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Tofa-e-Dil.

Festschrift Helmut Nespital

herausgegeben von / edited by


DIRK W. LNNE

Band II: Kulturwissenschaften


Volume II: Cultural Studies

Dr. Inge Wezler


Verlag fr Orientalistische Fachpublikationen
Reinbek
2001

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Tofa-e-Dil. Festschrift Helmut Nespital / hrsg. von Dirk W. Lnne. Reinbek: Dr. Inge Wezler Verlag fr Orientalistische Fachpublikationen,
Festschriftenreihe, 2001: xxi, 918 S. Bd. 1: Sprache und Literatur, Bd. 2: Kulturwissenschaften. ISBN 3-88587-033-9

8 2001 by Dirk W. Lnne, Berlin.

ISBN 3-88587-033-9

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Inhalt / Contents
Helmut Nespital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX-XII
Nachruf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII-XIV
Verffentlichungen von / Publications of Prof. Dr. Helmut Nespital . . . . . . . . . . . . XV-XIX
Vorwort / Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI

Band I: Sprache & Literatur


Volume I: Language & Literature
Elena BASHIR

Khowar-Wakhi Contact Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Hannelore BAUHAUS-LTZKE arad Jo: Alle frchten sich vor Virginia Woolf . . . . . 19
Gouriswar BHATTACHARYA

The Bengali Muslim Author, Syed Mustafa Siraj . . . . . 25

Klaus BRUHN

A Collection of Sentences for the Student


of Sanskrit III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Vit BUBENIK

On the Origins and Evolution of the Middle


Voice in Indo-Iranian Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Georg BUDDRUSS

More Khowar Proverbs and Idioms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Klaus BUTZENBERGER

Non-standard Metrical Terminology in chandovicitiliterature: Some Introductory Remarks on the Jnray


and the Ratnamaj Chandoviciti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Ramswarup CATURVEDI

(Linguistik Thought and


Criticism) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Cecilia COSSIO

The Writer and the Cinema:


Three Angles from the Hind Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Theo DAMSTEEGT

Ajeya and Anticolonialism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Rahul Peter DAS

The Science of Stealing (Steyastra) in Ancient India


and its Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Diana DIMITROVA

The Treatment of Women and Gender in the Plays


h k ek din and dhe adhre by
Mohan Rke (1925-1972) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Ines FORNELL

Wenn Misstrauen und Angst das Handeln bestimmen:


Drei Hindi-Kurzprosawerke zu spezifischen Aspekten
der Kommunalismus-Problematik im heutigen Indien . 189

Annette VAN DER HOEK

The Akepa Song of Seasons by Keavadsa . . . . . . . . 211

Peter Edwin HOOK

The Hindi Compound Verb and the Constitution


of India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Monika HORSTMANN

Kartographie der Erinnerung: Alk Sarvgs Roman


Kali-kath: vy bips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

Premalatha JAYAWARDENA-MOSER & Karl MOSER


Zur Bedeutung des Verbalaspekts in Verbkomposita
des Singhalesischen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Dieter B. KAPP

Fnfzig Tamil-Sprichwrter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

Dirk W. LNNE

Der Irrealis im konditionalen Satzgefge des Hindi . . 273

Angelika MALINAR

Rdhramaa Caraa Ds und die Caitanya-Nachfolge


in Orissa: ber die Textualisierung von Charisma . . . 295

Jan MAREK

Khwaja Moinuddin, Founder of Modern Urdu Drama


in Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

Konrad MEISIG

Lexikographische Notizen zur Hindi-Literatur,


I: Yashpal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

Annie MONTAUT

On the aoristic behaviour of the Hindi/Urdu simple past:


from aorist to evidenciality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

Thomas OBERLIES

Die Prakrit-Sprachen und das vedische Sanskrit . . . . . 365

Christina OESTERHELD

Das exemplarische Leben einer arf Muslimin:


die Fasna-i Ndir Jahn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

Mariola OFFREDI

A Note on Modern Hindi Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391

Tatiana ORANSKAIA

Ein Echo des Tagesgeschehens im Theaterstck . . . . . 415

Ruth Laila SCHMIDT

Compound Tenses in the Shina of Indus Kohistan . . . 433

Johannes SCHNEIDER

Tathgatarakitas Mtyuhpaka, ein Sdhana


der grnen Tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453

Ulrike STARK

In search of the missing self: the hero as failure and the


writer's self-reflexive quest in Manzur Ahtesham's
Dstn-e lpat (1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471

