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USER

OPERATING BIT
ENVIRONMENT RATE EQUIPMENT
SPEED

Rural
144 kbit/s 500 km/h
Outdoor

Urban/
Suburban 384 kbit/s 120 km/h
Outdoor

Indoor/
Low Range 2,084 kbit/s 10 km/h
Outdoor
!" " #

Switching/Transit/
Databases

UMTS Terrestrial Radio


Access Network (UTRAN)

User Equipment (UE)

$
!
& '

Radio 3G
Access MSC/VLR
Network GMSC
Iu-CS
RNC PSTN

D
Iu-PS

Iu-CS AUC
EIR HLR
Iur
Gs

Gc
Gr
Iu-PS Gn Gi IP Network
RNC or
X.25 Network
Radio
Access 3G 3G
Network SGSN GGSN
Signalling connection
Traffic and Signalling connection

( %
*# +,!+!

UTRAN
RNS
RNS RNS
RNS RNS
RNS RNS
RNS

Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)

Radio Network
Controller
(RNC)

Node B Node B
Node B

- )
. " #!

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UMTS Core Network

DECT
DECT ERAN
ERAN

Digital Enhanced EDGE Radio


Cordless Telephony Access Network
BRAN
BRAN GRAN
GRAN

Broadband Radio GPRS Radio


Access Network Access Network

/
The Air Interface (Uu)
User Equipment
(UE)
Telecommunications Service
Internet
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Core
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Iu
Air Interface
(Uu) Iub
Node B RNC

Iub

Node B

UTRAN

Figure 1 $
Air Interface Modes

UMTS
Core
Network
Frequency Division Duplex Mode 1
Direct Sequence Mode

CDMA UMTS Terrestrial Radio


Access network (UTRAN)
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X X XX
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Time Division Duplex Mode 1


TD-CDMA
User Equipment (UE)
FDD Mode Intern
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X X XXX
XX
XX X
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User Equipment (UE)


TDD Mode

Figure 2 (
ODMA (Opportunity Driven Multiple Access)

Node B

TDD

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ODMA
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UE in coverage
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Acts as relay ODMA Intern
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earch

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UE out of UE in
range Coverage hole

Figure 3 -
Access Stratum (AS) and Non-Access Stratum (NAS)

OSI Layers UE Core Network


Non-Access Stratum
L7

Relay
L3
L3 Access
Stratum

L1
UTRAN

Uu Iu

Figure 4
Air Interface Access Stratum
Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information

Radio Resource
L3 Control (RRC)

Radio Link
Control (RLC)

L2 Logical
Channels

Medium Access
Control (MAC)

Transport
Channels

L1 Physical Layer

Figure 5
Functions of MAC

Logical to Transport
Channel Mapping
Selection of Priority
Transport Format Handling

Identification of Multiplexing of
UEs on Common
Transport Channels
MAC
MAC Functions
Functions PDUs into Transport
Blocks

Traffic Volume
Dynamic Transport
Monitoring
Channel Type Switching

Access Class Selection Ciphering for TrM RLC


for RACH and CPCH

Figure 12
Protocol Termination

RRC

RLC

MAC

RRC

Radio
RLC Network
Physical Iub Controller
MAC
Node
Physical B

User
Equipment Uu

ch
Sear
net
Inter

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Figure 6 %
Logical Channel Types

Control Channels

BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH OCCCH ODCCH

Traffic Channels

DTCH ODTCH CTCH

Medium
Medium Access
Access Control
Control (MAC)
(MAC)

Figure 7 )
Logical Channel Types – brief introduction (1)

• Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)


• Downlink system information
• BCCH – Constant
• BCCH – Variable (constantly updating info)

• Paging Control Channel (PCCH)


• Downlink paging messages
Logical Channel Types – brief introduction (2)

• Common Control Channel (CCCH)


• Bidirectional control channel between UE and
network
• Used when no RRC connection present

• Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)


• Point-to-point bidirectional channel
• Dedicated control information between UE
and network
• Used after RRC connection establishment
/
Logical Channel Types – brief introduction (3)

• ODMA Common Control Channel (OCCCH)


• Bidirectional control channel between Ues
• Used when no RRC connection present

• ODMA Dedicated Control Channel (ODCCH)


• Point-to-point bidirectional channel
• Carrying dedicated control information between UEs
• Used after dedicated connection establishment
through RRC connection set-up procedures

$
Logical Channel Types – brief introduction (4)

• Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH)


• Bidirectional control information for uplink and
downlink shared channels

• Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)


• Bidirectional
• Dedicated point-to-point user information
between UE and network

(
Logical Channel Types – brief introduction (5)

• ODMA Dedicated Traffic Channel (ODTCH)


• Dedicated point-to-point relay channel
between UEs
• Carries user information

• Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)


