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The effect of roll and clad sheet geometry on the necking instability

during rolling of clad sheet metals

Frank Nowicke Jr., Antonios Zavaliangos, Harry C. Rogers

Department of Materials Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Received 23 February 2005; received in revised form 12 December 2005; accepted 31 January 2006

Available online 18 April 2006

Abstract

Experimental evidence is presented showing that the rolling strain required to produce internal necking in clad sheet depends both on

the volume fraction of each constituent in the clad and the geometry of the rolls. This result was not predicted by earlier localization

analysis that approximates the stress/strain eld in rolling with that of plane strain compression. The evolution of hardness during rolling

and complementary nite element results point to redundant shearing of the soft phase as the reason for this behavior. Such redundant

shear differentially strengthens the softer component of the clad and reduces the induced tensile stress in the harder component, delaying

the localization. Therefore, unwanted strain localization in rolling of clad sheets can be delayed signicantly by the use of small radius

rolls in congurations such as a Sendzimir mill.

r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Clad sheet; Instability; Necking; Rolling; Finite element analysis

1. Introduction

Clad sheets are metallic multilayer sheets that offer

attractive properties compared with monolithic sheets in

such applications as heat exchangers (lightweight aluminum/stainless steel for protection), automobile bumper

trims (stainless steel/inexpensive low carbon steel) and

cookware (copper- or aluminum-bottomed stainless steel

for heat conductivity, corrosion and wear resistance). Clad

sheets can be fabricated by two methods: (i) adhesive

bonding and (ii) roll bonding. Roll bonding creates a new

surface area via tensile strain in the rolling direction,

allowing virgin metal to be exposed through the fractured

oxide skin. The through-thickness pressure applied by the

rolls forces the two metal surfaces to approach each other

atomically closely and simultaneously prevents oxygen

from reaching the virgin metal surfaces. In places where the

proximity of one metal to the other is on the atomic scale,

the similarity of all metallic bonds allows actual bonding

between the two metals. After the clad sheet components

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 215 895 2078; fax: +1 215 895 6760.

0020-7403/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2006.01.021

control size accuracy and to increase the strength of the

metals. Early studies of this problem were conducted on an

aluminum/uranium system [1]. A plastic instability, however, limits the amount of cold rolling that can be imposed

[2]. An internal neck develops in the direction transverse to

the rolling direction, and leads to surface cracking at higher

rolling strains. This phenomenon is similar to what is called

sausaging in the rolling of superconducting powder

between conducting metallic layers [3]. A similar phenomenon also occurs in thin metal lms grown on elastomer

substrates in exible electronics [4].

The problem of instability during rolling of clad metal

sheets is re-examined with some new experimental results

and an attempt to modify the applicable theory. Initially,

prior work on plastic instability in rolling is reviewed [57].

Next the results of the current study are presented. These

results examine the effect of clad geometry and process

parameters on the strain to internal necking that limits cold

rolling of the clad sheets. In particular, the effect of the

volume/thickness fraction of each material is quantied, as

well as the inuence of roll size on the strain to necking.

Earlier analysis by Semiatin and Piehler [6] does not

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F. Nowicke Jr. et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 868877

effects exist. Examination of the hardness of each phase

and nite element simulations trace a possible explanation

for these phenomena on the difference in hardening

introduced by the redundant shearing in the softer layer.

This difference in turn varies with clad geometry and roll

diameter. The results of this work may have practical

implications in the fabrication of clad sheets by suggesting

potential methods of delaying the strain localization

instability.

2. Background

In uniaxial tension the maximum load criterion predicts

a necking instability when ds=de s. For a power law

hardening material s Ken this is equivalent to n e.

Therefore, materials such as stainless steel (n 0:346) or

copper (n 0:54), with high values of n, will neck at larger

strains than either aluminum (n 0:246) or SAE 1060 steel

quenched and tempered at 1000 1F (n 0:10), with lower

values of n.

For thin sheets in tension, in addition to diffuse necking,

there exists the possibility of local necking along a narrow

band inclined at an angle with respect to the tensile axis in

the plane of the sheet. This zero strain direction allows

plane strain conditions to exist along its length, meeting the

criterion for a local neck. A power law hardening material

should neck at a strain value equal to 2n with a neck

orientation angle, l 54:71 [8].

