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The dangerous of chemical substenses are classified into 6. toxic,

corrosive, flammable, explossive, harmful, and oxidizing. It especially will
explain about oxidizing. We will discuss about definition, properties, example,
materials handling, emergency handling, storage, waste disposal, safety
equipment, and housekeeping oxidizing materials. It is important for us to know
the materials label because it is very usefull for us as chemical engineering who
work in laboratory. Besides that, we must be able recognize properties of
oxidizing material, so that we can reduce the risk of their bad effect.

Pic 1. Oxidizing Label

I. Definition of Oxidizing Materials
Oxidizing materials are chemicals that can decompose readily to produce
oxygen or an oxidizing substance at room temperature or with slight heating and
promote combustion. The usual source for burning is air. Oxidizing materials can
supply combustible substances with oxygen and support a fire even when air is
not present. Oxidizing materials can speed up the development of a fire and make
it burn more intensely, cause substances to burn rapidly that do not normally burn
readily in air and cause combustible materials to burn spontaneously without the
presence of an ignition source such as a spark of flame. Some oxidizing materials
are themselves combustible.An oxidizing agent is the element or compound in an
oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction that accepts an electronfrom another species.


Properties of Oxidizing Materials

Oxidizing materials have properties that can produce oxygen (which is one

of the requirements the fire: oxygen, fuel, heat). This material can provide oxygen
in a reaction even though there is no air. Besides that, oxidizing agents can react
with reducing agents to generate heat and products that may be gaseous (causing
pressurization of closed containers). Explosive mixtures of oxidizing agents with
reducing agents often persist unchanged for long periods if initiation is prevented.
Actual reactivity varies greatly with the identity of the organic compound.
Oxidizing agents can react violently with active metals, cyanides, esters, and

Examples of Oxidizing Material


Chromic acid
Sodium perchlorate
Hydrogen peroxide
Ammonium permanganate
Barium peroxide
Potassium peroxide
Calcium chlorate
Magnesium peroxide
Storage of Oxidizing Materials

Storage requirements oxidizing Materials are:

a. Cold temperatures
Oxidizers should be stored in a cool and dry location.For these
oxidizers, ensure that the storage temperature is kept at least 14C (25F)
below their decomposition temperature. Avoid storing any oxidizer at
temperatures above 49C (120F).
b. Storage Area

Oxidizing materials must be stored in fire resistant building.

Storage areas may need alarms that provide a warning when storage
temperatures are higher or lower than required.Walls, floors, shelving, and
fittings in storage areas should be constructed of non combustible
materials. Wood impregnated with a fire retardant material is not fully
protected against the increased fire hazard caused by contact with
oxidizers. Protect metal construction materials against corrosion by
painting them with a compatible coating.
Store oxidizer containers at a convenient height for handling,
below eye level if possible, to reduce the risk of dropping containers.
Avoid overcrowding in storage areas. Do not store containers in out-ofthe-way locations where they could be forgotten.
c. Keep the oxidizing material out of fuel, combustible materials, and
materials that have a low flame point.
Segregate oxidizers from all other chemicals in the laboratory.
Store oxidizing materials separately away from processing and handling
areas and away from other materials. Separate storage can reduce the risk
of personal injury and damage in case of fires, spills or leaks. If totally
separate storage is not possible, store oxidizing materials away from
incompatible materials especially organic or other oxidizable materials
(sometimes called reducing materials or reducing agents).
Some oxidizing materials are incompatible or may react with each
other, sometimes violently. Do not store them beside each other. Check the
reactivity data and storage requirements sections of the MSDS for details
about what materials are incompatible with a specific oxidizer.
d. Special ventilation
The properly working vent will prevent the build-up of pressure
inside containers. The normal build-up of pressure could rupture an
unvented container. Check vent caps regularly to ensure that they are
working properly. Keep vented containers in the upright position. Never
stack vented containers on top of each other.