• Point-to-multipoint unidirectional channel
• Carrying user information for a specified
group of UEs
-
Transport Channel Types

Common Channels from MAC

ORACH FACH USCH PCH


(TDD only)
CPCH
RACH (FDD only) DSCH BCH

Dedicated Channels
from MAC

DCH ODCH

Physical
Physical Layer
Layer

Figure 8
Transport Channel Types – brief introduction (1)

• Random Access Channel (RACH)


• Contention based uplink channel
• Initial access
• Non-real-time dedicated control or traffic data

• ODMA Random Access Channel (ORACH)


• Similar to RACH
• Relay link between UEs
Transport Channel Types – brief introduction (2)

• Common Packet Channel (CPCH)


• FDD mode only
• Contention based
• Bursty traffic in shared mode
• Fast power control used

• Forward Access Channel (FACH)


• Common downlink channel
• No power control
• Relatively small amounts of data
Transport Channel Types – brief introduction (3)

• Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH)


• Downlink channel used in shared mode by
several UEs
• Carries control or traffic data

• Uplink Shared Channel (USCH)


• TDD mode only
• Uplink channel used in shared mode by
several UEs
• Carried control or traffic data
%
Transport Channel Types – brief introduction (4)

• Broadcast Channel (BCH)


• Downlink broadcast channel
• Carries system info across whole cell

• Paging Channel (PCH)


• Downlink broadcast channel
• Paging &
• Notification messages across whole cell

)
Transport Channel Types – brief introduction (5)

• Dedicated Channel DCH


• Bidirectional user information to/from the UE

• ODMA Dedicated Channel (ODCH)


• Dedicated to one UE
• Used in the UE to UE relay link
FDD Mode Logical to Transport Channel Mapping

Logical Channels
BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH

MAC

BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH

Physical Layer

Figure 9 /
UTRAN Architecture
Radio
Network
Subsystem
(RNS)

Radio Network
Node B Controller (RNC)
• Modulation/Demodulation • Radio Resource Control
• Transmission/Reception • Admission Control
• CDMA Physical Channel Coding • Channel Allocation
• Micro Diversity • Power Control Thresholds
• Error Protection • Handover Control
• Closed Loop Power Control • Macro Diversity
• Segmentation/Reassembly
• Ciphering
• Broadcast Signalling
• Open Loop Power Control

Figure 10 $
UTRAN Interfaces

Core Network

Iu Iu

RNC Iur RNC

Iub Iub
Iub Iub

Node B Node B
Node B Node B
Figure 11 (
The Iu Interface

Core Network
UTRAN Domain
Circuit-
Iu-CS Switched
Domain
MSC/VLR
RNC Iu-PS

Circuit-
Switched
Domain
SGSN

Figure 12 -
The Use of ATM on the Iu Interface

RNC Core Network

AAL2
AAL5

ATM
Physical Layer
SDH (PDH?)
AAL2 AAL5
• Synchronous • Asynchronous
• Variable Bit Rate • Variable Length Frames
• Time Critical • Non-time-critical
• Connection Oriented • Connectionless or
Connection-Oriented

Figure 13
Multiple Access Schemes
Sender FDMA Receiver
1

Frequency 3

Time
TDMA

1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

CDMA

1, 2 and 3

Figure 1
Simplified Spreading Concept

Spreading Spreading
Code Code

Baseband Baseband
Data Data
Correlator

RF RF

Transmitter Receiver

Figure 2
Proposed Benefits of CDMA

• Increased spectrum efficiency


• Increased quality
• Imperceptible soft handovers
• Soft blocking
• Single frequency reuse patterns
• Negative signal to noise ratios
• Less expensive/complex radio equipment
• Overlay on existing systems

Figure 3 %
Direct Sequence Baseband Spreading

+1
Baseband
1 0 1 1 0
Data
-1

+1

Code 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

-1

+1
Resultant
Spread 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 11 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 0 1 00 1 0 1 1
Baseband
Signal -1

Figure 4 )
Effect of Spreading on TX Bandwidth

Non-spreading
Signal
W/Hz

Spreading Signal

rc 3rb 2rb rb rb 2rb 3rb rc F

Fc

Figure 5
1 + # * #0
• Gp = Chip Rate/User Date Rate = Wc/Wi
• Wc = 3.84 MHz, owing to the spectral side
lobes, results in 5 MHz carrier raster.
• Spread Signal + Narrow Band Interference.
• De-spread Signal & Wideband Noise.
• Band-pass filter signal.
• Only small proportion of interfering signal
energy passes the filter and remains as
residual interference.
• Such a gain has strong narrow interference
suppression properties.
/
Processing Gain and Narrowband Interference Supression

$
1 + # * #

W k chips in slots - midamble - guard period


Gp(Processing Gain ) = • •
R 15 chips in slot

• 15 time slots in 10 ms frame.


