphylococcal food poisoning, botulism, Clostridium perfringens food
poisoning, and Bacillus cereus food poisoning

Examples of foodborne diseases


(most are infections and associated with animal products):
Organism

Number of cases
per year (U.S.)

Foods to watch

Campylobacter jejuni

1,963,000

Poultry and diary


products

Salmonella spp.

1,340,000

Poultry, meat, diary


and eggs

Clostridium
perfringens

248,000

Cooked and
reheated meat
products

Giardia lamblia

200,000

Contaminated meat

9,200,000

Shellfish, other food

Norwalk-like viruses

1.4 Causes of food spoilage


Food spoilage:
It means the original nutritional value, texture, flavour of the food
are damaged and the food become unsuitable to eat
When food spoils, the following may change:

appearance
taste
texture
odour

Food may become unsafe to eat !!

1.4 Causes of food spoilage


Extrinsic parameters/factors
(i) Temperature
(ii) Relative humidity
(iii) Types and numbers of Microorganisms
in the food

Micro-organisms are everywhere.


Micro-organisms can be carried by food,
people, dirty equipment, animals and pests.
Most are harmless.
What are microorganisms?

Food poisoning is
caused by some of
these micro-organisms.
These are called food
poisoning bacteria.
There are beneficial uses of some microorganisms.
Bread dough raising agent
Yogurt making - fermentation

Intrinsic Factors Affecting Microbial Growth


Micro-organisms need conditions to survive and
reproduce these can include:
Temperature
Moisture
Food
Time

Oxygen
pH level

Factors of bacterial growth


(i) Temperature

1. Bacteria need warm conditions to grown and multiply.


2. The ideal temperature for bacterial growth is 30C 37C.
3. Some bacteria can still grow at 10C and 60C. Most bacteria are
destroyed at temperatures above 63 C. Bacterial growth danger
zone in 5C - 63C.
4. At very cold temperatures, bacteria become dormant they do
not die, but they cannot grow or multiply.

(i) Temperature
100C: Water boils
82C: Core temperature of hot food
5C - 63C: Danger zone for rapid growth
of micro-organisms
1C - 4C: Temperature of fridge

0C: Freezing point of water


-18C: Temperature of freezer

Factors of bacterial growth


(ii) Moisture

Where there is no moisture bacteria cannot grow.


However, bacteria and moulds can both produce
spores which can survive until water is added to the
food.
(iii) Food
Bacteria need a source of food to grow and multiple,
these food usually contain large amounts of water and
nutrients.
(iv)Time
One bacterium can divide into two every 20 minutes.
Food where bacteria rapidly multiple in are called
perishable foods.

Factors of bacterial growth


(v) Oxygen
Some bacteria need oxygen to grow and multiply.
These are called aerobic bacteria. Other bacteria
grow well when there is no oxygen present, these are
known as anaerobic bacteria.
(vi) pH level
An acidic or alkaline environment can promote of
inhibit microbial growth. Most bacteria prefer a neutral
pH (6.6 7.5). Moulds and yeasts can survive at pH
levels of 1-1/5 (very acidic), food spoilage usually
occurs by yeast and moulds.

Food (and water)


The type of food is important.
Ready to eat foods, such as cooked meat and
chicken or dairy foods, can support the growth of
microbes.
They need to be stored properly, e.g. chilled.
Dried foods these do not have water, so the microorganisms cannot grow, e.g. dried milk, instant soup
mix.
Pickles and jams these contain vinegar or sugar
which stop the micro-organisms from growing.

The risk of food poisoning can be minimised through:


good food safety;
good hygiene procedures.
Store food in the right place
Check labels for where they should be stored.
Check date marks on food labels.
Do not leave foods out they could get warm or be contaminated with
microbes from an insect or pest.
Prepare and cook food hygienically
Get ready to cook hands, aprons
Prepare raw foods away from cooked foods do not mix up.
Cook foods thoroughly, e.g. no raw areas in roast chicken.
Clean up and be tidy all the time.

