Appedix A Calculating the t Test and ANOVA
The tTest
The ttest
is
used for
comparing a
sample mean to a population mean,
comparing two means from the same sample, or comparing the means of two different
samples.
In a ttest we establish a hypothesis to test, compute the value of compare it to a critical value of t.
t, and then
Using a ttest also involves degrees of freedom. Degrees of freedom are based on how many values in the data set that are free to vary, and is associated with how many population parameters we intend to estimate.
A. tTest for Single Samples
This test uses only one sample, and know σ (population standard deviation).
we use this ttest when
we don’t
The formula for single samples ttest is:
M−
¿
s/√n
t=¿
Key:
M = sample mean µ = population mean s = sample standard deviation n = sample size s /√n = standard error of the mean
Example:
The average IQ for children is 100. Dr. Hockler believes she can increase this level in a sample of children by providing them with extra intellectual stimulation during the preschool years. After 3 years of such stimulation, she measures the IQ scores of ten 6yearolds. These children score a mean of 109, with s = 7.6. Evaluate her hypothesis at 0.1. Step 1: State the hypotheses:
Ho: There is no significant difference in children’s IQ scores from the population average.
Step 2: Determine the critical value of t (cvt). df = n1 = 101 = 9 cvt = 1.833
Step 3: Compute t:
_{t}_{=} 109−0.1 7.6/√6 

108.9 

t= 
7.6/2.45 
_{t}_{=} 108.9 

3.10 

t=35.13 
What should we conclude? The calculated value of t is 35.13 is greater than the critical value of 1.833 at 0.1 level of significance. This means that the null hypothesis is rejected. There is a significant difference in children’s IQ scores from the population average.
B. tTest for Dependent Samples
This test is used when we have only one sample, but plan to compare the group’s mean at one time to the group’s mean at another time to check for a significant mean difference. Another way this test is used is when the participants are paired or matched in some way. In this case, the dependent samples ttest is often called a paired samples ttest or a related samples ttest.
This ttest is based on difference scores, and the formula is:
_{t}_{=} M D−μ _{D} S _{D} /√n 

Key: 
M _{D} = mean difference (the mean of the difference scores) µ _{D} = population mean difference (which is always 0) 

s _{D} 
= standard deviation of the difference scores 

n 
= sample size, or number of pairs 

s _{D} /√n = standard error of the mean difference 

Since 
the 
value 
of 
µ _{D} is 
always zero, we 
can 
simply omit it from 
the 

formula: 

^{M} D 

t= 
S _{D} /√n 
Steps: 1. State the Hypotheses


df 
= 
n1 
tcv = 
3. Find the difference scores (subtract “before” scores from “after” scores)
4. Square the difference scores
5. Find M _{D}
6. Find s _{D}
7. Compute t and compare to tvc
Example Ms. Brooks modified her teaching methods for her 10 ^{t}^{h} grade Advanced English class to help improve her 7 students’ learning. To detect improvement, she wants to compare the students’ Test 1 scores with their Test 2 scores. At α = .01, find out if Ms. Brooks’ students learned better after she modified her teaching.
Step 1: Ho: There is no significant difference between the performance of the students in test 1 and test 2.
Step 2:
Determine tcv 
df 
= 
n1 
= 
7 – 1 = 6 
tcv = 3.143 
Step 3 and 4: Find difference scores and square them
Test 1 
Test 2 
D 
D ^{2} 