• K = number of slots used for the TDD
service.
• W = 3.84 mcps.
• R = bitrate.

(
1 + # * #0
• Owing to the inclusion of additional signal
manipulation processing (error control coding,
overhead etc.), the resulting processing gain
is composed of the spreading part and the
coding part.
• More processing gain the system has, the
more the power of uncorrelated interfering
signals is suppressed in the dispreading
process.
• Thus GP is an improvement factor in the SIR
of the signal after dispreading.

%-
Direct Sequence Receiver De-spreading

+1
Received 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 0 1 00 1 0 1 1
Signal
-1

+1

Code 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 00 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

-1

+1
Baseband
1 0 1 1 0
Data
-1

Figure 6 %
EXERCISE 1

+1
Chip 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
Sequence
-1

+1

Code A 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1

-1

+1

Result
-1

%
EXERCISE 1 (continued)

+1
Chip 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
Sequence
-1

+1

Code B 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1

-1

+1

Result
-1

%
Processing Gain and Capacity

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Gp
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Node B User contributes


Power P and has x–1
interferers

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This suggests that:

Xmax Gp
Eb / No

Figure 7 %%
• Eb/No = (bit energy)/(noise spectral density)
• In CDMA, denominator is (noise spectral
density + interference spectral density).
• Performance indicator Eb/No is always
related to some quality BLER target.
• BLER = long term average block error rate
calculated for the transport blocks.

%)
#'
Prx
Eb R W Prx
= = •
N0 I R I
W
• Prx = received signal power,
• I = received interference power,
• R = user bitrate, W = chip rate (bandwidth).
• Target of fast power control is to keep Eb/No
constant.
• Due to fast feedback loop of 1500 Hz, this is
fairly successful.
%
&# #' 0
• Calculated differently from the uplink case because the
synchronised orthogonal codes reduce the interference from
the serving cell (or cells in soft handover).
Eb W Prx
(downlink ) = •
No R I own ⋅ (1 − α ) + I oth + PN

• Iown = total power received from the serving cell.


• Ioth = total power received from the surrounding
cells.
• PN = noise power (thermal and equipment).
α = orthogonality factor, depends on multipath
conditions.

%/
&# #' 0
• The codes are fully orthogonal, thus when no
multipath, intereference from serving cell is
cancelled and α = 1.
• If two equally strong propagation paths are
present, then only half of the interference is
cancelled from the receiver point of view and
α = 0.5.

%$
Interference Margin
Minimum
Received
SNR = ?
Required
SNR =
Gp = 18 dB 5 dB
(SF 64)

System Losses = 4 dB

Interference margin
= Processing gain – (System losses + Required SNROUT)
= 18 – (4 + 5)
= 9 dB
i.e. This system could process a signal received with a –9 dB SNR.

Figure 8 %(
Effect on Capacity with Contiguous Coverage

Cell A Cell B

Cell A in isolation Cell B in isolation


10 channels 10 channels

Interference

Capacity of Cells A and B


is less than 20 because
of increased interference

Figure 9 )-
Cell Capacity

10 users using
10 kbit/s channel

Total Cell Capacity = 100 kbit/s

2 users using
50 kbit/s channel

Total Cell Capacity = 100 kbit/s

Figure 10 )
General Synchronisation

Dow
nlink
sync
hron
isati
on b
y pil
ot
Uplin
k sync
hron
prea isa
mble tion by
Interne
t Sea
rch

Node B or pi burs
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l ot t of

User
Equipment

Figure 19 )
Common Pilot Signal

Pilot

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All UEs
use the same
common pilot

Figure 20 )
Continuous Pilot Synchronisation

Baseband
Data
Despreading Carrier
Filter
Oscillator Demodulator

RF

Synchronisation
Code Clock Signal

Figure 21 )%
Channel Associated Pilot
Pilot sequences

Tra
Signaffic/
lling
Tra
Signaffic/
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UEs
Each channel
carries its own pilot

Figure 22 ))
Timing Alignment from a Matched Filter

Periodic very short code MATCHED


sequence FILTER

Spikes when alignment with


incoming very short codes
occurs

Figure 23 )
Rake Receiver

Gain phase

RX
RX 11

Combined

Σ
output
RX
RX 22

RX
RX 33
Sync.

Code
Code TTc TTc
c c

Figure 25 )/
Near–Far Problem

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UE A
30 m
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30 UE B
Distance Ratio = = 100
0.03
Power Ratio with Square Law Propagation
= 1002
= 10,000
Interference Margin required = 40 dB

Figure 26 )$
The Need for Fast Power Control
As UE A comes out of
shadow power must be reduced
quickly to avoid degradation
of UE B signal
Building

Node B

UE A needs
to transmit high B
A
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Figure 27 )(
, + ! 1& #!

