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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE

MEASUREMENT

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this chapter, the students should be able to:
1. Understand the concept of temperature, scales and units by air.
2. Understand and use the instruments follow the ground rules.
3. Know and use the tools on the principles of electricity.
4. Understand and use the tools under the optical principle.

Hot
Bath

Cool
Bath

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Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


Associate Professor Thai Thi Thu Ha

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CONTENTS

1.INTRODUCTION

1.Introduction
2.Definition of temperature
3.Temperature scales
4. Classification temperature measurements
5. Temperature measurement by mechanical effects
6. Temperature measurement by Electrical Effects
7. Temperature measurement by changes in Emitted thermal radiation
8. Conclusion

Temperature Measurement
and Control
Applications for physicists
Necessary for some other process of interest
Purification by vacuum sublimation
Device fabrication
Crystal growth
Cold traps for numerous applications
Process needs to be done under predetermined thermal conditions
Inherent to an experiment
Measurement of temperature dependence of some property
Determination of temperature at which some physical phenomenon occurs
Temperature dependence of experiment needs to be controlled with high
precision

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Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

1.INTRODUCTION

1.INTRODUCTION

Devices and Techniques for


Temperature Measurement

Temperature sensors appear in building, chemical


process plants, engines, appliances, computers, and
many other devices that require temperature
monitoring
Many physical phenomena depend on temperature, so
we can often measure temperature indirectly by
measuring pressure, volume, electrical resistance, and
strain

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Requires material parameter proportional to temperature


Uncertainty principle applies! How much does the act of
measuring the temperature and getting the result out change the
system temperature?
Under what circumstances is the act of taking the measurement
insignificant?

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


1.INTRODUCTION

1.INTRODUCTION

You should consider where to probe, with what, how, and for how long.
To measure temperature accurately is far more complicated than it seems
Parameters affecting temperature measurement

Pocket, handheld, hard-wired

Location of the coldest and hottest pieces

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Sausages, patties, cured meats


Shape of pieces, casings, molds

Application

Batch or continuous

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Type of product

Bimetal, RTD, thermocouple, thermistor, infrared

Design of equipment

Design of sensors

Parameters affecting temperature measurement

Endpoint check (CCP)


Process validation (F-value)
Oven validation
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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

1.INTRODUCTION

1.INTRODUCTION

A BIT OF HISTORY

A BIT OF HISTORY

Temperature measurements and thermometers


1600 - thermometers (water expansion, mercury)
1650 - first attempts at temperature scales (Boyle)
1700 - standard temperature scales (Magelotti, Renaldini, Newton)

did not catch


1708 - Farenheit scale (180 div.)
1742 - Celsius scale
1848 - Kelvin scale (based on Carnots thermodynamic work)
1927 - IPTS - International Practical Temperature Scale

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Temperature sensors are the oldest sensors

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1821 - Seebeck effect (Thomas Johann Seebeck)


1826 - first sensor - a thermocouple - based on the Seebeck
effect (Antoine Cesar Becquerel)
1834 - Peltier effect (Charles Athanase Peltier).
First peltier cell built in 1960s
Used for cooling and heating
1821 - discovery of temperature dependence of conductivity (Sir
Humphrey Davey)
1871 - William Siemens builds the first resistive sensor made
of platinum
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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


1.INTRODUCTION

A SIMPLE THERMAL SYSTEM


Sensor

2. DEFINITION OF TEMPERATURE

Work Load
Temperature
Controlling
Device

Heat Source
Sensor Input
Output
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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


2. DEFINITION OF TEMPERATURE

2. DEFINITION OF TEMPERATURE

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Temperature is a useful measure of the thermodynamic state of


an object or system. It is a macroscopic description of the
aggregate amount of microscopic kinetic energy in a material.
If two bodies are at the same temperature, they are in
thermodynamic equilibrium with each other; if they were
connected to each other, there is no net flow of heat from one
to the other.
Interestingly, temperature is not a measure of the unit
thermodynamic energy of a body; unit masses of differing
materials can require differing amounts of energy to be added
or removed to change their temperature by a given amount.
Identical temperature of two bodies merely implies there
would be no transfer of heat between the two, regardless of the
actual energy stored as heat in each body.

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Temperature is critical to many aspects of human activity from the


thermodynamic improvement of heat engines to process control andhealth
applications.
Current estimates of the value of the temperature measurement market run at
approximately 80% of the sensor market.
Temperature is a useful measure of the thermodynamic state of an object or
system. It is a macroscopic description of the aggregate amount of
microscopic kinetic energy in a material. If two bodies are at the same
temperature, they are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other; if they
were connected to each other, there is no net flow of heat from one to the
other.
Interestingly, temperature is not a measure of the unit thermodynamic energy
of a body; unit masses of differing materials can require differing amounts of
energy to be added or removed to change their temperature by a given
amount. Identical temperature of two bodies merely implies there would be
no transfer of heat between the two, regardless of the actual energy stored as
heat in each body.

Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

2. DEFINITION OF TEMPERATURE

2. DEFINITION OF TEMPERATURE

To most people, temperature is intuitive concept that tells us whether


a body is hot or cold.
Since pressure, volume, electrical resistance, expansion coefficient
etc., are all related to temperature through the fundamental molecular
they change with temperature, and these changes can be used to measure
the temperature.
The International Temperature Scale serve to define temperature
in
terms of observable characteristic of materials.
A measure, proportional to the thermal energy of a given body at
equilibrium, or
The property of a body or region of space that determines whether or not
there will be a net flow of heat into it or out of it from a neighbouring body
or region and in which direction (if any) the heat will flow. If there is no
heat flow the bodies or regions are said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium
and at the same temperature. If there is a flow of heat, the direction of the
flow is from the body or region of higher temperature.

Here is the Fancy Explanation:


(Taken from Phys. 113 Course at U. of Illinois)

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


3. TEMPERATURE SCALES

3. TEMPERATURE SCALES

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

3. TEMPERATURE SCALES

Two temperature scales which are the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales
These scales are based on a specification of the number increment between
the freezing point and a boiling point of water at standard
atmospheric
pressure.
The Celsius scale has 100 units between these points, while
Fahrenheit
scale has 180 units.
The absolute Celsius scale is called the Kelvin scale, while the
absolute
Fahrenheit scale is termed the Rankine scale.
Both absolute scales are defined that they will correspond as
closely as
possible with the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale.
The zero point of both absolute scales represent the same physical state, and
the ratio of two values is the same, regardless of the absolute scale used; i.e.:
(T2/T1)Rankine= (T2/T1)Kelvin
The boiling point of water at atm is arbitrarily taken as 100o
on Celsius
scale and 212o on the Fahrenheit scale.
The relationship between the scales is as follows:
oF = 32 + 9/5oC
oF = 9/5oK
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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

3. TEMPERATURE SCALES

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The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is the


current standard for temperature measurement, defining the
Kelvin temperature scale. The standard is based on phase
transition points of various pure substances, with the Kelvin
degree defined as 1/273.16 the absolute temperature of the triple
point of water. Examples of a few other key points defined in this
scale are listed in Table 1.
The reason for defining the temperature scale on the basis of
freezing and triple points is that these events can be readily
reproduced to a high degree of repeatability.
This means that there need not be a standard kilogram of
temperature locked in a vault somewhere.
To measure temperatures between reference points, you have to
resort to less fundamental devices, calibrating them to the known
points and interpolating between those calibration points.

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The reason for defining the temperature scale on the


basis of freezing and triple points is that these events
can be readily reproduced to a high degree of
repeatability.
This means that there need not be a standard
kilogram of temperature locked in a vault
somewhere.
To measure temperatures between reference points,
you have to resort to less fundamental devices,
calibrating them to the known points and
interpolating between those calibration points.

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

3. TEMPERATURE SCALES

4. CLASSIFICATION TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

4. CLASSIFICATION TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS


1. Temperature measurements include:
change in volume of liquid
change in length of a metal bar
change in electrical resistance (of a wire)
change in the pressure of a gas at constant volume
change in the colour of a flame or heated object
2. Temperature measurement by mechanical effects
Devices operating on the basis of a change in mechanical
dimension with a change in temperature.
Several temperature-measurement devices may be classified as mechanically operative including:
a) The liquid-in-glass thermometer
b) The bimetallic thermometer
c) Fluid-expansion thermometers
3. Temperature measurement by Electrical Effects
Very convenient method because they furnish a signal that is
easily detected, amplified, or used for
control purposes.Usually quite accurate when properly calibrated and compensated. Three commonly
used
a) Electrical-Resistance Thermometer or Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD).
b) Thermistor
c) Thermocouple
4. Temperature measurement by changes in Emitted thermal radiation
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5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

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Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS


FLUID-EXPANSION THERMOMETER

FLUID-EXPANSION THERMOMETER

One of the most common types of temperature-measurement devices.


The construction of the device is shown in figure.
- A relatively large bulb at the lower portion of the thermometer holds
the major portion of the liquid, which expands when heated and rises
in capillary tube upon which are etched appropriate scale marking.
- At the top of the capillary tube another bulb is placed to provide a
safety feature in case the temperature range of the thermometer is
inadvertently exceeded.
- Alcohol and mercury are the most commonly used liquids. Alcohol
has advantage that it has a higher coefficient of expansion than
mercury, but it is limited a low-temperature measurement because
it
tends boil away at high temperature. Mercury cannot be used
below its
freezing point of 38.78oF(-37.8oC).
- The size of the capillary depends on the size of the sensing bulb,
the liquid, and the desired temperature range for the thermometer.

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Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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V V0 (1 T )
During calibration this type of
thermometer is subjected to three
types of measuring environments.