85 
88 
(88 – 85) = 
3 
9 

92 
90 
(90 – 92) = 
2 
4 

98 
97 
1 
1 

79 
85 
6 
36 

86 
90 
4 
16 

87 
88 
1 
1 

84 
86 
2 
4 

∑ 
13 
71 

Step 5: 
Find M _{D} = 13 / 7 = 1.86 
Step 6: Find
D 

Σ ¿ ^{2} (¿¿ N) ¿ 

Σ D ^{2} −¿ ¿ 

S _{D} =√¿ 

(13¿ ^{2} /7) ¿ 

71−¿ 

¿ 

¿√¿ 

_{¿} √ 71−(169/7) 6 

¿√7.81 

¿2.79 
Step 7: Compute t and compare to tcv
M D
t= 
S _{D} /√n 

1.86 

t= 
2.79 
/√7 

1.86 

t= 
2.79 
/2.65 

_{t}_{=} 1.86 

1.05 

t=1.77 
What should we conclude?
The calculated value of
t is lesser than the tabulated value of
t.
Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted. There is no significant difference between the performance of the students in test 1 and test 2.
C. tTest for Independent Samples
This test is used when we have two different samples, and we want to know if the means are significantly different from one another. Because we are using two samples, we must combine the variance of both.
The formula for this test is:
df
n
1
n
2
1 /¿+(1/¿) ¿ ¿ ¿ (SS 1+SS 2)/¿ ¿
√¿ _{t}_{=} M _{1} −M _{2}
¿
Key:
M _{1}
= mean of first sample
M _{2} = mean of second sample
SS1 = sum of squares for first sample SS2 = sum of squares for second sample
df = degrees of freedom
[(n _{1} + n _{2} ) – 2]
n _{1} = number in first sample n _{2} = number in second sample (SS1 + SS2) / df) = pooled variance
Steps: 1. State the Hypotheses
2. Determine tcv 
df 
= 
(n + n)  2 
tcv = 
3. Square each score for each group
4. Sum the scores, and the squared scores, for each group
5. Find M for each group
6. Find the SS for each group
7. Compute t and compare to tvc
Example:
Mr. Ande is a farmer looking for an effective way to store corn for a 9 month period. He plans to use half of his machine shed to stack the corn in a
sheet metal bin.
His main concern is moisture getting to the corn, but doesn’t
know whether the corn will hold up better if he uses the existing dirt floor, or
constructs a floor made of lime chips like his neighbor suggests. He decides to split his 10,000 bushels between two bins, one with a dirt floor and one with a lime chip floor, and check them for moisture percentage at the end of each month. His data appear below. At α = .01, did one bin of corn suffer a significantly different amount of moisture damage over the other?
Step 1: State the Hypotheses Ho: There will be no difference in the amount of moisture damage suffered by each bin of corn.
Step 2: Determine tcv:
df 
= 
(n + n)  2 
= 
(9+9) – 2 = 16 
tcv = 2.921 
Step 3 and 4:
Dirt Floor (X _{1} )
Lime Floor (X _{2} )
X _{1} ^{2}
X _{2}
2
3
2
9
4
5
3
25
9
6
7.2
5
7
36
51.84
25
49
8.5
12
7
8.9
72.25
144
49
79.21
∑
14
16.8
11
12
196
282.24
121
144
20
12.5
400
156.25
92.5
68.4
`
1216.33
636.46
Step 5:
M _{1} = 92.5/9 =10.28
M _{2} = 68.4/9 = 7.6
Step 6:
SS1 = ∑X _{1} ^{2} – ((∑X _{1} ) ^{2} / n _{1} )SS2 = ∑X _{2} ^{2} – ((∑X _{2} ) ^{2} / n _{2} )
= 1216.33 – (92.5 ^{2} / 9) = 265.64
= 636.46 – (68.4 ^{2} / 9) = 116.62
Step 7: Compute t and compare to tvc
t =
M _{1}

M _{2}
√(SS1 + SS2) / df) ((1/n _{1} ) + (1/n _{2} )
=
10.28

7.60
__
√(265.64 + 116.62) / 16) ((1/9) + (1/9)
16
382.26/¿(0.11+0.11)
=
¿
¿
√¿
2.68
¿
¿
2.68
√5.25
_{¿} 2.68 
2.29 
¿1.17 
What should we conclude?
The calculated value of
t is lesser than the tabulated value of
t.
Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted. There is no difference in the
amount of moisture damage suffered by each bin of corn.
In any given research situation, how do we decide which type of ttest to use?
The following chart will help in deciding which type of ttest to use.
A. Solve the following exercises.
1. Ms. Chua owns a Chinese restaurant, and wants to increase business during the weekday lunch hours. She tends to average 45 lunch guests per day on weekdays. To increase this number she offers a 10% discount on weekdays. She keeps a count for 8 weeks, and finds she has an average of 48 customers with s = 3.46. Evaluate her hypothesis at α = .01.
Step 1: State the hypotheses:
Ho:
Step 2: Determine the cvt:
df = n1 = cvt =
Step 3: Compute t:
M−
¿
s/√n
t=¿
What is your conclusion?
2. Last year on Halloween, a local hospital offered children a trade. They could bring the candy they collected trickortreating to the hospital, and trade it in for a free checkup from their nurse practitioners. This year, in order to increase the children’s visits, the hospital mailed letters to the parents of the same children asking the parents to encourage their children to make this trade. Each of 9 nurse practitioners was asked to report the number of
children that came in for a checkup. Below is a sample of the data obtained last year, and this year. At α = .05, find out if significantly more of these children traded their candy for a free checkup this year, over last year.
Step 1: State the Hypotheses Ho:
Step 2: Determine tcv:
df
=
n1
=
tcv =
Step 3 and 4: Find the difference and difference squared scores
Last Year 
This Year 
D 
D ^{2} 