! " !
#$% &
! &
' ! (
) ! *!
! +
! &
,! ' !
! # + #
+ ! (
-
Open Loop Power Control
- #! ' '
! ! #!
'
(
- !
+ !! . *!
! ! *
! ! ! !
!
! ! (
Example of Open Loop Power Control

UE transmit power

Step increment

Step increment
Initial estimated
transmit power

First Second Third Time


Random Random Random
Access Access Access

Figure 27
#'2 #0 1& #!
• (PRACH) Preamble Initial Power =
CPICH_Tx_Power – CPICH_RSCP +
Uplink_interference + Uplink_required_CI
• RSSP = received signal code power measured by
UE on active P-CPICH;
• Uplink_interference value broadcast on BCH.
• Some control parameters being broadcast in the cell
& the received signal code power (RSCP) being
measured by the terminal on the active P-CPICH.
• Based on the value of the open loop power control,
the terminal sets the initial power for the first
PRACH preamble and for the uplink DCPCCH
before starting the inner loop power control.
&# #'2 #0 1& #!
• Initial power of control of downlink channel
set based on the downlink measurement
reports from the UE.

&# #' "" # , ##


1& #!
• Determined by the network and the power
between the channels can change
dynamically.

%
Power Control at Cell Boundaries

Power Control
instructs mobile
to turn power up

Power Increase in
Contro
l interference here

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Node B Node B
1 2

Figure 29 )
Soft Handover

Po
we o n t rol B
rC ow e rC
on P
t ro
l

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Node B Node B
2
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Figure 30
Soft Handover Region

Two-Cell Case
Soft handover region

A B

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Start End

Figure 31 /
Soft Handover Region

Three-Cell Case

Three-way
B handover
Required
here

A C

Figure 31 (continued) $
Cell Breathing

Low Traffic Load

UE can
operate
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Figure 32 (
Cell Breathing

Effective coverage
High Traffic Load shrinks

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Figure 32 (continued) /-
Sectorisation

Three Sector Six Sector

Figure 33 /
+! ! #3 +! ! #* #0
• Increasing the number of sectors means the
number of users per sector is decreasing,
however, number of users per site is
increasing.
• This is not proportional to the number of
sectors, because the overlap in the sectors is
leaking interference from one sector to
another.
• For each number of sectors, an optimum
beamwidth exists, optimum being when the
number of users is at a maximum.

/
+! ! #3 +! ! #* #0

number of users of sectored site


Sectorisation Gain, ξ =
number of users of omni site

• Discrepancy between the practical and


theoretical result widens as the number of
sectors rises due to interference between the
sectors and the effects of the environment,
e.g. multipath, sidelobes etc.

/
Beam Forming Antennas

Beam forming
antenna
multi-beam
Three Sector support of
12 Beams inter-beam
handover

Figure 33 (continued) /%
Adaptive Antennas

Azimuth and radiated power


of beams(s) may be
dynamically adjusted to
account for traffic distribution
and interference sources

Figure 34 /)
!#
• By tilting the antenna, the other-to-own-cell
interference ratio, i, is decreasing as the tilting
increases.
• Optimum tilting angle of the antenna is 7°to 10°.
• Because the antenna main beam is delivering less
power towards the other base station, therefore
most of the radiated power is going to the area that
is intended to be served by this particular base
station.
• At the same time, the network could also serve
more users than if the antennas were not tilted.
• Optimum value depends on environment, site, user
locations and antenna radiation patterns.

/
Conceptual Multi-User Detection Receiver

Weighted
Correction
Rake
Receivers

User 1 info
RX 1 User 1
+ User 2, 3 +
interference

RX 2 User 2

RX 3 User 3

etc.

Figure 35 //
FDD and TDD Operation

1885 1920 1980 2010 2025 2110 2170 2200


1900

TDD FDD Satellite TDD FDD Satellite

Uplink Uplink Downlink Downlink


DECT
Duplex 190 MHz

Ch.1 Ch.2
Nominal 5 MHz channel spacing
200 kHz Raster

FDD TDD

WCDMA WB-TDMA/CDMA
3.84 Mcps 3.84 Mcps

Figure 1 /$
Physical Layer Functions

• Mapping transport to physical • Power weighting and


combining physical channels
• Macro diversity
• Modulation/Spreading –
• Error detection Demodulation/Despreading
• Synchronisation
• Forward error correction
• Measurements
• Multiplexing/Demultiplexing
• Inner-loop power control
• Rate adjustment • RF processing

Figure 2 /(
Uplink and Downlink Code Usage

Cell A Cell C
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Ce
l lC C
od
UE1 de
e o
UE A ll C
1
Co Ce

Cell Code B
e

UE Code 1
de d
1 Co
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UE1 Ce B UE1
ll
Co ode
UE C
de ll 1
Co
B C e
ode
de C
1 UE