Pop Quiz in Pairs (Section 1.3 & 1.4):


(i) Identify the three methods of food contamination.
(ii) Distinguish between the two different food changes,
through autolysis and micro-organisms.
(iii) Briefly explain the positive food changes.
(iv) Identify the conditions which promote bacterial growth.

1.5 Principles and methods of food


preservation.
Principles of Food Preservation
A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or
prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage.

Also, during the process of food preservation, the food should not be
damaged
In order to achieve this, certain basic methods were applied on different
types of foods.
Thus; preservation is the treatments which are given to food products so as
to increase their longevity and stop or slow down their spoilage of
nutritional value. It prevents the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and other
micro-organisms and also retards the oxidation of fats which cause
rancidity.

Principles of Food Preservation


1. Removal of micro-organisms or inactivating them:
This is done by removing air, water (moisture), lowering or increasing temperature,
increasing the concentration of salt or sugar or acid in foods.

2. Inactivating enzymes:
Enzymes found in foods can be inactivated by changing their conditions such as
temperature and moisture, when you preserve peas, one of the methods of
preservations is to put them for a few minutes in boiling water. This method also known
as blanching inactivates enzymes and thus, helps in preserving the food.

3. Removal of insects, worms and rats:


By storing foods in dry, air tight containers the insects, worms or rats are prevented
from destroying it.

Methods for preserving


food
Physical methods
Vacuuming
Freezing
Drying
Burial
Smoking
Pasteurization
Canning

Chemical methods
High salt and high sugar
Citric acid and ascorbic acid
Antioxidants

Control
Control of
microorganisms
Heat
Cold
Drying
Acids
Sugar and salt
Oxygen
concentration
Smoke
Radiation
Chemicals
(preservatives)

Control of
enzymes
Heat
Oxygen
removal
Acids
Chemicals

Control of other
Factors
Protective
packaging
Sanitation

Preservation methods
1) Thermal Process (application of heat)
Application of heat
Inactivate enzymes
Kill microorganism- Most bacteria are killed at 82-93C, but spores
are not.
121C wet heat for 15 min is required to ensure sterility
High acid foods require less heat
Pasteurization eliminates only disease causing microorganisms in
milk

Various
methods

Hot water/steam:
Cooking, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization,
evaporation, extrusion

Hot air: baking, roasting


and drying

Hot oil:
frying

Irradiated energy:
microwave, infrared radiation, ionizing
radiation

Principles of thermal processing:


The concept of thermal processing, which primarily involves incontainer sterilization of foodstuff has come a long way since Bigelow
and Ball developed in 1920, the first scientific basis for calculating the
minimum safe sterilization process
In all its forms of application, thermal processing persists as the most
widely used method of preserving and extending the useful shelflife
of foods
The concept of in-container sterilization (canning) involves the
application of a high-temperature thermal treatment for a
sufficiently long time to destroy microorganisms of public health and
spoilage concerns
Industrially, thermal processes are designed by processing authorities
to provide commercially sterile or shelf-stable products.

Foods have different microorganism or enzymes that the thermal


process is designed to destroy
In order to determine the type of microorganism the process should
be based on, several factors must be considered:

(1) Oxygen sensitivity


1.

2.

3.

In foods that are packaged under vacuum in hermetically sealed


containers, low oxygen levels are intentionally achieved
Therefore, the prevailing conditions do not support the growth of
microorganisms that require oxygen (obligate aerobes) to results in
food spoilage or public health problems
Further, the spores of obligate are less heat resistance than the
microbial spores that grow under anaerobic conditions (facultative
or obligate anaerobes)

Classification of microorganism based on their oxygen sensitivity


Class

Description

Examples

Obligatory aerobes

Requires oxygen to grow

Most moulds, Micrococcus, serratia


marcescens,Mycobacterium
tuberculosis

Obligatory anaerobes

Require absence of oxygen C. botulinum, C. sporogenes, C.


to grow
thermosaccharolyticum

Facultative anaerobes

Can grow in the complete


absence or presence of
only small amounts of
oxygen

B.coagulans, Staphylococcus aureus

(2) pH
1.
2.