Danuta STASIK

On the Nature of Rma in Tulsds's Rmcaritmnas . 487

Ingo STRAUCH

Arthastra und Caurastra: Diebeskunst und Magie


im alten Indien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

Jaroslav STRNAD

Hindi dictionaries and the Hindi lexicographical


corpus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

Renate SYED

Hind tanman, hind jvan ... Zur Dichtung des


indischen Premierministers Aal Bihr Vjpey . . . . . 545

Jaroslav VACEK

Dravidian and Altaic fire B glow B light


(tVL-, dVL-, nVL-; VL-) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561

Band II: Kulturwissenschaften


Volume II: Cultural studies
Helene BASU

Die Zusammenkunft der Dichter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579

Elisabeth CONZELMANN

Speisefolge und Geschmack. Zum kulinarischen Code


im ehemaligen Frstentum Mandi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

Carola EHLERS

Im Namen der Gttin. Zum Problem der Identitt im


Devmhtmyam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

Harry FALK & Juergen NEUSS The Kamancapra caturmukhaliga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635


Adalbert J. GAIL

Vom Ursprung sdindischer Bilder aus dem Geiste


des Tanzes. Ein Beitrag zum Verstndnis von
Coa-Bronzen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649

Hans HARDER

Das bengalische Third Theatre: ein avantgardistisches,


sozialkritisches Konzepttheater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661

Klaus HESSE

Haus und Huser in Mandi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675

Katja HOFMANN

Viu-Gajendramokaa: Materialsammlung und


typologische Studie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699

Dirk H.A. KOLFF

Jacob Haafner's Journey in a Palanquin: A Passionate


Farewell from a Colonial Ancien Rgime . . . . . . . . . . . 727

Lothar LUTZE

Die Erzhlspirale als eine Grundform


mndlichen Erzhlens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749

Gerd J.R. MEVISSEN

Hitherto Unnoticed Images of Tripurntaka in the


Rjasihevara (Kailsantha) Temple, Kanchipuram . 755

Georg PFEFFER

Sprache und Religion bei den Stmmen Mittelindiens . 769

R.K.K. RAJARAJAN

Stpaharaam: Changing Thematic Idioms in


Sanskrit and Tamil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783

Falk REITZ

Is the Origin of the Granite Crosses in Kerala


Indigenous or Foreign? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799

Kerrin Grfin SCHWERIN

Besuche am Grab eines Mrtyrers - Salar Masud und


die Muslims in Audh - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821

Gaya Charan TRIPATHI

ber Hayagrva, den pferdekpfigen Gott


in der indischen Mythologie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845

Lukas WERTH

Castes among South Asian Muslims, Caste in


South Asian Islam, Caste in Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857

Mitarbeiter der Festschrift / Contributors to the Festschrift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887

Stpaharaam:
Changing Thematic Idioms in Sanskrit and Tamil

R.K.K. Rajarajan

Stpaharaam Abduction of St (Skt. apaharaam, Tam. vavvutal or apakari


carrying away, stealing) is an important event in the Rmyaa which leads to the
destruction of Rvaa and his abode, Lak. First versified by dikavi Vlmki (c. 500
B.C.)1, the Rmyaa was recast in various Asian languages of which Tamil is one of
the best and earliest adaptations. The author of the Tamil Rmyaa is kavicakravartKampar (12th century A.D.)2, the work is entitled as Irmvatram The Descent of
Rma and popularly known as Kampa Rmyaa. Kampar, after nearly 1700 years,
gives his own version of the story. Regarding the layout of the book in various kas3
there is not much difference between Vlmki and Kampar, the total number of verses
is lesser in the latter account. Certain thematic elements are thoroughly rewritten by
Kampar of which Stpaharaam is one.4 To say very formally Rvaa's abduction of
St in Vlmki's version involves a physical contact whereas there is no such transaction in Kampar. The mutation in Kampar is due mainly to an ethical issue. In Tamil
tradition a woman's chastity is instantly lost when she is touched by a man other than
her husband. It seems it was not so in the Sanskritic tradition around the 6th century
B.C. The present paper examines the literary motifs in both Sanskrit and Tamil, their
ethics and their influences on the arts of India.

