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# Running Head: L27 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY AND LINEAR GRAPH

Subject
Institution

## L27 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY AND LINEAR GRAPH

ABSTRACT
It is effective to use the orthogonal arrays in fractional factorial designs. The linear graphs
were developed by Taguchi to allocate the factors to the orthogonal arrays easily. The linear
graphs are prepared for each orthogonal array beforehand. In three-level orthogonal arrays,
because the degree of freedom for a two-factor interaction is four. Two factor interactions
will appear across two columns. Due to this reason, the number of factors that can be
considered is limited. Actually, there are only two prepared linear graphs for L27. The
confounding occurs if we try to design the experiment experimental design other than the two
prepared linear graphs for L27. In this study, we consider the experimental design that cannot
design in prepared linear graphs for L27. And, to allocate more factors to L27, we propose the
practical experimental design that partial confounding is allowed. In addition, we simulate to
the propose the experimental practical design of experiment to allocate additional factors, and
evaluate its validity through simulation.
Key words: L27 orthogonal array, Linear graph, Partial confounding,

## L27 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY AND LINEAR GRAPH

1. INTRODUCTION
The experimental design is widely used in various fields including industry, medicine and
psychology. The fractional factorial designs are effective when the number we consider a lot
of factors considered is large and when it is difficult for us to experiment by all the level
combinations. In fractional factorial designs, it is effective to use the orthogonal arrays. The
linear graph was developed by Taguchi to allocate factors to the orthogonal arrays
analytically and easily (Ojima, et al, 2001). The linear graph is prepared for each orthogonal
array beforehand. The orthogonal arrays to be used changes according to the number of
factors and levels deliberated. Two-level orthogonal arrays such as L8 and L16 are used when
we consider factors of two levels. Three-level orthogonal arrays such as L9 and L27 are used
when we consider factors of three levels.
We consider the L27 orthogonal array that is a kind of three-level orthogonal arrays. In twolevel and three-level orthogonal arrays, a basic concept is almost the same. However, it is
greatly different degree of freedom. In three-level orthogonal arrays, the degrees of freedom
for two-factor interaction are is four. Therefore, the effect of two-factor interaction is appears
across two columns in three-level orthogonal array. Due to this reason, the number of factors
that can be considered is limited. Actually, there are only two prepared linear graphs for L27.
The confounding occurs if we try to design the experiment other than the two prepared linear
graphs for L27 (Ojima, et al, 2001).
In this paper, we propose the experimental design to allocate more factors to L27.
Concretely, we consider the design that partial confounding has occurred to two-factor
interactions to design that becomes impossible to design in L27 orthogonal array. And we
propose the analysis methods to estimate two-factor interaction effects, and then we evaluate
appropriateness of the analysis methods by simulation.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we discuss the concept of three-level
orthogonal arrays and linear graphs. In Section 3, we describe the practical experimental
design in this study. First, we describe the motivation of this study, and then, we explain the
analysis methods proposed in this study. Section 4 investigates the distribution of the effect of
two-factor interaction to two columns. In Section 5, we simulate to verify appropriateness of
the analysis methods in this study. Conclusions are given in Section 6.

## 2. L27 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY AND LINEAR GRAPH

When the considered factor is all three levels, we use three-level orthogonal arrays. Some
kinds exist also in three-level orthogonal arrays as well as two-level orthogonal arrays. Table
1 shows L27 orthogonal array that is the one.
Table 1: L27 orthogonal array

The feature of three-level orthogonal arrays that can be read from Table 1 is as follows.
1. Three-level orthogonal arrays have any Each column several times each has the figure
of 1, 2 and 3. And, they show the level of the column respectively.
2. When we choose two arbitrary columns, There is a combinations of (1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3),
(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 2) and (3, 3) appear the same number of times. This
means orthogonality the same number of times when two arbitrary columns are chosen.
Furthermore, degree of freedom of one column is two because level of one column is three
in three-level orthogonal arrays. L27 orthogonal array has 13 columns. Therefore, degree of
freedom of column is 26 in total.
When orthogonal arrays are used, it is necessary to distinguish two-factor interactions that
should be considered and two-factor interactions that may disregard beforehand. We
should understand the columns that appear for the considered two-factor interactions. And
then, we should allocate factors so that confounding should not occur.
In three-level orthogonal arrays, because degree of freedom of main effects is two, degree

