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Intelligent Ventilation

RAPHAEL Service Manual


PN 610671/05
Software versions 1, 2 & 3
June, 2006

2006 HAMILTON MEDICAL AG. All rights reserved. Printed in Switzerland. No part of
this publication may be reproduced or stored in a database or retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, or by photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of HAMILTON MEDICAL AG.
This document may be revised or replaced by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG at any time and
without notice. You should ensure that you have the most current applicable version of
this document; if in doubt, contact the technical support department of HAMILTON
MEDICAL AG, Switzerland. While the information set forth is believed to be accurate, it is
not a substitute for the excercise of professional judgement.
Nothing in this document shall limit or restrict in any way HAMILTON MEDICAL AGs right
to revise or otherwise change or modify the equipment (including its software) described
herein, without notice. In the absence of an express, written agreement to the contrary,
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG has no obligation to furnish any such revisions, changes, or
modifications to the owner or user of the equipment (including software) described
herein.
The equipment must be operated, serviced or upgraded only by trained professionals.
HAMILTON MEDICALs sole responsibility with respect to the equipment and its use is as
stated in the limited warranty provided in the operators manual.
Product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective
owners.
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG will make available on request, circuit diagrams, component
parts lists, descriptions, calibration instructions, or other information that will assist the
users appropriately trained personnel to repair those parts of the equipment designated
by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG to be repairable.

Manufacturer
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
Via Crusch 8
CH-7402 Bonaduz
Switzerland
Phone: (+41) 81 660 60 10
Fax: (+41) 81 660 60 20
Public Web Site:
www.hamilton-medical.com
E-mail: techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch

Representative in USA
HAMILTON MEDICAL Inc.
4990 Energy Way
Reno, NV 89502
PO Box 30008
Reno, NV 89520
Phone: (775) 858-3200
Toll-free: (800) HAM-MED 1
Or: (800) 426-6331
Fax: (775) 856-5621
E-mail: marketing@hammed1.com

Contents
Contents
Conventions
Notes, Cautions and Warnings
Typographic conventions
Expressions

Foreword
Who is this service manual for?
What does this service manual contain?
What does this service manual not contain?
What equipment does the service manual cover?
What other tools and resources do I need to test and maintain RAPHAEL?
Where can I get the latest news, information, software updates, and so on?

Part 1:
General description
Section 1 Introduction to RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.1 What is RAPHAEL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2 What does RAPHAEL do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.3 How does RAPHAEL function? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.4 What components manage the principle gas flow? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.5 What other components does RAPHAEL have? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.6 Flow control and pressure control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

Section 2 Construction of RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1


2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2 RAPHAEL design highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Pneumatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

2.3 Main component groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4


Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Components mounted on the chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Pneumatic block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Components mounted on the pneumatic block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Front panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Components mounted on the front panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Contents-1

Contents

Section 3 Gas flows in RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1


3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Blockdiagram Raphael . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
Structure of following sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

3.2 Overview of principle gas route . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3


3.3 Components managing gas flow to the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

3.4 Components managing major gas flows from the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

3.5 Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway . 3-13
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14

3.6 Components managing minor gas flows from the tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Component functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21

Section 4 Details of gas flow components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1


4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.2 Oxygen and air water traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-1
4-1
4-1
4-3

4.3 Solenoid valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4


Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-4
4-5
4-5
4-5

4.4 Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6


Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-6
4-6
4-7
4-8

4.5 Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8


Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

4.6 Inspiratory valve and ambient valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11


Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-11
4-11
4-11
4-13

4.7 Flow Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13


Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description and function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further information and specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16

4.8 Expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16


Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16

Contents-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Contents

Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16


Further information and specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19

Section 5 Electronic components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1


5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2 Printed circuit boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Mainboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Display Control Unit (DCU) board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Communication interface board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
dc/ac board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Power supply board and backup batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13

5.3 Oxygen cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16


Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Further information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16

5.4 Pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20


Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21

5.5 Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23


Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Description and function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Further information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24

Section 6 The optional communication interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1


6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.2 RS232 port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sending data to a patient monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sending data to a computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS232 pin locations and assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-1
6-1
6-2
6-3

6.3 Special port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sending inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) timing signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sending a remote nurse alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special port pin locations and assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical specifications of Special port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6-4
6-4
6-4
6-5
6-7

Part 2:
Preventative maintenance and testing
Section 7 Overview of preventive maintenance and testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.2 Check your software level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.3 Check you have all the items you require . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
7.4 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3

Section 8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


8.1 Hospital preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Contents-3

Contents

8.2 Engineer preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


Dealing with water traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Internal cable and tubing checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
External checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11

Section 9 Backup battery and voltage tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1


9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.2 Backup battery replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Checking the age of the backup batteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1

9.3 Mainboard voltages test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Troubleshooting mainboard voltages test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9

9.4 12 V batteries condition test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10

9.5 Connector condition test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14

Section 10 Manual electrical safety tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1


10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1

Section 11 Running version 1.x test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1


11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.2 Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.3 Functions of the test software test units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.4 Sequence of test software units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.5 Entering test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
11.6 How to use the test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Alarms during test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Exiting test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5

Test 1 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Checking and setting the scaling Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Checking and setting the configuration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Checking and adjusting the altitude setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
Checking and setting the number of operating hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11

Test 2 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
Testing the display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Checking and adjusting display contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-16

Contents-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Contents

Test 3 Frontpanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the alarm tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the P&T-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11-17
11-17
11-18
11-18
11-19
11-19
11-20
11-20
11-21
11-22
11-23
11-23

Test 4 Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the alarm LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the alarm silence function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the expiratory valve unpowered position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the front panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the watchdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing backup battery operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking again for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11-24
11-24
11-25
11-25
11-26
11-26
11-27
11-27
11-28
11-28
11-29
11-29
11-30
11-30
11-31
11-31
11-32
11-32
11-33
11-34
11-34

Test 5 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the autozero valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the extended rinse flow valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Pprox and dPptm sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Flow Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the nebulizer valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11-35
11-36
11-37
11-37
11-38
11-39
11-40
11-41
11-42
11-42
11-43
11-43
11-44
11-44

Test 6 Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-45


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking and adjusting dPptm gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Pvent zero calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

11-45
11-45
11-46
11-46
11-47
11-49
11-50
11-50

Contents-5

Contents

Checking and adjusting Pvent gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-51


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-52

Test 7 Mixer and Tank Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53
Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-54
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-55
Testing the tank overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-56
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-56
Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-57
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-57

Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58
Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow . . . . . . . . . . . 11-59
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-61
Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-62
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-64
Testing the inspiratory valve controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-65
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-66

Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-67


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-67
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-67
Testing the patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-68
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-69
Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-70
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-70
Testing the rinse flow pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-71
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-71
Testing for internal leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-72
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-72
Testing for external leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-73
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-74
Testing the ambient state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-75
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-76

Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77
Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-79
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-79
Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-80
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-80
Checking the oxygen measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-81
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-81

Test 11 Calibration + Scaling Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-82


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-82
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-82
Checking calibration values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83

Test 12 Gas Delivery Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-84


Test 13 Sensor Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-84
Test 14 Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-85
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-85
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-85
Checking the power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-86
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-86
Mandatory completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-87

Contents-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Contents

Test 15 Alarm Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-88

Section 12 Running version 2.* test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1


12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.3 Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.4 Functions of the test software test units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.5 Sequence of test software units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.6 Entering test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.7 How to use the test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Alarms during test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Exiting test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6

Test 1 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
Checking and setting the scaling values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Checking and setting the configuration data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Checking and adjusting the altitude setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Checking and setting the number of operating hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
ASV enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Checking the clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15

Test 2 Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only) . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-16
12-16
12-17
12-19
12-20
12-21

Test 3 Frontpanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the alarm tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the P&T-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-22
12-22
12-23
12-23
12-24
12-24
12-25
12-25
12-26
12-27
12-28
12-28

Test 4 Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-29


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

12-29
12-29
12-30
12-30
12-31
12-31

Contents-7

Contents

Checking the alarm LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-32


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-32
Testing the alarm silence function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-33
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-33
Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position . . . . . . 12-34
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-35
Testing the front panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-36
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-36
Testing the watchdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-37
Testing backup battery operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-38
Testing the fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-39
Checking again for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-40
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-40

Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-41


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-41
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-41
Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-43
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-44
Testing the tank overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-45
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-45
Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-46
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-46

Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-47


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-47
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-48
Testing the autozero valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-49
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-50
Testing the extended rinse flow valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-51
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-52
Testing the Pvent autozero valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-53
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-53
Testing the nebulizer valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-54
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-54

Test 7 Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-55


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-55
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-55
Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-56
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-57
Checking and adjusting dPptm gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-58
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-61
Checking Pvent zero adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-62
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-62
Checking and adjusting Pvent gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-63
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-65
Adjusting Pprox gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-67
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-67
Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors 12-68
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-69
Calibrating the Flow Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-70
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-71

Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-72


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-72
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-72
Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow . . . . . . . . . . . 12-73
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-76
Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265 . . . 12-77
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-79

Contents-8

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Contents

Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373 .


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the inspiratory valve controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-81
12-85
12-86
12-87

Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-88


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the rinse flow pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing for internal leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing for external leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the ambient state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-88
12-88
12-89
12-90
12-91
12-91
12-92
12-92
12-93
12-93
12-94
12-95
12-96
12-97

Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98
Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-99
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-99
Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-100
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-100
Checking the oxygen measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-101
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-101

Test 11 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-102


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nurse Call (alarm switch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RS232C port loopback test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-102
12-102
12-103
12-103
12-104
12-104
12-105
12-105

Test 12 Calibration + Scaling Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-106


Test 12 EEPROM Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-106
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking calibration values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-106
12-106
12-108
12-108

Test 13 Gas Delivery Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-109


Test 14 Sensor Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-109
Test 15 Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-111
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-111
12-111
12-112
12-112

12.8 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-114


Test 16 Alarm Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-115
Test 17 Event Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-117
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-117
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-117
Preparing your computer or printer to receive data from the RS232 port 12-119

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Contents-9

Contents

Displaying and checking the event log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-121


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-121
Transmitting the event log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-122
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-122

12.9 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-123


Test 18 Trend Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-124
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-124
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-124
Transmitting trend data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-125
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-125

12.10 Mandatory completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-126

Section 13 Running version 3.* test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1


13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.2 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.3 Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.4 Functions of the test software test units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.5 Sequence of test software units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
13.6 Entering test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.7 How to use the test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Alarms during test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Exiting test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6

Test 1 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
Checking and setting the scaling values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Checking and setting the configuration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Checking and adjusting the altitude setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Checking and setting the serial number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
Checking and setting the number of operating hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Checking the clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15

Test 2 Display and Loudspeaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
Testing the display (monochrome RAPHAELs only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17
Testing the display (RAPHAEL Colors only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-18
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19
Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only) . 13-20
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
Checking the loudspeaker sound level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22

Test 3 Frontpanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-25
Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26
Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27

Contents-10

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Contents

Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the P&T-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13-28
13-29
13-30
13-30

Test 4 Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-31


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the alarm LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the alarm silence function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the front panel LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the watchdog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing backup battery operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking again for error signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13-31
13-31
13-32
13-32
13-33
13-33
13-34
13-34
13-35
13-35
13-36
13-37
13-38
13-38
13-39
13-39
13-40
13-40
13-41
13-42
13-42

Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-43


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the tank overpressure valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13-43
13-43
13-45
13-46
13-48
13-48
13-49
13-49

Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-50


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the autozero valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the extended rinse flow valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the Pvent autozero valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing the nebulizer valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13-50
13-51
13-52
13-53
13-54
13-55
13-56
13-56
13-57
13-57

