You are on page 1of 45

Sowmya - Computer PDF

DATAB
ASE MAN
AGEMENT SY
STEM (DBMS)
ABASE
MANA
SYSTEM
Data : Data means collection of rawfacts and figures.
Information : Data that has been processed into useful form is known as Information. Information is
the processed data.
Database : A database is a collection of information organized into interrelated tables of data and
specifications of data objects.
Attribute : a single data item related to a database object.
Field a field is a single unit of data stored as part of a database record. Each record is made up of
one or more fields, which correspond to the columns in a database table. collection of characters
referred as "Field". Fields are often also referred to as attributes.
Cell : an intersection of row and column is known as "cell".
Tuple : Tuple means a collection of one or more attributes. A collection of cells vertically is known as
"Tuple".
Record : A collection of cells horizontally is known as "Record". A database record consists of one set
of tuples for a given relational table. In a relational database, records correspond to rows in each table.
A related set of data which are contained in fields.
Table : A set of rows and columns.
Entity : An entity is a single object about which data can be stored.
Key: Key is a unique field in a record used to distinguish one record from another. A database key is
an attribute used to identify data in some manner. Each table has a primary key which uniquely
identifies records.
Query : A statement that extracts information from the database. Queries are the primary mechanism for retrieving information from a database and consist of questions presented to the database in
a predefined format.
Schema : A database schema is a collection of metadata that describes the relations in a database.
Queue : An alternate pipe form of operating system, which handles data in the form of messages
rather than bytes.
Stack : A memory in which the information stored last is on top and is retrieved first.
Data Processing : A series of operations that convert rawfacts (data) into useful information.
Data Processing System : A system that accomplishes data processing.
Data Processor : A digital device that processes data.
Data Transfer Rate : The speed at which data is transfered from the main memory to another
medium on which data are recorded.
File : A collection of related records.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


2

File Management System (FMS) : A software package that allows users to define data items, place
these items into specified records combine these records into designated files and then manipulate
and retrieve stored data. An FMS can access records from only one file at a time.
File Organization : The technique used to represent and store the records on a file is called the File
Organisation.
The file organization techniques are three types :
Sequential File Organization : The most basic way to organize the collection of records

that from a file is to use sequential organization.


Random File Organization : A random access file enables you to read or write informa

tion anywhere in the database.


Indexed Sequential File Organization : Indexed sequential Access Method (ISAM), a

method for managing how a computer accesses records and files stored on a hard disk.
While storing data sequentially, ISAM provides direct access to records through an index.
This combination results in quick data access regardless of whether records are being
accessed sequentially or randomly.
Back-up Copy : It is the reference of original file (or) duplicate version of original file.
Buffer : A storage area where data are temporarily stored.
Block : A group of records
De-Block : An individual record.
DBMS : (Database Management System) : The software used for the management, maintenance and retrieval of data stored in a database.
DBMS is sub-divided into three types
DDL (Data Definition Language)
DML (Data Manipulation Language)
DCL (Data Control Language)

Types of DBMS : There are three types of DBMS.


Hierarchical DBMS : A DBMS is said to be hierarchical if the relationships among data in

the database are established in such away that one data item is present as the subordinate
of another one.
Network DBMS : In Network DMBS, the relationships among data in the database are of

type many-to-many.
Relational DBMS : The software that manages data in more than one file at a time. In

RDBMS, the database relationships are treated in the form of a table. the table represents
the data with rows and columns rather than as lists of records.
Data Automation : Making data entry and validation as automatic as possible is known as
"Data Automation".
Data Recovery : A program which attempts to recover deleted or damaged data is known as
"Data Recovery".
Data Compression : A program which force data into less space on the storage medium.
Data Integrity
Data Validation.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


3

E - COMMERCE

E - Commerce (Electronic Commerce) : E-Commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services on the internet. The visitor to the site can sell or buy any product or service online. The transactions are enable through credit cards, Debit cards etc.
E-Business (Electronic Business) : E-Business is the administration of conducting business via
the Internet. This would include the buying and selling of goods and services, along with providing
technical or customer support through the Internet. E-Business is used in conjunction with E-Commerce, but includes services in addition to the sale of goods.
E-Administration : The use of ICTs (Information and Communication technologies) to modernize the
state, the creation of data repositories for MIS (Management Information Systems), computerisation
of records.
E-Services : the emphasis here is to bring the state closer to the citizens. Examples include provision of online services. E-Services and E-Administration together constitute what is generally termed
e-governance.
E-Governance : The use of IT to improve the ability of government to address the needs of society.
It includes the publishing of policy and programme related information to transact with citizens. It
extends beyond provision of on-line services and use of IT for strategic planning and reaching development goals of the government.
E-Democracy : The use of IT to facilitate the ability of all sections of society to participate in the
governance of the state. The remit is much broader here with a stated emphasis on transparency',
accountability and participation. Examples are online disclosure policies, online grievance redress
forums and e-referendums.
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) : A cashless approach used to pay for goods and services.
Electronic signals between computers are used to adjust the accounts of the parties involved in a
transaction. Electronic Funds transfer (EFT) is also known as "Electronic Banking (E-Banking)". EBanking is the use of electronic means to transfer funds directly from one account to another, rather
than by cheque or cash.
Internet Banking or Online Banking : internet Banking allows customers to conduct financial transactions on a secure website operated by their retail or virtual bank, credit union or building soeicty.
E-Marketing : E-Marketing is also known as Internet Marketing, Digital Marketing, Web Marketing,
Online Marketing, Search Marketing, I-Marketing (Internet Marketing) is the Marketing of products or
services over the Internet.
Types of E-Marketplace:
1.

Horizontal Marketing : A horizontal Market is a market which meets a given need of a wide
variety of industries, ratrher than a specific one.

2.

Vertical Marketing : A vertical Marketing used to define a comany's approach towards targeting
that focuses on specific industries.

E-Procurement (Supplier exchange) : E-Procurement is more than just a system for making purchases online. A properly implemented system can connect companies and their business processes
directly with suppliers while managing all interactions between them. Examples are bids, management correspondence, questions and answers, previous pricing and multiple emails sent to multiple
participants.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


4

Types of E-Commerce :
1.

Business to Customer (B2C) : The basic concept of this model is to sell the product online to
the customers. It provides direct selling through online. B2C is the indirect trade between the
company and consumers. Directly interact with the customers is the main difference with other
business model.

2. Business to Business (B2B) : It is similar to manufacturer issuing goods to the retailer or wholesaler. This model defines that Buyer and seller are two different entities. It consists of longest form of
E-Commerce. It is one of the cost effective way to sell out product through out the world.
3. Customer to Customer (C2C) : It helps the online dealing of goods or services among people.
though there is no major parties needed but the parties will not fulfill the transactions without the
program which is supplied by the online market dealer such as eBay.
4. Peer to Peer (P2P) : It is a discipline that deal itself, which assists people to instantly shares
related computer files and computer sources without having to interact with central webserver.
5. M-Commerce : This model deals with conducting the transactions with the help of mobile. The
mobile consumers can interact each other and can lead the business. M-Commerce (Mobile Commerce) involves the change of ownership or rights to utilize goods and related services.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


5

DATA COMMUNICATION

Data Communication : Data Communication refers to the transmission of the digital signals over a
communication channel between the transmitter and receiver computers.
(or)
Data Communication refers to the sharing of information between two interconnected systems in
a network.
The Five Elements of Data Communications :
1.

Computer

2.

Source (Sender)

3.

destination (Receiver)

4.

communication Device

5.

transmission Medium

COMMUNICATION DEVICES :
1.

Wire Pairs : Wire pairs are used in local telephone communication and for short distance digital
data communication. They are usually made up of copper and the pair of wires is twisted to
gether.

2.

Coaxial Cables : Coaxial cable is groups of specially wrapped and insulted wires that are able to
transfer data at higher rate. They consist of a central copper wire surrounded by an insulation
over which copper mesh is placed. Coaxial cables are used for long distance telephone lines and
LAN for their noise immunity and faster data transfer.

3.

Microwave : Microwave system uses very high frequency radio signals to transist data through
space. the transimitter and receiver of a microwave system should in line-or-sight because the
radio signal cannot bend.
With microwave very long distance transmission is not possible to overcome this problem of line
of sight and power amplification of weak signal, repeaters are used at regular intervals between
the transmitting and receiving end.

4.

Communication Satellite : A Communication satellite is a microwave relay station placed in


outer space. In satellite communication, microwave signal is transmitted from a transmitter on
earth to the satellite at space. The satellite amplifies the weak signal and transmits it back to the
receiver.

The main advantage of satellite communication is that it is a single microwave relay station visible
from any point of a very large area.
Data Transmission Modes : There are three ways for transmitting data from one system to another
system.
1.

Simplex : In simplex, the communication can take place in one direction (source to Destination)
The flow of information is Uni-directional. The receiver receives the signal from the transmitting
device. Ex: Pazer.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


6

2.

