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Concordia University

{d_chen, xfwang, ahmed}@ece.concordia.ca

the lack of analytical models.

By most predictions, fourth-generation wireless An important QoS indicator in cellular systems is the

systems will be composed of heterogeneous networks. handover blocking probability. Frequent handover

Two important constituent networks will be wireless occurs in busy areas where cellular cell size tends to be

LAN (WLAN) and cellular mobile radio systems (e.g., small. Traditional way to reducing handover blocking

UMTS). WLAN is designed for low-range, high/medium probability is to reserve some channels for handover

data rate access and can be used as a complement to traffic only. Often, to provide satisfactory handover

larger cellular mobile radio systems. In this paper, we blocking probability at 0.1, 15% of the channels are to

consider a heterogeneous system in which WLANs are be reserved [7]. However, this bandwidth reservation

built on the boundaries of the UMTS cells with hot spots results in both a higher new call blocking probability

to provide additional bandwidth and to support and a considerable loss in bandwidth usage.

handover between cellular cells. The cellular In this paper, we consider an integrated

bandwidth reservation for handover and the new call UMTS/WLAN integrated system where WLANs are

queueing are considered. We show that such an built on the boundaries of UMTS cells. Besides

integrated system can be modeled by a discrete 3-D providing wireless access for their own low mobility

Markov chain. Using this analytical model, the users, WLANs provide additional bandwidth to UMTS

handover and new call blocking probabilities, queueing networks to share the handover traffic between cellular

probability and mean queueing delay are found under cells. Since WLAN has a much lower cost per unit

various system parameters. These results then allow us bandwidth than UMTS, using WLAN to help UMTS

not only to quantify the performance gain of integrated handover is economically attractive. We show that such

systems but also to optimize system parameters. an integrated system can be modeled by a discrete 3-D

Markov chain. Using this model, performance metrics

1. Introduction such as the new call and handover blocking probability

blocking probabilities, and the queuing probability and

To establish unified heterogeneous wireless mean queueing delay of new calls can be obtained under

networks including a set of different technologies and various system parameters. Real-time traffics that

standards is a main feature of the fourth-generation (4G) require dedicated radio resources are considered. It is

mobile radio systems [1][2]. Different radio access interesting note that the proposed Markov chain model

networks have their own properties. High-tier systems is similar to that of iCAR networks presented in [8].

such as universal mobile telecommunication system The analysis results show that, with the additional

(UMTS) provide wide-area coverage, high mobility but WLAN bandwidth, the handover blocking probability

relatively low data rate [3]. Low-tier systems such as can be significantly reduced. In other words, in order to

wireless local area network (WLAN) provide local guarantee a low handover probability, less cellular

coverage, low mobility and high/medium data rate. bandwidth needs to be reserved and the cellular

Low-tier systems are complement to high-tier systems bandwidth can be more efficiently used. Hence, the

to provide additional bandwidth and high data-rate new call blocking probability can also be reduced.

services. UMTS and IEEE 802.11 based WLAN have

been considered as examples for high and low tier

systems in this paper.

2. System Overview

Various interworking and handover strategies of the 2.1 UMTS/WLAN interworking architecture

heterogeneous networks have been presented in the In the UMTS/WLAN interworking architecture,

literature [4]-[6]. To date, the main research attention WLAN act as cooperating systems to provide additional

has been given to the interworking architecture and radio resource to the cellular cells with hot spot areas.

signaling during the handover procedure. Performance In this study, the analysis of WLAN will be focused

evaluation of quality of service (QoS) support over such on point coordinator function (PCF) in the

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infrastructured IEEE 802.11 WLAN [9]. PCF is a • the MH will be assigned a DCH if there is any DCH

centralized, polling-based access mechanism with a available in the UMTS cell; otherwise,

Point Coordinator (PC) [9][10]. A mobile host (MH) • this incoming handover will be blocked.

that requires performance guarantees from a WLAN is Upon a new call arrival:

required to set up a logical channel (LCH) with the PC. • a DCH will be assigned if any is available; otherwise,