The growth and activity of microorganism are also largely pH


dependent
For a thermal processing standpoint, foods are divided into 3 major
pH groups
Group

pH

Examples

High acid

<3.7

Fruit juices, apples, berries, cherries (red sour), plums,


sour pickles, vinegar

Acid or
medium
acid

3.7 -4.5 Fruit jams, fruit cocktails, grapes, tomatoes, tomato


juices, peaches, pineapples, potato salad, prune juice

Low acid

4.5

All meat, fish, vegetables, mixed entries and most


soups

1.

2.

3.

Most lab. dealing with thermal processing devote special attention


to C. botulinum, which is a highly resistant, rod-shaped, sporeforming, anaerobic pathogen that produces the botulism toxin
The mere presence of the pathogen alone in a product does not
constitute a health hazard; however, concern in this respect is
warranted if the spores find favorable conditions in the container to
germinate and produce a deadly botulism toxin.
It has been generally accepted that C. botulinum does not grow and
produce toxin below a pH of 4.6

(3) Temperature

Thermal resistance of microorganism


In microbiology, D-value refers to decimal reduction time and is the time required
at a given temperature to kill 90% of the exposed microorganisms.
Calculating the D-Value
This seems like a really complex question but it's very simple

Our D-value is 3 minutes, the time it takes to kill 90% of our sample at a certain temperature
in our autoclave. We started with 1,000,000 microbes and we are left with 10 at the end
Now, using the following equation we can plug those numbers into it.
The equation reads that:
The D-Value = (Total Heating Time)/(log (Original Population) - log(Remaining
Population))
In our case, the equation would be:
3 = (X)/(log(1,000,000) - log(10))

Log N2 Log N1 = -t/D


Log (N2/N1) = -t/D
N2/N1 = 10^(-t/d)

By solving for X we find out that the total heating time is 15 minutes. Meaning, with a D-value
of 3 minutes we'd reduce our microbial population from 1,000,000 to 10 in 15 minutes flat at
the temperature the autoclave specifies.

Log N2 Log N1 = -t/D


Log (N2/N1) = -t/D
N2/N1 = 10^(-t/d)

4.1 minutes

Z-value is a term used in microbial thermal death time calculations. It is the


temperature required for one log10 reduction in the D-value.
Thermal death time is a concept used to determine how long it takes to kill a
specific bacteria at a specific temperature.
The Z-value is the increase or decrease in temperature required to
reduce or increase the decimal reduction time by one decimal. It is a
measure of the change in death rate with a change in temperature.
Z = (T2-T1)/(logD1-logD2)
Where T = temperature and D = D-value

2. Refrigeration (Removal of heat)


Lowering temperature of food
Decreases the rate of enzymatic, chemical and microbial reactions in food
Storage life is extended
Freeze dry

Various
methods
Freezing

Chilling

3. Control of water content (drying)


Microorganisms require free water
Free water is removed from the food and therefore,
is unavailable to microbial cells
Multiplication will stop
Water unavailable for chemical/biochemical reactions
Storage life extended
Dehydrating food also dehydrates the microorganisms
Microorganisms contain aprrox. 80% of moisture
Freeze-drying (lyophilization) is the most efficient method
Addition of substance that
bind water in food, making it
unavailable (sugar, salts)
Physical removal of water
from food (dehydration)

Various
methods

Removal of some water


from food (concentration)
Under the sun

4. Radiation
Ionizing radiation
Inactivate microorganisms in food
Destroy storage pests
Inactivate enzymes

Various
methods
Infrared radiation
Ultraviolet radiation

5. Atmosphere composition

Removal of oxygen
Inhibits o2-dependant enzymatic and chemical reactions
Inhibits growth of aerobic microorganisms
Exclude air for control of aerobic microorganisms
Provide air for control of anaerobic microorganisms
Add carbon dioxide and nitrogen
Application of Modified Atmosphere or Controlled Atmosphere packaging
Most of fruits and vegetable give off ethylene gas
Ethylene accelerate ripening process
For extension of shelf-life it should be removed
Vacuum packaging of fresh food (cured meats)

Various
methods

Nitrogen back flushed bags (potato chips)