Half - Duplex : In half-duplex, communication channel is used in both directions but only in one
direction at a time. Thus, a half-duplex line can alternately send and receive data.
Ex: Walky-Talky

3.

Full - Duplex : In full - duplex, the communication channel is used in both directions at the same
time.
Ex : Telephone call conversation.

Flow Control : Flow control is needed when the sender transmits faster than the receiver or intermediate network equipment can process the transmissions.
Routing : When systems are not directly connected, intermediary systems along the route to the
intended receivers need to forward messages on behalf of the sender. On the Internet, the networks
are connected using routers.
Types of Data Transmission :
Digital and Analog transmission : Data is transmitted from one point to another point by means
of electrical signals that may be in digital and analog form. In analog signal, the transmission
power varies over a continuous range with respect to sound, light and radio waves. A digital signal
may assume only discrete set of values within a given range. Analog signal is measured in volts
and its frequency in Hertz (HZ).
Serial and Parallel Transmission : Serial data transmission implies transfer data transfer
bit-by-bit on the single (serial) communication line. In serial transmission, data is sent in a serial
form i.e., bit by bit on a single line. The cost of communication hardware is consider able reduced
since only a single wire or channel is require for the serial bit transmission. Serial data transmis
sion is slow as compared to parallel transmission.
Parallel data transmission is less common but faster than serial data transmission. Most data are
organized into 8 bit bytes.In some computers, data are further organized into multiple bits called
half words, full words.
Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission : In asynchronous transmission data is trans
mitted character by character. It is cheaper to implement, as you donot have to save the data
before sending.
In synchronous mode, the saved data is transmitted block by block. Each block can contain many
characters. Synchronous transmission is well suited for remote communication between a com
puter and related devices like printers and card readers.
Protocol : A set of rules and regulations for transmitting the data from one system to another system
in a network is known as "Protocol". The procedure of data transformation in the form of software is
known as "Protocol".

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


7

Ex : of Protocols :
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
Internet Protocol (IP)
Post Office Protocol (POP3)
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

Functions of Protocol : Protocol performs the following functions for the efficient and error free
transmission of data.
Data Sequencing : A long message to be transmitted is broken into smaller packets of fixed size
for error free data transmission
Flow Control : All machines are not equally efficient in terms of speed. The flow control regulates
the process of sending data between fast sender and slow receiver.
Data Routing : It is the process of finding the most efficient route between source and destination
before sending the data.
Error Control : Error detecting and recovering is the one of the main function of protocol. It
ensures that data are transmitted without any error.
Bandwidth : The capacity at which a given communication channel, such as ordinary copper
telephone line, can transfer information. Increasing bandwidth increases the speed at which data
transfer takes place.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


8

NETWORKING

Network : An interconnection of computer system and/or peripherals with carriers and data communications devices for the purpose of exchanging data and information. the users share hardware or
software over the network.
Network Types: Networks can be categorized in several different ways. Common examples of area
network types are :
LAN : Local Area Network
WLAN : Wireless Local Area Network.
CAN : Campus Area Network (or) Controller Area Network (or) Cluster Area Network.
PAN : Personal Area Network
DAN : Desk Area Network
SAN : Storage Area Network (or) System Area Network (or) Small Area Network
(or) Server Area Network
MAN : Metropolitan Area Network
GAN : Global area Network
WAN : Wide Area Network
Categories of Networks: Based on the architecture networks can be broadly classified as :
1. Peer-to-peer architecture
2. Client/server architecture
1.

Peer-to-peer architecture : P2P is a type of network in which each computer has equal capa
bilities and responsibilities.

2.

Client/Server architecture : A network architecture in which each computer on the network is


either a client or a server. Servers are powerful computers dedicated to managing disk drives,
network traffic. Clients are PCs on which users run applications.

Protocol : A set of rules and regulations for transmitting the data from one system to another system
in a network.
Client : The system request for the data for further processing.
Server : A system that shares resources with one or more workstations on a network.
Client-Server Computing : A memory computing computer applications in which required functions
are grouped at service requestors and service providers. Client request services and servers provide
them, this method particularly is suited for applications implemented on distributed computers.
Node : Each device connected to a network is known as "Node". An end point, of a branch in a
network or a common junction of two or more network branches.
Network Topology : the structure of interconnecting of nodes of a computer network is known as
"Network Topology". A Network topology represents its layout or structure from the point of view of
data flow. Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types:
1.

Bus Topology

2.

Ring Topology

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


9

3.

Star Topology

4.

Tree Topology

5.

Mesh Topology

1.

Bus Topology : All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. All
information transmitted a cross the bus can be received by any system in the network.

2.

Ring Topology : all devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop. So that
every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through
a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "Anticlockwise"). A failure in any cable or device
breaks the loop and can take down the entire network.

3.

Star Topology : All devices are connected to a central hub. Nodes communicate a cross the
network by passing data through the web.

4.

Tree Topology : A hybrid topology. One "root" node connects to other nodes, which in turn con
nect to other nodes, forming a tree structure. Information from the root node may have to pass
through other nodes to reach the end nodes.

5.

Mesh Topology : Mesh topology involve the concept of routes. Nodes are connected with many
redundant interconnections between network nodes. Messages sent on a Mesh Topology can
take any of several possible paths from source to destination.

Networking Cables : Cable is the measuring through which information usually moves from one
network device to another.
Some types of the network cables are :
1.

Coaxial Cable

2.

Fiber Optic Cable

3.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable.

4.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable.

1.

Coaxial Cable : Coaxial lines confine the electromagnetic wave to the area inside the cable be
tween the center conductor and the shield. The most common use for coaxial cables is for televi
sion.

2.

Fiber Optic Cable : An optical Fiber cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical
elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube
suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed.

3. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable : Shielded Twisted Pair cables are an attempt to prevent
electromagnetic interference. Because the shielding is made of metal. This type of cabling offers the
best protection from interference from external sources, and also eliminates alien crosstalk.
4. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) : Unshielded Twisted Pair Cable is the most common cable
used in computer networking Unshielded Twisted Pair cable is used in data networks for short and
medium length connections because of its relatively lower costs compared to optical fiber and coaxial
cable. UTP is used in video applications, security cameras.
MODEM (MODULATOR - DE MODULATOR) : Devices used to convert digital signals to its analog
form (modulation) at the sending end and back to digital signals from analog form (demodulation) at
the receiving end.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Sowmya - Computer PDF


10

Bandwidth : Bandwidth refers to the data rate supported by a network connection or interface. Bandwidth is the primary measure of computer network speed. Example of low bandwidth connection is
dial-up connection. Example of high bandwidth connection is Broadband.
ISO/OSI (International Standard Organization for open Systems Interconnection) : ISO/OSI
standard clearly defines the functions of communication softwares in a generalized and structured
manner which helps to carryout the network product development activities. ISO/OSI model indicates
about how the data transmit from one system to another system in a network. ISO/OSI model consists of 7 layers.
Source

Destination

APPLICATION

APPLICATION

PRESENTATION

PRESENTATION

SESSION

SESSION

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

NETWORK

NETWORK

DATALINK

DATALINK

PHYSICAL

PHYSICAL

Physical Medium
Fig : ISO/OSI Model

1. Physical Layer : Physical layer transmits the data between the systems by 'Bit-by-Bit" level. It
uses "Category-5" wires for data transmission. It connects the two systems through physical medium
such as coaxial cables, Fiber optics, vaccum etc.
2. Datalink Layer : Datalink layer transmits the data between the systems by "frames (or) Segment" levels. It communicates the data between adjacent nodes or systems or work stations. This
layer uses HUB and PPP (Process to Process Protocol) for data transmission.
3. Network Layer : Network Layer transmits the data between the systems by "packet" level. This
layer was IP (Internet Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) and TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol).
4. Transport Layer : Transport Layer indicates about the type of communication. It uses TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).
Data Transmission is divided into two types :
Connection - Oriented Transmission :

It is reliable transmission

It gives the acknowledgements (Delivery Reports)

It uses TCP for data transmission

Example : Sending messages, e-mails.

Connection - Less Transmission :

It is non-reliable Transmission

It doesn't give the acknowledgements.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

10

Sowmya - Computer PDF


11

It uses UDP for data transmission.

Example : Speech

5. Session Layer : Session Layer provides the encryption (coding) on the sender side (source) and
decrytion (decoding) on the receiver side (destination). Encryption and Decryption applied for providing security to the message. Session Layer uses the RPC (Remote Procedure Call).
6. Presentation Layer : Presentation Layer indicates the syntax errors and also re-arranges the
message. Presentation Layer uses the SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and HTTP (Hypertext
Transfer Protocol).
7. Application Layer : Application Layer is also known as "User Application Layer (or) User Friendly
Layer" It uses FTP (File transfer Protocol), DNS (Domain Name System), SIME (Simple Internet Mail
Extension) and MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension).