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

Method is based on the expansion of a liquid with temperature


The liquid in the bulb is forced up the capillary stem
Thermal expansion:

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

FLUID-EXPANSION THERMOMETER

FLUID-EXPANSION THERMOMETER

CAUSES OF INACCURATIES

The traditional thermometres


Measurement scale from -190 C to +600 C
Used mainly in calibration
Mercury: -39 C +357 C
Spirit: -14 C +78 C

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Temperature differences in the liquid


Glass temperature also affects
The amount of mmersion (vs. calibration)
For
accurate
measurements,
the
thermometer should be immersed in the
same manner as during calibration.
Otherwise stem correction needs to be
applied.

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS
BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

FLUID-EXPANSION THERMOMETER

Method used for bimetallic sensors: two strips of metals


with different thermal expansion coefficient, A and B,
bonded together.
l 0,5L D

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

All

metals expand with


temperature
Volume stays constant length changes
Each metal has a
coefficient
of
linear
expansion a.
a is usually given at T1,
temperatures in C.

l2 = l1 1 + T2 T1

rE E2

E2

h
rh 2

, Elastic modulus ratio

h1

2
1
2
rh ) (1 rhrE ) rE
r
hrE


2
6( )( 1 rh ) T
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Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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Thickness ratio

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

Material

When it subjected to a
temperature lower than the
bonding temperature, it will in
other direction.
The thermalexpansion coefficient for some
commonly
used materials are
given in table . Bimetallic strips
frequently used in simple on-off
temperature
control devices
(thermostats).

Modulus of
Elasticity

psi

GN/
m2

Invar

1.7 x 10-6

21.4 x 106

147

Yellow brass

2.02 x 10-

14.0 x 106

96.5

26.0 x 106

179

31.5 x 106

217

28.0 x 106

193

Movement of the strip has sufficient force to trip control switches


for various devices.
Advantage:
- low cost
- negligible maintenance expense
- stable operation over extended periods of time.
- No battery
- Durable
Dis advantage

Monel 400

1.35 x 10-

Inconel 702

1.25 x 105

Stainlesssteel type
316
33

Thermal
coefficient
of
expansion
per oC

1.6 x 10-5

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

Slow response

(20 s vs 5 s)

Sensing zone is too long

(1.75" vs 0.10")

Inaccurary 1 C
Industry, sauna thermometres
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5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

The angular displacement of a bimetallic coil is given by

A spiral or helical configuration of a bimetallic strip is useful for


indicating temperature on a dial. The spiral serves to allow a long length of
the bimetallic strip within a confined geometry and hence high sensitivity.
This form is commonly used in dial thermometers. These tend to be
rugged devices and are used in applications where other sensors might fail.
They have the advantage of no need for a power supply and do not suffer
from the fragility of liquid in glass thermometers, for example. In a dialtype thermometer one end of the bimetallic strip is fixed to the closed end
of a stainless steel tube. The bimetallic strip is wound in a helix so that the
deflection of the strip with
temperature causes rotation of the free end. This is attached to the shaft of
a pointer and a scale is provided on a facia fixed to the steel tube to
indicate the temperature (Figure ). Diameters for commercial gauges vary
from 25mm to 125 mm with stem lengths up to 610 mm.
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(+1.8oF vs +1.0oF)

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

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Less accurate

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(6)

In terms of the specific deflection, a = angular deflection per degree


temperature rise (a = k/2), and equation (6) can be written as

(7)

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

Dial-type bimetallic thermometer with an adjustable stem and dial


to allow flexibility in installation and viewing. Photograph courtesy of WIKA
Alexander Wiegand GmbH & Co.
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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

BIMETALLIC THERMOMETERS

Continuous measurement of temperature/deflection of cantilever


beam having bimetallic strip using reflection of Laser.

Laser
beam
detected by PSD or
CCD detector

DeltaTrak
Taylor

(+1.8oF)

(+2.2oF)

DeltaTrak

deflection,

(+1.8oF)
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lo2
,
(h1 h2 )

l / lo

Chapter 5: Measure the temperature


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Io2
h1 h2
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CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

CHAPTER 7: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

5.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT BY MECHANICAL EFFECTS

FLUID-EXPANSION THERMOMETER

FLUID-EXPANSION THERMOMETER

Represent the most economical, versatile and widely used devices


for industrial
temperature-measurement applications.
Also called pressure thermometer.
The principle of operation is indicated in figure 4.23.
Consist of sensitive bulb containing a liquid, gas, or vapor is
immersed in the environment.
The bulb is connected to some type of pressure-measuring device, such as bourdon
tube, bellows or diaphragm via capillary tube.
An increase in temperature causes the liquid or gas to expand, thereby increasing the
pressure on the gauge.
The pressure is taken as an indication of the temperature.
The entire system consisting of the bulb, capillary and gauge may
be calibrated
directly.
Capillary tube may be used for remote measurement.
Temperature variation along the capillary and at the pressure-sensing device generally
require compensation, except in the vapor-pressure type (shown in figure 4.24) where
pressure depend only the temperature liquid liquids free surface located at the bulb.

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Fluid-expansion Thermometer

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Vapor-pressure Thermometer

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