Test 7 Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-58


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking and adjusting dPptm gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking Pvent pressure sensor zero adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking and calibrating Pvent pressure sensor gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting Pprox gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-58
13-58
13-59
13-60
13-61
13-64
13-65
13-65
13-66
13-68
13-70
13-70

Contents-11

Contents

Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors 13-71
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-72
Calibrating the Flow Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-73
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74

Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75
Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-79
Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265 . . . 13-80
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-82
Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373 . 13-84
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-88
Testing the inspiratory valve controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-89
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-90

Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-91


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-91
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-91
Testing the patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-92
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-93
Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-94
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-94
Testing the rinse flow pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-95
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-95
Testing for internal leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-96
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-97
Testing for external leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-98
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-99
Testing the ambient state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-100
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-101

Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-102


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-102
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-102
Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-103
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-103
Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-104
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-104
Checking the oxygen measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-105
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-105

Test 11 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-106


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-106
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-106
Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-107
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-107
Testing the Nurse Call (alarm switch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-108
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-108
Testing the RS232C port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-109
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-109

Test 12 EEPROM Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-110


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-110
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-110
Checking EEPROM Scaling Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-111
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-111

Test 13 Gas Delivery System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-112


Test 14 Sensor Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-112
Test 15 Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-113
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-113
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-113

Contents-12

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Contents

Checking the power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-114


Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-115

13.8 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-116


Test 16 Alarm Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-117
Test 17 Event Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-119
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-119
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-119
Preparing your computer to receive data from the RS232 port. . . . . . . . . 13-121
Displaying and checking the event log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-123
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-123
Transmitting the event log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-124
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-124

13.9 Optional completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-125


Test 18 Trend Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-126
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-126
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-126
Transmitting trend data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-127
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-127

13.10 Mandatory completion point for test software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-129

Part 3:
Troubleshooting and replacements
Section 14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.2 Understanding RAPHAEL alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Two alarm systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Two kinds of alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

14.3 The role of the event log in troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Interpreting events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4

14.4 Troubleshooting technical fault alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-5


14.5 Troubleshooting normal alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-11
14.6 General troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-13

Section 15 Maintenance and replacement procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1


15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.2 Opening RAPHAELs enclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.3 Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-3
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Cleaning the inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Cleaning the expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14

15.4 Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-15
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Removing the DCU board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15

15.5 Changing the 12V batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-17

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Contents

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Removing the batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17
Replacing the batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18

15.6 Changing the real-time lithium clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
Removing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
Removing real-time clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20
Replacing the real-time clock battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20

15.7 Replacing the display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Removing cable connectors and tubing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
Removing RAPHAELs front cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-24
Removing the display on a monochrome RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Color . . . 15-25
Dismantling and replacing a monochrome display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-28
Dismantling and replacing a RAPHAEL Color display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-32
Removing, dismantling and replacing the display on a RAPHAEL XTC . . . . 15-41

Part 4:
Appendixes
Appendix A RS232 port configuration settings and messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
A.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
A.2 HAMILTON MEDICAL RS232 configuration settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
A.3 Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2

Appendix B

Historical and background notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

B.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1


B.2 Notes on Test 4: Alarm monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Notes on the power down status flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Notes on the test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2

B.3 Notes on Test 6: Pressure Sensors and Test 7: Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
Notes on alternative test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2

B.4 Notes on Test 14: Supply Voltages and Test 15: Supply Voltages . . . . . . . . . . B-3
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
General notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
Notes on step (1) on page 11-86 and step (1) on page 12-112 . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
Notes on step (3) on page 11-86 and step (3) on page 12-112 . . . . . . . . . . . . B-5

Appendix C Software history and features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1


C.1
C.2
C.3
C.4
C.5

Contents-14

Software version 1.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1


Software version 1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Software version 1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Software version 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Software version 2.0S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3

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Contents

C.6
C.7
C.8
C.9
C.10
C.11
C.12
C.13
C.14
C.15
C.16

Software versions 2.01, 2.01S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Software version 2.1 (Japan only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software versions 2.2, 2.2S, 2.2C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software versions 2.21, 2.21S, 2.21C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software versions 2.22, 2.22S, 2.22C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software versions 2.23, 2.23S, 2.23C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software version 2.24CU (USA only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software version 2.25CU (USA only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software versions 3.0, 3.0S, 3.0C, 3.0CU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software versions 3.1, 3.1S, 3.1C, 3.1CU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software versions 3.2CX, 3.2CXU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

C-3
C-3
C-4
C-4
C-4
C-5
C-5
C-5
C-6
C-7
C-7

Appendix D Upgrade routes and kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1


D.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
D.2 Upgrade and language kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3

Appendix E Hardware and software versions and compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1


E.1 Mainboard versions and features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
E.2 Software and mainboard compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157373 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-6
Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157265 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E-9

E.3 Display control unit and mainboard compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-10

Appendix F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1


F.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1
F.2 Component history chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-2
F.3 Component change details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-6

Appendix G

Maintenance tools and test equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

G.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1


G.2 Standard tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1
G.3 Special tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1
IC extractor tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Potentiometer adjustment tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grease for self-emptying water trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inspiratory valve coil tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interface board PN 157269 and RS232 cable PN 157354 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metron EST tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

G-1
G-2
G-2
G-2
G-2
G-3

G.4 ESD protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-3


G.5 Equipment required for running test software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
Care of test equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6

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Contents

Appendix H

NIST and DISS connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1

H.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1


H.2 Photographs and part numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-1

Appendix I Automated electrical safety tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1


I.1
I.2
I.3
I.4
I.5

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ground wire resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insulation resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ground leakage current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I-1
I-1
I-2
I-2
I-2

Ground leakage current under normal conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-3


Ground leakage current with live open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-3
Ground leakage current with live and neutral reversed, and live open . . . . . . .I-3
Ground leakage current with live and neutral reversed, and neutral open . . . .I-3

I.6 Chassis leakage current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-4


Chassis leakage current under normal conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-4
Chassis leakage current with live open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-4
Chassis leakage current with ground open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I-5
Chassis leakage test with live and neutral reversed, and ground open . . . . . . .I-5
Chassis leakage test under normal conditions, but with reversed connections I-5
Chassis leakage test with open ground and reversed connections . . . . . . . . . .I-5

Appendix J Spare parts and schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1


J.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
J.2 Spare parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
J.3 List of schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
Schematic ZCH157100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157271 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157272 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157273 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157274 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157275 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157276 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157277 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH157332 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH 157423 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH614186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic ZCH614196 and BD614196 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic WD616056 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Contents-16

J-1
J-3
J-3
J-3
J-4
J-4
J-4
J-4
J-4
J-5
J-5
J-5
J-6
J-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Glossary
Index
RAPHAEL version 1.x test software report
RAPHAEL version 2.* and 3.* test software report
Document History

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1-17

Contents

1-18

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Conventions
Notes, Cautions and Warnings
Note
This format emphasizes information of particular importance.
CAUTION
This format alerts the user to the possibility of a problem with the device associated with its
use or misuse, such as device malfunction, device failure, damage to the device, or damage to
other property.
WARNING
This format alerts the user to the possibility of injury, death, or other serious adverse reactions
associated with the user or misuse of the device.

Typographic conventions
Effect
Courier, bold

Italic

Bold

Example

Function

Configuration

Marks text quoted directly from the RAPHAEL screen.

RAPHAEL Operators Manual


(PN 610994)

Marks the names of other documents.

Appendix J, Spare parts and


schematics

Marks text that is a quotation from within the manual. In this


case, it is part of a cross-reference.

Tank

Marks a term that is in the glossary. If you are using a PDF file to
view this, you can hyperlink to the glossary by clicking on these
items.

TRIGGER

Marks text that is quoted directly from:


The RAPHAEL case
A touch key
A printed circuit board

Bold, italic

Select only the first column.

Emphasizes important text.

With this kit, you can update from


software version 2.2xC to 2.23C.

Unless otherwise locally defined, a syntactic variable denoting


any alpha-numeric character.
For instance, software version 2.2xC refers to 2.21C, 2.22C and
2.23C. It does not refer to 2.23 or 2.23S.

June 9, 2006

With this kit, you can update or


upgrade from software version 1.x
or 2.* to 3.1.

Unless otherwise locally defined, a syntactic variable denoting


any number (including zero) of any alpha-numeric characters.
For instance, software version 2.* refers to 2.0, 2.01, 2.21,
2.22, 2.23, 2.0S, 2.01S, 2.21S and so on.

PN 61067/05

Conventions-1

Conventions

Expressions
Expression
Activate

Example
Activate LED On/Off.

Explanation
Using the control knob, you must first select the LED On/Off
button on one or RAPHAELs screens, and then press the
control knob.
The button on the screen changes its appearance, so that it
looks pressed. It now performs its function (turning the LED
on in this case).
Sometimes you are told to activate and set a field. In this
case you first activate the field, and then turn the P&T-knob to
set a value.

Deactivate

Deactivate LED On/Off.

With LED On/Off still selected and activated, you must press
the control knob again.
The button on the screen changes its appearance, so that it
looks unpressed. It stops performing its function (turning the
LED off).

Conventions-2

Pressure

This expression refers to that part of the pressure that is above


the ambient pressure. Therefore, if we say that pressure in the
tank is 8501000 mbar, we mean it is 8501000 mbar above
the pressure in the room in which the RAPHAEL is placed.

RAPHAEL
operators
manual

Refers only to RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) or


local-language equivalent.

Update

This expression refers to the improvement or improvements of


existing functionality in a device. Updates are generally denoted
in the revision number by an increment in a digit after the
decimal point: for example, 3.0 to 3.1.

Upgrade

This expression refers to the addition of new functionality to a


device. Upgrades are generally denoted in the revision number
by an increment in a digit before the decimal point: for
example, 1.0 to 3.1.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Foreword
Who is this service manual for?
This manual is for engineers who have successfully completed a HAMILTON MEDICAL Service
Training Course for RAPHAEL ventilators.
If you have not completed such a course, you are not authorized to undertake the maintenance,
repairs and tests described in this manual. Use RAPHAEL Service Manual (PN 610670) instead.
Training courses are held regularly in Bonaduz, Switzerland, at HAMILTON MEDICALs headquarters,
and in many other places around the world. For more information, contact the local HAMILTON
MEDICAL representative for your country. You can find this information on the HAMILTON
MEDICAL web site: http://www.hamilton-medical.com.
Note
If you have questions or corrections concerning any part of this manual, do not hesitate to contact
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG (techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).
WARNING
You may open RAPHAEL only if you have completed a HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Service Training
Course for RAPHAEL ventilators.

What does this service manual contain?


This manual includes the complete content of the RAPHAEL Service Manual (PN 610670), with the
exception of the self-training tests. This content is descriptive in nature, and covers the following
topics:

Details of the physical construction of RAPHAEL


Descriptions of the airflows through RAPHAEL
Details of the pneumatic components in RAPHAEL
Brief descriptions of the electronic components in RAPHAEL
Description of the RS232 and Special ports of the communication interface
Information about alarms caused by technical faults

In addition, this manual includes information about the following areas:

Maintenance
Testing the hardware
Using RAPHAELs test software mode for further testing and calibration
Performing Electrical Safety Testing (EST)
Troubleshooting, by using general faults, technical faults, and the test software tests
Replacing and cleaning parts
Additional appendixes dealing with software history, compatibility, tools and test
equipment

The main difference between versions 04 and 05, and earlier versions of this manual, is that the
latest two versions contain information for performing the test software tests on software version
3.* (Section 13, Running version 3.* test software). In addition, version 05 has information about
RAPHAEL XTC.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Foreword-1

Foreword

What does this service manual not contain?


