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Enhancing Teaching and Learning

through Technology
Jan Bellack, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston
Deanna Reising, Indiana University, Bloomington
Douglas Carr, Indiana University, Bloomington
Moderator: Malcolm Brown, EDUCAUSE

Session Goals:
Leverage technologies to engage
teachers and learners in a collaborative,
personalized learning process.
Apply an example of simulation
technology that complements the teachinglearning process and enables evaluation of
learning outcomes.

Dening Educa-onal Technology

1970 Commission on Instruc-onal Technologys deni-on


(Sae@ler, 1990):
The media born of the communica-on revolu-on which
can be used for instruc-onal purposes ... "
A systema-c way of designing, carrying out, and evalua-ng
the total process of learning and teaching. . ."
A broader deni-onthat encompasses both tools and
processes "belongs to the future that future is here!

Muole@o (1994) Not a collec*on of machines and
devices, but a way of ac*ng

ENHANCING HEALTH PROFESSIONS


EDUCATION THROUGH TECHNOLOGY
Invitational conference sponsored by Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, April 2015
38 leaders from health professions education, higher education, healthcare
organizations, patient advocacy, and technology development representing diverse
institutions
3 commissioned papers , one of which was Swirl: Trajectories for Digital
Technology in Higher Education by Malcolm Brown, EDUCAUSE
6 consensus recommendations offered
Conference recommendations have been adapted for this
presentation to apply to the broader higher education audience

Browns (2015) trajectories:


Personalization
Adoption of hybrid learning models
Big data

Swirl:
An individualization or fragmentation,
together with a re-assembly of the microunits into new, custom configurations.
A period of both dislocation, when the
known and familiar begin to disappear, and
relocation, where we invent new methods
and techniques.
Brown, 2015

MACY CONFERENCE KEY ASSUMPTIONS


We are witnessing important shifts in health professions
education and clinical practice toward increased access and
value, better care, and improved health outcomes for all.
Education outside the health professions is undergoing
dramatic changes away from traditional lecture and classroom
approaches.
Technology is a significant factor in these changes and
harnessing its power will enable advances in both education
and care delivery that will improve the efficiency and
effectiveness of teaching, learning, and patient care.

Six Conference Recommendations

Recommendation I
Macy: In health professions education, technology should be used to
support the ongoing development of learners from undergraduate
levels through clinical practice; enhance interprofessional learning
opportunities; and empower every student, faculty member, and
clinician to embrace the role of both teacher and lifelong learner.

Adaptation: Technology should be used to support


the ongoing development of learners from
undergraduate levels through post-graduate
employment; enhance team learning opportunities;
and empower every student, faculty member, and
employee to embrace the role of both teacher
and lifelong learner.

Application of Recommendation I

Shifts focus from teacher to learner > learner-centered > informs


curricular design with emphasis on promoting student success,
course and degree completion

Maximizes opportunities for lifelong learning anytime, anywhere for


students, teachers, employers

Facilitates individualized learning, personalized progression toward


mastery, and active collaboration among teachers and learners

Enhances efficiency and effectiveness of teaching and learning


across educational and work settings

Expands learning opportunities unbound by time or place and allows


individuals to refresh knowledge and skills through continuous,
lifelong just-in-time learning and training

Recommendation II
Macy: Faculty in health professions education should be supported to
develop skills and expertise in the selection and effective use of
educational technologies to complement the teaching-learning process
and assessment of outcomes.

Adaptation: Faculty in all disciplines should be


supported to develop skills and expertise in the
selection and effective use of educational
technologies to enhance the teaching-learning
process and the assessment of learning
outcomes.

Application of Recommendation II

Demands resources to develop and train faculty in the fundamentals


of learning theory and the best uses of educational technologies for
their respective disciplines

Advocates for faculty development programs and tools to support


teachers in developing the skills needed to use educational
technologies in their roles as curriculum designers, content
organizers, coaches, facilitators, advisors and mentors, and
assessors, including tracking student progress and identifying
students in need of special guidance and support

Creates opportunities to engage, inspire, and reward faculty for


scholarly and curricular innovations using new and emerging
educational technologies

Blends educational technologies and in-person learning engagement


to support student success and achieve desired learning outcomes

Recommendation III
Macy: Educational technologies should be used to accelerate the
transformation of health professions education to a system that is
competency-driven, affordable, and accessible to each learner.