For the date and translations of the Vlmki Rmyaa, see BROCKINGTON 1984: 1, fn. 1.
For the date and translations of the Kampa Rmyaa, see ZVELEBIL 1974: 146-7 and 1992:
65-69.
3
Kampar deals with the original six kas, viz. Bla, Ayodhy, Araya, Kikindh, Sundara
and Yuddha and not the last one, Uttaraka.
4
Kampar versifies the story against the ecological and cultural setting of the Tamil country. The
Citraka is the Govindarja shrine within the Naarja temple at Citamparam according to the Tamil
Avrs who showed the way to Kampar and present distinct allusions to the Rmyaa events from
the Bla to Yuddhakas. For a case study see SHULMAN 1981: 21-53; KALIDOS 1998: 17-24.
2

TOFA-E-DIL $ FESTSCHRIFT HELMUT NESPITAL 2001: 783-797

784

R.K.K. Rajarajan

It is in Book III (Arayaka) of the Rmyaa that Stpaharaam (sarga 49)


occurs.5 The antecedents of Stpaharaam6 may finically be presented here. Rma, son
of Kausaly and Daaratha, King of Ayodhy, was born in the Solar Race of kings which
began with Ikvku and proceeded through Raghu7. He had three brothers, Lakmaa,
Bharata and atrughna, born to Sumitr and Kaikey, the wives of Daaratha. Rma was
the first born and a man of character. At the prime of their youth, Rma and Lakmaa
were sent with a powerful sage, Vivmitra, to destroy demons, especially Tak.
Vivmitra takes the princes to Mithil where King Janaka was holding a contest for the
marriage of his foster-daughter, St. Rma is successful at the tour de force and takes
the hand of St. Back in Ayodhy, Daaratha initiates the formalities for Rma's
coronation as yuvarja heir-apparent. In the meantime Kaikey, the step-mother of
Rma is induced by an evil-minded servant, Manthar. Thus Kaikey forces her husband
to exile Rma for fourteen years so that her own son, Bharata, could take his place. Rma
obeys the regal order and proceeds to the forest followed, at their individual insistence,
by St and Lakmaa. In the woods Rma's work was to clear the way for is to uphold
their avocations without the nuisance of demons. Moving from place to place, killing
demons along the way, they reach Pacavat (identified with Nik in Maharashtra),
where they settle down. On the way a demon, Virdha, was punished. One day, rpaakh, sister of the demon King of Lak, Rvaa, arrived at the place and was infatuated by the beauty of Rma and Lakmaa. Unable to bear her doting and insulting
futile actions, Lakmaa cuts off the nose and ears. In Irmvatram it is not only the
nose and ears but also the breasts of the demoness that are mutilated.8 She flew back to
Lak in great fury and instigated her brother Rvaa to kidnap St, describing to
5

The present study follows the SASTRIGAL/SASTRI 1958 in Sanskrit and the English translation
by SHASTRI 1957, GRIFFITH 1963, POLLOCK/GOLDMAN 1991.
6
Also Stharaa (hara means taking away, seizing, attracting) but the original text which
gives the subtitle followed in the paper is more apt.
7
So mahkavi Klidsa's mini-epic is called Raghuvaa. For an account of the Rmyaa
story see BASHAM 1954: 412-15. For the gist of the Irmvatram see ZVELEBIL 1974: 146-59,
KALIDOS 1998: 22.
8
The painting from Mattancherry Palace, Cochin, is a good example for rpaakh-bhaga (see
BANERJEE 1986: fig. 98-B) based on Kampar's version. DASH (1994) describes the polarities of Rma's
punishment of rpaakh by quoting Vlmki. But the event is more complicated in case of Kampar's
Irmvatram, where rpaakh was punished by Lakmaa on Rma's order. The former lopped
rpaakh's nose, ears, and mammalian glands, too. To quote MEENAKSHISUNDARAN (1961: 47)
Kampa follows Cilappatikram in giving us a vision of chastity. In the Tamil tradition cutting the
breast is already known from Ilakovaikal's epic heroine Kaaki of Cilappatikram. It is considered
to be a prediction of inauspicious (Tam. amakalam) happening (see OBEYESEKERE 1973, RAJARAJAN
2000), which caused the holocaust of Maturai, when Kaaki removed her mammalian gland. With the
above sequence in mind Kampar must have repeated the same idea, to suggest the destruction of Lak.

Stpaharaam: Changing Thematic Idioms ...