This service manual does not contain information about operating RAPHAEL. Operating information
is in the RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, that must be used
as a supplement to this service manual.
Note
Versions of the RAPHAEL operators manual earlier than RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994)
do not contain information about the new features in software version 3.*.

What equipment does the service manual cover?


This manual covers all models of RAPHAEL, namely:

RAPHAEL (also called basic RAPHAEL)


RAPHAEL Silver
RAPHAEL Color
RAPHAEL XTC

What other tools and resources do I need to test and maintain RAPHAEL?
To install and test a RAPHAEL ventilator, you require:
The tools and equipment listed in Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment.
The RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent. The part
numbers for the local languages are:
French PN 610995
German PN 610996
Italian PN 610997
Spanish PN 610998
US English PN 624008
If you are in any doubt about these requirements, contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).

Where can I get the latest news, information, software updates, and so on?
You can find this information on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Web Site
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site/).
To enter this site you require a password. For more information, write to the web master,
(psadmin@hamilton-medical.ch).

Foreword-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Part 1:
General description

PN 61067/05

Section

Introduction to RAPHAEL

1.1

What is RAPHAEL?
RAPHAEL is a medical ventilator suited to continuous ventilation of adult, pediatric, and infant
patients weighing between 5 and 200 kg. The RAPHAEL ventilator is intended for use in a hospital
or hospital-type facility, including use at a patient bedside or for intra-facility transport, provided
compressed gas is supplied.

1.2

What does RAPHAEL do?


RAPHAEL supplies a flow of an air/oxygen mixture, at a regulated pressure, to a patient suffering a
compromised ability to breath.

1.3

How does RAPHAEL function?


At its simplest, RAPHAEL functions by regulating the flow of gases at three points, as represented in
the diagram in Figure 1-1.
Compressed air and oxygen
from external supply

1
Key:
= Regulation point

To patient
(air/oxygen mix)

Expired gases
escape into room

From patient
(expired gases)

Figure 1-1. Principle gas flow through RAPHAEL

As shown, compressed air and oxygen are supplied to RAPHAEL from an external supply. The
regulation points are:
Air and oxygen inlets (regulation point 1)
Outlet to patient (regulation point 2)
Inlet from patient (regulation point 3)
Expired gases from the patient are allowed to escape into the room.
In this manual, we refer to this gas flow to RAPHAEL, then to the patient, and then back to
RAPHAEL, as the principle gas flow.

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1 Introduction to RAPHAEL

1.4

What components manage the principle gas flow?

Patient

Flow Sensor on spur


from patient circuit

Patient circuit

Expiratory valve

Inspiratory valve

Tank

Expired gases
exhausted into room

Mixer valves

Pressurized air
Pressurized oxygen

The main components that control the flow of gases through RAPHAEL are shown in Figure 1-2.

Figure 1-2. Components comprising principle gas route through

RAPHAEL

1-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

What other components does RAPHAEL have?

The components have the following functions:

1.5

Mixer valves

Regulate the flow of air and oxygen into the ventilator at the air and
oxygen inlets.

Tank

Smoothes the flow of air and oxygen through the ventilator, and
provides a place for the gases to mix. Also enables RAPHAEL to
deliver high flows of gas for short periods.

Inspiratory valve

Regulates the pressure of the air/oxygen mixture in the patient circuit.

Patient circuit

Supplies air/oxygen to the patient, and removes exhalation gases


from the patient. Gases move in one direction in the patient circuit.

Spur

Connects the patient circuit to the patients airway. Gases flow in


both directions, as the patient breathes in and out (inhales and
exhales).

Flow Sensor

Monitors the flow and pressure of gases moving to and from the
patients airway.

Expiratory valve

Regulates the flow of expiratory gases from the patient circuit to the
room in which RAPHAEL is placed.

What other components does RAPHAEL have?


Apart from the components comprising the principle gas route, RAPHAEL has several other sets of
components that offer additional safety or functions. These are:
Three safety valves: tank overpressure, patient overpressure, and ambient. They are
documented in:
Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8
Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on page 4-11
Oxygen cell. This is a Galvanic fuel cell that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the
air/oxygen mixture in the tank. Although RAPHAEL does not require the cell to determine
the mixture, it is very useful for monitoring and safety purposes. For more information, see
Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16.
Communication interface. This enables RAPHAEL to communicate with an external
monitor, alarm system, or computer. For more information, see Section 6, The optional
communication interface.

1.6

Flow control and pressure control


Theory of pressure-controlled operation
In a pressure-controlled ventilator such as RAPHAEL, the inspiratory valve and expiratory valve
synchronize to increase and decrease the pressure in the patient circuit, thereby causing the patient
to inspire and exhale. At no time does the expiratory valve completely close.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

1-3

1 Introduction to RAPHAEL

Advantages of pressure control


The advantages of a pressure-controlled ventilator are:
The pressure in the patient circuit can never become uncomfortably high for instance, if
a patient coughs.
The patient can inhale and exhale at any time, independently of the ventilator cycle.
Furthermore, the volume of air delivered to the patient, although controlled only indirectly by the
ventilator, can be set with reasonable precision.
Theory of flow-controlled operation
A ventilator such as GALILEO, when in flow-controlled mode, measures the flow of gas through the
inspiratory valve into the patient circuit, stops the flow after the correct volume of gas has entered
the patient circuit, and then opens the expiratory valve to enable the patient to exhale.
Advantages of flow control
The advantages of a flow-controlled ventilator are:
The volume of air delivered to the patient can be controlled with great precision.
The flow pattern can be controlled.

1-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Section

Construction of RAPHAEL

2.1

Introduction
This section gives an overview of RAPHAELs physical construction. It contains information about the
location of every major component. The section is not version-specific: the information given applies
to all models of RAPHAEL, RAPHAEL Silver, and RAPHAEL Color, and the photographs shown can be
of any model.
For information about the theory of the gas flows, see Section 3, Gas flows in RAPHAEL.
For details of the construction and function of each gas flow component, see Section 4,
Details of gas flow components.
For general information about the electronic components, see Section 5, Electronic
components.
To better understand this section, open the schematic named Raphael Instrument and numbered
ZCH157100 Blatt 1. You can find it in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics. Check the schematic
against the similar image displayed in Figure 2-2 on page 2-3.
Note
If the schematic ZCH157100 Blatt 1 does not show the part being discussed, a photograph is
provided in the text.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

2-1

2 Construction of RAPHAEL

2.2
2.2.1

RAPHAEL design highlights


Pneumatics
The construction of RAPHAEL breaks new territory, in that, so far as possible, all internal tubing has
been excluded from the design. This decreases the likelihood of leaks, improves reliability, allows the
unit to be more compact, enhances efficiency during production, and makes servicing simpler.

Figure 2-1. The unique pneumatic block

The almost complete absence of tubing is achieved by mounting most components directly on the
unique pneumatic block. This block is a composite of a specially-formulated Plexiglas, inside of
which air channels of varying thicknesses replace tubing (Figure 2-1).
A number of threaded holes and housings enable components to be screwed into place.
2.2.2

Electronics
The electronic design of RAPHAEL is sophisticated but simple, requiring only the following printed
circuit boards:

Mainboard, on which all processing takes place


Power supply board
Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board
dc/ac converter board for powering the monochrome or color display backlight

In addition, a communication interface board that enables RAPHAEL to pass data to external
equipment can be fitted as an option.
Because of the low power consumption of the circuit boards, only relatively small batteries are
required to back up the mains power supply. These are positioned in the main housing.

2-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

RAPHAEL design highlights

Figure 2-2. Copy of ZCH157100 Blatt 1

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

2-3

2 Construction of RAPHAEL

2.3

Main component groups


As shown on Figure 2-2 on page 2-3, and schematic ZCH157100 Blatt 1, RAPHAELs main
component groups are:
Chassis (explained further in Section 2.3.1 and Section 2.3.2)
Pneumatic block (explained further in Section 2.3.3 and Section 2.3.4)
Front panel (explained further in Section 2.3.5 and Section 2.3.6)

2.3.1

Chassis
The chassis is the main structural item in RAPHAEL. All components (including the pneumatic block
and front panel) are mounted on it. (Figure 2-3.)
Display control unit (DCU)

Alarm buzzer with


capacitors to
provide power source

Front panel with display.


(Panel on XTC is
larger, otherwise
identical.)

DCU graphics PROM


(RAPHAEL Color and XTC only)

Test points

Software PROM
and microswitches

Potentiometers

On/off switch
and fuses

Fan

RS232
port

Pneumatic block
(cover removed)

Potential
equalization
terminal

Optional
communication
interface
board

Special
port

Figure 2-3. RAPHAELs chassis from above

2-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Main component groups

2.3.2

Components mounted on the chassis


Pneumatic block

This is mounted on the outside of the chassis, at the rear of the unit.
For more information, see Section 2.3.3, Pneumatic block, on
page 2-8.

Front panel

See Section 2.3.5, Front panel, on page 2-13.

Mainboard

The mainboard uses surface-mounted technology, and has a very low


power consumption. It is the only printed circuit board in RAPHAEL
dedicated to processing signals related to ventilation.
The most important components on the mainboard are:
Microprocessor C167CR and supporting components. These
perform all signal and alarm processing.
ASIC 157249 and supporting components. These provide a
complete alarm backup system. Depending on your software
version, you test this in:
Test 4: Alarm monitor, in Section 11 on page 11-24
Test 4: Alarm monitor, in Section 12 on page 12-29
Test 4: Alarm monitor, in Section 13 on page 13-31
The software program PROM that manages microprocessor
C167CR.
Potentiometers for calibrating valves and sensors. Depending on
your software version, you do this in:
Test 6: Pressure Sensors, in Section 11 on page 11-45 and
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 11 on page 11-58
Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 12 on page 12-55 and
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 12 on page 12-72
Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 13 on page 13-58 and
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 13 on page 13-75
Test points for checking voltages. You do this in Section 9, Backup
battery and voltage tests.
DCU graphics PROM: a PROM containing text and graphics that
are downloaded to the DCU graphics board in RAPHAEL Color and
RAPHAEL XTC.
For more general information about the mainboard, see Section 5.2.1,
Mainboard, on page 5-1.

Display Control Unit


(DCU graphics) board

Mounted on the mainboard is the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics)


board that manages the monochrome or color display. This contains
graphics that RAPHAEL can call up as required.
For more information, see Section 5.2.2, Display Control Unit (DCU)
board, on page 5-11 and Section 15.6.2, Removing the Display
Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-19.

DCU graphics PROM

June 9, 2006

A PROM, mounted on the mainboard (not the DCU board) in


RAPHAEL Color and XTC. It contains text and graphics that are
downloaded to the DCU graphics board.

PN 61067/05

2-5

2 Construction of RAPHAEL

Communication
interface board

This is an option that the customer can order from the factory with
RAPHAEL, or that an engineer can fit later in the field (on models with
mainboard PN 157265 and later). The board mounts directly on the
chassis, and, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4, provides two ports:
The RS232 port can communicate with peripherals such as a
computer or monitor. It is used for patient data, including
waveforms.
The Special port can be used to activate an external nurse alarm,
external nebulizer, or external nitric oxide device.
For more information, see Section 6, The optional communication
interface.

Potential equalization
terminal

This is a contact on the chassis (or cover in some older models)


enabling you to connect RAPHAEL to other hospital equipment,
thereby ensuring equal electric potential in the various pieces of
equipment used on a patient.

Fan

The purpose of the fan is to:


Prevent oxygen accumulating inside RAPHAEL, and thereby
prevent the risk of explosion.
Provide cooling to the electrical circuits.
You, or a member of hospital staff, must replace the filter as a part of
regular routine maintenance, as described in the appropriate
RAPHAEL operators manual.
For more information, see Section 5.5, Fan, on page 5-23.