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

11

Sowmya - Computer PDF


12

INTERNET

Internet : International Communicate Networking between number of systems is called "Internet".


Internet is a network of networks. Internet is an interconnection between several computers of different types belonging to various networks all over the globe. The people all over the globe have recognized the Internet as their latest development tool. Internet is a world wide network of computers.
Internet provides e-mail, telnet (remote login to computer), web browsing, Instant Messaging, blogs,
chat rooms, social networking, VOIP, media, newsgroup, and online shopping etc.
Host : Each internet computer is called a "host". Host means a computer which handles the network
tasks and holds the data.
History of Internet :
The first Internet name is "ARPANET' (Advanced Research Project Agency Network). ARPANET was
designed by American Department of Defense (DOD) in 1969. This ARPANET is communicating
between 4 systems with one computer at California and three computers at ATA.
Minimum Requirements for Internet :
A Computer
A modem (or) Telephone line
An Account with ISP.
ISP means "Internet Service Provider". ISP is also known as "Internet Access Protocol (IAP): ISP
consists of username, password and Dial-up numbers.
INTRANET : An Intranet is a private network that is contained within an enterprise. The main purpose
of an Intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees.
When part of an intranet is made accessible to customers, partners, suppliers or others outside
the company, that part becomes part of an "Extranet".
World Wide Web (WWW) : World Wide web offers facilities to the users to share information with
others. WWW is a global information system that is fastest growing area of the Internet. WWW is a
series of servers that are connectede through Hypertext. WWW servers can publish text and graphics including sound and video. "World Wide Web" was designed by "Tim Berners Lee" in 1989.
Hyper Link (or) Hypertext : Hypertext is a method of presenting information in which certain text is
highlighted that, when selected, displays more information on particular topic. These highlighted items
are called "Hyperlinks (or) Hyper Text". Hyperlinks allow the users to navigate from one document to
another that may be located on differnt servers.
Types of Internet Connection :
1. Dial-up Internet Access : It is a form of Internet access that uses that facilities of the public
switched Telephone Network (PSTN) to establish a dialled connection to an ISP (Internet Service
Provider) via telephone lines. Dial-up connection is the slowest Internet Connection.
2. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) : ISDN is an international communications standard for sending voice, video and data over digital telephone lines.
3. Leased Line : It is a service contract between a provider and a customer, where by the provider
agrees to deliver a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two or more locations in exchange
for a monthly rent.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

12

Sowmya - Computer PDF


13

4. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) : DSL Provides a connection to the Internet through the telephone network. DSL can operate using a single phone link without preventing normal use of the telephone line for phone calls.
5. T-Line : Here Internet access data is carried over fiber optic lines or copper lines. They are quick
but highly regulated and generally intended for business use.
6. Broadband : It provides a high data rate access to the Internet and also provides a continuous
connection. Broadband is the fastest internet connection.
7. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) : It is the standard method to connect a high speed local area network
via wireless transmission/receiver. Wi-Fi is convenient for mobile internet users and can bring services to areas where wiring would be costly.
Web Browser : A web browser is a software that helps the user to navigate the WWW. It is a client
software that allows the user to display and interact with a hypertext document.
Examples : Mosaic, Netscape Navigator, Internet Explorer (IE), Opera, Safari, Mozilla Firefox, Google
Chrome etc.
MOSAIC : Mosaic is the first web browser and was developped by the "National Center for
Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)" in 1993.
Netscape Navigator : Netscape Navigator was released in 1994 and is one of the fastest web
browsers currently available in the market. It is available for UNIX, Windows and Machinatosh platforms and has built in e-mail and Newsgroup facilities.
Microsoft Internet Explorer : IE is based on NCSA's MOSAIC and is distributed under a licensing agreement with spyglass Inc. This is a shareware software and it is available in various versions
for various windows products. IE is the default webbrowser for windows operating systems.
Web Server : A web server is a computer program that accepts HTTP requests from web clients and
provides them with HTTP responses. Web server is a place where pages reside. It is also use to
refers to the computer that runs the server programs.
Examples :

"Internet Information Server (IIS)" from "Microsoft".


"Fast Track" from "Netscape".
"Intranetware" from "Novell".

Search Engine : Search Engines are websites that allows the users to search on keywords or
combination of keywords to provide the information to the user.
Examples : Google, yahoo, Altavista, All myfaves etc.
Cyberspace : This term is used to refer to the computer networks connected to each other and their
communication. It is often used to refer to the Internet.
Internet chat: Internet chat is a real time synchronous conferencing that is used for group communication as well as one-to-one communication over the Internet. Internet chat software is an interactive
software that allows the user to type comments in one window and receives replies in another window.
Web Page : Web pages are created in the HTML format and provide the web users with navigational
abilities through hyperlinks to other webpages on the web. Webpages are resources of information.
Webpage is also referred as "Hyper Text Document". A webpage can contain text, ,pictures, audio and
visual etc.
Home page : Home page is the default page of any website. It is the main page of a website.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

13

Sowmya - Computer PDF


14

Web site : A set of webpages (hypertext documents) are known as "Website".


Bookmark: Bookmarks are the links once visited can be saved in the favorites or preferences categories. Bookmarks are usually integrated into browsers. Social bookmarking is a method used by Internet
users to store and manage webpages.
Cookies : Cookies are some little information that can be left on your computer by the other computer
when we access the Internet. generally, this information is left on your computer by some advertising
agencies on the Internet. Using the information stored in the cookies, these advertising agencies can
keep track of your internet usage.
Blogs : Blogs are the expressions of the common masses about social or political issues or anything.
Blogs can often be in the form of creative writeups by writers in different parts of the world.
Newsgroup : A Newsgroup is a discussion about a particular topic consisting of notes written to a
central Internet site and redistributed through usenet. "Usenet" is a worldwide network of news discussion groups. Usenet uses the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP).
Instant Messaging (IM) : Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of real time, direct text based chatting
communication in push mode between two or more people using personal computers or others devices, along with shared clients.
Netiquette : It refers to the proper behaviour on a network especially on Internet "Netiquette" term is
short for net etiquitte and refers to the principles of curtesy and consideration for the people using the
Internet. It refers to certain basic principles to adhere to while using the Internet.
E-mail communication has certain implied rules of behaviour. The general ethical principles to be
followed in relation to using mailing systems of the Internet are termed as "e-mail etiquette".
CGI (Common Gateway Interface) : CGI is a simple protocol that can be use to communicate
between webforms and your program.
TELNET : TELNET is use to communicate with other system Logon by the user, in one place to
another place.
Sign-up : Sign-up means creates a new personal Account on the Internet.
Sign-In: Sign-In is a term use to enter into the personal Account.
Sign-Out: Sign-out is a term used to exit from the personal Account.
Logn-In : Log in is a term refers to enter into the website.
Log-Out : Logout is a term refers to exit from the website.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) : URL specifies the location of a resource on the Internet. URL is
unique address for the file that has to be accessed over the Internet.

Protocal Identifier and resource name are seperated by a colon and two forward slashes.
Any link from one document to another document is always implemented by using a URL. A URL
contains information about the location of the document. A URL may point to another HTML document
or an image.
URL is a web addressing scheme that spellsout the exact location of an Internet resources. When the

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

14

Sowmya - Computer PDF


15

user clicks on a link, the browser reads the link to the document. The information about the link is
provided to the browser by URL.
Components of URL :
FTP : To get or send a file to another system on the Internet.
TELNET : To view files in a directory in a system on another network.
HTTP : To get or send information to another system on the Internet.
e-mail : To communicate with a particular person on the Internet.
Newsgroup : To communicate with a group of people in a similar topic.
WWW : To read multimedia documents on the Internet.
Gopher : Search for everything about a specific topic on the Internet.
Internet Protocols : A set of rules and conventions that specify how devices on network exchange
information.
Some of the protocols are:
1.

Internet protocol (IP)

2.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

3.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

4.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

5.

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

6.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

7.

Hyper text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

8.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

9.

Network File System (NFS)

10. external Data Representation (XDR)


11. Remote procedure Call (RPC)
12. Domain name System (DNS)
13. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
14. Point-to-point-protocol (PPP)
15. Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
16. sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)
Hypertext Tranfer Protocol (HTTP) : HTTP is a protocol used on the web to transfer hypertext
documents (web pages). HTTP is a protocol which helps web client to establish communication with
the webserver. HTTP sends the data in the form of "message". HTTP is a request and response
protocol between client and server. HTTP is useful for transfering the data in any format such as text,
graphgics, images etc.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) : File Transfer Protocol (FTP) translates the individual files from one
system to another system on the Internet. FTP sends the data in the form of "packets".
Standard Generalized Markup Language : SGML is a language for defining the markup languages.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

15

Sowmya - Computer PDF


16

SGML defines a document structure using a special grammer called "Document type Definition (DTD).
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) : HTML is a scripting language.
HTML is use to create the hypertext documents (web pages).
HTML is the encoding scheme use to create hypertext document.
HTML language is use for describing the text based information on the webpage.
Hyper Text : A piece of text that works as a link.
Markup Language : A language of writing layout information with in documents.
HTML extension is ".html" or ".htm".
HTML is divided into two types.
1.