8 
6 

10 
11 

7 
13 

6 
6 

9 
12 

5 
8 

4 
7 

11 
10 

10 
18 

∑ 

Step 
5. 
M _{D} = 

Step 6. 
s 
_{D} 
= 
√ 
∑D ^{2} n  1  ((∑D) ^{2} / N) 
Step 7: Compute t
t
=
M _{D}
s _{D} / √ n
What is your conclusion?
3. Another hospital offered to trade children for their Halloween candy. This hospital, however, offered half the children a free checkup, and offered the other half a coupon for a free ice cream sundae from a local restaurant. A sample of the data, as reported by 8 nurse practitioners, appears below. At α = .05, which group of children was significantly more likely to trade in their candy?
Step 1: State the Hypotheses Ho:
Step 2: Determine tcv:
df
=
(n + n)  2
=
tcv =
Step 3 and 4:
Check Up (X _{1} )
Ice Cream (X _{2} )
X _{1} ^{2}
X _{2}
2
4
6
5
9
3
9
2
8
2
6
5
6
7
10
4
6
∑
Step 5:
M _{1} =
M _{2} =
Step 6:
SS1 = ∑X _{1} ^{2} – ((∑X _{1} ) ^{2} / n _{1} )SS2 = ∑X _{2} ^{2} – ((∑X _{2} ) ^{2} / n _{2} )
Step 7: Compute t and compare to tvc
t =
M _{1}

M _{2}
√(SS1 + SS2) / df) ((1/n _{1} ) + (1/n _{2} )
What is your conclusion?
B.
Considering the following situations, what is the appropriate ttest to use? Encircle your answer.
1. Many American adults have triglyceride levels that are higher than the healthy
limit of 150 or less. Dr. Carter is a dietician who believes that 30 minutes of exercise, 5 days per week, will lower triglycerides. She gathers a sample of 6
adults whose triglyceride levels measure beyond 150, has them walk on a treadmill for ½ hour a day for 8 weeks, then measures their triglyceride levels again.
Single Sample Dependent Sample Independent Sample
2. Mr. Garcia is interested in improving his track team’s 100 yard dash average.
He divides his team of 20 students into two groups. He pairs his two best runners, and puts one in each group. He does the same with his two second best, his two third best, etc. He gives the first group extra training for two weeks, and compares them to the second group to find out if extra training improves the average speed of the runners.
Single Sample Dependent Sample Independent Sample
3. Mr. Sanchez wants to improve the playing of the fluteplayers in his 8 ^{t}^{h} grade orchestra. He randomly selects 6 fluteplayers, and spends an hour a day giving private music lessons to each child for 6 weeks. He then compares them to the remaining fluteplayers to check for improvement.
Single Sample Dependent Sample
Independent Sample
4. Ms. Oliveros owns the Hotel Paradise in Hawaii, and wants to increase her occupancy for the summer months. In previous years, she has averaged 200 guests per night during the summer. In an effort to increase occupancy, she advertises her hotel nationally throughout the winter months, then takes a count of how many guests stay at her hotel the following summer.
Single Sample Dependent Sample Independent Sample
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Table 1.1
In statistics, analysis of variance is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to different explanatory variables. In its simplest form ANOVA gives a statistical test of whether the means of several groups are all equal, and therefore generalizes Student's twosample ttest to more than two groups.
In practice, there are several types
of ANOVA depending on the number of
treatments and the way they are applied to the subjects in the experiment:

Oneway ANOVA 

Twoway ANOVA 

Factorial ANOVA 

Mixed Design ANOVA 

Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) 
ANOVA or ftest is an extension of the ttest, which is used in determining the nonsignificance of difference of three or more group of values.
Decision Rules to be followed:
One – way Analysis of Variance
In Jose’s Farmville, an experiment was devised to test if fruit yield from three experimental blocks differ significantly from each other. The fruit trees in the first block were applied the SuperGrow fertilizer, the trees on the second block were fertilized by SuperDuper fertilizer, and third block is considered as control. With given values for the yield of the blocks, is there a significant difference among the treatments at 5% level of significance?
Step 1: State the research question:
Is there a significant difference on the yield performance of the fruit trees
using:
a. Supergrow fertilizer;
b. Super Duper grow fertilizer;
c. Natural Fertilizer?
Step 2: H _{A} : There is a significant difference on the yield performance of the fruit trees with regards to the mentioned criteria.
H _{0} : There is no significant difference on the yield performance of the fruit trees
with regards to the mentioned criteria.
Step 3: Determine α, decision rule, and F  critical value. (α=0.05)
Decision rule:
If F _{c} is
F _{t} or F _{c} is
___________
F _{t} : ________________
_________
F _{t}_{,} then reject H _{0}_{.}
Step 4: Arrange the data similar below.
A 
B 
C 
A 
B 
C 