Cell B

Figure 3 $-
Two-Stage Coding Process
Ch. Code
1
Ch.1
Ch. Code
2
Ch.2
Ch. Cod
Cell
e 3 Scrambling
Ch.3 Code

Ch. Cod
Ch.n e n
Downlink
Transmission
Ch. Code
Uplink 1
Cell Transmission
Ch. Code
Ch.1
2

Ch.2 Intern
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Scrambling Ch. Cod


e UE
n
Code
Ch.n

Figure 4 $
Main UMTS Code Types
Function Type Length Duration Comments
Synchronisation Golay 1 primary code
256 chips 66.67µs
Codes Codes 16 secondary codes

Channelisation Orthogonal 4–512 chips 1.04 µs – Number and length


Codes Variable 133.34 µs dependent on channel
Spreading type and required
Factor spreading factor
(OVSF) Codes

Downlink Complex 38,400 chip 10 ms 512 primary code


Scrambling Valued segment from 15 secondary codes
Codes Gold Code 218–1 chip associated with each
Segments Gold Code primary

Uplink Complex Valued 38,400 chip 10 ms 16,777,216 codes


Scrambling Gold Code segment from
Codes Segments (long) 225–1 chip
Gold Code
or

Complex Valued 256 chips 66.67 µs 16,777,216 codes


S(2) Codes
(short)

Figure 5 $
Application of Codes to the Air Interface

a) Application of Codes

I Complex-valued
Cell Scrambling
Code

Real
Any Serial
Serial to
to DL Ch. n
Downlink Parallel
Parallel Real-valued I+jQ
I+jQ
Channel Conversion
Conversion OVSF Code
Imaginary

Figure 6 $
Application of Codes to the Air Interface

b) Summation of Downlink Channels

DL Ch.1

G1

Σ
DL Ch.2
QPSK

Σ
G2 Modulation

Synchronisation
DL Ch.n Codes

Gn
G
G is a Weighting Factor

Figure 6 (continued) $%
Uplink Code Application
Higher-layer
Data 1

Σ
OVSF 1 G
I
Higher-layer UE
Data 3
Scrambling
OVSF 2 G Code
Higher-layer
Data 5
OVSF 3 G Real
I+jQ
Control
QPSK
Imaginary Modulation
OVSF c Gc
Higher-layer
Data 2

Σ
OVSF 1 G
Q
Higher-layer
Data 4
OVSF 2 G
Higher-layer
Data 6
OVSF 3 G

Figure 7 $)
Downlink Physical Channel

Transport Channels
Layer 2
DCH BCH FACH PCH DSCH
Layer 1
Physical Channels

PCDCH P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PDSCH

CSICH CD/ AP- AICH CPICH SCH PICH DPCCH


CA-ICH AICH

DPCH

Figure 8 $
4 + 0 # !
01, + , ## #
DCCH CCCH DTCH Logical
BCCH PCCH CTCH
Channels

MAC

Transport
BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH
Channels

Physical Layer

P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PDSCH DPDCH


PRACH
Physical PCPCH DPCCH
Channels
DPCH

CSICH CD/ AP- AICH CPICH SCH PICH


CA-ICH AICH

5 5 ! " 5 !
© Dr Maaruf Ali

NB. The bubbles are SAPs, Service Access Points, logical software gateways between the different layers
Some channels only originate from and in the Physical Layer, e.g. CSICH etc.
$/
#! ! &# #'1, + , ## 67
1, + &# #' , 5 , ## 6
1 87
/! -0
-! #
! 10
+ #5 "" # #! 1, + , ##
6 1 87
1 0.2 0 /
! - 10
) #2 0* #
# ! (

$$
#! ! &# #'1, + , ## 6 7
1" "" # #! 1, + , ##
6
1 1 87
/! ! 30
4
5+ !51, + ! , ## 6 1 87
3 ! !#!
! 0
! 1 0
5+ !51, + #! , ## 6 1 87
1 0 / 5
4 1 0 !
10
1 89 1 8 : 1 8
$(
#! ! &# #'1, + , ## 6 7
1 # #5+ ! , ## 6 1 87
/! 1 # #) 6
1)7
89 10 #
- 10
#+, # ! # , ## 6 87
/! # !

!
! #
# : .
(-
#! ! &# #'1, + , ## 6;7
"" #1 ! , ## 6 1 87
1! - 0*1 1 0* )0.1)0
! ! /!
4 1)0
4 ! - 1)0

$) * 1)0 ! - 10
1 0(
+. ! # #5+ ! , ## 6 87
/! + ) 6)
7(
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< !

(
1, + , ## "" #1 +' ! , ## 6 1 87 ++

1 8 < ++ 1 " +. !#
#5+ ! , ## 6 10 87
1 +
!! 1 #
!
;!
=! ! !