SHTML (Static Hyper Text Markup Language)

2.

DHTML (Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language)

Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) : Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), the coding language to create
interactive webpages and so forth.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) : While HTML dictates the content of page, CSS regulates the format, including headers, footers, navigation bars etc. While all of these elements can be created in
HTML, such a method would have to be repeated on every webpage. CSS on the other hand, is
applied to all pages of a websites.
Download : To transfer information from host computer to a personal computer often through modem.
Upload : To transfer information from personal computer to host computer often through modem.
Upgrade : It refers to the replacement of a new product with the same product.
Companies and Their Founders :
Microsoft

Bill gates

Google

Sergey Brain and Larrypase (1997)

Yahoo

Journeying and David(1994)

Facebook

Mark Jukerberg

Apple

Steeve Jobbs

Oracle

Tim Nerveski

Wikipedia

Jimmy Wales

Twitter

Bizz Stone

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

16

Sowmya - Computer PDF


17

ELECTRONIC MAIL (e-mail):


Electronic Mail (e-mail) was invented by "John Von Neumann". Electronic Mail transfers the data
from one system to another system in the form of messages (test), pictures (images), Multi Media
messages.
An e-mail address normally consistsof four parts.
1. Name of the User
2. "@" Sign
3. 3rd part comes after @ sign and it is the nameof the Service Provider.
4. Domain Name(.com, .net, .in, .org) etc.,)
Example : google @

gmail .com

User Name
"@" sign

Domain Name System (DNS)


Service Provider

To view an e-mail, you have to use e-mail software is "Outlook Express".


In the e-mail window, you can find "folder Pane" at the left side of the window. It has set of folders
named as Composed mail, Inbox, Out Box, Sent Items, Drafts, Trash, Spam etc.,
*

Inbox is used to store incoming mail.

Outbox is use to store outgoing mail before it is sent.

Sent Items is use to store mail that has already been sent.

Deleted Items (Trash) is use to store deleted mail upto 30 days.

*.

Draft folder is use to store mail that is not yet complete.

Spam is use to store the unsolicited bulk e-mail upto 30 days.

Compose Mail is use to create a new mail.


 To : To type the e-mail address of the person to whom you want to send a mail in this box.
 Subject : To type a few words about the subject of the letter you want to write.

 CC (Carbon Copy) : To type the e-mail address of the other receipients in this box, each
address is seperated by a comma (,). When you complete the mail and click the "Send" button, then
the mail will automatically be sent to all the receipients. Here, all the receipients will know who the
other receipients are.
 BCC ( Band Carbon Copy) or (Blind Curtesy Copy) : If you don't want them to know who else
have received copies, you can type the addresses in the BCC text box. In this case, only you (the
sender) will know the identity of all the receipients of mail.
 Reply : You can send your reply using the same window. The subject box will have the same
subject, but with the words "Re:" before it.
 Forward : You can send the forward message using the same window. The subject box will
have the same subject, but with the words "Fwd:" before it.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

17

Sowmya - Computer PDF


18

COMPUTER SECURITY
Security : Security controls access to data in files and permits only authorized use of terminals
and other equipments. Control is usually through various levels of passwords assigned on the
basis of need to know.
Typical approaches to improving Computer security can include the following :
Physically limit access to computers to only those who will not compromise security.
Hardware Mechanisms that impose rules on computer programs, thus avoiding depending on
computer programs for computer security.
Operating system Mechanisms that impose rules on programs to avoid trusting Computer Programs.
Programming strategies to make computer programs dependable and resist subversion.
Security Tools :
Firewall : A firewall is a set of related programs, located at a network gateway server, that protects the
resources of a private network from users of other networks. Firewall can either be hardware devices
or software programs. They provide protection from Online intrusions. A firewall is designed to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing your computer. All messages entering your Computer from the Internet pass through the firewall which examines each message. The firewall blocks
any messge that was not specifically requested by your system.
Encryption : It can be used to protect the message from unauthorized users. It can be done in
several ways by switching the characters around, replacing characters with others, and even removing characters from the message.
Cryptographic Techniques : It can be used to defend data in transit between systems reducing the
probability that data exchanged between systems can be intercepted or modified. Secure
cryptoprocessors can be used to leverage physical security techniques into detecting the security of
the system. Strong authentication techniques can be used to ensure that communication end-points
are who they say they are.
Intrution - Detection - System : It can be scan a network for people that are on the network but who
should not be there oraredoing things that they shouldnotbedoing. For example trying a lot of passwords to gain access to the network.
Pinging : The Ping application can beusedby potential crackers to find if an IP address is reachable.
If a cracker finds a computer they can try a port scan to detect and attack services on that computer.
Anti-Virus Software : Anti-virus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify,
thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (Malware). The term "Antivirus"
isused because it is designed exclusively to combat computer viruses.
Antivirus software typically usestwo different approaches to accomplish this:
Examining (Scanning) files to look for known viruses matching definitious in a virus dictionary.
Identifying suspecious behaviour from any computer program which might indicateinfection : S
VIRUS (Vital Information Resource Under Siege) : VIRUS full form is "Vital Information Resource
Under Siege". A computer virus is a computer program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into
other executablecode or documents. Virus program that runs on your computer without your knowledge and can cause damage to your files. A common way to receive a virus is through an attachment
via e-mail.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

18

Sowmya - Computer PDF


19

Worm : Worm is a self-replicating program. It replicates itself to new computers using the flaws and
then begins scanning and replicating again. The difference between a virus and worm is that a worm
does not create copies of itself on one system. It propagates through computer networks.
Trojan Horse : It is a program in which malicious or harmful code is contained inside apparently
harmless programming or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of damage. Trojan Horses cannot replicate automatically. A Trojan horse can be used to setup a back door in
a computer system so that the intruder can return later and gain access.
Malware (Malicious Software) : It is a software designed specifically to damage or disrupt a system
such as a virus or Trojan horse.
Spyware : Spyware is a software that performs actions such as advertising, collecting personal data,
orchanging the configuration of your computer, usually without obtaining your consent. Spyware that
displays advertisements and tracks your personal information is known as "Adware".
Spam : E-mail spam also known as "Junk e-mail" or "Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE), is a subset of
spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous receipients by e-mail.
Phishing : Phishing is a fraudulent activity of acquiring the sensitive information by the use of a fake
identity during electronic communication.
Spoofing : It occurs when the sender of an e-mail message pretends to be someone else, they
falsely manipulate the "From" field in an e-mail. This is usually done to make you release sensitive
information.
Key loggers : Key logger is a software program designed to record (log) everykeystroke on the
machine on which it runs. Key logger is also known as "Key Stroke logger" or "System Monitor".
Packet Sniffer : A packet sniffer is an application that captures TCP/IP data packets, which can
maliciously be used to capture passwords and other data while it is in transit either within the computer or over the network.
Root Kit : A root kit is a computer program that enable administrator - level access to a computer or
computer network. A cracker installs a root kit on a computer after first obtaining user-level access,
either by exploiting a known vulnerability or cracking a password. Once the root kit is installed, it allows
the hacker to mask intrusion and gain root or privileged access to the computer.
Cyber crime: It contains all criminal offences which are committed with the aid of communication
devices in a network. Example are :
Unauthorized access, malicious code, and denial-of-service attacks.
Theft of service and certain financial frauds.
Spamming and copyright crimes, particularly those facilitated through peer-to-peer networks.
Hacking, phishing, identify theft, child pronography, online gambling securities fraud.
Hacking : Hacking is the activity of programmatically gaining access to a computer application that is
otherwise in accessible. The act of gaining an unauthorised access to a computer is known as "Hacking".
Hacker : A Hacker is someone involved in computer security specializing in the discovery of exploits
in systems orin obtaining or preventing unauthorized access to systms through skills, tactics and
detailed knowledge.
Polymorphic Virus : A polymorphic virus modifies its program code each time it attaches itself to
another program or file.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

19

Sowmya - Computer PDF


20

SHORT CUT KEYS


Ctrl + A

Select All

Ctrl+B

Bold

Ctrl+C

Copy

Ctrl+D

Font (MS-Word) (or) Down (Ms-Excel) (or) Duplicate


Slide (PPT)

Ctrl+E

Center Allignment

Ctrl+F

Find(search)

Ctrl+G

Goto

Ctrl+H

Replace (Find and Replace)

Ctrl+I

Italic

Ctrl+J

Justify

Ctrl+K

Hyperlink

Ctrl+L

Left Alignment

Ctrl+M

Tab (Left Indent)

Ctrl+N

New

Ctrl+O

Open

Ctrl+P

Print

Ctrl+Q

Remove formating Programme (or) Exit

Ctrl+R

Right Alignment

Ctrl+S

Save

Ctrl+T

Tab(Left Indent)

Ctrl+U

Underline

Ctrl+V

Paste

Ctrl+W

Close Window

Ctrl+X

Cut

Ctrl+Y

Redo (Repeat typing)

Ctrl+Z

Undo

Ctrl+Right Arrow

Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word

Ctrl+Left Arrow

Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous


word.

