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# Programmable Logic Controllers

prv

Contents

Data Representation
Data Handling

Analog Outputs

Data Representation
Data Handling

## prv/PLC and its Applications

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What is Analog
PLC

can understand
only discrete language
Examples

inputs:

## prv/PLC and its Applications

of analog

Flow transducers

Humidity transducers

Potentiometers

Pressure transducers

Vibration
transducers

Temperature
transducers

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Module
Analog

input
modules digitize
It

uses an A/D
converter for the
purpose.
PLC

information stored in
either BCD or Binary
format.

## prv/PLC and its Applications

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Steps in conversion

## prv/PLC and its Applications

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An example
What will the contents of register 1000
be after the multi bit instruction shown in
Figure is executed? Note that the
digitized value corresponding to the
analog transformation shown in the figure
is represented by 12 bits in binary format.

## After the instruction is

executed, the contents of
register 1000 will be: 0000
1010 1100 1111 This
number corresponds to the
digitized value generated by
the module. Since the value
is represented in 12 bits,
the preceding bits are filled
with 0s. Note that the value
stored in register 1000 is in
binary.
Its
decimal
equivalent,
for
computational purposes, is
2767.

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representation

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Analog conversion
The

## field sensing device sends a very

to the transmitter.
The

## to the input module as an amplified

current or voltage proportional to the
signal being measured.
Next,

the

analog

input

interface

## digitizes the current or voltage by

converting it into an equivalent binary
number.
The

## signal to the controller. Thus, the binary

value that the PLC receives is the digital
equivalent of the incoming analog signal.

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A/D conversion
The

This

resolution.
An

## equivalent values to the processor,

which in turn, makes them available for
use in register or word locations.
The

## according to the format used by the

PLC; however, the most

common

## formats are binary and BCD. In BCD

format, the module or processor must
perform an extra linearity computation
to provide a valid BCD number.

## prv/PLC and its Applications

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Try this!
An input module, which is connected to a
temperature transducer, has an A/D with a 12-bit
resolution. When the temperature transducer
receives a valid signal from the process (100 to
600C), it provides, via a transmitter, a +1 to +5 VDC

10

## (a) Find the equivalent

voltage change for each
count
change
(the
voltage
change
per
degree Celsius change)
and
the
equivalent
number of counts per
degree Celsius, assuming
that the input module
transforms the data into
a linear 0 to 4095
counts, and (b) find the
same values for a
module with a 10-bit
resolution.

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## Solution for (a)

An input module, which is
connected to a temperature
transducer, has an A/D with a
12-bit resolution. When the
temperature
transducer
the process (100 to 600C), it
provides, via a transmitter, a
+1 to +5 VDC signal
compatible with the analog
input module.

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## Solution for (b)

An input module, which is
connected
to
a
temperature transducer, has
an A/D with a 12-bit
resolution.
When
the
temperature
transducer
the process (100 to 600C),
it provides, via a transmitter,
a +1 to +5 VDC signal
compatible with the analog
input module.

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Question No.2

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## prv/PLC and its Applications

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Analog data
handling
During

the input
scan, the processor
the
module
and
transfers
the
information
to
a
location specified by
the user.
This

location
is
usually a word or
register storage area
or an input register.

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Connections
Analog

## provide a high input impedance

(in the mega ohm range) for

his

interface

with

high

source-

## resistance outputs from input-

sensing

devices

(e.g.,

transmitters or transducers).
Current-type

input modules

## provide low input impedance

(between 250 and 500 ohms),

## which is necessary to properly

interface with their compatible
field sensing devices.

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Analog Output
Channels
Analog

## output interfaces are

used in applications requiring
the control of field devices
that respond to continuous
voltage or current levels.
An

## example of this type of

field device is a volume adjust
valve (see Figure). This type of
valve, which is used in
hydraulic-based
punch
presses, requires a 010 VDC
signal to vary the volume of
oil being pumped to the press
cylinders, thereby changing
the speed of the ram or
platen.

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## prv/PLC and its Applications

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Analog Output
Module
The

controller
transfers the contents
of a register, generally
specified by 12bits, to
the output module
upon execution of the
instruction
The

module then
transforms this value,
whether BCD or
binary, from digital to
analog and passes it to
the
field
control
device

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## prv/PLC and its Applications

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Question and
Figure illustrates the binary transfer of information to an analog output
module via a multi bit instruction. Assume that the module converts a digital
signal equal to the binary value 0000 0000 0000 (0 decimal) to an analog
value that makes the control valve be completely closed, closed, while it
converts a value of 1111 1111 1111 (4095 decimal) to an analog value that
makes the valve be fully open. What will the state of the valve be according to
the contents of register 2000?

## The value stored in register 2000 is

0000 0011 1111, which is equivalent
to decimal 63. Thus, the valve is open

## approximately 1/65th, or 1.53%, of its

fully open position (63 4095 =
1.53%). Note that the position of the
valve is determined by the decimal
equivalent of the binary value, not

## the number of 1s and 0sa binary

number with half 1s and half 0s does
not indicate that the valve is half
open. If the value in the register had
been in BCD, the output module

## would have converted the value to

decimal to determine the valve
position.

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representation
An

## analog output interface operates

except that the data direction is

reversed.
A

## numerical data (BCD or binary)

sent from the processor into an

analog signal.
This

The

## minimum and maximum capable

analog voltages or currents of the
field device (e.g., 0 to 10 VDC)

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Analog Output
Data Handling
The

## table area holds the data to be sent to an analog

output module (see Figure ).

This

## that, when sent to the module, will control an

analog output device. During the execution of the
output

update,

the

processor

sends

the

## register/word contents to the analog module

specified by the address in the instruction.

The

## binary or BCD value into an analog output

voltage or current. Since the program calculates

precautions

during

programming

to

avoid

module.

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Output data
handling

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References

## W. Bolton, Programmable Logic Controllers, Fourth

Edition, Newnes, 2006. (ISBN-13: 978-0-7506-8112-4)
John W. Webb, Ronald A. Reis, Programmable Logic
Controllers, Principles and Applications, Fifth Edition,
Prentice Hall of India, 2003. (ISBN-81-203-2308-4)
I.A. Bryan, E.A. Bryan, Programmable Controllers
Theory and Implementation, Second Edition, An Industrial
Text Company Publication,1997, ISBN 0-944107-32-X
John R. Hackworth, Fredrick D. Hackworth Jr.
Programmable Logic Controllers: Programming Methods
and Applications
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References

## Madhuchandra Mitra, Samarjit Sen Gupta, Programmable

Logic Controllers and Industrial Automation, an
Introduction, Penram International Publishing (India)P
Limited, 2005, ISBN: 81-87972-17-3
Gary Duning, Introduction to Programmable Logic
Controllers, 2nd Edition, Thomson Delmar Learning, 2005,
ISBN 0 7668 1768 -7

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Have any?

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## prv/PLC and its Applications

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A passing thought

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