2 
2 
2 

x 
x 
x 
_{x} 
x 
x 

20 
15 
20 
400 
225 
400 

22 
18 
22 
484 
324 
484 

18 
15 
18 
324 
225 
324 

20 
17 
20 
400 
289 
400 

23 
23 
23 
529 
529 
529 

∑213 

∑103 
∑88 
∑103 
_{7} 
∑1592 
∑2137 

~ 
~ 
~ 
∑ x 
2 

^{x} 
=20. 
^{x} 
=17 
^{x} 
=2 
=5 

6 
.6 
0.6 
866 

~ 

Σ x _{=} 
^{x} t 
=19. 

294 
6 
N= 15 

20+22+18+20+23 

^{=}^{2}^{0}^{.}^{6}


15+18+15+17+23 

^{=}^{1}^{7}^{.}^{6}


20+22+18+20+23 

^{=}^{2}^{0}^{.}^{6} 
5 (Mean of Treatment C)
(Total Sum of the Squared Scores)
Solution: 

N= number 

~ 

x 
a 
= 
~ 

x 
_{b} 
= 
~ 

x 
c 
= 
~ 

x 
t 
= 
^{∑} ^{x} ^{2} ^{=}^{2}^{1}^{3}^{7}^{+}^{1}^{5}^{9}^{2}^{+}^{2}^{1}^{3}^{7}^{=}^{5}^{8}^{6}^{6}
∑ x=103+88+103=294
20.6+17.6+20.6
_{(}_{S}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{S}_{c}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{)}
^{=}^{1}^{9}^{.}^{6}
3 (Average of the Mean Scores)
of cases
Step 5: Compute for SS _{t} , SS _{b} , SS _{w} , df _{b}_{,} df _{w} , MS _{b} , MS _{w} , and for F.
Total Sum of the Squares
Solution:
SS _{t} =5866− ^{(}^{2}^{9}^{4} ^{)} 2
15
SS _{t} =5866− ^{8}^{6}^{4}^{3}^{6}
15
SS _{t} =5866−5762.4
SS _{t} =103.6
SS _{t} =Σx ^{2} −
(ΣX) ^{2}
N
Sum of the Squares Between
SS _{b} =Σ ^{(}^{Σ} ^{X}^{)} 2 −
n
(Σ X _{t} ) ^{2}
N
N= Total number of cases
n= Total number of cases in each treatment
Solution:
SS _{b} = _{(} ^{1}^{0}^{3} ^{2} +
5
^{2} + 103 ^{2}
5
88
294
^{2}
5
15
_{S}_{S} b _{=} ( 10609 + 7744 + 10609
5
5
5
86436
15
SS
_{b} =(2121.8+1548.8+2121.8)−5762.4
SS 
_{b} =5792.4−5762.4 
SS 
_{b} =30 
Sum of the Squares within Groups
SS _{w} =SS _{A} +SS _{B} +SS _{c} …
Sum of the Squares in a Group
Solution:
SS=Σ X ^{2} −
(Σ X) ^{2}
n
SS _{A} =2137− ^{(}^{1}^{0}^{3}^{)} 2
5
SS _{A} =2137− ^{1}^{0}^{6}^{0}^{9}
5
SS _{A} =2137−2121.8
SS _{A} =15.2
SS _{B} =1592− ^{(}^{8}^{8}^{)} 2
5
SS _{B} =1592− ^{7}^{7}^{4}^{4}
5
SS _{B} =1592−1548.8
SS _{B} =43.2
SS _{C} =2137− ^{(}^{1}^{0}^{3}^{)} 2
5
SS _{C} =2137− ^{1}^{0}^{6}^{0}^{9}
5
SS 
_{C} =2137−2121.8 
SS _{C} =15.2 