Ctrl+Down arrow

Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next


paragraph.

Ctrl+Up arrow

Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous


paragraph.

Ctrl+Esc

Display the start menu

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

20

Sowmya - Computer PDF


21

Ctrl+Tab

Move forward through the tabs.

Ctrl+Shift+Tab

Move backward through the tabs

Ctrl+Shift+Esc

Open Task Manager

Ctrl+F5

Restore the active console window

Ctrl+F10

Maximize the active console window.

Ctrl + F2 (or) Ctrl+Alt+I =

Print Preview

Ctrl+Alt+N

Normal View

Ctrl+Alt+O

Outline view

Ctrl+Alt+P

Page Layout View

Ctrl+Home

Move to thefirstcharacter

Ctrl+End

Move to thelast character

Ctrl+} (or) Ctrl+Shift+> (or) Ctrl ++ =

Increase the font size

Ctrl+{ (or) Ctrl+Shift+< (or) Ctrl +- =

Decrease the font size

Ctrl +F9

Minimize the active console window.

Ctrl+Enter

Page break.

Shift+Delete

Delete the selected item permanently without placing the


item in the Recycle bin.

Shift + F10

Display the shortcutmenu for the selected item.

Shift+Tab

Movebackward through the options.

Tab

Move forward through the options

Enter

Linebreak (or) perform thecommand for the active


option

End

Move to the end of the line.

Home

Move to the beginning oftheline.

Windows Logo

Display or hide start menu.

Windows Logo + Break =

Display the system properties dialog box.

Windows Logo + D

Display the Desktop.

Windows Logo + M

Minimize all of the Windows.

Windows Logo + E

Open My Computer

Windows Logo + F

Search for a file or a folder

Windows Logo + L

Lock the Key Board

Windows Logo + R

Open the Run dialog Box.

Windows Logo + U

Open Utility Manager.

Windows Logo + F1

Display Windows Help.

Windows Logo + Shift + M =

7/21/2015

Restore the minimized windows.

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

21

Sowmya - Computer PDF


22

Windows Logo + Ctrl + F =

Search for computers

Alt + F

Fle Menu

Alt + E

Edit Menu

Alt + V

View Menu

Alt + I

Insert Menu

Alt + O

Format Menu

Alt + T

Tools Menu

Alt + Space + X

Maximize

Alt + Space + N

Minimize

Alt + F4

To close the correct working application


or
To shutdown the system.

Alt + F8

Macros

Alt + I + R

To insert Row

Alt + I + C

To Insert Column

Alt + Space + R

Restore

Alt + Space

Open the shortcut menu for the active window.

Alt + Enter

Display the properties of the selected object.

Alt + Home

Display the Start Menu.

Alt + Delete

Display the Windows menu

Alt + Tab

Switch from one open program to another on your


taskbar.

Alt + Down Arrow

Will open a drop down list box.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

22

Sowmya - Computer PDF


23

ABBREVIATIONS
AC

Accumulator (or) Alternating Current

ACK

Acknowledge Character

A/D

Analog to Digital

ADO

Active X Data Objects.

ADCCP

Advanced Data Communication Control Procedure

ADP

Automatic Data Processing.

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.

ADT

Abstract Data type

AGP

Accelerated Graphic Port.

AI

Artificial Intelligence

AJAX

Asynchronous Java Script and XML

ALGOL

Algorithmic Language

ALU

Arithmetic and Logical Unit

AM

Amplitude Modulation (or) Accounting Machine (or)


Access Mechanism.

AMD

Advanced Micro Devices.

ANSI

American National Standards Institute.

AP

Attached Processor

APDOS

Apple Disc Operating System

API

Application Programming Interface.

APL

A programming Language

ARM

Advanced RiSC Machines.

ARPANET

Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.

ASCII

American Standard code for Information Interchange

ASK

Amplitude Shift keying.

ASP

Application Service Provider

ASR

Automatic Send and Receive.

AT

Access Time

ATDM

Asynchronous Time Division Multiplexing.

ATM

Automated Teller Machine (or) Asynchronous Transfer


Mode

AU

Arthmetic Unit

AVI

Audio Video Inter leaved.

B2B

Business - to - Business

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

23

Sowmya - Computer PDF


24

B2C

Business - to - Customer

BAL

Basic Assembly Langauge.

BASIC

Beginer's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BCM

Binery Coaded Memory

BDOS

Basic Disc Operating System

BINAC

Binary Automatic Computer

BIND

Berkeley Internet Name Daemon

BIOS

Basic Input Output System

BIS

Business Information System

BIT

Binary Digit

BOOTP

Bootstrap Protocol

BPI

Bytes Per Inch

BPS

Bits Per Second

BROM

Bipolar Read only Memory

BSAM

Basic Sequential Access Method

BSC

Binary Synchronous Communications

CAD

Computer - Aided Design

CAE

Computer - Aided Engineering

CAI

Computer - Aided Instruction

CAID

Computer - Aided Industrial Design

CAL

Computer - Aided Learning

CAM

Computer - Aided Manufacturing (or) Computer Address


Memory

CAQ

Computer - Aided Quality Assurance

CAR

Computer - Aided Reporting

CARD

Computer - Aided Rule Definition

CASE

Computer - Aided Software Engineering

CAT

Computer - Aided Translation

CDE

Computer - Desktop Environment

CDAC

Centre For Development of Advanceed Computing

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

CD-R

CD-Recordable

CD-ROM

CD Read-only Memory

CD-RW

CD-Rewritable

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

24

Sowmya - Computer PDF


25

CDSA

Common Data Security Architecture

CERT

Computer Emergency Response Team

CGA

Color Graphics Adapter

CGI

Computer Graphics Interface

CICS

Computer Information Control system

CIM

Computer Input Microfilm

CISC

Complex Instruction Set Computer

CLI

Command Line Interface.

CLIP

Computer Language Information Processing

CML

Computer Managed Learning

CMOS

Complementory Metal - Oxide Semiconductor.

CNC

Computer Numerical Control

COBOL

Common Business - Oriented Language

COM

Component Object Model

CORAL

Class Oriented Ring Associated Language

CORBA

Common Object Request Broker Architecture.

CPS

Character Per Second

CPU

Central Processing Unit.

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

CRM

Customer Relationship Management.

CROM

Control Read Only Memory.

CRT

Cathode Ray Tube.

CRUD

Create, Read, Update and Delete

CSE

Computer Science and Engineering

CSI

Common System Interface.

CT

Computerized Tomography.

CTC

Channel to Channel

CTCP

Client - To - Client Protocal Programing Language.

DAD

Direct Access Devices

DAT

Digital Audio Tape.

DASD

Direct Access Storage Device

DBA

Database Administrator.

DBMS

Database Management System.

DCE

Data Communications Equipment

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

25

Sowmya - Computer PDF


26

DCOM

Distributed Component Object Model

DDE

Dynamic Data Exchange

DDP

Distributed Data Processing

DDR

Double Data Rate

DHTML

Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language.

DLC

Data Link Control

DLL

Dynamic Link Library

DMA

Direct Memory Access.

DMP

Dot Matrix Printer

DND

Drag - and - Drop

DNA

Digital Network Architecture

DNS

Domain Name System

DOS

Disk Operating System

DPI

Dots Per Inch

DTP

Desktop Publishing

DPM

Data Processing Manager

DPS

Data Processing System.

DRAM

Dynamic Storage Area

DR-DOS

Digital Research - Disk Operating System.

DSA

Dynamic Storage Area

DSL

Digital Subscription Line (or)


Domain - Specific Language.

DTE

Data Terminal Equipment

DTR

Data Terminal Read

DVD

Digital Versatile Disk (or) Digital Video Disk

DVI

Digital Visual Interface.

DVR

Digital Video Recorder.

EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

ECOM

Electronic Computer Oriented Mail

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange

EDP

Electronic Date Processing

EDS

Exchangeable Disk Store.

EDSAC

Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator

EDVAC

Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

26

Sowmya - Computer PDF


27

EEPROM

Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only


Memory

EGA

Enhanced Graphics Array

EGP

Exterior Gateway Protocol

EISA

Extended Industry Standard Architecture.

ENIAC

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator

EPROM

Erasable Programmable Read - Only Memory.

ERP

Enterprise Resource Planning.

EXT

Extended File System

FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions

FDD

Floppy Disk Drive

FDMA

Frequency - Division Multiple Access.

FIFO

First In - First Out.

FLOPS

Floating - Point Operations Per Second.

FM

Frequency Modulation.