The maximum number of available LCH is calculated • the call request will wait in the queue if the queue is

and kept by the PC, so that not only the QoS of the not full; otherwise,

requesting call can be guaranteed but also the QoS of all • the new call will be blocked.

the ongoing calls can be maintained. The non-realtime Suppose that H out of a total of M available DCHs of

WLAN service will be carried in distributed coordinator a cellular cell will be reserved exclusively for handover

function (DCF) mode by the leftover bandwidth. calls. Upon a new call arrival, if the total number of

In the reminder of this paper, a UMTS MH is DCHs being used is less than M-H, a DCH will be

referred to as a cellular MH being equipped with two assigned; otherwise, the call request will be put in the

interfaces communicating with the cellular base stations queue or be blocked depending on whether the queue is

(BSs) (UMTS interface) on cellular dedicated data full. It is assumed a MH with a new call request waiting

channel (DCH) and with PCs (WLAN interface) on in the queue does not move out from one cell to another.

LCH. The data flows and signaling control commands Both new calls and call handover are assumed to be

can be routed via different air interfaces, however, generated according to Poisson distributions with

transparently to the subscriber. The bandwidth that average rates λn and λo, respectively. Let a and c be the

carries signaling sequence is neglected. normalized WLAN coverage, with respect to the

coverage of the UMTS cell of interest and with respect

2.2 System model to the handover region of the UMTS cell, respectively.

The scenario under investigation is shown in Figure

The relation between a and c can be found in Appendix

1. This system model is focused on the cell of interest.

A. It is assumed that the location of a UMTS MH with a

A WLAN is built on the boundary between the cells of

handover is uniformly distributed in the entire handover

interest and its neighboring cells. It covers a fraction

region. Thus, a handover call is generated within the

the handover region of the cell of interest and shares the

WLAN covered handover region with probability c.

handover traffic between the cell of interest and its

The call duration is assumed to be exponentially

neighboring cells passing through the handover region

distributed with mean Tc=1/µ, where µ is called the call

covered by WLAN.

departure rate. The call dwell times in a UMTS cell and

mµ in a WLAN are also assumed to be exponentially

mµ mµu m(1-c)µu

distributed with mean Tdu and Tdw, respectively. By

mµu

nµw/2 assuming that MHs move randomly, at a random time

Cell A Cell A mcµu instant, the probability that a MH with an ongoing call

λo nµw/2

cλo using a DCH moves out from a UMTS cell is µu=1/Tdu;

λn λn λo

the probability that a MH with an ongoing call using a

(1−c)λo LCH of WLAN moves out of the WLAN covering area

(a) (b) is µw=1/Tdw. Since it is also assumed that the WLAN is

Figure 1. Handover of UMTS network (a) without and (b) with built on the boundary of two neighboring UMTS cells, a

the use of WLAN. MH with an ongoing call using an LCH moves from the

As shown in Figure 1(b), from the viewpoint of the WLAN to each cell with the same probability, µw/2.

cell of interest (i.e., Cell A), an incoming handover and The relation between Tdu and Tdw shall be a function of

an outgoing handover refer to the ongoing call entering the normalized coverage of the WLAN, a. Given Tdu, a

Cell A from and leaving Cell A to any of its neighboring and the geometries of the UMTS and WLAN cells, Tdw

cells, respectively. The blocked outgoing handover will can be found. In Appendix A, Tdw is derived for round

not be counted in the following analysis of the handover WLANs and UMTS cells.

blocking probability of the cell of interest.

A handover of either type can use the WLAN 3. Markov Chain Representation

bandwidth as long as the handover region the The behaviors of the heterogeneous network

corresponding MH passes through is covered by a described above can be characterized by a

WLAN and an available LCH can be found in this three-dimensional (3-D) discrete Markov chain with the

WLAN. When a MH enters a UMTS cell during a call: parameters listed in Table I. A state in the 3-D Markov

• it will be assigned an LCH if it passes WLAN covered chain is defined as

handover region and if any LCH is available; otherwise, (m, n, b), 0mM, 0nN, 0bB,