SS _{W} 
=15.2+43.2+15.2 
SS _{W} =73.6
The within sumofsquares added to the between sumofsquares should total
the total sumofsquares:
SS _{T} =SS _{W} +SS _{B}
SS _{T} =73.6+30
SS _{T} =103.6
It follows, then, that the within sumofsquares can be directly by subtracting the
between sumofsquares from the total sumofsquares:
SS _{W} =SS _{T} +SS _{B}
Degrees of Freedom
There are 15 cases in the problem that we are working, have N1, or 14, degrees
of freedom. In group A there are 5 cases; hence there are 4 degrees of freedom for this
group, and since in this problem the number of cases is the same in each problem,
there are 4 degrees of freedom in each of the other groups. So far, we have accounted
for 12 of the total number of degrees of freedom. We have three groups. Then it
follows that there are 2 degrees of freedom for the groups. Then it follows that there are
2 degrees of freedom for the groups. To generalize:
df for total groups= number of cases in total (N) minus 1
df for groups between= number of groups (k) minus 1
df for groups within= sum of the number of cases within each sub
group (n) minus 1. (n _{1} 1) + (n _{2} 1) + ...
+ (n _{k} 1)
Therefore:
df for total groups= 15  1= 14
df for groups between= 3  1= 2
df or groups within= (51) + (51) + (51)= 12
Mean Square Between
Mean Square Within
MS
_{w} =
SS _{w}
df _{w}
MS
_{w} =
73.6
12
MS
_{w} =6.13
F Test
SS _{B} 

MS _{B} = 
df _{B} 

30 

MS _{B} 
= 

2 

MS 
_{B} =2 
The F value is the ratio of the Mean Square Between and Mean Square Within.
In equation:
_{F}_{=} MSB 
MSW 
F= ^{2} 
6.13 
F=0.33 
Step 6: Make a summary table.
Source of Variation 
^{D}^{e}^{g}^{r}^{e}^{e}^{s} ^{o}^{f} 
Sum of 
Mean 
Computed 
Tabulated 
VI 
H _{o} 
Freedom 
Squares 
Squares 
F Value 
F Value* 

Between Groups 
_{2} 
_{3}_{0} 
_{2} 
0.33 
3.88 
NS 
A 
Within Groups 
_{1}_{2} 
_{7}_{3}_{.}_{6} 
_{6}_{.}_{1}_{3} 

Total 
14 
103.6 
*Please refer to the table of F distribution
Step 7: Make an interpretation.
The table shows that the computed value of F is 0.33 while the tabulated value of F
at 0.05 level of significance is 3.88. This reveals that the computed value is lesser than
the tabulated value. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the yield
performance of the fruit trees with regards to the mentioned criteria. And the null
hypothesis is accepted.
Two– way Analysis of Variance
In the table below are responses of 40 male and female high school students to
an attitudinal scale. Each group of 40 was randomly divided into two groups of ten
each, and then each of these groups of 10 was shown one of the four different films of a
controversial subject. Later the attitudinal scale on this subject was administered to
each individual. For the study, we will use the 0.05 level of significance.
Step 1: State the research question:
Is there a significant difference on the responses of the group of male and
female students on the attitudinal scale when exposed to four different films of
controversial subject?
Step 2: H _{A} : There is a significant difference on the responses of the group of male and
female students on the attitudinal scale when exposed to four different controversial
films.
H _{0} : There is no significant difference on the responses of the group of male and
female students on the attitudinal scale when exposed to four different controversial
films.
Step 3: Determine α, decision rule, and F  critical value. (α=0.05)
Decision rule:
If F _{c} is
F _{t} or F _{c} is
___________
F _{t} : ________________
_________
F _{t}_{,} then reject H _{0}_{.}
Step 4: Arrange the data similar on the following table.
Film
1 
2 
3 
4 