785

him the beauty of the princess. Rvaa proceeds to Pacavai with an assistant,
Mrca. Mrca disguised himself a golden deer which St wanted to possess. Rma
went hunting for the deer, and when the beast was shot dead, it imitated the voice of
Rma and cried out for help. St compels Lakmaa to go and help his brother.9 In
the meantime Rvaa entered their cottage, Citraka. He spoke to St, trying to
arouse her libido. St scorned him, so Rvaa started threatening her and assumed
his original form with ten heads and twenty arms.
Rvaa wanted to carry St off to Lak. According to Vlmki, Rvaa with his
left hand caught hold of the tresses of St and with the right hand held her thighs10.
To quote:
vmena St padmk mrdhajeu karea sa /
rvostu dakienaiva parijagrha pin //
(DIVANJI 1963, Vlmki Rmya [VR], rayaka [AK],
sarga [s] 47, verse [v] 16).
Rvaa lifted St up and clasping her, ascended a golden chariot, his vehicle. Keeping her in his grip, Rvaa flew in his chariot. There appeared a powerful kite, Jayu,
to stop the outrage. He attacked Rvaa and shattered his chariot. Rvaa fought with
the mighty bird and finally cut off its wings and feet. Even while fighting, Rvaa
holds St passionately to his breast (ta praha nidhyake, VR, AK, s. 50, v.
23). At the climax of his fight with Jayu, Rvaa has to release St. St went
weeping to the fallen bird and hugged the poor creature. Rvaa's chariot having been
destroyed, he seized St once again and ascended into the air in levitation keeping
her tightly in his lap. The nature of physical touch between Rvaa and St is
pictured by Vlmki in a few lokas as follows:

St's is a very complex figure in the Vlmki version. Her character differs according to the
plot of the story, she is depicted as submissive or aggressive or demanding. Her behaviour towards
Lakmaa is very aggressive, (VR, AK, s. 43, v. 22-24) she accuses him in many ways, even that he
wants to possess her. GOLDMAN (1980: 169) terms St's behaviour as blatant accusation of oedipal
desires. Immediately after Lakmaa leaves the place follows St's abduction. She pretends to be
violent with Rvaa only with her harsh words. But her behaviour is very submissive, as she knows
for her it is not possible to defeat the great demon king. So she cries out for Rma's help. For a brief
study on the behaviour of St see SUTHERLAND 1989.
10
See HILTEBEITEL (1980-81: 196) compares St (apaharaam) with Draupad (kesmbarkaaa), the heroine of Mahbhrata. In both the cases its by hair - as with Draupad - and by the
thigh, HILTEBEITEL gives a brief note on the ornaments of St, which she had during her exile with
Rma.

786

R.K.K. Rajarajan

jagmdya ckam Rvao (VR, AK, s. 52. v. 25)


Rvaa lifted St and flew into the sky
sa parvajya Vaidehm vmenkena Rvaa (VR, AK, s. 52, v. 37)
Rvaa pressed Vaidehi to his left side.
The helpless St cries aloud and solicits the help of Rma and Lakmaa but to no
avail (aya hi kpay Rmo m trtumabhisagata, VR, AK, s. 52, v. 6). Then
she curses Rvaa for his outrageous act. To quote:
dm garhita karma katha ktv na lajjase
striyca haraa nca rahite tu parasya ca (DIVANJI 1963, VR, AK, s. 51, v. 6).
It is a shameless act to lift a woman, which only base outcastes would do. Thus St
herself characterizes the cowardice of Rvaa.
On two earlier occasions in the Arayaka, St both involuntarily and voluntarily comes into physical contact with other men. They are Virdha and Jayu. Virdha was a gandharva known as Tumburu, who was by Kubera to become a demon
because of his misbehaviour with Rambh. He lifts St with the intention of
marrying her.11 But Lakmaa and Rma fight with him and rescue St. He was
destined to be defeated by Rma and thereby got his curse nullified. In this case even
though St is physically lifted (VR, AK, s. 3) no question of ethics arises. When
Jayu is fallen after the combat with Rvaa, St hugs the poor bird to console
him.12 This voluntary touch is motherly. But what Rvaa did was to lift a helpless
woman who was in solitude and that too under the spell of his relentless libido. So
St brands him a nca base outcaste.13
In the Kampa Rmyaam, Stpaharaam occurs in the eighth paalam chapter of the raniyakam. Rvaa appears before St in disguise as a mendicant and
attempts to console her. When persuasion fails, he threatens to take her away. Finally
he plucked one yojana14 of the land upon which the cottage was situated and placed
11

In the Virdha episode (3.1.17-46), Rma kills Virdha before he can actually touch St, a
form of the story more acceptable to devotees since it preserves St's purity, BROCKINGTON (1984:
253). See the adaptations and translations that clearly pinpoint that Virdha covets St (GRIFFITH
1963: 230-1, SHASTRI 1957: 4-6, POLLOCK/GOLDMAN 1991: 88-90, HART/HEIFETZ 1988: 41). May
be it is only in some folk stories the above concept prevails.
12
The Mewar painting from the Oriental Research Institute, Udaipur, Rajasthan has an
illustration (cf. BANERJEE 1986: fig. 89).
13
Nca literally means low, mean, base, vile etc..
14
Yojana is a measure of land; sometimes regarded as equal to 4 or 5 English square(?) miles,
but not correctly (see MONIER-WILLIAMS 1979: 858).

