First PSet in Modern Combinatorics

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First PSet in Modern Combinatorics

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Andrew Hu

Modern Combinatoris

September 29, 2015

Problem 1. 1.1 f,i,l,o

f. First, let us compute the probability distribution of each coordinate. Suppose each

coordinate is 1 with probability p and 1 with probability 1p. Then, we have the following

equation:

= p + (1)(1 p)

which solves to give p =

1+

.

2

The product on {1, 1}n can only be 1 or 1. Let (x) be the density function that we

are asked to find the Fourier coefficients for. Let q be the probability that the product on

{1, 1}n is 1. That is (1) = q, (1) = 1 q. Then:

1

1

1

1

1

()

= E() = (1) + (1) = q + (1 q) =

2

2

2

2

2

= E({1} ) = 21 ((x)|x = 1) 12 ((x)|x = 1) = 12 q 21 (1 q) =

1

q 2 , where we have broken up expectation using conditional expectation. We now compute

n

.

q in terms of . We claim that q = 1+

2

We proceed by induction. The base case n = 1 is clear from our discussion earlier. Now

n

suppose q = 1+

for some n. Then in the case of the product probability distribution on

2

n+1

{1, 1} , the probability of getting 1 is the probability of getting 1 on product probability

distribution on n times p plus the probability of getting -1 on product probability distribution

on n times 1 p. In particular, this is:

1 + n 1 + 1 n 1

1 + n+1

+

=

2

2

2

2

2

=

R.

n

.

2

n . Now, we need to find f (S) for an arbitrary S n .

We use the form f(S) = E(f S ). We know f (x) = 0 for x = (1)n , (1)n and f (x) = 1

otherwise; therefore, we can write:

X

1

f(S) = n

S (x)

2

n n

x6=(1) ,1

Andrew Hu

P

Now, for |S| odd, we have x6=(1)n ,1n S (x) = 0 because we have removed one case where

S (x) is 1 and one case where

of S. For |S| is even, we have removed two

P it is 1, regardlessn1

cases where S (x) is 1 so x6=(1)n ,1n S (x) = 2

2 2n1 = 2. Therefore, we have:

n

2 2

2n

f(S) = 0

1

2n1

|S| = 0

|S| odd

|S| even

l. We simply compute:

x1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

x2

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

x3

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

OXR(x)

0

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

3

f() =

4

1

f({1}) =

4

f ({2}) = f ({3}) = 0

f({1, 2}) = f({1, 3}) = 0

1

f({2, 3}) =

4

1

f({1, 2, 3}) =

4

o. First, note that the majority function is odd f (x) = f (x) so the f(S) for |S| even is

0. Second, since the function is symmetric, we only need to determine the coefficient for a

representative of the set of subsets of a particular size |S|.

First, the majority-5 function. For |S| = 1, we write:

1

1

E(f S ) = E(f |x1 = 1) E(f |x1 = 1)

2

2

4

4

1

1

3

= ( 24 ) ( 24 ) =

2 2

2

2

8

n

k

Where we use

Andrew Hu

n

nk

1

1

E(f S ) = E(S |f = 1) E(S |x1 = 1)

2

2

5

5

5

5

5

+ 55

1 0 + 2

1

3

3

1

4

= (

(

+

)

=

2

24

24

2

24

24

8

Thus, we can write:

M aj5 (x) =

X

3X

3

xi + f(S)

xi xj xk + x1 x2 x3 x4 x5

8 i

8

i6=j6=k

where |S| = 3. Since the sum of the Fourier coefficeints squared is 1, we know f(S) = 18 .

Then, checking x = 15 gives us that f(S) = 18 for |S| = 3 so:

M aj5 (x) =

3

3X

1 X

xi xj xk + x1 x2 x3 x4 x 5

xi

8 i

8 i6=j6=k

8

Next, the majority-7 function; we follow a lot of the same machinery and do not reproduce

the calculations in full detail. For |S| = 1, we have:

1

1

E(f S ) = E(f |x1 = 1) E(f |x1 = 1)

2

2

6

6

1

1

5

= ( 36 ) ( 36 ) =

2 2

2

2

16

For |S| = 3, we have:

1

1

E(f S ) = E(S |f = 1) E(S |x1 = 1)

2

2

1 2

1 2

1

= ( 6 ) ( 6) =

2 2

2 2

16

Then, we note that due to the symmetry of the majority function and the parity function,

it is the case that |f(S)| = |f(n S)|. In particular, we have:

M aj7 (x) =

X

5 X

1 X

1

5

xi

xi xj xk +

xi xj xk xm + x1 x2 x3 x 4 x5 x6 x7

16 i

16 i6=j6=k

16 i6=j6=k6=l6=m

16

M aj7 (x) =

X

5 X

1 X

1

5

xi

xi xj x k +

xi xj xk xm x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7

16 i

16 i6=j6=k

16 i6=j6=k6=l6=m

16

Problem 2. 1.2

P

We know that for f : {1, 1}n {1, 1}, we have S f2 (S) = 1. In particular, if for only

one S f2 (S) 6= 0, then f(S) = 1. Since there are 2n choices of S and 2 choices for each S,

there are 2n+1 such boolean functions.