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where m and n are the numbers of the DCH and LCH TABLE I. SYSTEM PARAMETERS USED IN THE ANALYSIS

being used, respectively, and b is the number of the new λn probability of a new call arrival in a random time unit

call request waiting in the queue. Since a new call λo probability of a handover call in a random time unit

request will not wait in the queue when the number of αu normalized handover rate in a UMTS cell, i.e., αu= µu/µ

the DCH not being used is more than the number of αw normalized handover rate in a WLAN, i.e., αw= µw/µ

DCH supposed to be reserved for handover, states (m, n, µ probability that a call finishes in a time unit

b) with m<M-H and b>0 do not exist. Therefore, the µu probability of a call handover from UMTS cell in a random

time unit

total number of states in the Markov chain, Snum, is µw probability of a call handover from WLAN in a time unit

[M+1+B(H+1)](N+1). An example with M=3, N=3, a normalized WLAN coverage respect to that of a UMTS cell

H=1 and B=2 is given in Figure 2(a) c normalized WLAN coverage respect to that of the

Four types of events can cause state transitions: new handover region of a UMTS cell

call arrival, call completion, outgoing call handover and M number of available DCH in the UMTS cell of interest

incoming call handover. Define the traffic intensity as N number of available LCH in a WLAN

the ratio of the arrival rate and the departure rate of a H number of DCH reserved for handover in a UMTS cell

call. The normalized traffic intensities of new calls and B maximum queue length in a UMTS cell

incoming handovers, Τn and Τo, are defined as than H, a DCH will be assigned to a new call waiting in

Τn=λn/µ and Τo=λo/µ. the queue (i.e., if mi-1=H, bj=bi-1, mj=mi; otherwise,

Define the normalized handover rates in UMTS and bj=bi, mj=mi-1).

WLAN as αu= µu/µ and αw= µw/µ, respectively. The • Upon an incoming handover inside the WLAN

relation between αu and αw is given in Appendix A. covered handover area, a DCH will be assigned (i.e.,

Since it is assumed the system traffic load is statistically mj=mi+1) if any available DCH can be found.

stable, the traffic intensity of incoming handover is • Upon an incoming handover outside the WLAN

equal to that of outgoing handover calls, i.e., To=αu·Tn. covered handover area, an LCH will be assigned if any

Detailed expressions of state transition probabilities available can be found (i.e., nj=ni+1 if ni<N); otherwise,

as functions of traffic intensities are given in Figure a DCH will be assigned (i.e., mj=mi+1).

2(b). The discussions about the state transition from • Upon an outgoing handover using a DCH, the DCH

state (mi, ni, bi) to (mj, nj, bj) are as following: will be released and an LCH will be assigned if the

1. When mi<H: handover is inside the WLAN covered handover region

• Upon a new call arrival, a DCH will be assigned, i.e., and if an available LCH can be found (i.e., nj=ni+1). If

nj=ni, mj=mi+1. the number of available DCH becomes no larger than H,

• Upon a call using a DCH or an LCH ends, a DCH or a DCH will be assigned to a new call waiting in the

an LCH will be released, i.e., nj=ni-1 or mj=mi-1. queue (i.e., bj=bi-1, mj=mi, if mi-1=H; otherwise, bj=bi,

• Upon an incoming handover outside the WLAN, a mj=mi-1).

DCH will be assigned, i.e., nj=ni, mj=mi+1. • Upon a handover from WLAN, a LCH will be

• Upon an incoming call handover inside the WLAN released (i.e., nj=ni-1). A DCH will be assigned if the

covered handover area, an LCH will be assigned if any handover moves from the WLAN to the intended

available can be found (ni<N), i.e., nj=ni+1, mj=mi; UMTS cell and if an available DCH can be found (i.e.,

otherwise, a DCH will be assigned, i.e., nj=ni, mj=mi+1. mj=mi-1).

• Upon an outgoing call handover using a DCH, the Let Pr(m,n,b) be the probability that the system

DCH will be released (i.e., mj=mi-1) and an LCH will be status resides in state (m,n,b). The flow equilibrium

assigned if the handover passes the WLAN covered equation for state (m,n,b) can be formed by equating the

handover region and if an available LCH can be found flux out of a state to the flux into this state. There are

(i.e., nj=ni+1). total Snum-1 linearly independent equilibrium equations.

