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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA


DECLARATION OF THESIS / UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT REPORT AND
COPYRIGHT
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Title

Academic Session : 2013/2014


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award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Urban and Regional Planning)

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iii
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iv

INVESTIGATING LEAF AREA INDEX OF OIL PALM AND RUBBER


TOWARDS HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE

NORADILA RUSLI @ RUSLIK

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the


requirements for the award of the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy (Urban and Regional Planning)

Faculty of Built Environment


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

JULY 2014

I declare that this thesis entitled Investigating Leaf Area Index of Oil Palm and
Rubber towards Hydrologic Response is the result of my own research except as
cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not
concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.

Signature

....................................................

Name

NORADILA RUSLI @ RUSLIK

Date

July 2014

vi

Specially dedicated to Mak and Abah


I really miss both of you.
Al-Fatihah

vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Your text begin here


.
.

viii

ABSTRACT

Your text begin here

ix

ABSTRAK

Your text begin here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

vii

ABSTRACT

viii

ABSTRAK

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

xiii

LIST OF FIGURES

xv

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

xvii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

xviii

LIST OF APPENDICES

xix

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Problem Statement

1.3 Research Objectives

1.4 Research Question

1.5 Literature Review

1.6 Research Methodology

1.7 Expected Findings

1.8 Structure of Thesis

1.9 Summary and Conclusion

CHAPTER 2

Soil Hydrology, Land Use and Agriculture Measurement and Modelling

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Watershed Planning

2.3 Agriculture and Hydrologic Response

2.4 8
2.5 8

xi
CHAPTER 3

10

OIL PALM & RUBBER TREE LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI)????

10

CHAPTER 4

12

Research Methodology

12

4.1 Introduction

12

4.2 Scope of Study

13

4.3 Reviews on Previous Research

13

4.4 Selection of Methodology

13

4.5 Research Planning

13

4.6 Data Acquisition

13

4.7 Research Instruments

14

4.8 Conclusion

14

CHAPTER 5

15

Thirty Years of LULC Changes in Muar River Watershed

15

5.1 Introduction

15

5.1 Description of Study Area

15

5.2 Developing LULC Database

16

5.3 Analysis of LULC Changes

17

5.4 17
5.5 17
CHAPTER 6

18

Hydrological Responses on LULC Changes

18

6.1 18
6.2 18
6.3 18
6.4 18
CHAPTER 7

19

Hypothetical Simulation: Impact of LULC at Sungai Muar Watershed

19

7.1 19
7.2 19
7.3 19
7.4 19
CHAPTER 8

21

xii
Conclusion
8.1 21
8.2 21
8.3 21

21

xiii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Flood occurrences in Malaysia

Table 1.2: Existing research on LULC impact on hydrology in South East Asian

10

Table 1.3: Various reviewed research to derive the research gap

11

Table 1.4: Previous study involving suitable methodology

13

Table 1.5: Potential data to be collected

16

Table 3.1: Previous method measuring LAI


Table 8.1

2
11

xiv

xv

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: The formulation of problem statement

Figure 1.2: Rainfall data for seven nearest stations along Sungai Muar

Figure 1.3: General diagram of how research questions answering the


objectives
Figure 1.4: Brief concept on research gap identification
Figure 1.5: Methods derivation based on study objectives

7
8
13

xvi

xvii

LIST OF ABBREVIATION

Your list begin here

xviii

xix

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Your text begin here

xx

xxi

LIST OF APPENDICES

Your list begin here

xxii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Introduction

Your text begin here

Table 1.1: Flood occurrences in Malaysia


Jhr

Sgr

Prk

Mlk

Ns

Phg

Ktn

Tgu

Kl

Pls

Kdh

Pp

Sbh

Swk

1886
1926
(Jan-Mar) 1967
Nov 1967
1968
Jan 1971
1999
2004
2005
2006

Dec

(11-17 Jan) 2007


(Jan-Feb) 2011
Mar 2012

Source: Compiled from (Hisham et al., (2008) ; San & Selamat (2010) ; Gasim et al., (2010))

2
1.2

Problem Statement

Your text begin here

Figure 1.1: The formulation of problem statement

1.3

Research Objectives

Your text begin here

1.4

Research Question

Your text begin here

1.5

Literature Review

1.5.1

Identification of Research Gap

Table 1.2: Existing research on LULC impact on hydrology in South East Asian
Authors

Location

1.5.2

Identification of Research Methodology

1.6

Research Methodology

1.7

Expected Findings

1.8

Structure of Thesis

1.9

Summary and Conclusion

CHAPTER 2

YOUR TITLE BEGIN HERE

2.1

Introduction

Your text begin here

2.2

Watershed Planning

Your text begin here

2.3

Agriculture and Hydrologic Response

Your text begin here

6
2.4

2.5

CHAPTER 3

YOUR TITLE BEGIN HERE

3.1

Introduction

Your text begin here

3.2

Leaf Area Index (LAI)

Your text begin here

3.3

Previous Method Measuring LAI

Your text begin here

3.3.1

Hemispherical photography

3.3.2

3.4

3.5

Experimental Design

CHAPTER 4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1

Introduction

Your text begin here

10
4.2

Scope of Study

4.3

Reviews on Previous Research

4.4

Selection of Methodology

4.4.1

Research Design

4.4.2

Research Approach

4.4.3

Research Techniques

4.4.4

Data Analysis

4.5

Research Planning

4.6

Data Acquisition

4.6.1

Spatial Data

11
4.6.2

Non-Spatial Data

4.7

Research Instruments

4.8 Conclusion

12

CHAPTER 5

THIRTY YEARS OF LULC CHANGES

5.1

Introduction

Your text begin here

5.1

Description of Study Area

5.2

Developing LULC Database

Your text begin here

5.2.1

Extraction of Land Cover Map

13
5.3

Analysis of LULC Changes

Your text begin here

5.4

5.5

14

CHAPTER 6

HYDROLOGICAL RESPONSES ON LULC CHANGES

6.1

Title

Your text begin here

6.2

6.3

6.4

15

16

CHAPTER 7

HYPOTHETICAL SIMULATION: IMPACT OF LULC AT SUNGAI MUAR


WATERSHED

7.1

Title

Your text begin here

7.2

7.3

7.4

17

18

CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSION

8.1

Title

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8.2

8.3

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