(
1, + , ## "" #1 +' ! , ## 6 1 87 ++

1 8< # !+! # , ##
#" #! #5+ ! , ## 6 0 0
87
;!

1 8 < !! #5+ ! , ## 6 87
-)0 ! ! )0
10 ! !
- ! !

(
Brief Intro to Uplink Physical Channels (I)
1, + #5 " ++ , ##
61 87
/ !$
!#! ! 8 0
5+ !51, + , ## 6 1 87
! 0 !
/ 5
$1
$, 1 6
,1 7
$, 2 ) 6
,2 )
7

(%
Brief Intro to Uplink Physical Channels (II)
5+ !51, + ! , ##
6 1 87
0
5+ !51, + #! , ##
1 8
/ 5
1 0. 1 0 , # !
10
1 8: 1 89 1 8

()
Uplink Physical Channel
Transport Channels
Layer 2
CPCH DCH RACH
Layer 1

Physical
Channels DPCCH DPDCH

PCPCH DPCH PRACH

Figure 9 (
Brief Intro to Uplink Physical Channels (III)
1, + "" #1 +' ! , ##
61 1 87
' !
!!
$
$
$1
$ # (

(/
Frame Structure
Superframe Duration 720 ms

0 1 2 71

Radio Frame Duration 10 ms

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Timeslot Duration
666.7 µs
2,560 chips

0 2 4 4,094

Hyperframe Duration 40.96 s

Figure 10 ($
Structure of the SCH
10 ms Frame

2,560 chips
256 chips

Primary
C Cp Cp
SCH p

Secondary
C Cs Cs
SCH s

Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 14

Cp = Primary Synchronisation Code

Cs = Secondary Synchronisation Code, one of 16 codes in a


15-code sequence from a set of 64

Figure 11 ((
Uplink DPCH Slot Structure

Radio Frame 10 ms

0 1 n–1 n N+1 12 13 14

I Data

DPDCH

DPCCH

Q Pilot TFCI FBI TPC

Slot Duration 666.7 µs 2,560 chips

Figure 12 --
Random Access Procedures
10 ms radio frame 10 ms radio frame
Uplink
5,120 chips
Access
Slots
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

4,096 chips

Note B 10 ms message part (or 20 ms)


Preamble Preamble

15,360 chips 15,360 chips


3 access slots 3 access slots Slots 0 14

7,680
chips Data Data bits

Downlink Control Pilot bits TFCI


AICH Acquisition 2,560 chips
Indicator
Note A: Figures shown with AICH transmission timing set to 0.
Note B: The Uplink Access preambles begin on low power and gradually increase until
an acquisition indicator is received.

Figure 16 -
Random Access Message Part

I Data
Data Ndata Bits

Bits per Slot 10 x 2k (k = 0,1 ….3)


Spreading Factor 256
2k
Q PILOT TCFI
Control Npilot Bits (8) NTCFI Bits (2)

N–1 Slot – N N+1 N+2

666.7 µs
2,560 chips

Figure 16 -
PCPCH/AICH Timing

AP-AICH CD-ICH
DPCCH (Downlink)
5,120
chips

7,680 7,680 7,680


Power control, pilot and CPCH
chips chips chips

0 or 8 slots
A-Ps CD power control
preamble
PCPCH (Uplink)
P1 P1
P0

3 slots 3 slots 3 slots Information control

Figure 19 -
Downlink DPCH Slot Structure

Radio Frame 10 ms

0 1 N–1 n n+1 12 13 14

DPDCH DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH

I
Data 1 TPC TFCI Data 2 Pilot
Q
Slot Duration 666.7 µs, 2,560 chips

Figure 24 -%
Multiple Downlink DPCHs
DPDCH DPDCH

TPC TFCI Pilot

Transmission
Power
Physical
Channel 1

Transmission
Power
Physical
Channel 2

Transmission
Power
Physical
Channel n
One Slot (2,560 chips)

Figure 26 -)
TDD Switching Points

Single Switching Point

DL UL DL

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Frame 10 ms

Multiple Switching Point

DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL UL DL

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Figure 32 -
Variable Spreading or Variable Codes

Code 1 High Bit Rate


Low Spreading
Factor

Code 1 Low Bit Rate


High Spreading
Code 2 Factor
Code 3
Code 4
Code 5
Code 6

TS N–1 TS N TS N+1 TS N+2

666.7 µs

Figure 33 -/
Resource Unit

cy
Code

n
q ue
e
Fr
Time
slot
T im
e 1 2
3 4
5 6
10 m 7 8
s 9 10
11 1
2 13
14 Rad
Cod Chan io
e nel

Figure 34 -$
Transport to Physical Channel Mapping

BCH
BCH FACH
FACH PCH
PCH RACH
RACH ORACH
ORACH DCH
DCH ODCH
ODCH

Common
Common Physical
Physical
Control Random Dedicated
Control Random
Physical Access Physical
Physical Access
Channel Channel Channel
Channel Channel
(CCPCH) (PRACH) (DPCH)
(CCPCH) (PRACH)

