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Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September

2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory

1. What are the functions of life, as demonstrated by all living


organisms?
The functions of life are things that all cells have to go through and they are:
Nutrition, growth, reproduction, response to stimulus, movement, excretion
and homeostasis.
2. Define the following terms, with examples:
Unicellular
A unicellular organism is an organism that is capable of all functions of life.
Multicellular
A multicellular organism is an organism that has specialized cells that carry
out some of the functions particularly, but altogether all the functions are
covered.
Acellular
An acellular organism is an organism that cannot carry out all of the
functions, they invade a host and use the hosts cells apparatus to survive,
these are commonly known as viruses.
3. Why are viruses often considered non-living?
Viruses are often considered non-living because they cannot carry out all of
the functions that living cells can carry out.
4. Outline the three fundamental statements of cell theory
i. All living things are composed of one or more cells.
ii. Cells are organisms basic units of structure and function.
iii. Cells come only from pre-existing cells.

5. What is the significance of the discoveries made by Antonie van


Leeuwenhoek and Robert Hooke?
The significance of the discoveries made by Antonie van Leewenhoek and
Robert Hooke is that we now have the invention of the microscope which
helps us improve in our theories about science and also we can the basis of
what cells really are which has allowed us to study them further and find out
more about them.
6. For many years, scientists thought that new organisms came about
through spontaneous generation. Outline the idea of spontaneous
generation and the experiments carried out by Pasteur and Remak
to refute this idea.

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory


Spontaneous Generation was all about how an organism can spontaneously
appear from another, for example maggots can just appear in meat but as we
know this is not true. So to prove that this was not true Pasteur made an
experiment by placing the broth into an open beaker and some more in a
beaker that stopped the airborne particles from being able to enter. Once the
experiment was done this had proved that bacteria grows on other organisms
when the bacteria from the air is able to enter the organism etc.
7. Some types of cell seem to break the laws of cell theory.
a. Give two examples of cells which are multinucleated
Two examples of cells which are multinucleated are: muscle cells and
fungal hyphae.
b. Why are viruses often considered acellular or even non-living?
Viruses are often considered acellular or non-living because they cannot
carry out all
functions that a multicellular or unicellular organism can.

8. Complete this table of SI units of length:

Metric Equivalent
Whole
scientific
notation

Unit

Abbreviatio
n

kilometer

Km

1 000 m

103 m

meter

1m

centimeter

Cm

0.01m

10-2 m

millimeter

Mm

0.001 m

10-3 m

micrometer

0.000 001 m

10^-6m

nanometer

Nm

0.000000001

10.9 m

9. The diagram below shows the characteristic rod-shaped structure of


E. coli bacteria.

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory


a. What is the magnification of the
image?
The magnification of this image is:
M=23mm/2um
M=23000/2
M=11,500X
b. By which method (shown here) do bacteria
reproduce?
They reproduce through division

10.

What is the actual size of the structures delineated in yellow?

Diatom X 1,000:
As= 50mm/1,000
As=0.05mm
As= 5um
Adapted from Stephen Taylor

Diatom X 5,000
As= 68mm/5,000
As= 0.0136mm
As= 13.6um
http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory


Mosquito head X 200
needle X 100
As= 42mm/200X
As= 0.21mm
As= 210um
11.

Hypodermic
As= 29mm/100X
As= 0.29mm
As= 290um

Calculate the magnification of these scale bars:

2um:
M= 17mm/2um
M= 17000/2
M= 8,500 X
100nm:
M= 32mm/100
M= 32000000/100
M= 320,000X
50um:
M= 19mm/50um
M= 19000/50
M= 380X

67um:
M= 16mm/67um
M= 16000/67
M= 238.80
100um:
M= 32mm/100um
M= 32000/100
M= 320X
50mm:
M= 19mm/50mm
M= 0.38mm
M=380X

500m:
M= 27mm/500m
M= 0.027/500
M= 0.000054m

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory

12.

What is the magnification of these images?

a. Scale bar 10m measures 40mm on the image.

b. Scale bar 5m measures 25mm on the image.

13.
A micrograph has a scale bar of 2m, which measures 40mm
on the image. Measuring the maximum length of the cell in the
image, the ruler reads 180mm. How long is the cell?

14.
A student views an image of a cell magnified 350 times. The
image is 250mm long. What is the actual length of the sample in the
image?

15.

Compare the sizes of these structures. Use SI units.