The geometry of clad rolling is shown in Fig. 1a. To the

rst order, the stress state in rolling can be approximated

with that of plane strain compression in the through

thickness y-direction, Fig. 1b. In this case and for a

homogeneous stress state, equilibrium dictates that the

stresses in each material along the y-direction are equal,

B

sA

y sy . The rolling direction (x-direction) is free of

external forces. Therefore, the stresses in the two materials

along the rolling direction must have opposite signs and be

inversely proportional to the thickness of each material for

869

B

sA

x f A sx f B 0,

(1)

B. Assuming a plane strain state of stress sz sx sy =2,

and that there are no shear stresses, the magnitude of each

stress can be obtained from the yield condition:

p

1=2

2

sx sy 2 sy sz 2 sz sx 2

s

p2

3

jsx sy j

2

2Y A

2Y B

A

)sA

and sBx sBy p ,

2

x sy p

3

3

where Y A and Y B is the ow stress for materials A and B.

The assumption that the magnitude of the through-thickness

compressive stress is larger than any of the longitudinal

stresses and the combination of Eqs. (1) and (2), gives:

2

B

sA

y sy p f A Y A f B Y B ,

3

(3)

2

2

B

sA

x f B p Y A Y B and sx f A p Y B Y A ,

3

3

(4)

The stronger component is in tension along the rolling

direction while the weaker component is in compression. The

presence of tension in this direction leads to neck formation

[6]. Compared to the amount of work that exists for the

necking and failure in plane stress loading of sheets (e.g., [9]),

there is very little work on the localization of sheets under

plane strain conditions loaded with one negative principal

stress component. Semiatin and Piehler applied the maximum load criterion [57] along the longitudinal direction for

the harder component of the clad that is in tension:

dsA

dY A Y B

x

sA

Y A Y B .

x )

deA

deA

x

x

Fig. 1. (a) Clad rolling geometry and (b) equivalent plane strain compression.

(5)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

870

assumption of plane strain dez 0,

B

A

B

deA

x dex dey dey .

(6)

the clad sheet starts. No analytical solution is possible, but it

can be shown numerically for power law hardening materials

(Y A K A enA and Y B K B enB ) that the dependence of the

localization strain eLOC on the ratio K B =K A is of the form

shown in Fig. 2. For nB 4nA , there is a value k of the ratio

K B =K A for which if:

K B =K A ok

K B =K A 4k

7

is delayed to strains larger than the necking limit of the harder

material in tension. This delay in necking was clearly shown

experimentally in Ref. [5] for stainless steel/aluminum clads.

Eq. (5) predicts that the relative amounts of the cladding and

core materials, as well as the arrangement of the layers, have

no effect on the initiation of plastic instability.

A number of papers were published by Steif [1013] on

the bifurcation analysis of rolling of clad metals. In the

earlier work attention was focused on the analysis of plane

strain compression of clad metals as an approximation to

the rolling problem. There are several important arguments

made in these papers: (a) it is claimed that a thin strong

layer shows a lower bifurcation strain than a thick one (for

the same total sheet thickness), (b) a wavelength of the

order of ve to ten times the thickness of the stiff layer is

predicted for the instability. Later, Steif attempted to

include the complex stress-state in rolling resulting from

surface friction [10]. The results of this work show that the

incorporation of shear stresses in the pre-bifurcation state,

reecting friction at the rolls, leads to significantly lower

predictions of bifurcation strains, although the same author

cautions that connecting the bifurcation analysis with

rolling is suspect as the employed stress eld does not

conguration according to Eq. (5). For stainless steel/aluminum clad

nSS 0:348 and nAl 0:2, and k 0:5. With K SS =K Al 9, the predicted

localization strain is eLOC 0:3764nSS .

Irrespective of its accuracy, the bifurcation analysis suggests

that there are clad geometry and roll geometry effects in

localization instability during rolling of clad sheets.

Another attempt to analyze this instability was presented

in Ref. [14] where two criteria for necking (one for diffuse

and one for localized necking) were presented. The

localized necking criterion is identical to that of Ref. [5],

while the one for diffuse necking is derived on the basis of a

wrong assumption (i.e., the stress along the width of the

sheet is stationary at necking, an assumption that is valid

for plane stress but not for plane strain). In fact, in plane

strain conditions diffuse and local necking practically

coincide [8].