Controlled atmosphere storage

Paraffin wax

6. Fermentation

Specific microorganisms are used (starter cultures)


Facilitate desirable chemical changes
Longer storage life
Produce acids, alcohol that will prevent growth of undesirable microorganisms
Produce antimicrobial substances

7. Addition of chemicals
Various chemicals used are a.
b.
c.
d.

Acids (inhibit microbial growth and enzymatic reactions)


Organic acids (acetic, citric, tartaric acids)
Inorganic acids (hydrochloric, phosphoric acids)
Food grade, comply w/regulations e. Antioxidants (to delay oxidative rancidity)

Antimicrobial agents:
o sodium propionate (mould inhibitor)
o sodium benzoate (antibacterial)
o sugar and salt (high concentrations)

8. Smoke
The combination of heat, to dry food without cooking it
and
the addition of aromas, from the smoke preserves the food
Heat also helps destroy microorganisms
Heat dries the food
Contains preservative chemicals (eg. formaldehyde) from
the burning wood

9. Curing (Salt and Sugar)


One of the oldest preservation methods
Addition of either to a food item increases the affinity of
the food for water
Decreases Aw in the food
Removes water from the microorganisms through osmosis
Salt binds with water molecules and thus acts as a
dehydrating agent in foods.
Impair the conditions under which pathogens cannot survive
Curing is used with certain fruits and vegetables.
Meats can be submerged in a salt solution known as brine

PRESERVATION BY USING CHEMICALS


A preservative is defined as only substance which is capable of inhibiting, retarding or
arresting the growth of microorganisms.
Microbial spoilage of food products is also controlled by using chemical preservatives.
The inhibitory action of preservatives is due to their interfering with the mechanism of
cell division, permeability of cell membrane and activity of enzymes.

Pasteurized squashes, cordials and crushes have a cooked flavour. After the container
is opened, they ferment and spoil within a short period, particularly in a tropical
climate. To avoid this, it is necessary to use chemical preservatives.
Chemically preserved squashes and crushes can be kept for a fairly long time even
after opening the seal of the bottle. It is however, essential that the use of chemicals is
properly controlled, as their indiscriminate use is likely to be harmful.
The preservative used should not be injurious to health and should be non-irritant. It
should be easy to detect and estimate.

Two important chemical preservatives are permitted to


(i) Sulphur dioxide
It is widely used throughout the world in the preservation of juice, pulp, nectar,
squash, crush, cordial and other products.
It has good preserving action against bacteria and moulds and inhibits enzymes,
etc.

In addition, it acts as an antioxidant and bleaching agent.


These properties help in the retention of ascorbic acid, carotene and other
oxidizable compounds
It also retards the development of nonenzymatic browning or discolouration of
the product
It is generally used in the form of its salts such as sulphite, bisulphate and
metabisulphite.
Potassium metabisulphite (K2O 2So2 (or) K2S2O5) is commonly used as a stable
source of So2.

When added to fruit juice (or) squash it reacts with the acid in the juice forming the
potassium salt and So2, which is liberated and forms sulphurous acid with the water
of the juice

SO2 has a better preservative action than sodium benzoate against bacteria and
moulds. It also retards the development of yeasts in juice, but cannot arrest their
multiplication, once their number has reached a high value.
The concentration of So2 required preventing the growth of mirgroorganism at
different pH levels are as under.

The toxicity of So2 increases at high temperature. Hence its effectiveness


depends on the acidity, pH, temperature and substances present in fruit juice

The advantages of using So2 are


a)
b)
c)
d)

It has a better preserving action than sodium benzoate against bacterial fermentation
it helps to retain the colour of the beverage for a longer time than sodium benzoate
being a gas, it helps in preserving the surface layer of juices also
being highly soluble in juices and squashes, it ensures better mixing and hence their
preservation and
e) any excess of So2 present can be removed either by heating the juice to about 71o C or
by passing air through it or by subjecting the juice to vacuum. This causes some loss of
the flavouring materials due to volatilization, which can be compensated by adding
flavours.
Disadvantages (or) limitations

a) It cannot be used in the case of some naturally coloured juices like those pomegranate,
strawberry, coloured grapes, plum etc. on account of its bleaching action.
b) It cannot also be used for juices which are to be packed in tin containers because it not
only corrodes the tin causing pinholes, but also forms H2S which has a disagreeable
smell and reacts with the iron of the tin container to form a black compound, both of
which are highly undesirable and
c) So2 gives a slight taste and colour to freshly prepared beverages but these are not
serious defects if the beverage is diluted before drinking.