Plan Anim
t cell al cell
10-100
um

10-30
um

nucle
us

bacte
ria

Mitochondr
ia

viru
s

3-18
um

1-5 um

5-10
um

10-300
um

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

riboso
me

Membr
ane
thickne
ss

20nm

2.5nm

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

molecu
les

0.278
nm

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory

16.
Use some of these electron microscope resources to view
molecules, cells and structures and to practice calculating
magnifications and actual sizes.
Virtual Electron Microscope: http://virtual.itg.uiuc.edu/
Microscopy UK: http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/
17.
As the volume of a cell increases, what happens to?
(increase/ decrease)
a. Production of waste products.
As the colume of a cell increases the production of waste products
increase.
b. Usage of nutrients and oxygen.
As the volume of a cell increases the usage of nutrients and oxygen
increase.
c. The surface area: volume ratio.
As the volume of a cell increases the surface area: volume ratio
decreases.

18.
What are the advantages of maximizing the surface area:
volume ratio in a cell?
The advantages of maximizing the surface area: volume ratio in a cell is that
diffusion of nutrients becomes easier.

19.
What strategies do cells use to maintain an efficient SA:Vol?
The strategies that cells use to maintain efficient Surface area: Volume ratio
is to divide.

20.
What are some of the ways in which larger organisms
maximize SA:Vol?
Some ways in which larger organisms maximize their SA:Vol ratio are that
some organisms fold up to maximize their ratio.
21.
How can a large SA:Vol be harmful or costly to smaller animal
species?

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory

A large SA:Vol can be harmful or costly to smaller animal species because


small animals would then have to constantly be eating in order to keep their
body temperature high.

22.
How does the invasive Caulerpa algae genus break the rules of
SA:Vol?
The invasive Caulerpa algae genus breaks the rules of SA:Vol because it is a
giant single cell with many nucleis.
23.

Read this article: Giant bacterium with many genomes

http://scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/2008/04/enormous_bacterium_uses_thousands_of_ge
nome_copies_to_its_ad.php

How does this bacterium cope with being so large?


This bacterium copes with being so large by feeding on the nutritious fluid in
the intestine of its
host because it is symbiotic.
24.
Unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life, multicellular organisms differentiate and show emergent properties.
a. What is meant by the term emergent properties?
The term emergent properties means when the different parts of an
organism are broken down into their component parts.
b. What are the advantages of cells differentiating to carry out
specific functions?
The advantages of cells differentiating to carry out specific functions is
that when the functions all work together they end up benefiting the
organism all together.
25.
All cells in a living organism carry the same genetic
information.
a. What is a stem cell?
A stem cell is a type of cell that can be used for any specialized cell
when required, it can turn into any specialized cell.
b. What are the following types of stem cells?
Pluripotent: This type of stem cell can become any type of cell
except the embryonic membrane.
Multipotent: This type of stem cell can become a number of different
cell types.

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory

Nullipotent: This type of stem cell is the type that is unable to divide.
(red blood cells)
c. What type of cell can a liver stem cell become?
The type of cell that a liver stem cell can become is a cancer cell.
26.
Outline the process of cell differentiation that leads from an
uncommitted stem cell to a specialized cell, including the role of
gene expression. A flow chart might help.
Once a stem cell has differentiated, it can only make more stem cells or the
differentiated cell type. The process of cell differentiation is a result of the
expression of different genes. Every single cell in the body all carry the same
genes in their nuclei, the only property that makes a cell different is which
gene is expressed in the cell. The expression of the gene is triggered by
changes and the environment around the cell.

27.
Give three examples of specialized cells in multicellular
organisms. Describe how their structure relates to their function.
i.
ii.
iii.
28.
Complete the table below to show how stem cells can be used
in medicine.

Used to
treat

Therapeutic cloning
Used to replace tissues lost in
disease, burned skin or nerve
cells

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

Stem cell transplants


lymphoma

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com

Name_______Chloe Troulan________________Date____14th September


2010_________________
IB Biology

02.1: Cell Theory


Brief
method:

They clone the in-vitro culturing


of tissues using someones stem
cells.

The bone marrow is destroyed by


chemo or radio-therapy. But
before this treatment stem cells
are harvested from the bone
marrow and stored. These
harvested cells can then be used
to replace the damaged bone
marrow which then will produce
healthy blood cells.

Ethical
considerati
ons

Reading:
Stem cells cure sickle cell anemia in mice:
http://medgadget.com/archives/2007/12/scientists_cure_sickle_cell_anemia
_in_mouse_model.html
10 amazing medical breakthroughs (read them all):
http://www.time.com/time/specials/2008/top10/article/0,30583,1855948_18
63993,00.html
iPS Stem cells used to make human neurons:
http://scienceblogs.com/notrocketscience/2008/08/stem_cells_created_from
_als_patient_and_used_to_make_neurons.php
29.
What are the objections of some groups to the use of
embryonic stem cells?

30.
How might iPS stem cell technology reduce the need for
embryonic stem cells?

Adapted from Stephen Taylor

http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com