Power supply board

This is a standard switched power supply that provides power at a


number of voltages for RAPHAEL. The power supply board slides into
the chassis on a drawer, as shown below.
Mainboard

Drawer
containing
power
supply

Pipe from
inspiratory
valve to
to-patient
port

For more information, see Section 5.2.5, Power supply board and
backup batteries, on page 5-13.

2-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Main component groups

Backup batteries

The two 12 V backup batteries shown below can keep RAPHAEL


functioning for between 30 minutes and 2 hours.
For more information, see Section 5.2.5, Power supply board and
backup batteries, on page 5-13, and Section 15.5, Changing the 12V
batteries, on page 15-17.
Mainboard

Battery

Velcro
strap

Loudspeaker and
buzzer

RAPHAEL provides two completely independent alarm systems. The


main alarm system uses the loudspeaker. The backup alarm system
uses the buzzer. The main alarm system is more comprehensive than
the backup system, but the backup system has the advantage of
having its own power source, in the form of two capacitors that can
power the buzzer to sound for at least two minutes.
Note
Despite its name, the buzzer produces a high-pitched sound.
You can see the buzzer and capacitors in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4. The
loudspeaker is mounted directly on the chassis, behind the front
cover, as shown below.
Front cover
Loudspeaker
(behind grill)

Backup batteries

For more information, see Section 5.2.1, Mainboard, on page 5-1.

June 9, 2006

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2-7

2 Construction of RAPHAEL

Ancillary items

The mains power connector, on/off switch and mains fuse are all also
mounted on the rear of chassis, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4.
WARNING

The on/off switch does not isolate RAPHAEL from the mains
power supply. It only turns RAPHAEL on and off. Mains
voltages are present in the power supply, even when RAPHAEL
is switched off.
The to-patient and from-patient ports are mounted on the front of the
chassis. For more information, see Section 2.3.5, Front panel, on
page 2-13.
2.3.3

Pneumatic block
The pneumatic block (Figure 2-4) is the most innovative part of RAPHAELs pneumatic system. It is
attached to the rear of the chassis.
Connectors for tubes to nebulizer and Flow Sensor
Solenoid
valves

Inspiratory
valve

Tank
housing

Safety block
containing
tank and
patient
overpressure
valves
Figure 2-4. The pneumatic block partly assembled

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Main component groups

2.3.4

Components mounted on the pneumatic block


Air and oxygen inlet
assemblies

These are positioned at the rear of RAPHAEL, as shown below.


Stainless steel
plate

Inlet
Filter

Filter housing
in which water
is trapped

Each assembly comprises a water trap, complete with filter and


housing. They are mounted on a large bar.
When you look at RAPHAEL from the rear, the mounting bar appears to
be screwed to a stainless steel plate. However, the plate is only a thin
covering for the pneumatic block. The mounting bar therefore connects
directly to the pneumatic block.
You, or a member of hospital staff, must replace the filter in each water
trap as a part of regular routine maintenance, as described in the
appropriate RAPHAEL operators manual.
Depending on your software version, you test these components in:
Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure, in Section 11 on page 11-53
Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure, in Section 12 on page 12-41
Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure, in Section 13 on page 13-43
For more general information, see Section 3.3, Components managing
gas flow to the tank, on page 3-4 and Section 4.2, Oxygen and air
water traps, on page 4-1.

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Solenoid valves

RAPHAELs solenoid valves mount directly on the pneumatic block. You


can see them in Figure 2-4 on page 2-8.
The three largest valves in this group control:
The flow of air and flow of oxygen from the water traps to the tank
The flow of gas from the tank to the nebulizer
Smaller valves enable RAPHAEL to perform internal functions.
Depending on your software version, you test the solenoid valves in:
Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., in Section 11 on page 11-35
Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., in Section 12 on page 12-47
Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., in Section 13 on page 13-50
For general information about the solenoid valves, see Section 3, Gas
flows in RAPHAEL, and Section 4.3, Solenoid valves, on page 4-4.
Note
The inspiratory valve and expiratory valve are not classed as solenoid
valves.

Pressure sensors

The pressure sensors are too small to see in clearly in ZCH157100 Blatt
1. However, most are shown in schematic ZCH157276 Blatt 1. They are
labelled:

dPptm
Pprox
Ptank
dPmixer
Pvent

The diagram below shows a part of ZCH157276 Blatt 1.

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You can see two of the sensors in the photograph below.

Pvent
dPmixer

Depending on your software version, you test and calibrate the


pressure sensors in:
Test 6: Pressure Sensors, in Section 11 on page 11-45
Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 12 on page 12-55
Test 7: Pressure Sensors, in Section 13 on page 13-58
For more general information, see Section 3, Gas flows in RAPHAEL and
Section 5.4, Pressure sensors, on page 5-20.
Tank

The tank or reservoir is an aluminium vessel of about two liters.

Tank
housing
Tank

It has two functions:


To provide a large volume in which the air and oxygen from the inlet
assemblies can thoroughly mix.
To smooth the gas flow to the inspiratory valve that delivers gas to
the patient.
The tank screws into a large aluminium housing mounted directly on
the pneumatic block, and occupies a large amount of the space in
RAPHAEL.
For more information, see Section 3.3.2.5, Gas flow through tank, on
page 3-8 and Section 4.4, Tank, on page 4-6.

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Inspiratory valve

You can see the inspiratory valve in Figure 2-4 on page 2-8.
This component is in reality a combination of two valves:
The inspiratory valve, that delivers the gas to the patient.
The ambient valve, that enables the patient to breath in the event of
a complete RAPHAEL system failure.
Depending on your software version, you test the inspiratory valve in:
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 11 on page 11-58
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 12 on page 12-72
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 13 on page 13-75
For more general information, see Section 3.5.2.1, Gas flow to patient,
on page 3-15 and Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on
page 4-11.

Nebulizer and Flow


Sensor connectors

On the top of the pneumatic block are the connectors for three of the
four tubes inside RAPHAEL. (Figure 2-4 on page 2-8.) These supply an
air/oxygen mixture to the external nebulizer connector, and to the two
Flow Sensor connectors on the front panel of the RAPHAEL shown in
Figure 2-5 on page 2-13.

Overpressure relief
valves

The patient overpressure valve and the tank overpressure valve are both
in the safety block, a unit situated at the bottom right of the pneumatic
block (shown in the schematic and in Figure 2-4 on page 2-8). These
are two simple, mechanical, safety valves one for the patient
breathing circuit, and one for the tank.
Depending on your software version, you test the tank overpressure
valve in:
Test 7.4, Testing the tank overpressure valve, in Section 11 on
page 11-56
Test 5.4, Testing the tank overpressure valve, in Section 12 on
page 12-45
Test 5.4, Testing the tank overpressure valve, in Section 13 on
page 13-48
You test the patient overpressure valve in one of:
Test 9.3, Testing the patient overpressure valve, in Section 11 on
page 11-68
Test 9.3, Testing the patient overpressure valve, in Section 12 on
page 12-89
Test 9.3, Testing the patient overpressure valve, in Section 13 on
page 13-92
For more general information, see Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve
and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8.

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Main component groups

2.3.5

Front panel
Apart from the on/off switch and the water traps, all RAPHAELs controls and gas connections are
on or under the front cover. (Figure 2-5.) All controls are identical on the larger RAPHAEL XTC
display.

Display

Display panel
keyboard

Front panel
keyboard
Press-and-turn
knob
Flow Sensor
connectors

Nebulizer
connector

To-patient port

Expiratory
valve

Oxygen cell
holder
From-patient
port of
expiratory valve

Exhaust port
of expiratory
valve

Figure 2-5. The RAPHAEL front panel

The RAPHAEL operators manuals discuss the users use of these components very fully. This manual
gives an overview from the engineers perspective.

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2.3.6

Components mounted on the front panel


Display

The display (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13), which can be monochrome or


color, shows:
Numerics and waveforms associated with the patient being
ventilated. These are displayed on a number of different windows.
Windows associated with the test software that engineers use to
check all aspects of RAPHAELs functioning.
The power source for the illumination of the display is the dc/ac board.
This small board is mounted behind the front cover, just above the
display as shown below. Depending on your software version, you test
the display in one of:
Test 2: Display, in Section 11 on page 11-12
Test 2: Display, in Section 12 on page 12-16
Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker, in Section 13 on page 13-16
For information about the dc/ac board, see Section 5.2.4, dc/ac board,
on page 5-12. For information about replacing the display, see
Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on page 15-21.

Front cover

dc/ac converter
board (shown
here for
monochrome
display)

WARNING

Output from the dc/ac board is about 1700 V.


Display panel
keyboard

These keys (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) enable users to access the screens
used for ventilating patients.
The keyboard is separately replaceable, but you must remove the
display to do this.

Front panel keyboard

These keys (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) enable users to change the way
RAPHAEL is currently functioning for instance, by making RAPHAEL
deliver 100% oxygen.
The keyboard comprises a sealed membrane, and is easy to peel off and
replace.

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Press-and-turn knob

The press-and-turn knob (P&T-knob) is RAPHAELs major control


(Figure 2-5 on page 2-13). It has two actions:
Turn: The knob rotates through 16 switch positions around a full
360 circle. The user turns the knob to select an item on the screen
during ventilation or when running the test software.
Press: The knob has a double-action push switch. The user presses
once to activate the item already selected by turning. He pushes
again to deactivate the item.
Depending on your software version, you test the keyboards and the
P&T-knob in one of:
Test 3: Frontpanel, in Section 11 on page 11-17
Test 3: Frontpanel, in Section 12 on page 12-22
Test 3: Frontpanel, in Section 13 on page 13-25

O2 cell holder

The oxygen cell holder (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) secures the
replaceable oxygen cell that RAPHAEL uses to measure the
concentration of oxygen in the tank. The cell provides an
oxygen-monitoring mechanism, although it is not required to control
the flow of gas through RAPHAEL.
Replacing the oxygen cell is part of routine maintenance, and does not
require an engineer or any special tools.

Oxygen
cell

Holder

The procedure is described in the appropriate RAPHAEL operators


manual.
Depending on your software version, you test and calibrate the oxygen
cell in one of:
Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement, in Section 11 on page 11-77
Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement, in Section 12 on page 12-98
Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement, in Section 13 on page 13-102
For more general information about the oxygen cell, see
Section 3.6.2.1, Sample gas supply for O2 cell, on page 3-21 and
Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16.
Nebulizer connector

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This connector (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) provides a flow of gas directly
from the tank to drive an external nebulizer, if there is one fitted. The
user activates this flow by using the nebulizer key on the front panel
keyboard.

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Flow Sensor
connectors

The two Flow Sensor connectors (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) are
connected to the Flow Sensors differential pressure sensor in the
pneumatic block. This pressure sensor measures the pressure difference
between the front and rear chambers in the Flow Sensor.
For more information, see Section 3.5.2.2, Airway gas flow, on
page 3-16 and Section 4.7, Flow Sensor, on page 4-13.

To-patient port

The to-patient port (also shown in Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) delivers the
air/gas mixture from the inspiratory valve into the patient tubing. It is
shown in detail below:

Oxygen cell

Pipe from
inspiratory
valve
To-patient
port

Filter
Tubing on
to-patient
port

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From-patient port and


exhaust port on
expiratory valve

The from-patient port takes the air exhaled by the patient, and returns
it to the environment through the exhaust port. (Figure 2-5 on
page 2-13.) Both ports are part of the expiratory valve, which is shown
in detail below:

Positioning coil of
expiratory valve

From-patient port
(hidden from view)
Exhaust port

The expiratory valve synchronizes with the inspiratory valve, in order to:
Maintain full pressure in the patient circuit during inspiration
Maintain PEEP/CPAP pressure in the patient circuit during expiration
(if required by the user)
Depending on your software version, you test the inspiratory and
expiratory valves in one of:
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 11 on page 11-58
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 12 on page 12-72
Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, in Section 13 on page 13-75
For more general information, see Section 3.5.2.3, Gas flow from
patient, on page 3-18 and Section 4.8, Expiratory valve, on page 4-16.
WARNING

Never attach a spirometer or any other device or tube to the


exhaust port. A spirometer attached to the exhaust port gives
inaccurate readings, and causes RAPHAEL to lose full control of
PEEP/CPAP.