(ii) Benzoic acid


1. The antibacterial action of benzoic acid is increased in the presence of Co2 and acid e.g.
Bacillus subtilis cannot survive in benzoic acid solution in the presence of Co2.
2. Benzoic acid is more effective against yeasts than against moulds. It does not stop lactic
acid and acetic acid fermentation.
3. The quantity of benzoic acid required depends on the nature of the product to be
preserved, particularly its acidity. In case of juices having a pH of 3.5-4.0, which is the
range of a majority of fruit juices, addition of 0.06 to 0.10% of sodium benzoate has been
found to be sufficient.
4. In case of less acid juices such as grape juice at least 0.3% is necessary. The action of
benzoic acid is reduced considerably at pH 5.0.
5. In the long run benzoic acid may darken the product. It is, therefore, mostly used in
coloured products of tomato, jamun, pomegranate, plum, watermelon, strawberry,
coloured grapes etc

Review Questions (Section 1.5):


(i) Provide two methods for preserving foods.
(ii) List the methods classified in (i)
(iii) Identify three reasons food gets spoilt
(iv) Briefly explain the advantages of preserving foods

a) Drying- It is an ancient technique which reduces water activity sufficiently to prevent or delay bacterial growth.
b) Refrigeration- In this process food is preserved by slowing down the growth and reproduction of microbes and the action of enzymes which cause food rotting.
c) Freezing- It is one of the common preservation process used for preserving food items which do not require freezing when unprepared.(in unprepared state).
d) Vacuum Packing- It is done in airtight bag or bottle. It removes the oxygen needed for the survival of bacteria. It is mostly used for storing nuts.

e) Salting- It withdraws the water from the food product, and hence is used as a preservation technique.
f) Sugaring- It is used to preserve fruits such as apples, pears, peaches and apricots etc.
g) Artificial Food Additives- Commonly used food additives are calcium propionate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sulfites and disodium EDTA which are used as
antimicrobial agents.
h) Pickling- In this method food is preserved as an anti-microbial liquid which inhibits or kills bacteria and other micro-organisms. The typical pickling agents
include brine, vinegar, alcohol, and vegetable oils. Sometimes chemicals are also added such as sodium benzoate and EDTA which enhance the shelf life of the
food.
i Lye- The chemical sodium hydroxide is known as lye and it is often added to food for its preservation as it makes the food alkaline and prevents bacterial growth,
it also saponifies the fat in the food and changes its flavor and texture.
j) Canning And Bottling- It involves the sealing of cooked food in sterile jars and bottles and boiling the container to kill or weaken any other form of microbes.
k) Jellying- It is the cooking of food in a material which solidifies it in the form of gel, such as gelatin, agar, maize flour, and arrowroot flour.
l) Potting- Mainly used for meat, by setting it in a pot and sealing it with a layer of fat.
m) Irradiation- It is the exposure of food to ionizing radiation; either high energy electrons or X-rays or by gamma rays. This treatment kills bacteria, molds and
insect pests, reduces ripening and spoiling of fruits and also induces sterility.
n) Pulsed Electric Field Processing- It is a method of preservation by strong electric field.
o) Modified Atmosphere- It is a way of preserving food by operating on the atmosphere around it and sometimes the oxygen content is lowered and the carbon
content is increased which prevents from insects and molds. Also nitrogen gas is used to kill bacteria effectively.

Review Questions (Section 1.3):


(i) Provide two methods for preserving foods.
(ii) List the methods classified in (i)
(iii) Identify three reasons food gets spoilt
High content of water
Activity of food enzymes

Reaction with oxygen


(iii) Briefly explain the advantages of preserving foods