FORTRAN

Formula Translation.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

FXP

File Exchange Protocol

GAL

Global Address List

GDI

Graphics Device Interface.

GIF

Graphics Interchange Format.

GIGO

Garbage In, Garbage Out.

GIS

Geographic Information System

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service

GPU

Graphics Processing Unit.

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications.

GUI

Graphical User Interface.

GUID

Globally Unique Identifier.

HAL

Hardware Abstraction Layer.

HDD

Hard Disk Drive

HDL

Hardware Description Language

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

27

Sowmya - Computer PDF


28

HTTP

Hyper Transfer Protocol

IBM

International BusinessMachines

IC

Integrated Circuit

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol

IDE

Integrated Drive Electronics

IEEE

Instituteof Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force

IDP

Integrated Data Processing

IIS

Internet Information Services

IMMP

Internet Merge Mail Process

IP

Internet Protocol (or) Intellectual Property.

IPS

Instructions Per Second

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO

International Standard Organization

ISP

Internet Service Provider

ITU

International Telecommunication Union

JAR

Java Archive

JIT

Just-In-Time

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group

JRE

Java Runtime Environment

JSP

Java Server Pages

JVM

Java Virtual Machine

KBPS

Kilo Byte Per second

KRL

Knowledge Representation Language

LAN

Local Area Network

LAP

Link Access Protocol

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display

LED

Light Emitting Diode

LIFO

Last In, First Out.

LISP

List Processing

LPI

Lines Per Inch

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

28

Sowmya - Computer PDF


29

MAC

Media Access Control

MAN

Metropolitan Area Network

MAR

Memory Address Register

MBPS

Mail Bits per Second

MDA

Mail Delivery Agent

MDI

Multiple Document Interface

MIB

Management Information Base

MICR

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition

MIDI

Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIMD

Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data

MIMO

Multiple-Input Multiple-output

MIPS

Million Instructions Per Second

MIS

Management Information Systems

MOBO

Mother Board

MODEM

Modulator-Demodulator

MOPS

Mega Operations Per Second

MPEG

Motion Pictures Experts Group

MS-DOS

Microsoft Disk Operating System

MUMPS

Multi-User Multi-Programming System

NAC

Network Adaptor Card

NFS

Network File System

NIC

Network Interface Controller

NNTP

Network NewsTransfer Protocol

NOS

Network Operating System

NSA

Network Security Agency

NTFS

Network Technology File System

NTP

Network Time Protocol

NUMA

Non-Uniform Memory Access

NVR

Network Video Recorder

NVRAM

Non-Volatile Random Access Memory

OASIS

Organization for the Advancement of Structured


Information Standards

OCR

Optical Charactor Recognition/Reader

OLTP

Online Transaction Processing

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

29

Sowmya - Computer PDF


30

OMR

Optical Mark Recognition/Reader

OOPL

Object Oriented Programming Language

OOPS

Object Oriented Programming System

OPS

Operations Per Second

OSDN

Open Source Developer Network

PABX

Private Automatic Branch Exchange

PAN

Personal Area Network

PBX

Private Branch Exchange

PC

Personal Computer (or) Program Counter

PCB

Printed Circuit Board

PCI

Peripheral Component Interface

PDA

Personal Digital Assistant

PDF

Portable Document Format

PERL

Practical Extraction and Reporting Language

PHP

Hypertext Preprocessor

PIM

Personal Information Manager/Management

PIN

Personal Identification Number

PIO

Programmed Input/Output

PIOCS

Physical Input/Output Control System

PKCS

Public Key Cryptography Standards

PLU

Primary Logical Unit

PMS

Project Management System

PNG

Portable Network Graphics

PnP

Plug-and-Play

POP

Point Of Presence

POP3

Post Office Protocol V3

POS

Point-of-Sale

POST

Power-On Self Test

PPI

PixelsPer Inch

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol

PROLOG

Programming in Logic

PROM

Programmable Read Only Memory

PSS

Packet Switched Stem

QA

Quality Assurance

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

30

Sowmya - Computer PDF


31

RAD

Rapid Application Development

RAID

Redundant Array of Independent Disks

RAIT

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Tapes

RAM

Random Access Memory

RAS

Remote Access Service

RDBMS

Relational Data Base Management System

RDOS

Real-time Disk Operating System

RDS

Remote Data Services

RFI

Radio Frequency Interference

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification

RISC

Reduced Instruction Set Computer

ROM

Read Only Memory

RPM

Revolutions Per Minute

RTOS

Real-Time Operating System

SAN

Storage Area Network

SBCS

Single Byte Character Set

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface

SDN

Service Delivery Network

SDRAM

Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

SFTP

Simple File Transfer Protocol

SIM

Subscriber Identity Module

SIMD

Single Instruction Multiple Data

SIMULA

Simulation Language

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol

SISD

Single Instruction, Single Data

SISO

Single-Input and Single-Output

SMIL

Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language

SMS

Short Message Service (or) System Management Server

SMT

Simultaneous Multi-Threading

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNA

System Network Architecture

SNOBL

String Oriented Symbolic Language

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol

SQL

Structured Query Language

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

31

Sowmya - Computer PDF


32

SRAM

Static Random Access Memory

SRU

Shared Resource Unit

SSI

Small Scale Integration

SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics

SVGA

Super Video Graphics Array

SWT

Standard Widget Toolkit

TCL

Tool Command Language

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TCU

Telecommunication Control Unit

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access

TPI

Tracks Per Inch

TRON

The Real-time Operating System Nucleus

TSIOA

Temporary Storage Input/Outpur Area

UART

Universal Asynchromous Receiver Transmitter

UDDI

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration

UML

Unified Modeling Language

UNIVAC

Universal Automatic Computer

UPS

Uninterruptible Power Supply

URI

Uniform Resource Identifier

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

URN

Uniform Resiource Name

USB

Universal Serial Bus

UTF

Unicode Transformation Format

UUID

Universally Unique Identifier

UVC

Universal Virtual Computer

VAN

Value Added Network

VAX

Virtual Address eXtension

VBA

Visual Basic for Application

VDAC

Video Digital Analog Converter

VDI

Video Display Interface

VDSL

Very High Bitrate Digital Subscriber Line

VDU

Visual Display Unit

VESA

Video Electronics Standards Association

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

32

Sowmya - Computer PDF


33

VGA

Video Graphics Array

VGC

Video Graphics Controller

VGM

Video Graphics Monitor

VIRUS

Vital Information Resource Under Siege

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

VLSI

Very Large Scale Integration

VMS

Virtual Management System

VOIP

Voice Over Internet Protocol

VOU

Video Output Unit

VPN

Virtual Private Network

VPU

Visual Processing Unit

VRML

Virtual Reality Modeling Language

VSAM

Virtual Storage Access Method

VSAT

Very Small Aperture Terminal

VTAM

Virtual Telecommunications Access Method

VTOC

Volume Table of Contents

VTP

Virtual Terminal Protocol

WAN

Wide Area Network

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol (or) Wireless Access Point

WATM

Wireless ATM

WATS

Wide Area Telecommunications Service

WBEM

Web-Based Enterprise Management

Wi-Fi

Wireless Fidelity

WiMAX

Worldwide Interoperability forMicrowave Access

WINS

Windows Internet Name Service

WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network

WORM

Write Once, Read Many

WPAN

Wireless Personal Area Network

WUSB

Wireless Universal Serial Bus

WWAN

Wireless Wide Area Network

WWW

World Wide Web

WYSIWYG

What You See Is What You Get

XAML

eXtensible Application Markup Language

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

33

Sowmya - Computer PDF


34

XHTML

eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language

XML

eXtensible Markup Language

XMS

eXtended Memory Specification

XMPP

eXtenssible Messaging and Presence Protocol

XSL

eXtensible Stylesheet Language

ZISC

Zero Instruction Set Computer

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

34

Sowmya - Computer PDF


35

MS - OFFICE
Microsoft Office is a non-free commercial office saite of different programs that allows you to
create documents, spread sheets, presentations, posters, send electronic mail. MS-Office services
for the Microsft Windows and Mac OS X operating systems, introduced by Microsoft in August 1,
1989.
The first version of MS-Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft Powerpoint.
Over the years, MS-Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as
a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications Scripting
language.
The current versions are "MS-Office 2010" for Windows, (2013) released on June 15, 2010. It is
also known as "Version 14.0".
The current versions are "MS-Office 2011" for MAC OS X, released on October 26, 2010.
Components of MS-Office :
Word : Microsoft Word is a word Processor and was previously considered the main program in
office. It is available for the Windows and Mac platforms. The first version of Word, released in the
autumn of 1983, was for the MS-DOS operating. Word is used to create text documents like papers,
outlines, and bibliographics.
Excel : Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that originally competed with the dominant Lotus 12-3, but eventually out sold it. It is available for the Windows and Mac platforms. Microsoft released the
first version of Excel for the Windows in November 1987. Excel is used to create spreadsheets,
charts, tables, and graphs.
Power Point : Microsoft Power Point is a pouplar presentation Program for Windows and Mac. It is
used to create slideshows, composed of text, graphics, video and audio with pretty backgrounds.
Access : Microsoft Office Access Previously known as Microsoft Access, is a relational database
management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with
a graphical user interface and software development tools. MS-Access stores data in its own format
based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other
applications and databases. MS-Access is used to create databases, manage large quantities of
information, and create reports.
Outlook: Microsoft-Outlook is a personal information manager and e-mail communication software.
It includes an e-mail client, calendar task manager and address book.
Publisher : Microsoft Publisher is used to create visual print materials such as posters, brochures
and newsletters.
Front Page (HTML Editor-Web design) : It is used to create websites.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