For completeness we note that a number of papers were

also published on asymmetric clad rolling but with no

emphasis on the instability [1517].

3. Experimental

Clad sheets of a symmetric, three layer conguration

were examined in this work. Aluminum 1145/304 stainless

steel clad sheets were selected in order to compare directly

with the results in Refs. [2,57]. The sheets were produced

by the following sequence:

(a) rolling of each layer separately to the proper prebonding thickness (typically 20% in excess of its

desired thickness in the bonded clad),

(b) surface cleaning in an acidic bath and rinsing with a

neutral solution,

(c) annealing of sheets at 320 1C,

(d) rolling of the clad with 20% reduction in thickness at

320 1C, which is in the warm working range for

aluminum, and

(e) slow cooling in a furnace to alleviate warping due to

differential cooling.

Clad strips are identied by the material in the center

and its percentage of the thickness. (20%SS Al/SS/Al

clad with 20% stainless steel core, 80%Al SS/Al/SS with

80% Al core). The 304 stainless steel/1145 aluminum roll

bonded clad sheets were obtained from Clad Metals, Inc.

of Cannonsburg, PA with nominal thickness of

3.2 mm70.1 mm, width of 51 mm70.1 mm, and length of

200 mm. Specic geometry of the sheets and mechanical

properties of each layer are shown in Table 1.

The reported microhardness for the stainless steel

corresponds to a Knoop hardness obtained with a 100 g

load for 15 s. Table 1 shows that the stainless steel in all

clads had the same initial hardness. The initial hardness of

the aluminum layer was similarly uniform. The reported

microhardness for aluminum corresponds to a Knoop

hardness obtained with a 50 g load for 15 s. Knoop

hardness was selected over Rockwell or Brinnell hardness

because of the small thickness of the specimens. The

hardness measurement for the aluminum was made on the

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F. Nowicke Jr. et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 868877

Table 1

Geometry of clad sheets and mechanical properties of each component

Conguration

Total

thickness

(mm)

thickness (mm)

Knoop

hardness of

stainless

steel

10%SS

20%SS

30%SS

40%SS

80%SS

80%Al

3.10

3.11

3.29

3.28

3.23

3.14

0.36

0.69

1.08

1.34

2.63

0.36

334

339

328

330

342

350

11.6

22.2

32.8

41.0

81.5

23.1

Mechanical properties: 304 stainless steel: sY 700 MPa, sUTS

840 MPa, % elongation 41%, n 0:3; 1145 aluminum: sY 70 MPa,

sUTS 98 MPa, % elongation 28%, n 0:2.

871

is needed to reduce deections of the roll for high

reductions and high stainless steel percentages [18].

The rolling program consisted of a series of steps of 0.1

true strain in the through-thickness direction. After each

pass, the last inch was trimmed off of the specimen and this

segment was sectioned along the centerline for observation.

Repeated rolling of each clad sheet is used to isolate the

strain to necking. Neither the strain per pass nor the rolling

speed effects signicantly the strain to necking [18].

Trimming and beveling the edges of the clad proved the

most effective method of minimizing edge cracking during

rolling.

While no force or torque indications were available in

the rolling stand employed, the end of uniform deformation of the clad sheets is detected in two ways: (a) by

observing the evolution of the waviness of the stainless/

aluminum interface and (b) by the appearance of surface

waviness in the outer surface that corresponded the

development of internal necks.

4. Numerical simulations

aluminum interface. Steel in at the bottomaluminum at the top.

along the rolling direction. The hardness of the steel was

measured on a section normal to the rolling direction with

the long direction of the Knoop indenter parallel to the

sheet plane.

Fig. 3 is a photomicrograph of typical initial conditions

of a rolling direction through-thickness direction plane

section for the stainless steel microstructure and interface

between the stainless steel and aluminum. The rolling

direction is always depicted horizontally and the throughthickness direction is vertical. The stainless steel was etched

with oxalic acid (5% solution for 10 s) to reveal the ow

lines.

A Stanat 2 high4 high combination rolling mill was

used. The 2 high conguration for the rolling mill consists

of two driven rolls that have a 152 mm working width and

diameters of either 152, 38 or 14 mm. Prior to rolling, the

rolls were removed, and re-ground and lapped with quarter

micron diamond powder in kerosene to provide a standard

specimen and roll geometry on strain localization of clad

sheets, a nite element model (FEM) of the process is

implemented in ABAQUS Standard Version 6.3 [19].