3

Andrew Hu

Problem 3. 1.5

It is well known that the Hamming distance (and thus relative hamming distance) satisfies the

triangle inequality. Assume by way of contradiction that we have |f(S)| > 12 and |f(T )| > 12

for S 6= T . As long as S 6= T , we know dist(S , T ) = 21 since we can simply fix one of them

and the other has equal probability to equal or not equal over all x. Furthermore, we know:

1

|1 2dist(f, S )| = | < f, S > | = |f(S)| >

2

Solving out the inequality gives us two possible cases for each d(f, S ) <

AND d(f, T ) < 41 or d(f, T ) > 34 .

1

4

or d(f, S ) >

3

4

We first do the case where d(f, S ) < 14 and d(f, T ) < 41 . Then, by the triangle inequality,

we have d(S , T ) d(f, S ) + d(f, T ) = 12 < 12 , a contradiction.

If d(f, S ) > 34 and d(f, T ) > 43 , we know that these come from the cases when f(S), f(T ) <

12 . Then, f is also a boolean function with f(S), f(T ) > 12 and the first case generates a

contradiction on f so this cannot be the case as well.

For the last two cases, WLOG, let us take d(f, S ) > 43 and d(f, T ) < 14 . Then, by the

triangle inequality, we have 34 = d(f, S ) d(f, T ) + d(T , S ) < 34 , another contradiction.

Therefore, it is impossible for a Boolean-valued function two have more than one Fourier

coefficient exceeding 12 . This is not true in general for functions with norm 1 because the proof

takes advantage of the triangle inequality, which only exists for Boolean-valued functions.

Problem 4. 1.11 b,c

b. We take 1.9 for given. From 1.9(d), we can rewrite the result as:

p(x) = 1 2q(

1 xn

1 x1

,...,

)

2

2

Since 1.9(c) tells us that each Fourier coefficient in q(x) is an integer, we can deduce the

form of Fourier coefficients in p(x). Since |S| k by the degree of q, each Fourier coefficient

receives at most k 21 s from the expansion of q with the xs replaced. Since there is a

constant of 2 outside q, the Fourier coefficients of p are all integer multiples of 21k .

(S) = aS 21k . Then, we have P f(S)2 = 1 =

c. Note

that

from

above,

we

can

write

f

P

222k a2S = 1 which gives us:

X

a2S = 22k2

S[n]

P

|aS | a2S . This allows us to continue:

X

|aS | 22k2

X

|aS 21k | 2k1

X

|f(S)| 2k1

as needed.

4

Andrew Hu

Problem 5. 1.28

a. We have for all S 6= S , we have d(S , S ) = 21 (where we write dist(., .) as d(., .)). By

hypothesis, we have d(f, S ) = . Then, by the triangle inequality, we have d(f, S )

d(S , S ) + d(S , f ) and d(S , S ) d(f, S ) + d(S , f ). Simplifying, this gives us:

1

+

2

1

d(f, S )

2

d(f, S )

S>

. First suppose

Now, recall that we have < f, S >= 1 2d(f, S ) d(f, S ) = 1<f,

2

1<f,S >

1

1

2 + = < f, S > 2. Alternatively,

d(f, S ) 2 + . Then, we have

2

1<f,S >

1

suppose d(f, S ) 2 . Then, we have

12 = < f, S > 2. These two

2

statements together give us | < f, S > | 2.

b. From

in the proof of Theorem 1.30, we have that the P r[BLRrejects] =

P thework

1

1

3

f

(S)

.

From

part (a), we have that |f(S)| 2 for S 6= S and f(S ) = 1 2

S[n]

2

2

(from Lemma 1.9). Thus, we write:

1 1 X 3

P r[BLRreject] =

f (S)

2 2

S[n]

X

1 1

f(S)3 )

= (f(S )3 +

2 2

S6=S

X

1 1

f(S)2 )

((1 2)3 + max f(S)

S6

=

S

2 2

S6=S

as in 1.30

1 1

(1 6 + 12 2 8 3 + 2(1 (1 2)2 )) part a and Parseval

2 2

1 1

= (1 6 + 20 2 16 3 )

2 2

= 3 10 2 + 8 3

=

where in the inequality, we use the facts derived in part a and Parsevals theorem.

c. This can be seen immediately from the computation of the probability above. The only

inequality is in line 3. Equality holds if f(S) is the same for all S 6= S . Since this constraint

can easily be constructed while maintaining the property of the function, we see that the

computed probability is strict and cannot be improved to any c O( 2 ) for c > 3.