• Upon a call handover using an LCH, the LCH will be Besides, the conservation relation among all state

released (i.e., nj=ni-1) and a DCH will be assigned if the probabilities can be given as (1),

M N B

corresponding MH moves into the intended UMTS cell (1)

(i.e., mj=mi+1).

¦¦¦ Pr (m, n, b )ε (m, n, b ) = 1.

m = 0 n =0 b = 0

• Upon a new call arrival, the call request will wait in vector p through mapping between state index (m, n, b)

the queue if the queue is not full, i.e., bj=bi+1. and vector index i, i=1,2,…., Snum, so that the i-th entry

• Upon a call completion using an LCH, the LCH will of p is the probability of state (mi,ni,bi), i.e.,

be released (i.e., nj=ni-1). p(i)=Pr(mi,ni,bi), where

• Upon a call completion using a DCH, the DCH will mi (N +1) + (ni +1) mi < M − H (2)

i =® .

be released. If the number of available DCH is no larger ¯{(M − H) + bi [mi − (M − H)]}(N +1) + (ni +1) mi ≥ M − H

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3,0,2 I 3,1,2 I 3,2,2 I 3,3,2

E W E W E W E

3,0,1 I 3,1,1 I 3,2,1 I 3,3,1

B

E W B E W B E W E D

3,0,0 I 3,1,0 I 3,2,0 I 3,3,0

W B W B W B D

2,0,2 H 2,1,2 H 2,2,2 H 2,3,2

B L B L B F L D G

F F

2,0,1 H 2,1,1 H 2,2,1 H 2,3,1

F L F L F L G

2,0,0 H 2,1,0 H 2,2,0 H 2,3,0

W W W

A A A C

W W W

A A A C

Figure 2(a). 3-D Markov chain representation of handover in the integrated UMTS/WLAN, M=3, N=3, H=1 and B=2.

Τn+(1-c)Τo Τn cΤo

A: m-1,n,0 m,n,0 E: m,n,b-1 m,n,b I: m,n-1,b m,n,b

m[1+(1−c)αu] n(1+αw)

(1-c)Τo Τn mcαu

B: m-1,n,b m,n,b F: m,n,b-1 m,n,b L: m,n,b m,n+1,b-1

m[1+(1−c)αu] m[1+(1−c)αu]

Τn+Τo Τn

C: m-1,n,0 m,n,0 G: m,n,b-1 m,n,b W: m,n,b mcαu

m[1+αu] m[1+αu]

Τo cΤo (n+1)αw/2

D: m-1,n,b m,n,b H: m,n-1,b m,n,b m-1,n+1,b

m[1+αu] n(1+αw/2)

Figure 2(b). State transition probabilities in terms of traffic intensities and normalized handover probabilities.

Collecting the equilibrium equations for all the states x(i, i ) = αu , mi ni bi ε (mi + 1, ni , bi ) + α w, mi ni bi ε (mi , ni + 1, bi )

and writing in vector-matrix form, one can get a linear + αb, mi ni bi ε (mi , ni , bi + 1) + βu , mi ni bi ε (mi − 1, ni , bi )

function, i.e.,

(X-Y)p=0. (3) + β w, mi ni bi ε (mi , ni − 1, bi ) + βb, mi ni bi ε (mi , ni , bi − 1) (4)

In (3), X and Y are the output and input transition + γ u , mi ni bi ε (mi + 1, ni − 1, bi ) + γ w, mi ni bi ε (mi − 1, ni + 1, bi )

probability matrices, respectively. Both are square + γ b, mi ni bi ε (mi , ni + 1, bi − 1)

matrices of size Snum×Snum. X is a diagonal matrix. Its

α u , m j n j b j ε (m j , n j , b j ) m j = mi − 1, n j = ni , b j = bi

i-th diagonal element, x(i, i), is the rate flux out of state

(mi, ni, bi). The element of Y, y(i, j), gives the transition

° α ( )