35

Sowmya - Computer PDF


36

MS - OFFICE WORD

Word Processor is a software package that enables you to create, edit, print and save documents for future retrieval and reference. One of the main advantage of a word processor over a
conventional typewriter is that a word processor enables you to make changes to a document without
retyping the entire document. Editing a document involves correcting the spelling mistakes, if any,
deleting or moving words sentences or paragraphs.
Examples of Word Processing Packages are Softword, Word Star, Word perfect, Microsoft Word,
Text Maker, Wordpad, Google docs etc.
Features of Word Processor :
Text is typing into the computer, which allows alterations to be made easily
Text or paragraphs can be copied/moved throughout the document.
Words and sentences can be inserted or deleted.
Spelling can be checked and modified through the spell check facility.
Multiple files/documents can be merged.
Margins and page Length can be adjusted as desired.
Multiple copies of letters can be generated with different address through the mail-merge facility.
Important Components of MS-Word :
1.

Title Bar : The Title Bar displays the name of the currently addresses active document. It is also
displays the minimize, maximize and close buttons.

2.

Menu Bar : The Menu Bar displays at the top of the screen. The main menu further displays a sub
menu. At any time, only highlighted options can be executed, faded options are not applicable.

3.

Tool Bar : Too Bar helps to perform a task faster and with great ease. The most commonly tool
bars are formatting tool bar and the standard tool bar. At any point of time, any tool bar can be
made ON or OFF through the tool bar option of view menu.

Standard Toolbar : The standard Toolbar has buttons for commonly performed tasks like save,
cut, copy, paste, print, sorting and adding a column of numbers etc.
Formatting Toolbar : The Formatting Toolbar has buttons for various formatting operations like
bold, italic, underline, left alignment, centre alignment, right alignment and changing text size or
style etc.
4.

Ruler Bar : The Ruler Bar allows you to format the vertical alignment of text in a document.

5.

Scroll Bar : The scroll Bar helps you scroll the content or body of document by click in on the
buttons with the arrow marked on them to move up and down and left and right of a page.

There are two Scroll Bars :


Horizontal Scroll Bar.
Vertical Scroll Bar.
6.

Status Bar : The Status Bar displays information about the currently active document like page
number, column number, line number of the cursor position.

7.

Workspace : The Workspace is the actual working area of the document. It is the area in the
document window were you enter/type the text of your document.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

36

Sowmya - Computer PDF


37

Menu Bar Options :




 Edit Menu

File Menu :

New (Ctrl+N)
Open

Undo (Ctrl+Z)
Redo

(Ctrl+Y)

Recent Documents

Repeat

(Ctrl+Shift+Y)

Close

Cut

(Ctrl+X)

(Ctrl+O)

Save

(Ctrl+S)

Copy

(Ctrl+C)

Save As

(Ctrl+Shift+S)

Paste

(Ctrl+V)

Save All

Paste Special (Ctrl+Shift+V)

Reload

Select Text

(Ctrl+Shift+I)

Versions

Select All

(Ctrl+A)

Export

Find & Replace (Ctrl+H)

Exports as PDF

Auto Text

Send

Fields

Properties

Index Entry

Templates

Hyperlink

Page Preview

Object

Print

(Shift+F3)

(Ctrl+K)

(Ctrl+P)

Printer Settings
Exit


(Ctrl+Q)

View Menu :

Insert :

Print Layout

Manual Break

Page break prieview

Fields

Taskpane

Special character

Toolbars

Formatting Mark

Formula Bar

Section

Status Bar

Footnote/Endnote

Header & Footer

Caption

Comments

Bookmark

Custom Views

Cross-Reference

Full Screen
Zoom

(Ctrl+Shift+J)

Note (Ctrl+Alt+N)
Script
Indexes and Tables
Envelope

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

37

Sowmya - Computer PDF


38

Frame
Table

(Ctrl+F12)

Horizontal Ruler
Picture
Object


FORMAT :

TABLE :

Default Formatting

Insert

Character

Delete

Paragraph

Select

Bullets and Numbering

Merge Cells

Page

Split Cells

Change Case

Protect Cells

Columns

Merge Table

Sections

Split Table

Styles and Formatting

(F11)

Auto Format

Auto Correct

Autofit

Anchor

Heading rows repeat

Wrap

Convert

Alignment

Sort

Arrange

Formula

Flip

Number Format

Group

Table Boundaries

Object

Table Properties

(F2)

Picture


TOOLS :

WINDOW :

Spelling and Grammer (F7)

New Window

Language

Close Window (Ctrl+W)

Word Count
Outline Numbering
Line Numbering
Footnotes/End notes
Gallery
Media Player

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

38

Sowmya - Computer PDF


39

Bibliography Database

Mail Merge Wizard

Open Offie Org Help (F1)

Sort

What's This?

Calculate

HELP :

Get Help Online

(Ctrl ++)

Update

Translate This Application

Macros

Report a Problem

Extension Manager

About Open Office. Org

XML Filter Settings


Auto Correct Options
Customize
Options
Formatting : There are two ways of formatting a document.
Auto Formatting : MS-Word analyzes the selected texts and it applies the relevant formats.
Customized Formatting : You can also format each and every element such as character, mar
gins etc. Yourself by choosing customized formatting.
Customized Formatting is divided into three types :
1.

Character Formatting : Bold, Italic, Underline, Drop Caps, subscripts and Superscripts

2.

Line Spacing : Single Line Spacing, Double Line Spacing

3.

Alignment

: Left-alignment, Right-alignment, Centre-alignment and Justification

Mail Merge : Mail Merge is the process of transferring selected information from one document to
another document. For example, sending a document or letter to many persons who reside at different locations. The letters may contain the address of each receipient, in addition to the standard
information contained in the letter. One way of doing this is to print the letters be
changing the address each time in the document after printing such a letter. But this would mean a lot
of effort and time and also results in bad organisation. Such problems are taken care of by the Mail
Merge facility.
Page Break : Page Break is also known as "automatic or soft page break". To insert and remove Hard
Page Break (User defined Page break), bring the cursor to the insertion point where you want the
page break. Choose "Break" from the "Insert" menu bar or press "Ctrl+Enter".
Types of Page Margins : 1. Left Margin
2. Right Margin
3. Top Margin
4. Bottom Margin
Default left margin in MS-Word document is "1.25".
Gutter Margin : A margin that is added to the binding side of page when printing is known as "Gutter
Margin".
"Winword.exe" file is used to start MS-Word.

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

39

Sowmya - Computer PDF


40

MS - OFFICE EXCEL

Spread Sheet : Spread Sheet consists a standard grid, which may be scrolled and zoomed. Text,
numeric or date values or formulas may be entered into the selected cell through the formula bar at
the top of the screen.
Features of Spread Sheet

1.

Cell Formatting

2.

Multiple Worksheets

3.

Searching & Sorting

4.

Import/Export

5.

Functions

6.

Charts

Examples of Spread sheet are MS-Excel, Kspread, Lotus 1-2-3 etc.


MS-Excel : MS-Excel is a windows spreadsheet application. It is quite useful in entering, editing,
analysis and storing of data.
Features of MS-Excel :
1.

Auto Format : To choose many preset table formatting options.

2.

Auto Sum : To add the contents of a cluster of adjacent cells.

3.

Auto Fill : To fill cells with repetitive or sequential data.

4.

List Auto Fill : It automacally extends cell formatting when a new item is added to the end of a list.

5.

Wizard : It guides to work effectively while you work by displaying various helpful tips and tech
niques based on what you are doing.

6.

Charts : This feature helps in presenting a graphical representation of your data in the form of Pie,
Bar, Line charts.

7.

Auto Shapes Toolbar : This feature helps to draw a number of geometrical shapes, arrows,
flowchart elements, stars and more.

8.

Pivot Table : It flips and sums data in seconds and allows you to perform data analysis and
generating reports like periodic financial statements, statistical reports etc.