e. Label Storage
Containers and storage areas must be labeled to include the name
of the material, the level of danger, date received and used. For example,
red for flammable materials, oxidizing materials yellow, blue for toxic
materials, white to corrosive materials, and green for low danger materials.
For oxidizing materials requiring temperature control, the
recommended storage temperature range should be plainly marked on the
container. It is also a good practice to mark the date that the container was
received and the date it was first opened.
f. Container
Before storing, inspect all incoming containers to ensure that they
are undamaged. Repackaging can be very dangerous especially when
using contaminated or incompatible containers. Protect containers against
banging or other physical damage when storing, transferring or using
them. Do not use wooden pallets or other combustible pallets for storing
containers of oxidizing materials.
Normally keep containers tightly closed when storing unless the
supplier's instructions state otherwise. This helps to avoid contamination
of the material or evaporation of solvents used to dilute oxidizers, such as
organic peroxides, to safer concentrations.Keep only the smallest amounts
possible (not more than one day's supply) of oxidizers in work
areas.Empty drums, bottles, bags, sacks and other "oxidizing agent"
containers usually have hazardous oxidizing residues inside them
Hazard of Oxidizing Materials


General Hazards of Oxidizers

As will be discussed in more detail, oxidizers pose a serious fire hazard
because they:

Intensify combustion

Widen the flammable range of flammable gases and liquids

Lower the flashpoints and ignition temperatures of combustible materials

so these materials ignite more readily.

Oxidizers cause or contribute to the combustion of other materials by

providing oxygen to support the combustion process. Combustion requires four
factors to occur:
A combustible (oxidizable) material
An ignition source
An ongoing reaction that generates free radicals
The health hazard with oxidizing gases is inhalation. With the exception of
oxygen, oxidizing gases are very toxic and cause potentially lethal chemical
pulmonary edema even with brief exposures.


Handling Oxidizing Materials

The Rules of Handling Oxidizing Materials

1. Make sure that all areas where oxidizing materials are used are free of
combustible and other incompatible materials.
2. Do not allow tobacco smoking or any other ignition sources around oxidizing
3. Ensure that temperatures in these areas do not become high enough to cause
rapid decomposition of the materials. For example, hydrogen peroxide
decomposes almost twice as fast for every 5.6C (10F) temperature rise.
4. In laboratories, do not use corks, rubber stoppers or stopcock grease to seal
containers of strong oxidizing materials.
5. Use fibreglass heating mantles or sand baths instead of oil baths to heat
reaction vessels containing significant amounts of oxidizing materials.
6. Follow the chemical producer's instructions regarding the handling of
oxidizing agents.
Spill Responses

1. Anticipate spills by having the appropriate clean up equipment on hand. This

should occur prior to the use of any oxidizing materials. Spill control
materials for oxidizers are designed to be inert and will not react with the
2. Never use paper towels or other inappropriate materials which are
3. The waste materials generated during spill cleanup may pose a flammability
risk and should not remain in the laboratory overnight unless it is stored in an
appropriate container.
4. Do not attempt to handle a large spill of oxidizing materials.
Decontamination Procedures
1. Wash hands and arms with soap and water immediately after handling any

Clean work areas carefully when done.
Dispose of contaminated material in the hazardous waste storage container.
Do not dispose of waste with incompatible material.
Paper towels or other similar material may pose a fire risk when
contaminated. Proceed with caution when working with oxidizers around
other organic material (paper, wood, cloth).

Personal Cleanliness Procedures

Personal cleanliness helps protect you when you are working with oxidizers:
1. Wash hands before eating, drinking, smoking or going to the toilet.
2. Remove contaminated clothing and leather shoes or boots since they can be a
severe fire hazard.
3. Wash contaminated items immediately and thoroughly in water before rewearing or discarding.
4. Do not wear or carry contaminated clothing or footwear into areas having
ignition sources or where smoking is allowed.
5. Store food and tobacco products in uncontaminated areas.

6. Avoid touching yourself (e.g., scratching your nose or rubbing your eyes) with
contaminated hands.
7. Wash thoroughly at the end of the workday even though you have done
everything mentioned before.

VII. Waste Disposal Requirements

1. Add a reducing solution (hypo, bisulfite or ferosulfat plus H2SO4). Let the
reaction is complete and neutralize with NaOH or HCl. Discard the water.
2. We should know about dispensing and using oxidizing liquids and solids
3. Be very careful when dispensing oxidizers from storage containers into
other containers.
4. Avoid spilling fchemic and contaminating your skin or clothing. Spills from
open, unstable or, breakable containers during material transfer have caused
serious accidents.
5. Dispense from only one container at a time. Finish all the dispensing of one
material before starting to dispense another. Dispense the smallest amount
possible, preferably only enough for immediate use.
6. Keep containers closed after dispensing to reduce the risk of contaminating
their contents.
7. Never dispose of oxidizers in ordinary garbage or down sinks or drains that
connect to sanitary or storm sewers.
8. Dispose of them according to the supplier's directions, or through hazardous
waste collection and disposal companies
VIII. Safety Equipments
8.1 Self Safety Equipments
a. Eye Protection (Googles/ safety glasses)
Eye protection must be worn at all times when handling oxidizing