Figure 36 -(
Burst Types

666.7 µs
Timeslots

BURST TYPE 1
Data symbols Midamble Data symbols GP
61,122,244,488,976 61,122,244,488,976
512 chips 96
976 chips 976 chips chips

BURST TYPE 2
Data symbols Data symbols GP
69,138,276,552,1104 Midamble 69,138,276,552,1104
256 chips 96
1104 chips 1104 chips chips

Figure 36 -
Cell Update Causes

RNC
Iub
Page
Intern
et S
earch

XXXX
XXX
XXX

XXXX
XXXX XX
XX XXXX
XX

UE
Iub Node B Paging Response

Intern
et S
earch

XXXX
XXX
XXX

XXXX
XXXX XX
XX XXXX
XX

Node B
UE
Sear
ch Uplink Data
Transmission
net
Inter

XXX
XXX
XXXX

XXX
X XX XX
XXXXXX
XXXX

Internet Search

XXXXXXX XXX

XXXXX XXXX
XXXX XXX XX

UE
12

9 3

UE 6 Cell Reselection
Periodic

Figure 17
UTRAN Registration Area (URA) Update

Internet Search

X
XXXXXX X XX

XXXX
XXXXXX XX XX
XXXX

User
Equipment UTRAN

UE stores URA Update


valid URAs
UTRAN specifies
New assigned URA
and optionally
allocates new RNTI
UE stores only URA Update Complete
assigned URA Including Assigned URA, New RNTI

RNTI Allocation Complete

Figure 18
Handover and External Reselection Related Procedures

UMTS GSM
Core Network Core Network

RNC BSC

Node B Node B Node B BTS


micro macro macro
Hard Handover Soft Handover Hard Handover
within UTRAN within UTRAN outside UTRAN

Reselection
outside UTRAN

Figure 19
Measurement Control

RRC

t r ol RNC
n
Co
e nt
rem
u
eas
M Iub

• Measurement type
Node B • Measurement identity number
Internet Search

• Measurement command
Uu • Measurement objects
X
XXXXXX X XX

XXXXXX XXXX
XXXX XX XX

• Measurement quantity
UE • Reporting quantities
• Measurement reporting criteria
• Reporting mode

Figure 20 %
UE Measurements

GSM
BTS

Inter- Intra- Node B


Node B system
Micro frequency
Inter-
frequency

RLC Downlink Intra-frequency


Buffer Quality

Uplink Internet
Search

Node B
Traffic XXXXXX

XXXXX
XXXX
X XXX

XXXX
XXX XX

Volume Internal TX power


UE RSSI

Local Measurement

Figure 21 )
Transmitter Characteristics

Power Class Max O/P Power Tolerance

1 +33 dBm 2W +1 dB / –3 dB

2 +27 dBm 0.5 W +1 dB / –3 dB

3 +24 dBm 0.25 W +1 dB / –3 dB

4 +21 dBm 0.125 W ±2 dB

Minimum power better than –50 dBm


Step size –1 dB and 3 dB
Receiver sensitivity for BER better than 0.001
DPCH_Ec = –117 dBm / 3.84 Mcps

Figure 15
Source Codec Bit Rates for the AMR Codec

Codec Mode Source Codec Bit Rate

AMR_12.20 12.20 kbit/s (GSM EFR)


AMR_10.20 10.20 kbit/s
AMR_7.95 7.95 kbit/s
AMR_7.40 7.40 kbit/s (IS-641)
AMR_6.70 6.70 kbit/s (PDC-EFR)
AMR_5.90 5.90 kbit/s
AMR_5.15 5.15 kbit/s
AMR_4.75 4.75 kbit/s
AMR_SID 1.80 kbit/s

SID = Silence Descriptor Frame

Figure 16 /
Requirement for Synchronisation

Cell Scrambling Code Derived from SCH


BCCH Spreading Code Known
BCCH Rate Known
Code Time Alignments Derived from SCH
Slot/Frame Time Alignments Derived from SCH

Figure 22 $
PLMN Types

System ID (SID)
Network ID (NID) PLMN ID

ANSI
ANSI IS-41
IS-41 GSM
GSM MAP
MAP

Search
Internet

X XXX
XXXXXX

XXXX
XXXXX
XXX XX
XXXX

Figure 23 (
UL/DL Closed Loop Power Control

∆DPCCH = ∆DPCCH x TPC_cmd


Node B

where TPC_cmd = +1, –1, 0 d


a l ling e use
r S ign to b
aye m
r L o rith
i ghe d Al g B it s
H an
s TPC
es ∆ T rrie
P C
UE a t c a
Ind
ic
La yer
s ica l
Phy
a l ling
ign
Search
Internet

r S
aye IR target
X XXX
XXXXXX

L
XXXX

r
XXXXX XX
XXX
XXXX

he sS rol
Hig Carrie n t
e r Co
p Pow
loo
u te r
C Bit s
O TP
i e s
SIRest ↔SIRtarget r c ar r
l L aye
y s ica
Ph