## of freedom of two-factor interactions is four. Therefore two-factor interaction appears across

two columns in three-level orthogonal arrays. When the number of factors is little, it is not
too difficult to allocate factors trying and erring. However, allocation of factors will be
difficult when there are a lot of numbers for factors and considered two-factor interactions.
For this case, the use of linear graphs is very effective.
Linear graph is figure where columns of the orthogonal array are expressed by vertices and
edges, and the relation between factors and two-factor interactions is shown. Linear graphs
where factors and two-factor interactions that we considered was shown are called necessary
linear graph. Linear graphs are prepared beforehand each orthogonal array. In L27 orthogonal
array, two linear graphs are prepared shown in Figure 1.

## Linear graphs are made from the following rules.

The vertex shows one column.
The edge shows one column for two-level orthogonal arrays, and shows the
column any two for the three-level orthogonal arrays.
The edge where vertex and vertex are connected shows column to which twofactor interaction between columns that those two vertices show appears.
The figure written in vertex and edge shows column index.
Moreover, the procedure of allocation that uses the linear graph is as follows.
1. Factors and the two-factor interactions considered by the experiment are shown
in vertices vertex and edges respectively, and the relation between factors and
two-factor interactions is expressed in linear graph figure. This linear graph at
this stage is called necessary linear graph.
2. The necessary (required) linear graph is built into prepared linear graph. As a
result, it is decided that the distribution of the factor is an allocation of the twofactor interaction we can decide columns that allocation main effects and twofactor interactions.
3. Main effects that doesnt relate to two-factor interactions are allocated to
columns that has become empty.
4. Columns of remaining vertices and edges allocate the error.

## 3. PROPOSAL OF THIS STUDY

3.1 Motivation of this study
In three-level orthogonal arrays, because degree of freedom of main effects one column is
distributed or allocated by is two, the degree of freedom of the two-factor interaction is four.
Therefore, the two-factor interactions will be allocated in two specific columns. Due to this
reason, it may be difficult to allocate so that the confounding does not occur to factorial
effects. Actually, there are only two prepared linear graphs for L27 orthogonal array. If we try
to design the experiment other than two prepared linear graphs, confounding always occur.
Here, we consider the simple allocation shown in Figure 2. This linear graph cannot be
built into the prepared linear graphs in L27 orthogonal array. Therefore, confounding occurs
whenever we try this and the design becomes impossible and then we cannot experiment in
this design. Consequently, both number of factors and two-factor interactions that we can
consider is limited.

## Figure 2: One example of linear graph that cannot be allocated in L27

Then, we focus on two-factor interaction appears across two columns, if the confounding
has not occurred to the other column of two-factor interaction though the confounding has
occurred to one column of two-factor interaction, it seems that effects can be estimated by
using the column that confounding has not occurred (Wu,et al, 2000).
In this paper, we propose the practical experimental design to which partial confounding is
allowed, for it is impossible to design by the prepared linear graphs in L27. If this idea can be
applied in actual scene, the design that factor cannot be allocated we come to be able to
design shown in Figure 3 becomes possible. What is more, In addition, applicable scope of
L27 orthogonal array may be expands.

## Figure 3: Example of linear graphs those become possible allocating

References
Ojima, Y, Suzuki, T and Yasui, S. (2001) An Alternative Expression of the Fractional

## Factorial Designs for Two-level and Three-level Factors, Frontiers in Statistical

Quality Control, 309-316, 2004
Wu C. F. J, and Hamada, M (2000), Experiments Planning, Analysis, and Parameter
Design Optimization. NY: John Wiley & Sons.