Males 

10 
14 
13 
16 


12 
12 


10 
10 


9 
9 


9 
9 


7 
7 


4 
7 


4 
6 


4 
5 


2 
5 

∑=43 
54 
74 
86 
∑=257 
Females 

14 
14 
10 
18 

12 
13 
10 
16 

12 
12 
10 
15 

10 
11 
9 
14 

8 
10 
9 
13 

6 
9 
7 
10 

4 
7 
7 
10 

2 
6 
6 
10 

2 
3 
5 
10 

1 
2 
4 
9 

∑=71 
87 
77 
125 
∑=360 
∑ _{c} =114 
141 
151 
211 
∑X _{t} =617 
Step 5: Compute for the following:
Squares and their sum
Σ X ^{2} _{t} =10 ^{2} +8 ^{2} +6 ^{2} ….+9 ^{2}
Σ X ^{2} _{t} =6159
Total Sum of Squares
SS _{T} =6159− ^{(}^{6}^{1}^{7}^{)} 2
80
SS _{T} =6159− ^{(}^{6}^{1}^{7}^{)} 2
80
SS _{T} =6159−4758.6
SS _{T} =1400.4
2
SS _{T} =Σ X _{t} −
(ΣX _{t} ) ^{2}
^{N} t
Sum of Squares Within
2
SS _{w} =Σ X _{t} −
Σ(ΣX _{k} ) ^{2}
N
_{S}_{S} w _{=}_{6}_{1}_{5}_{9}_{−} 43 ^{2} +54 ^{2} +74 ^{2} +86 ^{2} +71 ^{2} +87 ^{2} +77 ^{2} +125 ^{2}
10
SS _{w} =6159− ^{5}^{1}^{8}^{0}^{1}
10
SS 
_{w} =6159−5180.1 
SS 
_{w} =978.9 
Sum of Squares between Columns
X c
Σ ¿
¿
¿2
¿
X t
Σ ¿
¿
¿2
Σ ¿
SS _{c} =¿
617 ¿ ^{2} ¿ ¿
SS _{c} =
114 ^{2} +141 ^{2} +151 ^{2} +211 ^{2}
20
−¿
SS _{c} =
100199 −4758.61
20
SS
_{c} =5009.95−4758.61
SS _{c} =251.34
Sum of Squares between Rows
X r
Σ ¿
¿
¿2
¿
X t
Σ ¿
¿
¿2
Σ ¿
SS _{r} =¿
SS
_{r} =
257 ^{2} +360 ^{2} 617
2
−
40
80
SS _{r} =
195649 −4758.61
40
SS
_{r} =4891.22−4758.61
SS _{r} =132.61
Sum of Squares between Interaction
SS _{c} _{.}_{r} =SS _{t} −SS _{w} −SS _{c} −SS _{r}
SS _{c} _{.}_{r} =1400.4−978.9−251.34−132.61
SS _{c} _{.}_{r} =37.6
Degrees of Freedom
df for total groups = N _{t}
df for groups within = k(N1)
df for groups between columns = c1
df for groups between rows = r1
df for groups between interaction = (c1)(r1)
Solution:
df _{t} = 801=79
df _{w} = 8(101)=8(9)= 72
df _{c} = 41=3
df _{r} = 21=1
df _{c}_{.}_{r} = (41) (21) =3(1) = 3
Mean Square Within
MS
_{W} =
SS _{w}
df _{w}
MS
_{W} =
978.9
72
MS
_{W} =13.6
Mean Square between Columns
MS
_{C} =
SS _{c}
df _{c}
MS
_{C} =
251.34
3
MS
_{C} =83.78
Mean Square between Rows
MS
_{r} =
SS _{r}
df _{r}
MS
_{r} =
132.61
1
MS
_{r} =132.61
Mean Square between Interaction
^{M}^{S} c. r
=
^{S}^{S} c .r ^{d}^{f} c .r
^{M}^{S} c. r
=
37.6
3
MS _{c}_{.} _{r} =12.53
F Test
The F value is the ratio of the Mean Square Between (Columns, Rows and
Interaction) and Mean Square Within.
_{F}_{=} MSB 

MSW 

Solution: 

F 
c 
83.78 = 13.6 
=6.16 
F 
=


r 
13.6 

^{F} c .r 
=


13.6 
Step 6: Make a summary table.
Source of 
Sum of 
Degrees of 
Mean 
Computed 
Tabulated 
VI 
H o 
Variation 
Squares 
Freedom 
Squares 
F Value 
F Value* 

Between 

Columns 
251.34 
3 
83.78 
6.16 
2.74 
S 
rejected 
Rows 
132.61 
1 
132.61 
9.75 
3.98 
S 
rejected 
interaction 
37.6 
3 
12.53 
0.92 
2.74 
NS 
accepte 
d 

Within Groups 
_{9}_{7}_{8}_{.}_{9} 
_{7}_{2} 
_{1}_{3}_{.}_{6} 

Total 
1400.4 
79 
*Please refer to the table of F distribution
Step 7: Make an interpretation.
The table reveals that the computed value of F between columns and rows are
greater that the tabulated value. Therefore we can say that there is a significant
difference in the response of the students in the attitude scale with regards to the
controversial films and sex. While in the interaction the computed value is lesser than
the tabulated value. This means that there is no significant difference in the scores of
the students with regards to the interaction of male and female with the controversial
films.