Figure 27 -
56## 74 1& #!
• 1500 Hz dynamic adjustment.
#' ! 50 6## 0 71 &
#!
• Used to set power of DPCH and PCPCH.
• Base station receives target SIR from u/l outer-loop
power control located in the RNC and compares it
with the estimated SIR on the pilot symbol of the
uplink DPCCH once every slot.
• If received SIR > SIR_target, base station transmits
TPC_down to UE or downlink DPCCH.
• If SIR < SIR_target, then base station transmits
TPC_up to UE.
&# #' ! 50
6## 4 71 & #!
• Sets power of downlink DPCH.
• Terminal receives from higher layers the BLER
target set by the RNC for the downlink outer-loop
power control together with other control parameters
and estimates the downlink SIR from the pilot
symbols of the downlink DPCH.
• If SIR > SIR_target, UE transmits TPC_down to
base station, otherwise UE transmits TPC_up.
• TPC commands sent on uplink DPCCH and
simultaneously control the power of DPCCH and its
corresponding DPDCHs in downlink by same
amount.
2 ! 0 1& #!
• Maintain quality of the communication at the
bearer service quality requirement, producing
adequate target SIR for the inner-loop power
control, for each DCH belonging to the same
RRC connection.
• Frequency of outer loop power control: 10-
100 Hz.
#'2 ! 0 1& #!
• Operates within SRNC, setting a target SIR in the
base station for each individual u/l inner loop power
control according to the estimated u/l quality, e.g.
BLER or BER for that particular RRC connection.
• CRC of the data stream is used as the quality
measure, if CRC is OK, SIR is lowered, otherwise
increased.
• Step sizes from 0.1 to 1.0 dB.
• One outer-loop power controller for each RRC
connection.
• One u/l outer-loop power control entity for each
DCH within the same RRC connection.
• The signalling link DCCH is selected to transmit the
new common target SIR to the base station.
%
&# #'2 ! 0 1& #!
• Implemented in the UE, target SIR value for the d/l
inner-loop power control is adjusted by the UE using
a proprietary algorithm that provides the same
measured quality (BLER) as the quality target set by
the RNC.
• If CPCH is employed, the quality target signalled by
the RNC is the d/l DPCCH BER, otherwise a BLER
target value is provided to the UE.

1& #! # " 5 5
• To speed up the convergence of the SIR close to
the target SIR after each transmission gap as
quickly as possible.

)
SSDT
SRNC

lub lub
1
2
H/
C H lub
C
D CC
DPC P Node B
Node B C H on D DP
ly

DPC
Search
Internet

XXXXXXX
XXX

CH o
nly
XXXXX XXXX
XX
XXXX XXX

3
UE nominates
Node B 1
as Primary Node B

Figure 32
UMTS Handover Types
GSM

UMTS
Micro
UMTS C
Macro Hard

B
Hard Search
Internet

XXX
XXXXXXX

A Soft
XXXXX XXXX
XX
XXXX XXX

UMTS
Macro UE

A = intra-frequency
B = inter-frequency
C = inter-system

Figure 33 /
Intra- and Inter-Frequency Measurements

F1 F1
UMTS Macro UMTS Macro

t Search
Interne

XX XXX
XXXXX

XXXX
XXX XX
XXXXX
XXXX

F1 F1

UE
F2
F1
UMTS Macro UMTS Macro
UMTS Micro

UMTS Macro Rake receiver is only able to see neighbour


cells on the same frequency

Figure 34 $
Macro and Micro Diversity
Macro Diversity Combining
at RNC for Soft Handover

RNC

Cell A
Soft
Handover
Cell B

Softer Internet
Search

Node B
Handover XXXXXXX
XXX

Node B
XXXXX XXXX
XX
XXXX XXX

Micro Diversity
Combining at UE
Node B for
Softer Handover

Figure 36 (
Example of a Soft Handover

Quality

Cell A Timer

Timer Timer

Macro
Remove
Threshold
Macro
Add Timer
Threshold

Cell B Macro
Replacement
Threshold

Cell C

Time
1. 2. 3.

Figure 37 -
Transmit Diversity

TX 2
TX 1

Multipath set from


FBI antenna TX 2
b it u
se d
in c
lose
d loop
mod
e
Search
Internet

XXX
XXXXXXX

XXXXX XXXX
XX
XXXX XXX

Node B
Multipath set from UE
antenna TX 1

Figure 40
Any Questions ?