Stpaharaam: Changing Thematic Idioms ...

787

it on his chariot. He did not touch St because of a curse imposed by Brahm


(T. Aya) which prohibited him touching women other than his wives. To quote:
u yiai tyava yiaiyait
t aya ml urai cintaiceyt
tt eal m uyar t valiyl
k nilam ycaai ku ml
(Irmvatram, Araniyakam, v. 3490)15
In the Tamil Rmyaa, St uses harsh words but not nca. She addresses Rvaa
with the vituperative term, a16 and during the encounter with Jayu, the mighty
bird admonishes him with harsh words, too. During the fight between Rvaa and
Jayu, the latter had shattered the chariot. So after the fall of Jayu, Rvaa lifted
the cottage with the piece of land and flies away. St lay forlorn on the ground of the
cottage (Maiait taaiyum maantu cmpinl, ibid., v. 3555). The fallen Jayu
looked above and said to himself, The fence of dharma is shattered, what is going to
happen (in future)? (taruma vliyaic/ cintiar ml iicceyal enkol, ibid.,
v. 3559). Kapu chastity was the breathspell of St (ibid., v. 3560).
The above account in the Tamil Rmayaa has been necessary since Rvaa did
not dare to touch St, and also because of the curse imposed on him by Brahm. He
lifted the earth along with the cottage and St, and took her to Lak. This is mainly
because of the Tamil cultural tradition of the 12th century A.D. according to which a
woman would lose her kapu if touched by an alien. But it is clear that in the
immortal past as well, i.e., in the 5th century B.C., such an idea did prevail. In the
earliest stratum of Tamil literature, Cakam (c. 2nd century B.C. to 2nd century
A.D.), there is a reference to the abduction of St by the demon, Rvaa.17 The poem
reads as follows: Ctaiyai/valittakai arakka vavviya u (Puannu no. 378,
15

Then, right there, in his evil, without touching her


whose ornaments were lovely, remembering the curse that he was
never to seize a woman, he dug out a yojana of earth below
and around her with his strong arms high as columns.
He lifted it onto his tall chariot and the woman
with dense bangles, her precious life obscured,
fainted away like lightening fallen to the earth.
Then he hurried to fly off across the sky.
(Irmvatram, raniyakam, v. 3490-1; translation follows: HART/HEIFETZ 1988: 231).
16
This word does not convey any meaning but a degraded or improper or person of lower status
could be addressed a (you base creature).
17
NAGASWAMY (1980: 409) refers to the verses.

788

R.K.K. Rajarajan

cf. MARR 1985: 95 for translation). It simply means St was lifted by the demon, it
is not clear how, but it could as well be an echo of the Vlmki tradition.18
If ethics comes into the picture, the question of whose ethics becomes a problem to
reckon with. It may not be unethical from the demon's point of view. There were eight
forms of marriages in those time of which one was rkasa (and Rvaa was a rkasa
king)19 which allowed an abduction. But in the case of St, she was married, unwilling
and was not a rkas herself. So Rvaa commited a heinous crime by kidnapping St
without the knowledge of Rma and Lakmaa, using disgraceful tricks like a coward
(cf. HARA 1974: 304-5). This issue raised by
Kampar received literary reaction in other regions
of India.20 The Adhytma Rmyaa, popular in
Kerala, emphasizes the no-physical-contact aspect.
Rma at the time of the deer hunt foresees St's
abduction and asks her to hide in the fire. Thus the
person Rvaa lifted was only My-St. After
Lakdahana, My-St plunges herself into fire
and the original immaculate St arises. In the
Rmcaritamnas of Tulasds as well, though it
follows the Vlmkiyan account of lifting St, it is
added that St plunged herself into fire even
before the haraam. Thus down to the time of
Tulasds (16th century A.D.) the ethical issue relating to the Stpaharaam event has been
debated.
The earliest Stpaharaam in art is a terracotta
Fig. 1 Sitpaharaam, uga terracotta, Kauambi. (After BANERJEE 1986: figurine of the uga period from Kaumb, datFig. 110).
able in the 2nd century A.D (SENGUPTA 1971-72,
18

Vavviya could be the equal of hara or apaharaam. The Tamil Lexicon (Vol. VI, p. 3540)
gives the following meanings of vavvu or vavvutal: to snatch, to take hold of and to carry off.
So it is an equal of apaharaam which means around the early centuries of the Christian era in
Tamilnadu the Vlmkiyan version of the story was popular.
19
BASHAM (1954: 168) mentions the eight forms of marriage. They are Brhma, Daiva, ra,
Prjpatya, Gndharva, sura, Rkasa (marriage by capture) and Paica. See HARA 1974:
296-306 for a detailed study on rkasa form of marriage, their dharmya lawfullness and nindya
unlawfullness. It's clear that the Katriyas even approved the violence that is implied by the
rkasa marriage (cf. KALIDOS 1997: 391-94).
20
For a gist on Vlmki-Rmyaa, Irmvatram and Rmacartiamnasa, see NAIDU 1980:
320.