° w, m j n j b j ε m j , n j , b j m j = m, n j = ni − 1, b j = bi

° α b, m j n j b j ε (m j , n j , b j ) m j = mi , n j = ni , b j = bi − 1

rate from state (mj, nj, bj) to (mi, ni, bi), where mi, mj, ni

° β u , m j n j b j ε (m j , n j , b j ) m j = mi + 1, n j = n i , b j = bi

°

nj, bi, and bi can be obtained according to (2).

y(i, j ) = ® β w, m j n j b j ε (m j , n j , b j ) m j = mi , n j = n i + 1, b j = bi

°

Denote Ε as the set of states existing in the 3-D (5)

° β b, m n b ε (m j , n j , b j ) m j = mi , n j = ni + 1, b j = bi + 1

Markov chain. An indictor function ε(m, n, b) is used to °

° γ u , m j n j b j ε (m j , n j , b j ) m j = mi − 1, n j = ni + 1, b j = bi

j j j

if (m,n,b)∈ Ε. x(i, i) and y(i, j) can be given by ° w, m j n j b j

°¯γ b, m j n j b j ε (m j , n j , b j ) m j = mi , n j = n i − 1, b j = bi + 1

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According to the position of state (m, n, b), which found (with probability PWLAN); otherwise, a DCH of the

can be applied to both (mj, nj, bj) and (mi, ni, bi), the intended cellular cell will be assigned if any available

above transition rates can be expressed as DCH can be found; otherwise this handover will be

Tn + (1 − c)To m < M − H,n < N blocked (with probability PB_WLAN). An incoming

° T +T m < M − H,n = N

° handover being assigned an LCH will be blocked when

α u , mnb = ® n o

, α w, mnb = cTo , α b, mnb = Tn ;

° (1 − c )T o M − H ≤ m < M,n < N the corresponding MH moves out from the WLAN

°¯ To M − H ≤ m < M ,n = N covering area to the intended cellular cell (with

m ⋅ [1 + (1 − c)αu ] n < N n ⋅ [1 + αu 2] m < M probability PWU) and when all the DCH of the intended

βu,mnb = ® , β w,mnb = ® ,

¯ m ⋅ [1 + α u ] n = N ¯ n ⋅ [1 + αu ] m = M

cell is being used (with probability PB_UMTS). Assuming

that the call stays in WLAN for a sufficient period of

n ⋅ [1 + (1 − c)αu ] m = M − H time such that the states in which the system resides

βb,mnb = ® ;

¯ n ⋅ [1 + αu ] else when it enters and leaves WLAN are independent.

γ u,mnb = nαw 2, γ w,mnb = γ b,mnb = mc⋅αu . Hence, the blocking probability of such an incoming

Let s and b be (Snum-1)×1 column vectors and A be a handover call, PBo2, can be obtained as

(Snum-1)×(Snum-1) matrix, where PBo2 = PB _WLAN + PWLAN ⋅ PWU ⋅ PB _UMTS

,

p(i + 1) a(i, j ) = y (i + 1, j + 1) − x(i + 1, j + 1), where PB_WLAN, PWLAN, PWU, and PB_UMTS can be

s(i ) = , (6)

p(1) b(i ) = x(i + 1,1) − y(i + 1,1). expressed as

B M N −1 B

From (3) and (6), we have PB _WLAN = ¦Pr(M , N, b), PWLAN = ¦¦¦Pr(m, n, b),

s= A-1b. (7) b =0 m=0 n=0 b=0

n=1 b=0

PWU = , PB _ UMTS = .

can be obtained. α w +1 M N B

¦¦¦Pr(m, n, b)

m=0 n=1 b=0

can be used to obtain the state probabilities of Therefore, the average blocking probability of a

employing different handover schemes. The state handover call from the point of view of the cell of

transition probabilities need to be modified accordingly. interest, PBo, can be found as

PBo = (1− c) ⋅ PBo1 + c ⋅ PBo2. (9)

4. Performance Analysis

Call queueing probability

New call blocking probability A new call will wait in the queue if, upon its arrival,

When a new call is generated, it will be blocked if the total number of DCH being busy is no less than M-H

the number of available DCH not in the cell of interest is and the queue length does not reach its allowable

less than the number of DCH that should be reserved for maximum. So the probability that a new call request

call handover, i.e., m<M-H, and the queue is full. By has to wait in the queue upon its arrival is given as:

knowing the state probabilities, the blocking probability B −1 N

ª M º (10)

of a new call, PBn, can be calculated as PQn = ¦¦ « ¦ Pr (m, n, b )».