Pic 2. Googles
Ordinary glasses do not provide adequate protection. (Contrary to
popular opinion these glasses cannot pass the rigorous test for industrial
safety glasses). Adequate safety glasses must meet the requirements of the
Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection and
must be equipped with side shields. Safety glasses with side shields do not
provide adequate protection from splashes; therefore, when the potential
for splash hazard exists other eye protection and/or face protection must be
worn. Always wear eye protection when working with oxidizers. Avoid
ordinary safety glasses. Use chemical safety goggles instead.
b. Hand Protection

Pic 3. Gloves
Gloves should be worn when handling oxidizing materials.
Disposable gloves provide adequate protection against accidental hand
contact with small quantities of most laboratory chemicals. Gloves are
made of thick rubber and fireproof.
c. Face Protection

Pic 4. Face Protection (safety shielding)

Safety shielding is required any time there is a risk of explosion, splash
hazard or a highly exothermic reaction. Portable shields, which provide
protection to all laboratory occupants are acceptable.Safety shielding
ismade of transparent plastic sheet that can cover all the faces that can
protect all face from splashes or spray liquids or hazardous dust.
d. Body Protection (Lab coat)

Pic 5. Laboratory Coat

Lab coats must be used in the laboratory on chemical procces including
oxidizing materials. characteristics of a good lab coats to be used in this case
is to have long sleeves and it is made of thick fabric.
e. Respiratory protections

Pic 6. Chemical Respiratory

Avoid Breathing Dusts, Mists or Vapours. If respirators must be used for
breathing protection, develop and follow a written respiratory protection program,
as described in the Respirator Selection question-and-answer document.Sorbents
in respirator cartridges or canisters must be compatible with the chemical they are
supposed to protect against. For example, oxidizable sorbents, such as activated
charcoal, may not be acceptable if high airborne concentrations of strong
oxidizers are present. A hazardous reaction might occur.

8.2 Emergency Handling Oxidizing Safety Equipment

a. Eye wash

Pic 7. Eye wash

Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to oxidizing
materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and
body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use.
Bottle type eyewash stations are not acceptable.
b.Safety shower

A safety or drench shower should be available in a nearby location

where the oxidizing materials are used. This equipment is prepared for some
accident. Actually, if there are person is burned by the fire from oxidizing
materials, we can use safety shower to get the first handling.

Pic 8. Safety Shower

8.3 Oxidizing Practices Safety Equipment
a. Fume hood

Pic 9. Fume hood

The use of certain concentrations of perchloric acid must be performed in
a fume hood equipped with wash down facilities. Contact the Office of
Environmental Health and Radiation Safety for fume hood requirements.
b. Special ventilation

Pic 10. Special Ventilation

Well-designed and well-maintained ventilation systems remove airborne
oxidizing materials from the workplace and reduce their hazards. The amount and
type of ventilation needed depends on such things as the type of job, the kind and
amount of materials used, and the size and layout of the work area. An assessment
of the particular ways a workplace stores, handles, uses and disposes of its
oxidizing materials is the best way to find out if existing ventilation controls (and
other hazard control methods) are adequate.
Organic materials, such as wood, should not be used in ventilation systems
for oxidizing materials. Systems should be free of ignition sources and separate
from other systems that might be exhausting incompatible substances. The system
may also need to be corrosion-resistant if the material is corrosive. Air cleaning
devices such as dust collectors should be made from non-combustible materials.

Source :


Oxidizing materials are materials that spontaneously evolve oxygen at

room temperature or with slight heating or promote combustion.

Storage requirements of oxidizing materials are cold temperatures, there
Circulation Eve, Fire-resistant building, kept out of fuel, combustible

materials, materials that have a low flame poin and special ventilation.
Safety Equipmentsof oxidizing materials are eye protection,eyewash, fume
hood,glove (dry) box, gloves, hazard assessment, EHRS Notification,
protective apparel, safety shielding, safety shower, speciall ventilation,

signs and labels, vacuum protection and waste disposal.

To handle emergencies involving oxidizing materials, In the event of a
spill or adverse reaction notify lab personnel immediately that an incident
has occurred. Do not attempt to handle a large spill/reaction/fire, or one in
which you are not trained or equipped for. Turn off all ignition sources if
this can be done safely; vacate the area and call for assistance.