A numerical solution based on stream functions was

presented for this problem in Ref. [20]. We believe that

the FEM framework is more versatile and with fewer

approximations.

A total of 9000 plane strain linear four-noded elements

were used to model half of the specimen geometry due to

symmetry in all simulations. The same nite element mesh

was used in all simulationsa different set of elements was

selected each time to represent the various volume fractions

of the stainless steel layer. An example of the deformed

nite element mesh is shown in Fig. 4.

Friction between the roll surface and the top surface of

the clad sheet is modeled using a constant Coulomb

friction coefcient of m 0:1. To avoid mesh dependence

of the localization results, a rate dependent Mises plasticity

model with s K 0 en e_ m is selected to represent the behavior

of both stainless steel and aluminum. The rate dependence

in both cases is very small (m 0:02 for aluminum and

m 0:005 for steel, respectively) matching what is typical

for these two materials at room temperature. The value of

the parameter K0 is chosen to recover the properties of

aluminum and stainless steel shown in Table 1 at a strain

rate of 104 s1.

Contrary to the experimental procedure that was

performed in increments of 0.1 natural rolling strain,

rolling in the numerical simulation is performed in one step

to minimize the required CPU time. Experimental data

presented in Ref. [18] show that the rolling schedule is not a

factor in the level of rolling strain at necking. Simulations

with the smaller roll sizes are not attempted because, for

ARTICLE IN PRESS

872

Fig. 4. Deformed nite element mesh. The details of the undeformed mesh are shown in the part of the sheet that has not entered the roll gap, while the

predicted necking is clearly shown in the exiting part of the sheet. Roll diameter is 152 mm and thickness is 3 mm in this simulation.

Fig. 5. (a) Internal necks revealed by dissolving the aluminum layer in NaOH, (b) ductile cutting mode in the neck, and (c) shear banding in a clad with SS

on the outside.

convergence of the analysis. Although explicit integration

schemes and adaptive remeshing can address such problems, these techniques bias the localization results and are

not employed here.

5. Experimental results

Fig. 5 reveals the internal necks that develop in stainless

steel after the rolling strain exceeds a critical value. The

specimen in these photographs is from a 10%SS clad sheet

rolled half way between necking and failure. The aluminum

layers were removed in concentrated NaOH. The average

spacing of necks along the rolling direction is approximately 1.4 mm and increases as the failure point is reached.

In general, two types of fracture modes are observed: (a)

ductile cutting [21] in which a crack nucleates on one side

of the neck and propagates to the other side as shown in

Fig. 5b and (b) shear banding at 451 with respect to the

the clad sheet with the stainless steel on the inside of the

clad. In this mode a crack initiates on the Al/SS interface.

A grain boundary, or a natural ow normal to the rolling

direction, located at or near the minimum neck crosssection area serves as a nucleation site. The crack

propagates so that the nal fracture surface is at a very

large angle (almost normal) to the rolling direction and the

Al/SS interface. Shear banding is predominant in clad

sheets with the stainless steel on the outside. A localized

deformation band occurs at an angle to the Al/SS interface.

The two types of fractures can be differentiated by the

direction of the ow lines close to the fracture surface. In

ductile cutting the ow lines are normal to the fracture

surface, while in shear banding, they turn to become nearly

parallel to the shear band direction. Both types of fracture

are seen, however, in each type of clad conguration.

The development of necking was monitored by microstructural examination during each pass. The maximum

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F. Nowicke Jr. et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 868877

70

Table 2

Through-thickness strain at necking and failure during rolling

10% SS

60

80% Al

Clad conguration

20% SS

50

873

152

30% SS

40

0.57 0.72

0.780.89

1.261.40

41.60

41.60

0.740.85

10%SS

20%SS

30%SS

40%SS

80%SS

80%Al

30

20

38

22

0.680.79

0.931.00

41.19b

0.770.82

40.82b

0.920.99

10

a

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Rolling Strain

1.2

First and second number indicate rolling strain at necking and failure,

respectively.

b

Edge cracks caused specimen failure without necking.

c

Did not roll due to excessive bow of the rolls.