M N b = 0 n = 0 ¬m = M − H ¼

(8)

PBn = ¦ ¦ Pr(m, n, B).

m= M − H n = 0 Mean Call Queueing Delay

Assume, when the concerned new call is generated, b

Handover blocking probability

new call request is waiting in the queue and m LCH is

The handover probability is analyzed from the

being used, i.e., the system state this new call enters

viewpoint of the UMTS cell of interest, by considering

upon its arrival is (m, n, b), nN. The position in the

the incoming handover only.

queue of this call can be moved forward from b+1 to b

• When an incoming handover call is generated outside only when the number of available DCH is less than

the WLAN covered handover region (with probability

M−H. Thus, this new call can not be served during time

1-c), it will be blocked if all the DCHs in the intended

t if the number of call completion is more than the

cell are being used. Hence, the blocking probability of

number of handover call arrival by no more than

such an incoming handover call, PBo1, can be given by

N B m−(M−H−1)+b. Let KC(t) and KA(t) be the number of

PBo1 = ¦¦ Pr(M , n, b ). the calls completing during time t and the number of

n = 0 b =0

handover call being accepted during time t,

• When an ongoing call enters the cell of interest respectively. The probability of the queueing delay of

through the handover region covered by WLAN with this new call request, Tm,b, being larger than t, Pr(Tm,b>t),

probability c, this incoming handover call will be can be expressed as

assigned an LCH of WLAN if any available LCH can be

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Pr(Tm,b > t ) = Pr[K C (t ) − K A (t ) ≤ m − ( M − H − 1) + b] (11) various numbers of the reserved DCH for handover, H,

∞ k a + m − ( M − H −1) + b and various number of the maximum queue length for

= ¦ Pr[K A (t ) = k A ] ¦ Pr[K C (t ) = k C ]. new call request, B. Other system parameters are fixed

k A =0 kC = 0

as M=12, a=0.3, µ=(600 sec)-1 and αu=0.3.

Since the exact close form of queueing delay is Since the WLAN is built on the boundary of a

difficult to derive, instead an upper bound can be readily cellular cell to help call handover, with the additional

found by the following approximations. WLAN bandwidth, the call handover blocking

Approximate the handover call arrival rate seen by probability can be certainly reduced. Meanwhile, the

the cell of interest, λcell, by λo. This is because, total traffic intensity (including handover and new call

according to the state diagram shown in Figure 2(a), the traffic intensities) seen by the UMTS BS is reduced.

exact instantaneous value of λcell, given by Hence, the new call blocking probability can be also

(1 − c)λo + nα w 2 n < N , improved. The improvement of the new call blocking

λ = ®

cell

¯ λo n=N probability is not as much as that of the handover

depends on the value of n. When the queue is nonempty, blocking probability. For instance, as shown in Figures

the number of DCH being used instantaneously, m, 3 and 4, compared to those of the system without the

varies in the range between M−H and M. We help of a WLAN (N=0), the blocking probabilities of a

approximate m by M−H when M>>H. new call and a handover have been reduced from 0.1666

Since the handover blocking probability is small, the to 0.1412 and from 0.0154 to 0.0094, respectively, by

number of handover call being served can be well using a WLAN (N=2) when Tn=10, H=2 and B=2.

approximated by the number of handover call arrival. Besides, as can be observed in Figures 3 and 4, while

According to the above approximations, the increasing H or decreasing B, the r blocking probability

probabilities of kC call completion and kA handover call of a handover can also be reduce, however, in the price

arrival during time t, i.e., Pr[KC(t)=kC] and Pr[KA(t)=kA] of the increased blocking probability seen by a new call.

in (12), respectively, can be obtained as following: The effect of H on the blocking probabilities is far more

than that of B. However, the choice of B affects the

Pr [K C (t ) = k C ] =

(λo t ) k C

kC !