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Section

Gas flows in RAPHAEL

3.1

Introduction
This section gives an overview of the functions of RAPHAELs pneumatic circuits. The section is not
version-specific: the information given applies to all models of RAPHAEL, RAPHAEL Silver, and
RAPHAEL Color, and the photographs shown can be of any model. Details of the construction of
individual components and assemblies are not included, but are given in Section 4, Details of gas
flow components.

3.1.1

Blockdiagram Raphael
To better understand this section, open the schematic named Blockdiagram Raphael and numbered
ZCH614186 Blatt 2. You can find it in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics. Check the schematic
against the similar image displayed in Figure 3-1 on page 3-2.

3.1.2

Structure of following sections


In the following sections, we break the pneumatic circuits in the Blockdiagram Raphael into the
following three logical groups:
Section 3.3, Components managing gas flow to the tank, on page 3-4
Section 3.4, Components managing major gas flows from the tank, on page 3-10
Section 3.5, Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient
airway, on page 3-13
Together, these comprise the principle gas route through RAPHAEL, from gas entry into the
ventilator, to gas exit into the environment.
A final group of components, Section 3.6, Components managing minor gas flows from the tank,
on page 3-21, provide gas for a number of purposes within RAPHAEL.
We start by taking an overview of the principle gas route through RAPHAEL.

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Figure 3-1. Copy of ZCH614186 Blatt 2

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Overview of principle gas route

3.2

Overview of principle gas route


Pressurized air and oxygen

Mixer valves
RAPHAEL
case

Tank

Inspiratory valve

Expiratory valve

Patient
circuit

Flow Sensor on spur from


patient circuit
Patient
Figure 3-2. Principle gas route through RAPHAEL

Figure 3-2 gives a stylized overview of the principle gas route through RAPHAEL:
Pressurized air and oxygen enter RAPHAEL from the hospital main supply, or from an air
compressor and oxygen cylinder.
The mixer valves admit the correct quantities of the two gases to the tank.
The oxygen/air mixture from the tank flows to the inspiratory valve. This regulates the flow
of mixture into the patient circuit.
A spur from the patient circuit takes the oxygen/air mixture to the patient during
inspiration, and removes expired gases from the patient during expiration. The Flow
Sensor measures the pressure, and the flow in each direction.
Finally, gas expired from the patient goes through the expiratory valve back into the
environment.

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3.3
3.3.1

Components managing gas flow to the tank


Component functions
The components that supply the gas to the tank perform the following tasks:

3.3.2

Clean and dry the oxygen and air


Ensure that neither oxygen nor air can flow back out of RAPHAEL
Mix oxygen and air in the correct ratio
Supply oxygen and air in the correct quantitythereby achieving the correct pressure in
the tank

Components
Figure 3-3 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the flow of gas to
the tank.

Section 3.3.2.1
Gas flow through oxygen and
air water traps
Section 3.3.2.2
Gas flow through check valves
Section 3.3.2.3
Gas flow through mixer valves

Sintered disk
flow restrictor

Section 3.3.2.4
Gas flow through sintered disk
flow restrictor
Differential
pressure
sensor
Tank

Section 3.3.2.5
Gas flow through tank

Pressure sensor
for tank

Figure 3-3. Flow of oxygen and air to the tank

3.3.2.1

Gas flow through oxygen and air water traps


Air and oxygen enter RAPHAEL at the water traps marked Oxygen and Air. These are at the back of
the ventilator, as shown in Figure 3-4 on page 3-5. The filters in the traps remove dirt particles, and
any condensed water present runs to the bottom of the filter housing.

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Components managing gas flow to the tank

For construction details of the gas water traps, see Section 4.2, Oxygen and air water traps, on
page 4-1.

Inlet

Filter

Filter
housing in
which water
is contained

Figure 3-4. The air and oxygen water traps at the rear of the RAPHAEL

3.3.2.2

Gas flow through check valves


Each gas passes through a check valve. This is a one-way valve that ensures gas cannot flow back
out of the ventilator. It is built into the mounting bar that supports the water traps. (Figure 3-5.)

Check
valve

Water
trap

Figure 3-5. The oxygen check valve

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3.3.2.3

Gas flow through mixer valves


Each gas flows through the pneumatic block to the solenoid mixer valve that governs the flow of
that gas, as shown in Figure 3-6. (The photograph was taken from behind RAPHAEL, with the rear
cover removed.)

Air flow
to
solenoid
mixer valve

Oxygen
flow to
solenoid
mixer valve

Air
inlet

Oxygen
inlet
Figure 3-6. Inlet gas flows through the pneumatic block

The solenoid mixer valves control the flow of air and oxygen into the ventilator. They are
electronically governed, and are mounted on the rear of the pneumatic block as shown in Figure 3-7
(photograph taken from above, with top and rear covers removed) and in Figure 3-9.

Fan
Pneumatic
block
Solenoid
mixer
valves

Rubber
mounting
blocks for
solenoid
valves

Figure 3-7. Mixer valves in the pneumatic block

Both valves are attached to the pneumatic block by a rubber mounting block that reduces the noise
conducted to the body of the RAPHAEL.
The valves have two states: open and closed. RAPHAEL opens a valve, measures the volume of gas
that flows through, and then closes the valve. Depending on the requirements for the gas mixture in

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Components managing gas flow to the tank

the tank, RAPHAEL might then open and close the second valve in a similar manner. Opening times
of the valves are typically a few milliseconds.
The solenoid mixer valves mark the boundary between gas at inlet pressure and gas at tank
pressure.
The mixer valves have different specifications to the nebulizer valve (Figure 3-13, The nebulizer valve
and overpressure valves, on page 3-11).
WARNING
For this reason, do not exchange nebulizer and mixer valves.

You can identify new-style mixer valves by the black cap on the top of the solenoid body, and by the
part number printed on the solenoid body.
3.3.2.4

Gas flow through sintered disk flow restrictor


When RAPHAEL switches on a mixer valve, gas flows toward the tank through a large sintered disk
flow restrictor. The flow creates a pressure difference across the restrictor.
This gas flow and sintered disk are shown in Figure 3-8. This photograph was taken from behind
RAPHAEL, with the cover and water traps removed.

Sintered disk
flow restrictor
Gas flow to
dPmixer sensor
dP mixer
differential
pressure sensor
Pneumatic
block

Figure 3-8. Inlet gas flow through the sintered disk flow restrictor

The sintered disk is also shown in Figure 3-9. This photograph was taken from the inner side of the
pneumatic block, with the tank and the tank holder removed.
The pressure difference across the sintered disk is measured by the dPmixer pressure sensor. This is
attached to the pneumatic block, and is also shown in Figure 3-8 and Figure 3-9.
Because there is a clearly-defined relationship between the rate of gas flow and the pressure
difference across any flow restrictor, RAPHAEL can control the quantity of gas passing through the
sintered disk restrictor by switching the solenoid mixer valves according to the pressure difference
measured by the dPmixer pressure sensor.

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Solenoid mixer valves

Sintered disk
flow restrictor

dP mixer
differential
pressure sensor
Figure 3-9. The sintered disk in the disassembled pneumatic block
3.3.2.5

Gas flow through tank


Oxygen and air from the mixer valves flow into the tank, where they mix. (Figure 3-10.)

Tank

Figure 3-10. The tank or reservoir in position in RAPHAEL

Because the tank is large relative to the diameter of the inlet flow, short openings of the solenoid
mixer valves do not have much effect on the pressure of the gases in it. RAPHAEL is therefore able to
maintain the tank pressure at a fairly constant level, and the gas flow from the tank to other
components is therefore smooth.
Tank pressure is measured by a the Ptank pressure sensor.

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Components managing gas flow to the tank

Together, the solenoid mixer valves, the sintered disk flow restrictor, the differential pressure sensor,
and the tank make up the mixer. For this reason, the measurement at the pressure sensor
(Figure 3-3 on page 3-4 and Figure 3-9 on page 3-8) is named dPmixerdifferential pressure at the
mixer.

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3.4
3.4.1

Components managing major gas flows from the tank


Component functions
The components that manage the major gas flows from the tank perform the following tasks:
Provide gas for the inspiratory valve
Provide gas for the nebulizer
Ensure that the tank cannot reach a dangerous pressure if RAPHAEL malfunctions

3.4.2

Components
Figure 3-11 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the major gas
flows from the tank.
Section 3.4.2.1
Gas flow to
inspiratory valve
Tank

Section 3.4.2.3
Gas flow through
tank overpressure
valve

Inspiratory valve

Nebulizer
solenoid
valve

Section 3.4.2.2
Gas flow to nebulizer

Tank
overpressure
valve

Nebulizer

Figure 3-11. Major gas flows from the tank

3.4.2.1

Gas flow to inspiratory valve


The major flow of gas from the tank is to the inspiratory valve. This is an electronically-controlled,
coil-operated valve that controls the flow of gas to the patient circuit.
The operation of this valve is dealt with in Section 3.5.2.1, Gas flow to patient, on page 3-15.
For construction details of this valve, see Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on
page 4-11.

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Components managing major gas flows from the tank

3.4.2.2

Gas flow to nebulizer


The second largest flow of gas from the tank is to the external nebulizer jar, if this is
fitted.(Figure 3-12.)
Gas flow from patient
to RAPHAELs expiratory valve
Nebulizer jar
Flow Sensor

Gas flow from RAPHAELs


inspiratory valve to patient

Gas flow from RAPHAEL


to nebulizer jar

Figure 3-12. The nebulizer jar

When fitted, the nebulizer is positioned between the inspiratory valve and the Y-piece.
Because RAPHAEL has a tank pressure of about 1 bar, the nebulizer can be supplied directly with the
mixed gas from the tank by means of a valve, without need for an additional pump. The nebulizer
valve is one of the group of valves on the pneumatic block. (Figure 3-13.)
To nebulizer connector on front panel

Nebulizer
valve

Safety valve
block,
containing
tank and
patient
overpressure
valves
Figure 3-13. The nebulizer valve and overpressure valves

The nebulizer connector on the front panel of the RAPHAEL (Figure 2-5 on page 2-13) is connected
to the top of the pneumatic block (Figure 3-13) by one of the very few internal tubes in RAPHAEL.

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The nebulizer valve has different specifications to the mixer valves (Figure 3-7, Mixer valves in the
pneumatic block, on page 3-6).
WARNING
For this reason, you must not exchange nebulizer and mixer valves.

You can identify new-style nebulizer valves by the gray caps on the top of the solenoid body, and by
the part number printed on the solenoid body.
3.4.2.3

Gas flow through tank overpressure valve


The overpressure valve serves to make sure that the tank pressure can never become dangerously
high, even in the case of ventilator misfunction. It is a simple mechanical valve with no electronic
connections. Together with the patient overpressure valve, it is contained in the metal safety valve
block, secured directly to the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 3-13.
For construction details of this valve, see Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient
overpressure valve, on page 4-8.