20%SS, 30%SS and 80%Al clad sheets rolled with 152 mm diameter rolls.

600

10% SS

550

Knoop Hardness

Amax, was recorded and is plotted versus rolling strain in

Fig. 6 for various clad congurations. The initial interface

was at (Fig. 3). In all cases, Amax increases with the rolling

strain. Two stages can easily be demarcated in Fig. 6 by a

sharp change in the slope of the curve corresponding to the

development of sharp internal necks. The initial stage,

which is characterized by slower growth, can be attributed

to the crystallographic nature of the interface. i.e., in a

manner analogous to the development of orange peeling on

the surface of stretched sheets. The aluminum provides

only a weak resistance to the deformation and rotation of

the stainless steel grains next to the interface. The clear

transition shown in Fig. 6 denes the necking strain.

Table 2 lists the values of externally imposed necking/

fracture strains during rolling for each clad sheets

conguration and roll diameter. The strain values correspond to macroscopic true strains, e lnhf =hi . For all

cases, the strain to necking exceeds the value of the work

hardening exponent, n 0:3 in stainless steel, which is the

limit to uniform deformation in simple tension of axisymmetric specimens as well as the limit of localized necking in

tension of thin sheets which corresponds to 2n 0:6. The

data in Table 2 show clearly that there is a strong effect of

the amount of stainless steel present in the clad sheet upon

the strain to necking. This trend is such that the 40%SS

and 80%SS clad sheets did not neck at strains as high as

1.60. Rolling at higher strains was not pursued because the

small thickness of the sheet resulted in excessive rolling

force and torque. The 80%Al and 20%SS clad sheets have

the same amount of stainless steel, and the corresponding

strains to necking are practically identical for the 152 and

38 mm rolls. The arrangement of the layers does not

inuence the strain to necking signicantly for the

congurations examined.

Also shown in Table 2 is the signicant effect of the roll

size on the strain to necking. This trend is another effect

that was not predicted by the basic instability analysis

80% Al

20% SS

500

30% SS

450

400

350

Stainless steel layer

300

0.2

0.4

0.6

Rolling Strain

0.8

function of rolling strain for 10%SS, 20%SS, 30%SS and 80%Al clad

sheets rolled with 152 mm diameter rolls.

to necking. As the size of the roll decreases the size of roll

force and torque become evident and the attendant roll

deection is the limiting factor. Recall that the bifurcation

analysis presented by Steif [10] predicts that, compared to

plane strain compression (which essentially is equivalent to

rolling with an innite size roll), the shear stresses

associated with rolling reduce the bifurcation strain, a

trend which is opposite to the one observed experimentally

here.

Fig. 7 shows the evolution of Knoop hardness in

stainless steel for various clad congurations rolled by a

152 mm diameter roll. The stainless steel hardens with

increasing rolling strain but the difference in hardening

between the various clad geometries is rather small with the

10%SS conguration exhibiting slightly lower hardness

than the other clad sheets. The corresponding results for

aluminum are shown in Fig. 8, but only for the 10%SS for

all roll sizes. For higher %SS, measuring the hardness of

the aluminum layer is difcult due to the softness of this

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F. Nowicke Jr. et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 868877

874

component. Fig. 8 shows that aluminum hardens signicantly more in the smaller roll for the same rolling strain.

This trend is consistent with the idea that in smaller rolls

there is higher redundancy of deformation (i.e., deviation

from homogeneous deformation)an idea that is well

known in the deformation of single metal strips [8]. Figs. 7

and 8 indicate that (a) there are signicant differences in

level of deformation redundancy among the various clad

and roll congurations, and (b) most of this redundancy is

present in the aluminum layer. In other words, while the

rolling strain adequately denes the level of hardness in the

stainless steel for all congurations examined, the corresponding values for aluminum depend strongly on clad

sheet and roll geometry in addition to rolling strain.