Figures 5 and 6 present the queueing probability of a

Pr[K A (t ) = k A ] =

[(M − H )(1 + α u )µ t ] k A

exp[(M − H )(1 + α u )µ t ].

new call and the mean queueing delay of a new call

k A! request waiting in the queue, respectively. With the

With knowing Pr[KC(t)=kC] and Pr[KA(t)=kA], and increasing traffic intensity, the queueing probability

then Pr(Tm,b >t), the mean queueing delay of the will be increased first. Further increasing traffic

concerned new call request, T m,b , can be obtained as intensity will actually result the reduced queueing

d [1 − Pr( Tm ,b > t ) ]

∞

(12) probability since the queue is constantly full when the

T m ,b = ³ t dt . new call traffic intensity becomes excessive. Compared

dt

0 to that of the system without using a WLAN, the

The summation of all m and b, M−HmM, b<B, queueing probability with the help of the WLAN is less

yields the mean queueing delay of a call waiting in the when the traffic intensity is not excessive, and is more

queue, i.e., after the new call traffic intensity reaches its turning

M B−1

T= ⋅ T m,b PQn ,

point. By using the additional WLAN bandwidth, the

¦ ¦Q

m= M − H b=0

m,b

mean queueing delay can be reduced obviously in the

where PQn, the probability that a new call request enters whole range of the traffic intensity. It can be also found

the queue upon its arrival, is given in (10), and Qm,b is in Figures 5 and 6 that reserving more DCH for

the probability that m DCH is being used and b call handover will result in a lower new call traffic intensity

request is waiting in the queue, i.e., turning point and a larger queueing delay.

N In Figures 7 and 8, the new call and handover

Qm,b = ¦ Pr(m, n, b). blocking probabilities are plotted against the WLAN

n =0

channel capacity, N. The effects of the normalized

5. Results and Discussions WLAN coverage, a, and the maximum queue length, B,

are also presented. Other system parameters are fixed

In Figures 3-6, the performance measures under as M=12, Tn=10, H=2, µ=(600 sec)-1 and αu=0.3. It is

concern are plotted against the traffic intensities of new clearly shown that, by using a WLAN, both the

calls, Tn. In all the simulations, the traffic intensities of blocking probabilities can be improved. The more the

incoming handover, To, is said to be αuTn to ensure available WLAN bandwidth, the better is the

approximately the same outgoing and incoming performance. However, when further increasing the

handover traffic. The performance is obtained with value of N beyond 2 (16.7% of the available bandwidth

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of UMTS network), the improvement becomes less UMTS cell UMTS cell

evident. For instance, as showing in Figures 7 and 8, by WLAN

using two LCHs (N=2), the improvements of the new β

2r

call and handover blocking probabilities are 15.23%

and 39.26%, respectively. While using two more LCHs R

(N=4), the above performance metrics can be further

reduced by only 2.25% and 3.65%. Figure 9 Coverage of a UMTS cell and WLAN.

It can be also observed that, in Figures 7 and 8, with

the same N, both blocking probabilities can be reduced Figure 9.

by increasing the WLAN coverage since a randomly The normalized WLAN coverage, with respect to the

generated handover call has more chance to use WLAN coverage of a UMTS cell and to the handover region of

bandwidth. the UMTS network, a and c, respectively, can be

In conclusion, with the help of a WLAN, the expressed in terms of the radiuses of a UMTS cell and

performance of UMTS network can be improved WLAN, R and r, as following:

effectively, such as the blocking probabilities of a new a = r 2 R2 , c = β 2π = sin−1 (r R) π . (13)

call and a handover call, the new call queueing delay, Therefore, for given a, c can be obtained as

etc. A lower handover blocking probability can be c = β 2π = sin−1 ( a ) π . (14)

achieved also by reserving more DCH (i.e., larger H) or According to the analysis in [7] about the relation

enlarging the queue size (larger B), however, with the between the dwell times of two areas with different

price of a higher new call blocking probability. coverage, the dwell time of WLAN, Tdw, can be

Enlarging the WLAN coverage can also improve the expressed in terms of the dwell time in a UMTS cell,

system performance. The WLAN bandwidth can be Tdu, and a, as

utilized more efficiently with a larger coverage. Tdw = x log a ⋅ Tdu .