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

3.5

3.5.1

Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and


patient airway
Component functions
The components that manage the gas flow in the patient circuit and airway perform the following
tasks:

June 9, 2006

Supply inspiratory gas to the patient at the correct rate


Reduce pressure in the patient circuit, to allow the patient to expire
Maintain pressure in the patient circuit during expiration (if PEEP/CPAP is set)
Ensure that overpressure in the patient circuit cannot take place
Ensure that the patient is free to breath in the event of complete failure in RAPHAEL

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3.5.2

Components
Figure 3-14 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the flow of gas
from the inspiratory valve, through the patent circuit, to and from the patient, and out of RAPHAEL
to the environment.
Gas supply from tank

Section 3.5.2.4
Autozeroing
Flow Sensor autozero valves

Inspiratory valve

Section 3.5.2.1
Gas flow to
patient

Expiratory valve
Differential pressure measurement
between two sides of Flow Sensor
Pressure in patient circuit, as
measured at the inspiratory valve
Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve

Ambient valve
Patient
overpressure
valve
Section 3.5.2.3
Gas flow from patient

Pressure in patient
airway, taken
from Flow Sensor

Section 3.5.2.2
Airway gas flow
Flow Sensor

Figure 3-14. Gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

3.5.2.1

Gas flow to patient


Gas flows from the tank to the patient through the inspiratory valve. (Figure 3-15.)

Rear of
RAPHAEL

Tank
Inspiratory
valve
Outlet to
to-patient
port

Figure 3-15. The inspiratory valve

This is a sophisticated, electronically-controlled valve that synchronizes with the expiratory valve to
raise and lower gas pressure in the patient circuit, so causing the patient to inspire and expire.
The performance of the inspiratory valve is determined by the control settings made by the operator,
and by the readings of the Pvent pressure sensor at the inspiratory valve outlet. For construction
details of the inspiratory valve, see Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on page 4-11.
To protect the patient from any failure in the gas flow from the inspiratory valve, RAPHAEL has:
A patient overpressure valve
An ambient valve
Patient overpressure valve
The patient overpressure valve is a simple mechanical valve that opens the patient breathing circuit
to the external atmosphere in the event of overpressure. This can be caused, for instance, by
RAPHAEL malfunctioning.
The patient overpressure valve is housed in the safety valve block together with the tank
overpressure valve. (Figure 3-13.) For construction details, see Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve
and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8.
Ambient valve
The ambient valve is a simple mechanical valve that opens the patient breathing circuit to the
outside atmosphere in response to the patients inspiratory efforts, in the event of a machine failure.
In other words, it allows the patient to inhale if he is able to do so, but does not offer active

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ventilation support. (The expiratory valve allows the patient to exhale.) The ambient valve is a part of
the inspiratory valve assembly. (Figure 3-15 and Figure 3-16.)

Body of inspiration
valve
Outlet to
to-patient
port

Ambient valve

Figure 3-16. Opening the ambient valve with a screwdriver

For construction details of this valve, see Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on
page 4-11.
3.5.2.2

Airway gas flow


Gas flow and gas pressure in the patient airway and in the tubing immediately proximal to the
patient is monitored by the Flow Sensor. (Figure 3-17.)

Figure 3-17. A Flow Sensor

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

The Flow Sensor is a plastic module containing a sophisticated flow restrictor with a variable orifice.
It is positioned directly proximal to the patient airway, between the patient and the breathing circuit.
(In other words, on the patient side of the Y-piece.) Gases moving both to, and from, the patient
pass through it. (Figure 3-18.)

Blue (patient side) and


clear (ventilator side)
tubes to pressure
sensors inside
RAPHAEL

Flow Sensor
Patient breathing
circuit

Figure 3-18. The Flow Sensor in position

However, the Flow Sensor differential pressure measurement is not performed locally in the Flow
Sensor, but is performed inside RAPHAEL at the dPptm sensor. At the same time, the pressure at the
Flow Sensor is measured by the Pprox sensor. (Figure 3-19.)

To Flow Sensor

Flow Sensor differential


pressure autozero valves

dPptm
pressure
sensor
(differential
pressure across
Flow Sensor)
Pprox
pressure
sensor
(pressure at
Flow Sensor)

Figure 3-19. Components associated with the Flow Sensor

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The connection between the Flow Sensor and the pressure sensors is through the two small tubes,
one clear and one blue, attached to the Flow Sensor pressure connectors on RAPHAELs front cover.
Note
The Flow Sensor does not use a flow of gas through the small blue and clear tubes to measure
airway gas flow. It uses the difference in pressure between the tubes to calculate the gas flow in the
airway. (There is a flow of gas through the tubes, but this is for a different reason, as described in
Section 3.6.2.2, Gas for rinse flows, on page 3-22.)
For construction details of the Flow Sensor, see Section 4.7, Flow Sensor, on page 4-13.
3.5.2.3

Gas flow from patient


Finally, during expiration, gas from the patient airway passes out of the breathing circuit through the
expiratory valve and into the room. Figure 3-20 shows the valve photographed from the side, with
RAPHAELs covers removed.

Positioning coil

Gas enters expiratory valve here


at from-patient port

Gas exits expiratory valve here


at exhaust port

Figure 3-20. Expiratory valve from side

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Components managing gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway

Figure 3-21 shows the valve photographed from the front, with the covers in place.

Gas exits expiratory valve


at exhaust port
Gas enters expiratory valve here
at from-patient port
Figure 3-21. Expiratory valve from front

When active, the expiratory valve:


Synchronizes with the inspiratory valve to actively ventilate the patient
Maintains positive pressure in the patient circuit (if PEEP/CPAP is set)
When not electronically activated (for instance, during a general RAPHAEL failure) the expiratory
valve functions as a simple one-way valve. In this mode, it allows the patient to expire, but not to
inspire. (In this case, inspiration is allowed by the ambient valve.)
For construction details of the expiratory valve, see Section 4.8, Expiratory valve, on page 4-16.
3.5.2.4

Autozeroing
Introduction
Autozeroing means automatically calculating and implementing a drift compensation for a pressure
sensor.
Regular autozeroing (the exact time depends on many factors) during normal operation is important
because of the way that the characteristics of pressure sensors in RAPHAEL change with
temperature.
The autozeroing of the following pressure sensors ensures accurate control of gas flow to the
patient:
dPptm differential pressure between the two chambers of the Flow Sensor
Pprox pressure in the patient circuit, as measured at the Flow Sensor
Pvent pressure in the patient circuit, as measured at the inspiratory valve

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Autozeroing procedure
Please refer to Figure 3-14, Gas flows in the patient circuit and patient airway, on page 3-14 while
looking at the following autozeroing procedure:
1. The Flow Sensor autozero valves switch so that both sides of the Flow Sensor circuit on the
side of the Flow Sensor are closed, while both sides of the Flow Sensor circuit on the side
of dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors are opened to atmospheric pressure.
2. RAPHAEL measures the signals at the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors, and calculates
and implements the drift compensation for each sensor.
3. The Flow Sensor autozero valves switch back to their normal positions, so that the Flow
Sensor is connected to the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors.
4. The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve switches so that the Pprox pressure sensor is
exposed to the same pressure as at the Pvent pressure sensor. (The pressure at Pvent is not
affected by this.)
5. RAPHAEL compares the pressure that the Pvent sensor measures, to the pressure that the
(already calibrated) Pprox pressure sensor measures. RAPHAEL uses this to calculate and
implement the drift compensation for Pvent.
6. The Pvent autozero valve switches to its normal position.
In this way, RAPHAEL automatically performs a Pvent pressure sensor autozero without this pressure
sensor being exposed to any pressure other than that in the patient circuit, at the inspiratory valve.
This is important, because there is a continuous analog control loop in force by which the Pvent
pressure sensor controls the output of the inspiratory valve. A change of pressure at the Pvent
pressure sensor would cause the inspiratory valve to perform erratically.
Position of the autozero valves
All autozero valves are mounted on the pneumatic block. Figure 3-22, taken from behind RAPHAEL
with the covers removed, shows the Flow Sensor autozero valves. Figure 4-4 on page 4-6 shows all
the autozero valves.
Flow Sensor autozero valves

Pneumatic
block

Figure 3-22. The Flow Sensor autozero valves

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Components managing minor gas flows from the tank

3.6
3.6.1

Components managing minor gas flows from the tank


Component functions
The minor gas flows from the tank perform the following tasks:
Supply a continuous gas sample for the oxygen cell
Supply gas for the rinse flow and the extended rinse flow

3.6.2

Components
Figure 3-23 shows the subset of components (see ZCH614186 Blatt 2) that manage the minor flows
of gas from the tank.

Extended rinse-flow valves

Section 3.6.2.1
Sample gas supply for O2 cell

Section 3.6.2.2
Gas for rinse flows

Tank

Restrictor

O2 cell
Flow restrictors to deal with possible
overpressure caused by rinse flow
combined with blockage in the
Flow Sensor tubing

Figure 3-23. Minor gas flows from the tank

3.6.2.1

Sample gas supply for O2 cell


To measure the oxygen concentration of the gas supplied to the patient, RAPHAEL uses a
replaceable oxygen cell. The cell fits in a holder screwed into the bottom of RAPHAELs chassis, as
shown in Figure 3-24 on page 3-22, and also in Figure 2-5, The RAPHAEL front panel, on page 2-13.
The tank supplies the oxygen cell with a very small, continuous stream of gas, the flow being
controlled by restrictor 14. (Figure 3-23.)

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Oxygen
cell
holder

Figure 3-24. Removing the oxygen cell

For more information about the oxygen cell, see Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16.
3.6.2.2

Gas for rinse flows


Normal rinse flow
To stop the movement of condensation, bacteria and viruses from the Flow Sensor to the valves and
sensors inside the ventilator, RAPHAEL supplies a continuous flow of gas from the tank, through the
small blue and transparent pressure-sampling tubes, to the Flow Sensor. (The rate is 1.9 to
4.7 ml/min.)
This rinse flow is provided by the two restrictors numbered 12. One controls the blue tube, the other
the transparent tube. This rinse flow is therefore controlled mechanically, not electronically, the rate

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Components managing minor gas flows from the tank

of flow being determined by the characteristics of the restrictors or pills. The pills are
embedded in the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 3-25.

Extended rinse
flow pills

Rinse flow
Pills, below
tubing
leading to the
Flow Sensor
connectors
on the front
panel

Figure 3-25. The rinse flow and extended rinse flow pills

Extended rinse flow


In addition to the normal, continuous rinse flow, RAPHAEL also provides a periodic extended rinse
flow to the Flow Sensor. The extended rinse flow is switched by the two solenoid valves numbered 4
and 5, and by two pill flow restrictors, each numbered 11in Figure 3-23.
A photograph of the pill flow restrictors is shown in Figure 3-25, and a photograph of the
extended rinse flow solenoid valves in Figure 3-26.
Extended rinse flow valves

Figure 3-26. The extended rinse flow valves

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The extended rinse flow operates every two minutes, provides a flow of approximately 360 ml/min,
and enables RAPHAEL to:
Test that the Flow Sensor is properly connected
Test the blue (patient side) and clear (ventilator side) tubes for kinks or blockages due to
condensation
Rinse flow over-pressure protection
To prevent the possibly dangerous buildup of pressure that would be caused by the rinse flow if a
blockage or kink in the blue and white tubes took place, RAPHAEL includes a simple method of
protection, in the form of the two pill flow restrictors numbered 15 in Figure 3-23 on page 3-21.
These flow restrictors vent gas into the patient circuit.

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Section

Details of gas flow components

4.1

Overview
This section details the purpose and construction of each of the main components that manages the
flow of gas through RAPHAEL. The section is version-specific: where different models of RAPHAEL,
RAPHAEL Silver, or RAPHAEL Color contain different components, these are discussed.
For more information about the physical positions of these components in RAPHAEL, see
Section 2, Construction of RAPHAEL.
For an overview of the logical relationships of components within the gas circuits that
make up RAPHAEL, see Section 3, Gas flows in RAPHAEL.
The components covered in this section are:

4.2
4.2.1

Section 4.2, Oxygen and air water traps, on page 4-1


Section 4.3, Solenoid valves, on page 4-4
Section 4.4, Tank, on page 4-6
Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve, on page 4-8
Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on page 4-11
Section 4.7, Flow Sensor, on page 4-13
Section 4.8, Expiratory valve, on page 4-16

Oxygen and air water traps


Purpose
The purpose of the oxygen and air water traps is to provide a clean and dry source of oxygen and air
to the mixer valves that regulate the flow of these gases into the tank.

