13 views

Uploaded by Dilrukshi Fernando

Range Stat

- STA220_Final_2009F.pdf
- Lecture5 Variance and Standard Deviation
- Mte 11 English
- Quantitative Methods Assignment SEM 1
- SYLLABUS_SQQS1013_A122
- ch09
- Advanced Test
- Descriptive Statistics
- Testing Efficacy
- DLL Grade 7 Q4 Week 9
- Exception Aggregation
- Calculation of Garch and EWMA
- Cronbachs Alpha
- Paper 2 Quantitative Techniques.pdf
- Week 1 Intro to Statistics
- US Federal Reserve: 200441pap
- HF20 Uso Pediatrico
- Sample Quality
- Slope stability.pdf
- Frequency Distribution

You are on page 1of 5

The range is the simplest measure of variation to find. It is simply the highest

value minus the lowest value.

Since the range only uses the largest and smallest values, it is greatly

affected by extreme values, that is - it is not resistant to change.

Variance

"Average Deviation"

The range only involves the smallest and largest numbers, and it would be

desirable to have a statistic which involved all of the data values.

The first attempt one might make at this is something they might call the

average deviation from the mean and define it as:

The problem is that this summation is always zero. So, the average deviation

will always be zero. That is why the average deviation is never used.

Population Variance

So, to keep it from being zero, the deviation from the mean is squared and

called the "squared deviation from the mean". This "average squared

One would expect the sample variance to simply be the population variance

with the population mean replaced by the sample mean. However, one of the

major uses of statistics is to estimate the corresponding parameter. This

formula has the problem that the estimated value isn't the same as the

parameter. To counteract this, the sum of the squares of the deviations is

divided by one less than the sample size.

Standard Deviation

There is a problem with variances. Recall that the deviations were squared.

That means that the units were also squared. To get the units back the same

as the original data values, the square root must be taken.

s = sqrt ( s^2 )

The sample standard deviation is not the unbiased estimator for the

population standard deviation.

The calculator does not have a variance key on it. It does have a standard

deviation key. You will have to square the standard deviation to find the

variance.

The sum of the squares of the deviations from the means is given a shortcut

notation and several alternative formulas.

What's wrong with the first formula, you ask? Consider the following example

- the last row are the totals for the columns

Divide by the number of values to get the mean: 23/5 = 4.6

Subtract the mean from each value to get the numbers in the second column.

Square each number in the second column to get the values in the third

column.

Total the numbers in the third column: 5.2

Divide this total by one less than the sample size to get the variance: 5.2 / 4

= 1.3

x

4 - 4.6 = -0.6

3 - 4.6 = -1.6

23

0.00 (Always)

5.2

Not too bad, you think. But this can get pretty bad if the sample mean

doesn't happen to be an "nice" rational number. Think about having a mean

of 19/7 = 2.714285714285... Those subtractions get nasty, and when you

square them, they're really bad. Another problem with the first formula is that

it requires you to know the mean ahead of time. For a calculator, this would

mean that you have to save all of the numbers that were entered. The TI-82

does this, but most scientific calculators don't.

Now, let's consider the shortcut formula. The only things that you need to

find are the sum of the values and the sum of the values squared. There is no

subtraction and no decimals or fractions until the end. The last row contains

the sums of the columns, just like before.

Record each number in the first column and the square of each number in the

second column.

Total the first column: 23

Total the second column: 111

Compute the sum of squares: 111 - 23*23/5 = 111 - 105.8 = 5.2

Divide the sum of squares by one less than the sample size to get the

variance = 5.2 / 4 = 1.3

x

x^2

16

25

36

25

23

111

Chebyshev's Theorem

The proportion of the values that fall within k standard deviations of the

+ k * s.

Chebyshev's Theorem is true for any sample set, not matter what the

distribution.

Empirical Rule

The empirical rule is only valid for bell-shaped (normal) distributions. The

following statements are true.

Approximately 68% of the data values fall within one standard deviation of

the mean.

Approximately 95% of the data values fall within two standard deviations of

the mean.

Approximately 99.7% of the data values fall within three standard deviations

of the mean.

The empirical rule will be revisited later in the chapter on normal

probabilities.

You may use the TI-82 to find the measures of central tendency and the

measures of variation using the list handling capabilities of the calculator.