Components of the Excel Window :


Active Cell : Present working cell in a MS-Excel document. It has a dark border around it to indicate
your present position in the worksheet. Click the mouse on a cell to make it active.
Cell : The intersection of a row and a column is called as "Cell".
Name box: The name box displays the reference of the selected cell.
Formula bar : Formula bar is used to enter and edit worksheet data. The contents of the active cell
always appear in the formula bar. The Formula bar is located under the toolbar at the top of the Excel
worksheet.
Worksheet Tabs : An Excel workbook consists of multiple worksheets. Use the Worksheet tabs at
the bottom of the screen to navigate between worksheet within a workbook.
Fill handle : The lower right corner of the active cell has a small box called "Fill handle". The Fill
Handle helps you copy data and create services of information. Your Mouse changes to a cross-hair

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

40

Sowmya - Computer PDF


41

when you are on the Fill Handle. For example, if you type sunday in the active cell and then drag the Fill
Handle over five cells, Excel automatically inserts monday, tuesday etc.
Page break : To set page break within the worksheet, select the row you want to appear just below
the page break by clicking the row's label.
Merged Cells : Combine two or more cells together and formatting one big cell is known as "Merging
of Cells"
Cell References : Each cell of the worksheet has a unique reference. For example, K7, refers to the
cell containing column number "K" and row number "7".
Wrapper Text : It gives you the ability to put a lot of information into one cell without "Spilling over" into
an adjacent cell.
Charts : Charts help you display data in more meaning full way. We can use the chart wizard to
create a chart and we can use the chart Type command to change an existing chart. The available
chart types are column charts, Bar Charts, Line Charts, Pie charts, XY charts, Stock charts, area
charts, grant charts, histograms etc.
Key Board Shortcuts in Excel :
Ctrl + 0

Hide column

Ctrl + 1

Format Menu

Ctrl + 2

Bold

Ctrl + 3

Italics

Ctrl + 4

Underline

Ctrl +5

Strike through

Ctrl + 9

Hide Row

Ctrl + ; (Semicolon)=

To enter the date

Ctrl + : (Colon)

To enter the time.

Ctrl + Pageup or Page Down =

To move between worksheets

Ctrl + Shift + " (Quotation Mark) =

Copy the value from the cell above the current cell.

Ctrl + '(Apostrophe)=

Copy the formula from the cell above the current cell.

Ctrl + Shift + $

Currency Format

Ctrl + Shift + ~

General Number Format

Ctrl + Shift + !

Comma Number Format

Ctrl + Shift + %

Percentage Number format

Ctrl + Shift + )

Unhide Column

Ctrl + Shift + (

Unhide Row

Alt + Enter

Auto Sum

Shift + F3

To access the paste Function dialog box

Ctrl + Shift + & (or) Ctrl + Shift + _ =

To apply or remove borders to all cells

Ctrl + Shift + [

To trace errors

By default MS-Excel consists of three (3) sheets. A worksheet is a set of cells aligned in rows and

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

41

Sowmya - Computer PDF


42

columns.
A MS-Word An Excel work sheet consists of 16,384 columns (A, B, C, .... XFD) and 10,48,576 rows.
The first cell in Excel worksheet is labeled as "A1".
To save and protect the workbook by
Write Reservation Password
Protection Password
Read-Only Recommended.
Legend : The box on the chart that contains the name of each individual record is called "Legend".
Formulas : In Excel worksheet, all formulas start with the "=" sign. To build a formula, first select the
cell in which you want the results to appear. After the = sign, type the cells you want to add or subtract
along with the mathematical operation you wish to perform.
For example, = C3+C4+C5, = B4-C4.
The easiest way to copy a formula is with the Fill Handle in the lower right corner of the cell.
Functions : A function is a predefined formula that operates on one or more values and returns one or
more values. All functions consist of a function name followed by a set of arguments in brackets. The
arguments specify the values or cells to be used by the function. The maximum number of arguments
allowed in a function is 30.
For example, SUM, MIN, MAX, AVERAGE, HYPERLINK, LOOKUP, COLUMN, HLOOKUP, ADDRESS,
AREAS, CHOOSE, ROMAN, RAND etc.
Examples of Commonly Used Formulas :
This

table

is

used

Type of Equation

with

the

sample

of cell 1/3

formula

= A2+B3

46

Addition of a Constant

= B1+25

53

Addition of a column of cells

= SUM (A1:A3)

28

Addition of a Row of cells

= SUM (B2:C2)

105

Addition of a Range of cells

= SUM (B1:C3)

237

Addition of Scattered cells

= SUM (A1B3C2)

43

Subtraction of a Constant

= C110

85

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

Result

Addition of Two Cells

7/21/2015

below

42

Sowmya - Computer PDF


43

Subtraction of a cell

= B2-B1

63

Multiplication of Two Cells

= B3*C3

20

Multiplication by a Constant

= A3 * 20

60

Multiplication by a%

= A1*40

10

Multiplication by a%

= B1*25%

Division by a cell

= A2/C2

Division by a Constant

= C1/5

19

Exponentiation(Squaring)

= B32

16

Exponentiation (Cubing)

= C33

125

Square Roots

= SQRT(A1)

Square Roots

= A10.5

Cube Roots

= B1(1/3)

3.036589

Increasing by a Percentage (4%)

= A1+(A1*.04)

26

Increasing by a Percentage (4%)

= A1*1.04

26

Increasing by a Percentage (4%)

= A1+(A1*4%)

26

Decreasing by a Percentage (8%)

= A1-(A1*.08)

23

Decreasing by a Percentage (8%)

= A1*.92

23

Decreasing by a Percentage (8%)

= A1-(A1*8%)

23

Calculate a Percentage (Part/sum)

= A3/$D$3

25% (Formats as a%)

Average of a Column

= AVG (B1:B3)

41

Average of a Row

= AVG (A3:C3)

Average of a Range

= AVG (B1:C2)

57

Formula referring to a cell


in another worksheet

= Sheet2.C4

The contents of
Cell C4 in Sheet 2

7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

43

Sowmya - Computer PDF


44

MS-OFFICE POWERPOINT
Presentation Program : A Presentation program is a computer software package used to display
information, normally in the form of a slide show.
For example, Microsoft Powerpoint, Corel Presentations, Google docs, harward graphics etc.
MS-Powerpoint is a non-free commercial presentation program developed by Microsoft. MS-Power
Point presentations consist of a number of idnividual pages known as "Slides". The "Slide" analogy is
a reference to the slide projector. Slides may contain text, graphics, sound, movies, and other objects,
which may be arranged freely.
When you start Powerpoint, you can start with a blank presentation, or you can begin from a
template or use the "Auto Content Wizard".
Auto Content Wizard : The Auto Content Wizard is a series of step-by-step instructions designed to
assist you. The Template button accesses slide templates to help create a consistent, Professional
look for your slide presentation.
Slide Layout : The arrangement of elements such as title, subtitle text, pictures, tables etc. is called
"Layout". Slide Layouts define containers, positioning and formatting for all of the content that appears
on a slide. Slide Layouts are classified as two types.
1.

Standard Layouts : When you open a blank presentation in Powerpoint, the default layout called
Title Slide appears, but there are other standard layouts that you can apply and use.

2.

Custom Layout : You can create reusable custom layouts that specify the number, size and
location of placeholders, background content etc.

Template : A file which contains readymade styles that can be used for a presentation is called
"Template". After choosing a Pre-defined template, color scheme option has to be chosen to change
the background color. For example, "Ellipse Motion" is a Pre-defined animation scheme. The available
templates will appear in the Task Pane, and once you select one, Powerpoint will apply it to all the
slides.
Powerpoint Views :
1.

Normal View : It Provides a what-you-see-is-what-you-get mode for working with your slides. It
provides a comprehensive view for each slide with notes and outline.

2.

Outline View : In the outline view, the screen is predominantly occupied by a list of the slide titles
and bulleted items that are a part of those slides.

3.

Slide Show View : It is also called preview. It is used to run the whole presentation.

4.

Notes View : Each page corresponds to a slide in your presentation and includes a reduce image
of the slide. You can draw and type in Notes view the way you can in slide view.

Slide Sorter View : It presents thumbnail images of all of the slides in the presentation and
allows, through a simple dragging and dropping operation, a slide to be moved from one place in
the presentation to another.

Slide Master : The slide Master in a template is a slide that controls the formatting, text and objects
that appear on every slide in your presentation. For example, if you want a small picture to appear on
every slide, place that picture on the slide Master. Changes you make to the slide master also appear
on each slide in you presentation. The Slide Master has boxes already setup for the slide title and text.
They are called the "Master Title" and the "Master Body" object.
Slide Transition : A special effect used to introduce a slide in a slideshow is called "Slide Transition".
This features adds special effects to modify the appearance of the slides and the timing between
each slide. Transition effects help define how a presentation move from one slide to the next.
Animation defines how you want your listed information to come in and out of the presentation.

WEEW
7/21/2015

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

44

Sowmya - Computer PDF


45

Computers

7/21/2015

DBMS & E-Commerce


Data Communications & Networks
Internet & Security
Ms-Office, Shortcuts Abbrivations

Downloaded from www.exampundit.in

45