Adaptation: Educational technologies should be


leveraged to accelerate the transformation of
education to a system that is competency-based,
affordable, and accessible to each learner.

Application of Recommendation III

Enables the assessment of learner readiness to learn, the


documentation of learner competencies, and tracking of
graduates success across their careers

Individualizes learner pathways and enhances accessibility and


flexibility to achieve learning objectives and learner competencies

Offers potential to address affordability with shift to competencybased learning, access to and use of open educational resources,

Offers potential for innovation and greater efficiency in fulfilling


accreditation and regulatory requirements through measurement
and aggregation of data for evaluation of individuals, cohorts,
programs, and institutions over time

Recommendation IV
Macy: Technology should be leveraged to bridge the gap
between educational and clinical missions, where teaching and
learning are embedded within a healthcare delivery system that
continuously improves.

Adaptation: Technology should be leveraged to


bridge the gap between school and work, where
lifelong learning is a shared partnership between the
learner and the employer for continuous
improvement of the individual and the organization.

Application of Recommendation IV

Permits use of big data and learning analytics to educate learners,


personalize learning pathways, and continuously enhance the
teaching-learning process

Places greater emphasis on addressing workplace requirements


to ensure graduating students have the requisite knowledge and
skills to succeed post-graduation

Requires technology developers to work in active partnership with


educators and employers to maximize the utility of technologyassisted instruction & assessment to refine instructional design
and improve the learning process and outcomes

Leverages technologies to enable self-assessment, teamwork,


and self-regulated learning to achieve learning outcomes and build
capacity for and commitment to lifelong professional development

Recommendation V
Macy: Leaders of health professions education programs
should employ technology to analyze community and population
data and use those data to continuously inform the design of
curriculum content and learning experiences to reflect the
contemporary health and healthcare needs of society.

Adaptation: Educators should employ technology to


collect and analyze aggregate data on student
learning outcomes and competencies and use those
data to continuously inform the design of
curriculum content and learning experiences that
connect with and reflect the needs of society

Application of Recommendation V

Drives attention to the value of using learning analytics to


enhance the connections between teaching-learning,
evolving disciplinary knowledge, and changing societal
needs

Supports the use of aggregate data and learning analytics


for continuous improvement of academic programs,
curricula, and student learning experiences that lead to
student success in achieving personal and programmatic
learning goals and building the capacity for lifelong learning

Recommendation VI
Macy: Educational technologies should be used to facilitate the
sharing of content and integration of data across systems and
programs, thus promoting the scalability and adoption of
efficient and effective educational strategies.

Adaptation: Educational technologies should be


used to facilitate the sharing of content and
integration of learning analytics across faculty and
programs, and to promote scalability and adoption
of more efficient and effective teaching-learning
strategies.

Application of Recommendation VI

Requires academic leaders and faculty to work collaboratively and


in partnership with technology developers to implement standards
for collecting and sharing data from a variety of sources, including
the learning management system and personalized, longitudinal
learning portfolios

Guides design of electronic learning and computer-based


assessment systems to permit learners and teachers to access
relevant learning data anytime, anywhere and maintain a
continuous learning portfolio as students and employees cross the
boundaries of programs and institutions

Triggers identification of lags in student learning and enables


early intervention with students in need of special academic
guidance and support to ensure student success

Application of Recommendation VI

Facilitates re-purposing, re-sequencing, and reuse of


content to adapt to different contexts, types of learners,
educational objectives, and circumstances of place, time,
and cost

Leverages educational technologies to:

Simplify and streamline compliance with accredita-on


and regulatory requirements, including where applicable,
specialized accredita-on, professional licensure and
cer-ca-on

Document and validate stackable creden-als

Enable transferability/reciprocity across jurisdic-onal and


organiza-onal boundaries

A simulation example
Deanna Reising & Doug Carr
Indiana University, Bloomington

Overview of Use of Technology for IPE


How teams are constructed
Example providedBLS (aka CPR)
Pre-brief
Use Clicker technology for exercise in team-building

Encounter
Video using simulator

Post peer debrief


Uses videos from BLS scenarios, senior team watches,
scores, and then provides junior teams feedback

How are you leveraging technology to engage


and collaborate with your students in the teachinglearning process?
How are you leveraging technology to create
personalized learning pathways adapted to
individual learning needs and progress?
What examples can you share?
What successes have you had?
What challenges have you encountered?

Final questions and


comments?
#MacyEdTech

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