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Results

Table 1. Preparation of Alkane (Methane)


Sample
Reagents: (soda lime)
(anhydrous CH3COONa)
Mixture
Product: (methane)
(Na2CO3)
Chemical Equation:
1.

CH3COONa+NaOH

Description
White powder
White powder
White powder

CH4 + Na2CO3

Table 2. Preparation of Alkyne (Acetylene)


Sample
Reagents: (Calcium carbide)
(water)
Mixture
Products: (Ca(OH2))
(C2H2)
Chemical Equation:
1.

CH3COONa+NaOH

Description

CH4 + Na2CO3

Table 3. Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Water


Name/Structure
Alkane
Alkyne
Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Description of sample + water

Solubility (+/-)

General Conclusion
Explanation
Table 4. Bromination: Electrophillic Addition of
Sample (name)
Saturated Hydrocarbon
(
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
(

Description

Chemical rxn
4a
4b

Chemical Equation
4a
4b
Table 5. Oxidizability: Oxidation with
Sample (name)
Saturated hydrocarbon
(
Unsaturated hydrocarbon
(
Aromatic hydrocarbon
(
Chemical Equation

Description

Chemical rxn
5a
5b
5c

5a
5b
5c
Table 6. Ignition Test (reaction test )
Sample(name)
Saturated Hydrocarbon
(
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
(
Aromatic Hydrocarbon
(
Chemical Equation
6a
6b
6c

CH4 + O2
CH + O2
C6H6 + O2

Description

Chemical rxn
6a
6b
6c

CO2 + CO + H2O
CO2 + CO + H2O
CO2 + CO + H2O

Discussion
In the first part, which is saturated hydrocarbon, the methane was prepared. 3 g
of soda lime and 6 g of anhydrous CH 3COONa were ground. Sodium acetate is heated
with soda lime (three parts Calcium oxide, one part sodium Hydroxide), methane gas is
produced. Sodium Hydroxide acts as reactant and Calcium Oxide keeps the gas dry. A
mixture of sodium acetate and soda lime are taken in a glass tube and heated. Methane
gas is evolved which is collected by downward displacement of water. The downward
displacement method makes other soluble gases or salts evaporating from the tube to
be absorbed. Methane is insoluble in water, so the downward displacement technique
can be usefully employed. Methane burns in air with a blue flame. In sufficient amount

of oxygen, methane burns to give carbon dioxide and water. In insufficient oxygen it
gives out carbon monoxide. Methane produces a good amount of heat when it
undergoes combustion. This is the reason why it is used as fuel.
Second part is the unsaturation test. First is the bromine test. CH 2Cl2 was added
to one test tube of gas containing bromine. The color of the solution is light yellow, this
indicates that no reaction occurred. Bromine does not react with an alkane because the
alkane contains only single C-C bonds which cannot add the bromine. Alkanes merely
dilute the red-brown bromine color to an orange or yellow color in the absence of a
strong catalyst. In the reaction with alkaline permanganate, 1 mL of 0.0002M KMnO 4
solution was added to the second test tube of gas with Na 2CO3. If the color of KMnO4
was changed it is cyclohexene and if no change in color of KMnO4 it is alkane or
aromatic hydrocarbon. The color of the solution was red, which means its cyclohexene.
In the ignition test, the color of the flame is yellow.
Third is the unsaturated hydrocarbon. In preparation of acetylene, a 50 mL test
tube was filled with water. Small pieces of calcium carbide was added. This was then
connected to a water trough using a delivery tube. In the water trough, three test tube
was filled with the acetylene gas when it was heated. Preparing the acetylene undergo
addition reactions. First step reduces the carbon-carbon triple bond to carbon-carbon
double bond (alkene). Second reduces the double bond to a carbon-carbon single bond
(alkane). The acetylene gas is insoluble in water.
Third is the Aromatic hydrocarbon. In the solubility test, two drops of benzene
was added to one mL of water. Benzene remained on top. This is because benzene is
immiscible & lighter than water. In the test for saturation, mL of 0.0002M KMnO 4 was
added to mL of benzene. There was no reaction. The potassium permanganate
remained on the bottom and its color was purple while the benzene remained on top
with its appearance of clear liquid. This is because stabilization due to aromaticity
makes benzene significantly less reactive than isolated alkenes. In the ignition test,
benzene was ignited. Benzene is flammable so when it was ignited, fire will be produced
and then black soot will appear. The color of the flame is yellow, which means its
luminous flame. This also means that benzene is aromatic. There was smoke. Smoke
produced is the left over incomplete combustion solid products and is also called soot.
The more or darker smoke comes from a cooler flame where combustion is limited.

Conclusion
Hydrocarbons are those organic molecules that have only hydrogen and carbon.
Saturated hydrocarbons have only single bonds (alkanes, no double or triple bonds).
The term saturated means that it has the maximum number of atoms attached to each
carbon. Methane burns in air with a blue flame. In sufficient amount of oxygen, methane
burns to give carbon dioxide and water. In insufficient oxygen it gives out carbon
monoxide. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, (not saturated with Hs) like alkenes and alkynes,

not only burn, but also react by an addition reaction at the double or triple bond. No
reaction occurred in the bromine water test and also the potassium permanganate test,
reaction occurred, the color changed. From purple to red. Its considered as cyclohexene.
The gas produced in the preparation of acetylene is insoluble in water. Benzene is also
immiscible and lighter than water.
References:
http://reactionsoforganiccompounds.blogspot.com/2010/03/ignition-test-forbenzene.html
http://www.ausetute.com.au/combusta.html
https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070805054235AAWjrWH