6. Discussion

The experimental data presented above are not predicted

by the simple necking analysis of Refs. [57]. A number of

potential reasons for this discrepancythe effect of strain

75

Knoop Hardness

70

Aluminum layer

65

60

55

50

152 mm

38mm

45

22mm

40

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Rolling Strain

0.6

0.7

0.8

strain, for roll sizes of 152, 38 and 22 mm diameter.

rate/temperature and the effect of the hydrostatic component of the stresscan be readily refuted. Experimental

work at different roll velocities did not result in variation of

the strain to necking [18]. This is expected because the

strain rate sensitivity of both materials at room temperature is small. No substantial temperature increase is

observed over the range of conditions used. Following

the analysis of Section 2, the hydrostatic pressure in the

harder component is given by:

YB k 2

k1

pB p

2f B

;

k

k

3

YB

where k

; with Y B 4Y A .

YA

with the fraction of the two materials and their strength

ratio. Thus, hydrostatic pressure in the harder component

becomes less compressive or even tensile with increasing

fraction of hard phase. Experimental observations of

necking by Bridgman [22] showed that the hydrostatic

stress does not play a role on localizationalthough it

affects the ductility after necking. Although Bridgmans

observations were made on axisymmetric specimens we

believe that the same would be true for plane strain

specimens also.

Given that there is no reason to doubt the concept of the

maximum load criterion, the most important weakness of

this analysis is the approximation of the stress eld in

rolling by the one of plane strain compression. These two

deformation modes produce the same overall shape

change, but an additional shear deformation is present in

rolling. This is a well-known idea in deformation processing studies and is the basis for the concept of redundant

work/deformation [8]. For hardening materials and for the

same level of compressive strain in the direction normal to

the sheet plane, rolling is expected to result in a higher

hardness in the material and requires higher work than

the corresponding plane strain compression. Experimental

1.10

Aluminum (0%SS)

1.00

0.90

10%SS

20%SS

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

Fig. 9. Variation of equivalent plastic strain through the normalized thickness of clads with various percents of stainless steel rolled to a rolling

p strain of

0.50. The diameter of the roll is D 50t, t clad sheet thickness. The horizontal line corresponds to uniform deformation e 2eROLLING = 3. The jump

in the curve corresponds to the interface between stainless (left) and aluminum (right).

F. Nowicke Jr. et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 868877

work is spent in the deformation of aluminum. For

example Fig. 7 shows that the hardening of stainless steel

does not vary with the amount of stainless steel in the clad.

The hardening of aluminum in a 10%SS clad sheet (Fig. 8)

clearly increases for smaller roll sizes. This trend is

conrmed by nite element simulations of clad sheet

rolling. Fig. 9 shows the predicted equivalent plastic strain

along the thickness of clad sheets with increasing percent of

stainless steel. The level of plastic deformation in aluminum increases as the percent of stainless steel increases,

while in the stainless steel the equivalent plastic strain is

approximately equal to the uniform deformation for all

clad sheet geometries.

875

reduction in the ratio of strengths of stainless steel over

aluminum should result in a delay of necking as predicted

by Eq. (5) shown in Fig. 2. It is possible to modify Eq. (5)

to allow for the additional hardening in aluminumbut

the approximations are not simple. To understand further

the role of the non-uniform stress eld in rolling, we

performed a number of numerical simulations. The nite

element analysis is able to reproduce necking, as can be

seen in Fig. 10 which presents simulation results at rolling

level just before and after localization for 10%SS, 30%SS

and 40%SS. A comparison of Figs. 10a and c conrms the

results of Fig. 9 showing a higher equivalent plastic strain

in the aluminum layer. A signicant strain gradient exists

Fig. 10. Contours of equivalent plastic strain for various clad conguration at two rolling strains (one below and one above the necking strain). The

intensity of the localization depends on how much larger than the necking strain is the imposed rolling strain. Note the increasing difference between the

level of plastic strain in the two metals at higher fractions of stainless.

F. Nowicke Jr. et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 868877

876

2

1.8

Experiments

1.6

Rolling Strain

1.4

Fracture

1.2

1

Necking

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0%

20%

(a)

40%

60%

Percent SS in clad

80%

100%

1.2

1.15

1.1

1.05

1

0.95

differentially the two materials in the rolling direction. We

believe that this unaccounted for additional strengthening

and the uncertainty in the extrapolation of the power law

to larger strains are responsible for the observed discrepancy between the experimental results and the nite

element predictions of Fig. 11.