10

(15)

Besides, with more available WLAN bandwidth, the Therefore, one can readily have

performance can be improved more. However, the µu α u Tdw

increase of the improvement by further increasing = = = x log a .10

(16)

µ w α w Tdu

available WLAN bandwidth becomes slight, i.e., the

From the simulation results presented in [7], x=2 is a

WLAN bandwidth utilization becomes less efficient.

proper value.

In practice, the leftover WLAN bandwidth will be used

to carry the WLAN traffic using either DCF or PCF References

mode, the performance that WLAN provide to its own [1] Y. Raivio, 4G—Hype or Reality, Proceedings of the IEEE 3G

traffic mainly depends on the efficiency of the WLAN Mobile Communication Technologies (2001) 346–350. March 2002.

bandwidth used by cellular calls. [2] U. Varshney, R. Jain, “Issues in emerging 4G wireless networks,”

IEEE Computer Magazine 34 (6) (2001) 94–96. June.

6. Conclusions [3] 3GPP TS 23.060, “General Packet Radio Service, Service

Description, Stage 2”, Dec 2001.

This paper considered the utilization of additional [4] Kalle Ahmavaara et al., “Interworking architecture between 3GPP

bandwidth provided by a WLAN built on the and WLAN systems”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Nov. 2003,

boundaries of UMTS cells to improve the cellular call pp. 74-81.

handover performance. New call request queueing and [5] Apostolis K. et al., “WLAN-GPRS integration for next generation

channel reservation for handover are considered. mobile data networks”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Oct. 2002,

pp. 112-124.

A 3-D Markov chain is proposed to model such an

integrated system. Using this analytical model, we have [6] Vijay K. Varma et al., "Mobility management in integrated

UMTS/WLAN networks", ICC 2003 - IEEE International Conference

evaluated several performance measures under different on Communications, vol. 26, no. 1, May 2003, pp. 1048-1053.

conditions. Numerical results have shown that, to [7] Szu-Lin Su, Jen-Yeu Chen and Jane-Hwa Huang, “Performance

achieve satisfactory handover blocking probability, the analysis of soft handoff in CDMA cellular networks,” IEEE JSAC,

use of WLAN can significantly reduce the number of vol. 14, no. 9, December 1996, pp. 1762-1769.

reserved UMTS channels for handover. This in turn [8] Evsen Yanmaz, Ozan K. Tonguz, Hongyi Wu, Chunming Qiao,

leads to reduced blocking probability of new calls and "Performance of iCAR systems: A simplified analysis technique",

ICC 2003 - IEEE International Conference on Communications,

improved bandwidth usage. vol. 26, no. 1, May 2003 pp. 949-953.

[9] IEEE Standard 802.11, Wireless LAN Medium Access Control

Appendix A (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications (1999).

Normalized WLAN Coverage and Dwell Times [10] J.L. Sobrinho and A.S. Krishnakumar, Real-time traffic over the

IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control layer, Bell Labs Technical

To simplify the analysis, it is assumed that the shapes Journal (1996) 172–187.

of both UMTS cell and WLAN are circle, as shown in

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Figure 3 New call blocking probability vs. the new call Figure 4 Handover blocking probability vs. the new call

traffic load, Tn, when M=12, a=0.3. traffic load, Tn, when M=12, a=0.3.

Figure 5 Queueing probability of a new cellular call vs. Figure 6 The mean queueing delay of a new call vs. the

the new call traffic load, Tn, when M=12, a=0.3. new call traffic load, Tn, when M=12, a=0.3.

Figure 7 New call blocking probability vs. WLAN Figure 8 Handover call blocking probability vs. WLAN

channel capacity, N, when M=12, Tn=10, H=2. channel capacity, N, when M=12, Tn=10, H=2.

Proceedings of the 2nd Int'l Conf. on Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Wired/Wireless Networks (QShine’05)

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