4.2.2

Placement
The water traps are at the rear of the RAPHAEL, as shown in Figure 3-4 on page 3-5.

4.2.3

Description and function


There are two types of water trap:
The standard type, delivered with RAPHAEL. This type is suitable for both air and oxygen
inlets.
The self-emptying type, available as an accessory, in kit PN 157359. (Since November
2004, and on a temporary basis only, one self-emptying water trap is being supplied with
every RAPHAEL.)
This type is particularly useful in very humid climates, but is not required in most countries.
WARNING
The self-emptying type of water trap is suitable only for the air inlet. To reduce risk of
fire, it must not be used on the oxygen inlet.

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4.2.3.1

The standard water trap


The construction of the standard water trap is shown in Figure 4-1. The oxygen and air traps are
identical except for the screw connector to the external gas supply, which is different for oxygen and
air.

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here
Gas from hospital
supply enters
at connector

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)
Gas flow through
microfilter

High-level mark
for water

Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

Bowl

Water release/pressure
check valve
Figure 4-1. Details of the standard water trap (with air connector)

The flow of gas through the water traps is as follows:


Firstly, oxygen or air from an external source (compressor, cylinder or piped supply) enters
at the rear of the metal housing.
The gas flows into the center of the microfilter, and is forced out through the microfilter.
During this process, any condensed water can drip into the clear plastic bowl.
Finally, gas flows back up into the metal housing, and into RAPHAEL.
You can use the valve at the bottom of the water trap to release water (but be careful of overflows!)
or you can use it to make sure that gas pressure is present, if no water is condensed.
4.2.3.2

The self-emptying water trap


The construction of the self-emptying water trap is shown in Figure 4-2. The trap is only available for
the air inlet.

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Oxygen and air water traps

The flow of gas through the trap is identical to the flow though the standard water trap. However,
there is an automatic, rather than a manual water release valve, and there is no high-water mark.
Instead, the trap empties itself automatically when necessary, provided that the drain screw is turned
fully clockwise. Alternatively, the user can empty the valve manually, by turning the drain screw
anti-clockwise.

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here
Gas from hospital
supply enters
at connector

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)
Gas flow through
filter
Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

Bowl

Drain screw
(Must be turned fully
clockwise for automatic
draining. The screw has a
reversed thread.)

Figure 4-2. Details of the self-emptying water trap (only available for air)

4.2.4

Further information and specifications


Depending upon the installation, water can condense and collect in the water trap. If this happens
in a standard trap, the water must be regularly drained before it covers the high water mark printed
on the bowl. This task is normally performed by hospital staff.
CAUTION
You must inform hospital staff that they must empty standard water traps as required, because
water passing into RAPHAEL can cause the unit to fail.
Providing that there is no high pressure hose connected, the easiest way of emptying a standard
water trap is by unscrewing the bowl, not by pushing the water release/pressure check valve.

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4 Details of gas flow components

In all types of trap, the 5 m microfilter (PN 279676) must be replaced when it becomes dirty. This
task is also normally performed by hospital staff. For more information, see RAPHAEL Operators
Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent.
Oxygen and air must enter the inlets on the water traps at a pressure of 2 to 6 bar (29 to 87 PSI).
The water traps are fitted with DISS connections for Europe, or NIST connections for the rest of the
world. (See also Appendix H, NIST and DISS connectors.)

Figure 4-3. Air and oxygen DISS, and air and oxygen NIST connectors

Replacement parts
The following replacement part is available for the self-emptying water trap:
PN 7249057

Tube, 4 mm ID x 7 mm OD. (Order by meter.)

You may replace the drain tube using ordinary tubing with an internal diameter of 4-5 mm and a
length not exceeding 2 m.

4.3
4.3.1

Solenoid valves
Purpose
Note
The inspiratory valve and expiratory valve are not classed as solenoid valves, as they can be
controlled by degree, rather than having only open and closed states.
RAPHAEL has eight 12 V solenoid valves:

4-4

The air and oxygen mixer


valves

These control the inflow of the air and oxygen from the water
traps to the tank, as described in Section 3.3.2.3, Gas flow
through mixer valves, on page 3-6.

The nebulizer valve

This controls the flow of gas from the tank to the nebulizer, as
described in Section 3.4.2.2, Gas flow to nebulizer, on
page 3-11.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Solenoid valves

The two autozero valves

These open the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors (that


measure the pressure difference across the two chambers of
the Flow Sensor, and the pressure at the Flow Sensor,
respectively) to ambient pressure, so that each pressure sensor
can perform a zero-point-drift compensation.
This is described in Section 3.5.2.4, Autozeroing, on
page 3-19.

The Pvent pressure sensor


autozero valve

This exposes the Pprox pressure sensor (measuring at the Flow


Sensor) to the pressure at the Pvent pressure sensor (measuring
at the inspiratory valve). Because at this time Pprox is already
calibrated, the Pvent pressure sensor can perform a
zero-point-drift compensation by comparing itself to the Pprox
pressure sensor reading.
This is explained in Section 3.5.2.4, Autozeroing, on
page 3-19.

The two extended rinse flow


valves

These periodically pass gas from the tank through the clear and
blue tubes attaching the Flow Sensor to the front panel. This
flow of gas is called the extended rinse flow. It enables
RAPHAEL to test the connection of the Flow Sensor, and to
check for kinks in the blue (patient side) and clear (ventilator
side) connecting tubes.
This is explained in Extended rinse flow on page 3-23.

4.3.2

Placement
All the solenoid valves are mounted directly on the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 4-4 on
page 4-6.

4.3.3

Description and function


The solenoid valves mounted on the pneumatic block have only two states: open and closed.
However, because of their ability to switch very quickly (10 to 25 ms to change states), they can very
precisely control the quantities of gas passing through. This is particularly important for the two
mixer valves that control the flow of oxygen and air into the tank.

4.3.4

Further information and specifications


All the solenoid valves are sealed units, and cannot be serviced. They cannot be damaged by
electrostatic discharge, but can be damaged by water or dirt entering through the oxygen or air
water traps.

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Extended rinse flow, distal (left) and proximal (right)


Nebulizer
Oxygen
mixer

Air
mixer

Flow Sensor (differential


pressure) dPptm
autozero distal (left)
and proximal (right)

Flow Sensor
Pvent autozero

Figure 4-4. The solenoid valves

4.4
4.4.1

Tank
Purpose
The purpose of the tank (or reservoir) is to supply air and oxygen, mixed in the correct ratio, at a
fairly constant pressure to:

The inspiratory valve


The nebulizer
The Flow Sensor (for the rinse flow and extended rinse flow)
The oxygen cell (to provide a sample for measurement)

For information about the function of the tank in the context of the complete pneumatic system,
see Section 3.3.2.5, Gas flow through tank, on page 3-8.
4.4.2

Placement
The tank screws into a fitting on the pneumatic block, and is situated in the center of the RAPHAEL.
You can see the tank in its position in RAPHAEL in Figure 3-10 on page 3-8; you can see it
dismantled in Figure 4-5 on page 4-7.

4-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Tank

4.4.3

Description and function


The tank is a simple aluminium vessel holding two liters of gas at approximately 1000 mbar (in other
words, 1000 mbar above atmospheric pressure, or twice atmospheric pressure). This is equivalent to
approximately four liters at atmospheric pressure.
Because of its relatively large volume, the tank has a buffering effect on the flow of gas through it,
thereby ensuring that the outflow to the inspiratory valve is much smoother than the inflow from
the mixer valves that control the gas input into RAPHAEL. This buffering effect can be quantified,
and is expressed as compliance. RAPHAELs tank has a compliance of about 2 ml/mbar. This means
that to raise the pressure in the tank by 1 mbar, 2 ml of gas must flow into the tank.
In addition, the tank provides a place for the inlet gases (air and oxygen) to mix, and enables
RAPHAEL to deliver high flows of gas to the patient, over short periods of time.
Gas inlet to the tank is by means of an inlet pipe with a permeable plastic nipple through which the
gas is forced. (Figure 4-5.) This arrangement ensures thorough mixing of the gases, and silencing of
the gas flow.

Gas inlet
nipple

Pneumatic
block
Inspiratory
valve

Figure 4-5. The tank, unscrewed from the pneumatic block

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Gas outlet to the pneumatic block is through an orifice in the base of the mounting, as shown in
Figure 4-5.

Inlet pipe
screws into
place here

Gas outlet
from tank

Figure 4-6. Pneumatic block, showing gas outlet from tank

4.4.4

Further information and specifications


The tank is not a critical item in RAPHAEL. Minor dents occurring during servicing are not important.
However, it is important that the tank is turned fully home in its housing and makes a gas-tight seal
with the pneumatic block.

4.5
4.5.1

Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve


Purpose
The purpose of the tank overpressure valve is:
To stop pressure in the tank from being able to reach dangerously high pressures in the
case of RAPHAEL malfunctioning
To enable the RAPHAEL to purge the tank with oxygen or air when the user changes the
air/oxygen ratio setting (excess gas is vented through the tank overpressure valve)
The purpose of the patient overpressure valve is to stop the patient breathing circuit from being able
to reach dangerously high pressures in the case of RAPHAEL misfunctioning.
For information about the function of the tank overpressure valve in the context of the complete
pneumatic system, see Section 3.4.2, Components, on page 3-10. For more information about the
patient overpressure valve, see Section 3.5.2, Components, on page 3-14.

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Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure valve

4.5.2

Placement
Both the overpressure valve for the tank, and the overpressure valve for the patient breathing circuit
are contained in the safety valve block. This is attached directly to the pneumatic block as shown in
Figure 3-13 on page 3-11, and in Figure 4-7 below.

Gas flow

Figure 4-7. Gas flow in the safety valve block

WARNING
Gas from the safety valve block exits through the chassis, underneath RAPHAEL. If the exit
holes are blocked (for instance, by placing RAPHAEL on a soft surface) the patient overpressure
and tank overpressure valve cannot operate properly.

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4.5.3

Description and function


As you can see from Figure 4-8, both valves are of a simple mechanical construction, each allowing
a flow of gas in one direction only.

Gas flow in

Seal at orifice

Patient overpressure
valve
Tank overpressure
valve
Ball bearing
Setting collar
for supporting spring
Spring

Gas flow out through chassis


Figure 4-8. Details of construction and gas flow in the safety valve block

Each valve comprises:


A spring held in position by a collar
A ball-bearing
An orifice
The tank overpressure valve has a thicker spring than the patient overpressure valve.
4.5.4

Further information and specifications


The valves are adjusted in the factory by screwing the collar in or out. The collar is then sealed in
place (old type) or locked in place with a grub screw (new type).
WARNING
Valves must not be adjusted in the field.

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Inspiratory valve and ambient valve

4.6
4.6.1

Inspiratory valve and ambient valve


Purpose
The purpose of the inspiratory valve is to deliver the air and oxygen mixed in the tank to the
breathing circuit, at the required pressure.
The purpose of the ambient valve is to open the breathing circuit to the outside atmosphere in event
of RAPHAEL completely failing, thereby allowing the patient to inhale. In this situation, the
expiratory valve, functioning passively, allows the patient to exhale. In event of such a complete
ventilator failure, these two valves therefore allow the patient to breath for himself (if he can) but
offer no active assistance.
For information about the function of the inspiratory valve in the context of the complete pneumatic
system, see Section 3.5.2.1, Gas flow to patient, on page 3-15.