Stpaharaam: Changing Thematic Idioms ...

789

Fig. 2 Stpaharaam, Kailsa (Rrakta), Ellora. (After


Markel 2000: 63, fig. 10).

Fig. 3 Stpaharaam, Kailsa (Rrakta), Ellora. (After Markel 2000: 63, fig. 10).

BANERJEE 1986: fig. 110, KALA 1988: fig. 16)21. Rvaa is presented like a hideous
demon who carries the helpless St in both arms (Fig. 1). Most of the scholars say,
when Rvaa was kidnapping St, she intentionally scatters her ornaments on the
ground so that Rma and Lakma could trace the route. But SENGUPTA's argument
differs from the others and is more acceptable, especially for this figurine. St's ornaments fell down on the earth, as Rvaa carried away St in puspakavimna at a
great speed and she also struggled considerably to get rid of Rvaa. In order to convey the nature of the scuffle, St's ornaments (Tam. para) are shown scattered all
around. Vlmki's (VR, AK, s. 50, 27-31) poetical description of the ornaments falling down is also the identification of the force which Rvaa uses in the act of apaharaa. Here the artist conveys the above scene in the same poetical manner but with
delicate, graphical representation. Rvaa is represented in a huge demonic form and
St in his hands as a small figure. He holds her left hand with his left, while his right
21

All the three authors have included and mentioned the image (fig. 1) under study. SENGUPTA
(1971-72) elaborately describes the image and identifies it as Rvaa kidnapping St, by citing
many verses from Vlmki Rmyaa.

790

R.K.K. Rajarajan

hand grips both her left leg and hip. St with her right foot placed on his right hand
tries to free herself from his clutch.
An array of miniature carvings appear in the monolithic section of the Kailsa
temple at Ellora (GAIL 1985; MARKEL 2000). The St's abduction Entfhrung finds
a place in this narrative panel. There are four scenes: (i) Rvaa approaching St, (ii)
Rvaa pulling St by holding her right
arm, (iii) St in the chariot while Rvaa
fights with Jyu, and (iv) Rva and St
together in the chariot. There is physical contact in this illustration, but it is not strictly following the Vlmki tradition (Figs. 2 and 3).
As pointed out by MARKEL (2000: 70, fn. 8)
rpaakh's beautiful appearance in the
relief, instead of the ugly one as narrated in
the Vlmki's version is in accordance with
Kampar's version.22 In any case, this is one
of the most impressive plastic illustrations of
early medieval art.
Of the early medieval specimens, two
more deserve to be mentioned. The first from
the Virpka temple at Paadakal of the
Early Westerm Calukya period and the second from the monolithic Kailsa in Ellora.
One of the niches on the south face of the
Virpka houses the Stpaharaam (Fig.
4). On the south face of the monolithic Kailsa at the pda section, close to the porch,
Sitpaharaam has been depicted. The latter
Fig. 4
Stpaharaam, Virpka temple is of the Rrakta period. The Virpksa
(Early Western Calukya), Paadakal. (Photo: (cf. WECHSLER 1994: 33, fig. 6), being
author).
22

SANFORD's (1974: 26-7) statement is worth mentioning, there was an earlier version which
Kamban used as a model, which would detract from his image as innovator. Even then we would not
know whether this earlier version was Tamil or Sanskrit. All that could be said with certainty would
be that a version resembling Kamban's, but different from Valmiki's, was present in early South
Indian art. The earliest sculptural version of Srpnakh's beautiful appearance, is from the Gupta
period (cf. BANERJEE 1986: fig. 98). Thus depicting rpnakh as beautiful woman prevailed before
Kampar's time but not in Vlmki's version.

Stpaharaam: Changing Thematic Idioms ...