Problem 6. 2.3

a. We do the easy direction first. Suppose f can be expressed as a weighted majority

function with a1 = a2 = . . . = an = 1. Then, since all xi have the same constant 1 on them

and addition is commutative, f is P

symmetric. Now, P

suppose that x y coordinate wise,

xi yi i. Then f (x) = sgn(a0 + xi ) sgn(a0 + yi ) = f (y) so f is monotone since

sgn(.) is monotone.

Now suppose that f is symmetric and Q

monotone.

P We know that f can be expressed as a

linear combination of parity functions

xi ,

f (S)S and that we may write Infi (f ) =

5

Andrew Hu

f(S)2 . Since f is monotone, we also have that Infi (f ) = f({i}). In particular, this

demonstrates that in the Fourier expansion of f , f(S) = 0 for |S| 2. Furthermore, since

f is symmetric, all

Pthe Fourier coefficients on S for |S| = 1 are the same and we can write

the same direction) and symmetric function sgn(.), itPis now clear that any boolean-valued

function of this form can be represented as sgn(a0 + xi ), as needed.

P

b. By part (a), we can

write

f

(x)

=

sgn(a

+

xi ). SincePf is odd, we havePf (x) =

0

P

P

f (x) = sgn(a0 xi ) = sgn(a0 + xi ) = sgn(a0 xi ) = sgn(a

P 0 xi ) =

sgn(a0 ) = sgn(a0 ) = a0 = 0. Then, if n is even, we find that sgn( xi ) could be 0

which is out of the range of a boolean valued function. Therefore n is odd and f = M ajn .

P

iS

Problem 7. Influences

f. If = 0, then (1) = (1) = 0 and the influence of 1 is 0. Otherwise, (1) 6= (1) so

the influence of 1 is 1.

i. Note that this function is symmetric so it suffices to compute Inf1 (f ). The only case that

flipping the first bit would cause a change in the NAE function is if all bits are equal (value

changes from 0 to 1 with bit change) or if they are almost all equal except for the first bit.

1

This gives 4 cases in total. Therefore, the Inf1 (f ) = 24n = 2n2

.

l. Using the table in problem 1, we compute directly:

1

2

1

Inf2 (f ) =

2

1

Inf3 (f ) =

2

Inf1 (f ) =

o. Since the majority function is monotone, we know that Infi (f ) = f(i). For majority 5,

5

.

this value is 38 . For majority 7, this value is 16

Problem 8. 2.5a

We have Infi (f ) = EDi2 (f ) |EDi (f )| = |Di(f )()| = |f(i)| as needed. The inequality

comes from the fact that Di2 (f ) and Di (f ) are non-zero at the same x and Di2 (f ) is nonnegative, while Di (f ) could be 1 or 1, resulting in a lower expectation.

Equality is obtained iff EDi2 (f ) = |EDi (f )|, which is true iff x : Di (f )(x) 6= 0, Di (f )(x)

has the same sign. This is equivalent to being unate in the i-th direction.

Problem 9. 2.6

P

Let f (x) = sgn(a0 + ai xi ) be an arbitrary linear threshold function. Fix some i. Then:

X

f (x(i1) ) = sgn(a0 ai +

aj x j )

j6=i

f (x

(i1)

) = sgn(a0 + ai +

X

j6=i

aj x j )

Andrew Hu

It is immediately clear that if ai > 0, then f (x(i1) ) f (x(i1) ) and if ai < 0, then

f (x(i1) ) f (x(i1) ) since sgn(.) is weakly monotonic. Thus f is unate in direction i and

since i was arbitrarily chosen f is unate.

Problem 10. 2.8

We show the hint Infi (f ) 2min(P r[f = 1], P r[f = 1]). Fix some i. Note that each

of the possible x {1, 1}n come in 2n1 pairs, one in which xi is positive and one in

which it is negative. Take an arbitrary pair (x, y). There are 4 possibilities: f (x) = f (y) =

1; f (x) = 1, f (y) = 1; f (x) = 1, f (y) = 1; f (x) = f (y) = 1, suppose these cases happen

in counts A, B, C, D respectively (A + B + C + D = 2n1 , that many pairs). Then, the

. 2P r[f = 1] = 2B+2C+4D

, P r[f = 1] = 2B+2C+4A

. Since A, D 0, it is

Infi (f ) = 2B+2C

2n

2n

2n

clear that Infi (f ) 2 min(P r[f = 1], P r[f = 1]).

Now, if we can prove 2 min(P r[f = 1], P r[f = 1]) V ar(f ), well be done. From fact

1.14, we know V ar(f ) = 4P r[f = 1]P r[f = 1]. Suppose a = min(P r[f = 1], P r[f = 1]).

Then, we wish to show that 2a 4a(1 a) = a 2a(1 a) for 0 a 12 . The boundary

cases can easily be checked so let us consider 0 < a < 21 . Then, the inequality we wish to

show can be simplified to 1 2(1 a) = a 12 . Keeping in mind that a < 21 , this

becomes true and we are done. Combining the two statements, we have Infi (f ) V ar(f ).

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