- STA220_Final_2009F.pdfUploaded byexamkiller
- Lecture5 Variance and Standard DeviationUploaded byLoo Sha Ta
- Mte 11 EnglishUploaded byANAM DEEP
- Quantitative Methods Assignment SEM 1Uploaded byVissva
- SYLLABUS_SQQS1013_A122Uploaded byJayjay Hanj
- ch09Uploaded byben
- Advanced TestUploaded byHarsh Mehta
- Descriptive StatisticsUploaded bySatrioUtomo
- Testing EfficacyUploaded bydenny
- DLL Grade 7 Q4 Week 9Uploaded byGen-GenAlcantaraBaldado
- Exception AggregationUploaded bymp3song
- Calculation of Garch and EWMAUploaded byMahi Salman Thawer
- Cronbachs AlphaUploaded bySonia Ticona Benavente
- Paper 2 Quantitative Techniques.pdfUploaded byTuryamureeba Julius
- Week 1 Intro to StatisticsUploaded byEnrica Melissa Panjaitan
- US Federal Reserve: 200441papUploaded byThe Fed
- HF20 Uso PediatricoUploaded byJosé
- Sample QualityUploaded byArvind Mallik
- Slope stability.pdfUploaded byykazmi856
- Frequency DistributionUploaded byYusri Jumat
- Lab #5Uploaded byboston_ny
- ProbaUploaded byDonabelleTubig
- SMS18.pdfUploaded byparvathi s j
- An Effective Object Recognition Algorithm Based on Multi-source Remotely-sensed Image FusionUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Corporate DiversificationUploaded byAytaç Seyfioğlu
- Ilya Gertsbakh Auth. Measurement Theory for EBookZa.orgUploaded byaudu
- ames_expectancies.pdfUploaded byRiazboni
- Module CARE Paper2@Set1Uploaded byHayati Aini Ahmad
- Report Quick ReportUploaded byDilawar Jan
- The Distribution and Properties of a Weighted Sum of Chi SquaresUploaded byMarwan Hammouda

- 10 Computer Assisted Translation Tools LessonUploaded bymarcelagyn
- thesis foreseUploaded byKarina Sandoval
- PBM NotesUploaded byNabinSundar Nayak
- Research.docxUploaded bydolly
- ControlsUploaded byjade_rp
- TR - Programming NC IVUploaded byArnold Virrey Roxas
- Binaural Beats and Good MoodUploaded byeyelashezz
- Importance of Managing Personal WorkUploaded byCalcutta Peppers
- Abstract Abandoned Architecture- Ghost Spaces in BelgradeUploaded bypampurce
- Epdf.tips Boiler Operators HandbookUploaded byWesley Wesloq
- technology webquestUploaded byapi-334275716
- RTP_MOD-2.4Uploaded bysaideepika_b
- Demographic Aspects of Climate Change Mitigation and AdaptationUploaded bySoraya Zarco Ajenjo
- Source and Potential Conflict in the Process of ExecutionUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Epq-r (Forma Scurta)Uploaded byminodora
- Survey : Automatic Understanding by Vehicle for Driver Distraction ProblemUploaded byIRJET Journal
- 13958Uploaded byAshish Pattanaik
- CHAPTER 3Uploaded bygaea lou
- Oral Screening and Lesion Identification SystemsUploaded byAnonymous 0pSLjJY
- Degree English 20180330 1Uploaded bypriya
- CONSUMING IMPULSESUploaded byalexandra ursu
- Methods and models in process safety and risk management: Past, present and futureUploaded byRodrigo Maia
- qualtrics-tei-study.pdfUploaded bycessna5538c
- Perception of Urban Public Squares in in(1)Uploaded byKannamma Dorairaj
- Lecture 31 - Advanced Cost and Management Accounting.pdfUploaded byHsn Ali Kazmi
- Research Paper in EnglishUploaded bymariarebeccaquiamco1
- 0580_w17_ms_21Uploaded byAndrea Umar
- Jiménez Aleixandre Crujeiras2017 Chapter EpistemicPracticesAndScientifiUploaded byAna Moreno
- 1Q.1) Define MIS? What Are the ObjectivesUploaded byaatishphansekar
- Ambient Insight Learning Technology TaxonomyUploaded bymeri046767