791

constructed earlier obviously served as a model for the Kailsa temple at Ellora. In both
the theme is the same: Rvaa and St in a chariot while Jyu attacks Rvaa.
There are three panels illustrating
Stpaharaam on the Amtevara temple
at Amtapura, Karnataka.23 Two illustrations are depicted on the west face and one
on the southern entrance of the mukhamaapa (cf. EVANS 1997: figs. 21, 22
and 39). The figures 21 and 39, are
depicted following the original Rmyaa, where Rvaa is shown in physical
contact with St. But the figure 22 under
study (our Fig. 5) follows Kampar's version. Rvaa is depicted with ten heads
and twenty hands and fighting with Jayu
while carrying St above his head in his
upper hands. St is shown seated inside a
house, which Rvaa has unearthed. The
Hoysaa artist must have been aware of
Fig. 5 Stpaharaam, Amtevara temple at
Kampar's Irmvatram, a good example
Amtapura. (Photo: G. MELZER).
is the Saptalacchedana shooting the
seven trees as EVANS (1997: 64) herself identifies citing MANI (1984: 478).24 So it is
clear that in Amtapura, we see the influence of both Vlmki's and Kampar's
versions as well.
The most picturesque illustration is from the Kagra paintings (MILLER 1994: 1526), dated in A.D. 1775-80, now in the Brooklyn Museum (Fig. 6). The ten-headed
and multi-armed Rvaa is killing Jayu whose wings have been cut by a lance
while the chariot is shattered. Rvaa with his prvahastas holds St tightly in
embrace. Then he is found flying, carrying St in the grip of his front right arm.

23

For brief study on the temple's history, style, architecture and sculpture, see Annual Report of
the Mysore Arch. Dept. 1935: 6-12 and EVANS 1997.
24
See also SANFORD (1974: 27) who refers to the Stpaharaam in Halebidu, which strictly
follows Kampar's version.

792

R.K.K. Rajarajan

Fig. 6 Rvaa-Jayu yuddha and Stpaharaam, Kagra miniture, Brooklyn Museum.


(After MILLER 1994: 21, Fig. 4).

Fig. 7 Stpaharaam, Malwa school, Bharat Kala Bhavan, Varnas. (After MORLEY
1981: 245, Pl. R).

Stpaharaam: Changing Thematic Idioms ...

793

Vlmki says it is the left arm. On the peak of a mountain some monkeys are seated
while St drops her valuables. This is one of the best representations of Stpaharaam following the Vlmki tradition.
There are two paintings in the Bhrat Kal Bhavan at Vras, dated in the 17th
century, from Malwa. In one (Fig. 7) Rvaa seems to be in levitation, carrying St
on the palm of his left hand. She is seated comfortably. He is perhaps crossing the
habitat of the monkeys, i.e. Kikindh, where St is said to have dropped her ornaments. These ornaments are found in the left corner of the illustration. Below trees
and swans are depicted. This painting is of particular interest because it is closer to
Kampar's version of Stpaharaam. The extended left hand of Rvaa and the
seated posture of St should be noted. Does this indicate that he has unearthed the
piece of territory upon which the cottage was standing (MORLEY 1981: 245, Pl. R).25
The Rmasvmi temple at Kumpakam in its pradakipatha accommodates
a continuous row of the Rmyaa paintings.26 Originally painted in the 18th century

Fig. 8 Stpaharaam and fall of Jayu, Marha painting, Rmasvmi temple,


Kumpaknam. (After NANDA 1997: pl. 9).

25

Another illustration from MORLEY (1981: 246, fig. 537) is very interesting, Rvaa is shown
with a full coat in the Moghul-Maratha fashion. While St is seen in a bag which is hanging upon
the left shoulder of Rvaa. There is no reference why St is depicted in a bag.
26
Two more illustrations of the Nyaka (17th century) Toaimn (18th century) paintings
depicting Stpaharaam deserve worth mentioning. They are from Aakar Kyil (cf. VIJAYAVENUGOPAL 1987: 412-19), Maturai district and Tirukkaram, Putukkai district. The entire ceiling
of the mukhamapa of Gkarevara temple, Tirukkaram is decorated with the Rmyaa
paintings and remain unreported. Presently I am working on the above panels for my post-doctoral
work. NAGASWAMY (1980: 430) gives a list of ten temples, where Rmyaa paintings are depicted.