From a practical point of view it is clear that decreasing

roll size greatly enhances the externally imposed strain to

necking and failure. This trend indicates that a Sendzimir

type cluster mill may provide the required rigidity for the

use of a small roll to achieve the maximum increase in the

externally imposed strain to necking. Also the orientation

of the necks in Fig. 3 suggests an interesting manufacturing

technique. If the interface waviness troughs orient the same

way as the necks, then cross rolling of the specimen may

iron down the non-necked portion of the stainless steel

component of the clad sheet, which in turn may delay

necking.

Finally the effect of layer arrangement on the distribution of plastic equivalent strain can be probed by the nite

element analysis. Fig. 12a shows the distribution of plastic

equivalent strain in 10%SS versus 90%Al. In this case the

distribution of the equivalent strain in the aluminum layer

is very similar for the two clad sheets, indicating that the

necking of the two arrangements is practically identical in

0.9

0.85

0.68

0.8

0%

(b)

10%

20%

30%

Percent SS in clad

40%

50%

on clad geometry and rolling strain (arrows indicate that no necking has

been reached at this level) and (b) corresponding results predicted by FEM

simulations.

FEM simulations

0.66

10SS

0.64

90Al

0.62

0.60

0.58

0.56

0.54

0.52

0.50

0

(a)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Normalized distance from centerline 2x/t

1.30

30SS

70Al

1.20

with the roll subjected to higher strains. The predicted

demarcation of necking and non-necking combinations of

clad geometry and rolling strain for the larger roll of

152 mm diameter is shown in Fig. 11b. In Fig. 11a the

experimental results are also plotted for comparison. The

delay of necking with increasing percent of the harder

component in the clad is evident in both cases but the delay

is more dramatic in the experimental observations.

One reason for this discrepancy maybe that the simple

power law does not adequately represent hardening. Recall

that the power law data are derived from a tension test that

ends at much lower strains due to necking. The power law

relationship ts the experimental data well in the range of

strains typical for a simple tension test. In the rolling of the

clad sheets, however, the strains involved are two to three

times higher than those observed in the simple tension test.

Therefore, large strain data may not be tted well by

the extrapolation of the power law. The presence of texture

1.10

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0

(b)

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Normalized distance from centerline 2x/t

plastic strain predicted by the nite element analysis: (a) 10SS versus 90Al

and (b) 30SS versus 70Al.

F. Nowicke Jr. et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 48 (2006) 868877

comparison of 30%SS versus 70%Al (Fig. 12b), however,

shows that the equivalent plastic strain in the conguration, with the harder component in the middle, achieves

higher plastic strains in the softer component, indicating a

delay of necking with respect to the conguration with the

harder component in the outside. The results are reasonable because for low fractions of hard phase and large roll

radii the stress condition is close to that of plane strain in

which there is no redundant work and the role of the two

phases is symmetric with respect to the arrangement. As

the fraction of hard phase increases and the roll diameter

decreases the nite element analysis predicts that the

arrangement of the layers makes an important difference

in the strain to necking.

7. Conclusions

Experimental results were presented that show that the

geometry of clad sheets (the percent of the hard phase), and

roll geometry affect the rolling strain to necking. These

results cannot be predicted by the earlier analysis of

Semiatin [2], because the true strain/stress eld in rolling

deviates from that of plane strain compression. Using

hardness measurements and nite element simulations, we

show that increasing percentage of the hard phase and

smaller roll size enhance the redundant shearing in the

softer phase. This results in additional hardening in the soft

phase and a reduction of the strength differential between

the two phases, delaying necking. Although the nite

element results predict the trends, they underpredict the

effects. This can be attributed to the unaccounted for

additional strengthening due to texture development with

the uncertainty in the extrapolation of the power law to

strains beyond those achieved in a simple tension test.

The delay of instability by increasing the amount of the

harder component or by using small size rolls, can have

important practical implications because they expand the

range of processability of clad sheets. These results indicate

that when a high stiffness roll system (such as a Sendzimir

mill) is employed, the plastic instability may be completely

suppressed.

Acknowledgments

Clad sheets were kindly supplied by Clad Metals, Inc. of

Cannonsburg, PA. Special tooling necessary for this

research was supplied by the Central Machine Products

of Lonedell, Missouri. The experimental results of this

publication are the result of doctoral research for Frank

Nowicke, Jr. who wishes to acknowledge the extraordinary

nature of the assistance provided when family concerns

forced a withdrawal from school prior to nishing the

877

Trachtman for proofreading the nal document.

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