794

R.K.K. Rajarajan

A.D. by the Nyaka rulers of Tacvr, due to erosion some of them were repainted
by the Marha rulers of Tcvr. There are two illustrations of Stpaharaam of
the Nyaka (NANDA et al. 1998: Pl. 8) and Marha (ibid. 1998: Pl. 9; our Fig. 8),
18th and 19th centuries respectively. In the Nyaka painting Daagrva-Rvaa is
seated with St in his golden chariot. Jayu attacks and ruins the chariot. Jayu
himself is depicted fallen. The label in Tamil reads, Jayu-Rvaa-yuttam (Skt.
yuddha = Tam. caai). The Marha illustration is very clear. Daagrva-Rvaa is
seated on the chariot in sukhasana pose, while St like in Tamil fashion with a saree
and blouse, is standing nearby. In the Tamil tradition, women in the presence of men
are not expected to be seated, be he a friend or foe. Jayu is attacking the chariot and
has partly ruined it. It could not be ascertained with accuracy whether these two
paintings follow the Vlmki or Tamil tradition as far as the apaharaam is concerned. In both cases there is no intimate contact. With reference to the dress, it might
be suggested that the Tamil tradition is emphasized.
It is in the temple cars
(Tam. tr, Skt. ratha) that
the Tamil tradition is better
portrayed. Dated not earlier
than the 17th century A.D.
these chariots are veritable
abodes of Hindu iconography (KALIDOS 1989). A
continuous array of the Rmyaa carvings in wood
appear in these chariots of
which the best examples
may be found in the following trs: Kal Aakar at
Maturai (RAJARAJAN 1998:
329-48), Rmasvmi at
Fig. 9 Rvaa approaching St, Vavr. (Photo: author).
Kumpakam (DALLAPICCOLA 1991: 77-80, 1994: 11-24), Mriyamman at Tippi (KALIDOS 1991: Figs. 5-9)
and Kdaa Rma at Vavr. At least ten specimens on the Stpaharaam event are
reported (KALIDOS 1989: 352) of which one from the Kdaa Rma temple at Vavr
is in tune with the Tamil tradition (Fig. 9): Rvaa approaching the cottage, as a
mendicant, St is depicted standing away and receiving him from the cottage steps. St

Stpaharaam: Changing Thematic Idioms ...

795

is shown wearing a saree and blouse, which highlights the Tamil traditional fashion.
The other temples with Stpaharaam are: Mriyamma at Tippi, Povaradarja
at Rcipuram, Balasubrahmaya at Periyakulam (cf. KALIDOS 1989: 397-400),
Rmasvmi at Kumpakam (cf. DALLAPICCOLA 1991, 1994), Prasanna Vekaea at
Guaslam, Rmantha at Rmevaram, Naccataitavittaruiyasvmi at Devadnam and
r Sailappar at ivasailam. In case of the second typology, i.e., St seated on a
chariot, she is usually attired in the typical Tamil fashion in a saree and seated posture
with head bowed, which conforms to the Tamil cultural tradition (cf. DALLAPICCOLA
1994: Fig. 11). There is no physical contact between Rvaa and St though seated in
close quarters. These might suggest the notion that the images follow the Tamil version
of Rmyaa in keeping with the cultural setting of the region.
Vlmki and Kampar stand at the polarities of two cultural traditions, separated
by the time and space of nearly two millennia. Vlmki's Rma is a true ryan, the
torch-bearer of its cultural usages, taking the cultural values in two directions before
and after his marriage toward Bihar and Lak. What Rvaa did may be fair from
the demonic cultural point of view (cf. ZVELEBIL 1988: 126-34, viewing Rvaa as
a noble Dravidian demon-hero)27 but what Rma finally does is to establish the ryan
dharma which is accepted by the monkey (Sugrva) and bird (Jayu) tribes, including Rvaa's brother Vibhaa. However with the lapse of time, Kampar at the
other end of the millennium polarity accepts the ryan ideology and will not allow
Rvaa to touch St. Several other versions of the Rmyaa (e.g. Adhytma- and
Rmcaritmanas) indirectly echo the same idea and it is very interesting to find these
motifs receiving the serious attention of ilpis through the plastic and pictorial arts of
India through the ages.
Acknowledgements
I gratefully acknowledge the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Bonn, which
offered me the prestigious Humboldtian Fellowship to work at the Institut fr Indische
Philologie und Kunstgeschichte, Freie Universitt Berlin. My sincere thanks to my
guide, Prof. Dr. Adalbert J. Gail, and friends, especially Gerd J.R. Mevissen, Dr. Falk
Reitz, Dr. Ingo Strauch, Vandana Nadkarni, Gudrun Melzer and Dirk W. Lnne.

27

It is noteworthy that in Kampa's hands the demon Rvaa frequently takes on proportions
of a heroic figure, and contrasts favourably with the rather weak and unimpressive Rma. Like
Milton, Kamba was of the devil's party without knowing it, BASHAM 1954: 475-6.

796

R.K.K. Rajarajan

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