4.6.2

Placement
The inspiratory and ambient valves are combined in one assembly normally referred to as the
inspiratory valve. This is situated immediately behind the pneumatic block, as shown in Figure 2-4
on page 2-8 and Figure 3-15 on page 3-15.

4.6.3

Description and function


The inspiratory valve is a sophisticated, electronically-operated valve, capable of being controlled
very precisely.
The ambient valve is a simple, mechanical device, with a very low opening pressure.
Figure 4-9 on page 4-12 shows a photograph of an inspiratory valve assembly that has been cut
open to reveal details of both the inspiratory and ambient valves inside. The inspiratory valve is in the
closed position it is not activated, and gas cannot flow through it. Similarly, the ambient valve is
in its normal, passive, closed position.

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4 Details of gas flow components

Magnet
Coil
Plunger
Gas seal
Spring
Gas entry port
from pneumatic
block (partly
obscured)

Rubber seal between


upper and lower parts
Upper chamber
Gas seal and bearing
Cutaway in plunger

Gas exit port


to pneumatic
block (partly
obscured)

Sintered disk filter


and sound absorber
Lower chamber
Exit toward
to-patient port

Ambient valve

Figure 4-9. Details of the inspiratory valve

During normal ventilation, the inspiratory valve functions as follows:


Gas enters

Gas from the tank flows through the pneumatic block and
enters the upper chamber of the inspiratory valve at the gas
entry port shown in Figure 4-9.

Valve is activated

When a higher pressure is required in the patient circuit,


RAPHAEL activates the coil, making the plunger move very
slightly upward. Gas flows from the upper chamber, through
the cutaway in the plunger, through the sintered disk filter, and
into the lower chamber.
RAPHAEL controls the flow of gas very precisely. Activation and
deactivation are not simple open/close actions.

Gas exits

Gas flows out of the valve through the to-patient port and then
to the patient circuit.
In some circumstances, gas can also flow out of the valve
through the gas exit port to the pneumatic block and the
patient overpressure valve. (For more information, see
Section 4.5, Tank overpressure valve and patient overpressure
valve, on page 4-8.)
The gas exit port also supplies the gas pressure for the Pvent
pressure sensor.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Flow Sensor

If normal ventilation is not possible (because the RAPHAEL cannot function for some reason) but the
patient has some ability to breath independently, he can do so through the ambient valve that is
built into the inspiratory valve.

Air flow
when ambient
valve open

Figure 4-10. Demonstrating the action of the ambient valve using a screwdriver

In this case, the breathing effort of the patient causes the ambient valve to open, and air is drawn
into the valve from under the RAPHAEL casing, as shown in Figure 4-10.
Note
The ambient valve does not assist a patients breathing in any way. It only permits a patient to inhale
if the patient already has some ability to do so.

4.6.4

Further information and specifications


WARNING

Never apply oil to the inspiratory or ambient valves.


Never block the ventilation slot in the base of RAPHAEL, as this is required by the ambient valve
when RAPHAEL is in the ambient state.

For details of maintaining the inspiratory valve, see Section 15.3, Cleaning the inspiratory and
expiratory valves, on page 15-3.

4.7
4.7.1

Flow Sensor
Purpose
The purpose of the Flow Sensor is to enable RAPHAEL to measure the flow and pressure of the gases
moving to and from the patients airway.
For information about the function of the Flow Sensor in the context of the complete pneumatic
system, see Section 3.5.2.2, Airway gas flow, on page 3-16.

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4.7.2

Placement
The Flow Sensor is placed in the patient tubing in a spur coming off the patient circuit, connecting to
the patient. (In other words, between the patient and the Y-piece.) We say that the Flow Sensor is
proximal to the patient. You can see a diagram of this in Figure 3-2 on page 3-3. Notice that while
gas flow in the patient circuit is in one direction only, flow in the spur (and through the Flow Sensor)
is in two directions.
Details of the connections are shown in Figure 4-11.
Blue (patient side) and
clear (ventilator side)
tubes to pressure sensor
inside RAPHAEL

Pressure difference
to RAPHAEL

Gas to/from RAPHAEL

Y-piece

Airway gas to/from patient

Figure 4-11. The Flow Sensor connections

Figure 4-12 shows a photograph of the Flow Sensor in position.

Blue (patient side) and


clear (ventilator side)
tubes to pressure
sensors inside
RAPHAEL

Flow Sensor
Patient breathing
circuit

Figure 4-12. The Flow Sensor in position

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Flow Sensor

4.7.3

Description and function


There are two types of Flow Sensor: single-use and reusable (although, in some countries, only one
type is available). Both are for adult and pediatric use. (Figure 4-13.)They are very similar in

PN 279362 pediatric/adult
reusable

PN 279331 pediatric/adult
single-use

Figure 4-13. The two Flow Sensors available

appearance and they function identically. The following description therefore applies to both kinds.
The Flow Sensor is a plastic module comprising two chambers separated by a flexible plastic
membrane into which a variable orifice is cut. (Figure 4-14.)

Variable orifice in membrane

Gas flow
during
expiration
Higher pressure

Lower pressure

Gas flow
during
inspiration
Lower pressure

Higher pressure

Figure 4-14. Operation of all Flow Sensors

The movement of airway gases during respiration causes pressure differences between the two
chambers of the Flow Sensor. These differences are increased by the slight resistance of the variable
orifice, which has strongest effect at the low gas flows that are otherwise most difficult to accurately
measure.
As RAPHAEL ventilates the patient, the gas flow continually changes direction. This causes a process
in which the higher-pressure side of the Flow Sensor becomes the lower-pressure side, and then
again becomes the higher-pressure side. (Figure 4-14.)

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4 Details of gas flow components

Because there is a known relationship between the rate of flow through the sensor, and the pressure
difference across the two chambers, RAPHAEL can calculate the rate and direction of the gas flow.
This measurement does not take place at the Flow Sensor. It takes place inside RAPHAEL at the
dPptm sensor (shown in Figure 3-19 on page 3-17).
The connection between the Flow Sensor and this pressure sensor is through the two small tubes,
one clear and one blue, as shown in Figure 3-18 on page 3-17.
Note
The Flow Sensor does not require a flow of gas through the small connecting tubes to measure
airway gas flow; it uses instead the pressure difference between the connecting tubes. (There is a
flow of gas through the tubes, but this is for a different reason, as described in Section 3.6,
Components managing minor gas flows from the tank, on page 3-21.)

4.7.4

Further information and specifications


Because of the very accurate monitoring of airway gases that is possible with the Flow Sensor,
RAPHAEL is able to accurately synchronize its ventilation with patient breaths.

4.8
4.8.1

Expiratory valve
Purpose
The purpose of the expiratory valve is to:
Enable gas to escape from the patient breathing circuit in a controlled manner, so as to
allow the patient to exhale
Maintain PEEP/CPAP if required
To do this, the action of the expiratory valve is closely synchronized with that of the inspiratory valve.
For information about the function of the expiratory valve in the context of the complete pneumatic
system, see Section 3.5.2.3, Gas flow from patient, on page 3-18.

4.8.2

Placement
The expiratory valve is mounted on the chassis at the front of RAPHAEL. You can see this clearly in
Figure 4-15 on page 4-17, as well as in Figure 2-5 on page 2-13.

4.8.3

Description and function


As shown in Figure 4-15, Figure 4-16, and Figure 4-17, the expiratory valve comprises:
A plastic case that includes the from-patient port and exhaust port
A large silicone membrane, positioned in the plastic case, that covers the inlet orifice of
the from-patient port
A positioning coil, positioned outside the plastic case, that controls the opening of the
silicone membrane

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Expiratory valve

Exhaust port
From-patient
port

Figure 4-15. The expiratory valve in position

The parts of the valve through which gas flows (the plastic case and membrane) are external to
RAPHAEL, while the positioning coil driving the plunger is inside the RAPHAEL enclosure.

Front cover

Expiratory valve
positioning coil

Chassis

Membrane inside
plastic housing

Exhaust port
(gas exits into
environment here)
From-patient port
(gas enters here)

Figure 4-16. The complete expiratory valve

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Silicone
membrane

Gas flow
into
environment
at exhaust
port

Gas flow
into
valve at
from-patient
port

Figure 4-17. External parts of the expiratory valve

Figure 4-18 shows details of the gas flow through the expiratory valve:

Metal plunger of
positioning coil (coil not shown)
Silicone membrane

Plastic casing
From-patient
port orifice

From-patient port

Exhaust port

Figure 4-18. Details of gas flow through the expiratory valve

The most critical part of the flow is the point at which the silicone membrane seals the from-patient
port orifice.
When the valve is passive, the patient can freely exhale through it. This is important in the case of a
complete RAPHAEL failure, in which case the patient can inspire through the ambient valve (if he is
able to do so he receives no active assistance from RAPHAEL).
In normal use, the expiration valve:
Synchronizes with the inspiratory valve to enable patient inspiration
Synchronizes with the inspiratory valve to enable patient expiration
Maintains a positive airway pressure (PEEP/CPAP) in the patient circuit, if required

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Expiratory valve

4.8.4

Further information and specifications


The design of the expiratory valve allows expired gas to pass through the valve and into the room
without entering the body of the RAPHAEL. Therefore, by replacing the patient tubing, the plastic
valve body, and the membrane, you can replace all parts with which expiration gases come into
contact.
WARNING
Never attach a spirometer or any other device or tube to the exhaust port. A spirometer
attached to the exhaust port gives inacurate readings, and causes RAPHAEL to lose full control
of PEEP/CPAP.
WARNING
When fitting the silicone membrane, make sure it is positioned as shown in Figure 4-17,
External parts of the expiratory valve.
The expiratory valve is easy to maintain, is autoclavable, and is very competitively priced. The
RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent contains details of sterilizing
procedures.

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Section

Electronic components

5.1

Introduction
This section describes RAPHAELs electronic components:

Section 5.2.1, Mainboard, on page 5-1


Section 5.2.2, Display Control Unit (DCU) board, on page 5-11
Section 5.2.3, Communication interface board, on page 5-12
Section 5.2.4, dc/ac board, on page 5-12
Section 5.2.5, Power supply board and backup batteries, on page 5-13
Section 5.3, Oxygen cell, on page 5-16
Section 5.4, Pressure sensors, on page 5-20
Section 5.5, Fan, on page 5-23

Apart from the fan, the ancillary components such as the keyboards and on/off switch are not
discussed in this section, but are covered briefly in Section 2.3.1, Chassis, on page 2-4.
This section is version-specific: where different models of RAPHAEL, RAPHAEL Silver, and RAPHAEL
Color contain different components, these are all discussed.

5.2

Printed circuit boards


In this section we briefly describe the functions of each circuit board. We do not look at the boards
at component level, since boards cannot be repaired in the field.

5.2.1

Mainboard
Note
The mainboard described here is the latest model. Older versions of the mainboard are similar, but
not necessarily identical. For full details, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and
compatibility and Appendix F, Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility.

5.2.1.1

Placement
The mainboard is mounted on the top of the chassis, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4.

5.2.1.2

Overview
The principle function of the mainboard is to:

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Take the analog output signals from RAPHAELs pressure sensors


Convert these analog signals to digital signals
Apply logic to the digital signals
Generate digital signals to control RAPHAELs solenoid valves

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5 Electronic components

Generate analog signals to control RAPHAELs inspiratory valve and expiratory valve
In addition to this, the mainboard also provides:
Two separate systems for continuously monitoring alarm conditions
Electronic support for the RS232 port
The following sections look at the various aspects of the mainboards functions. Each section
corresponds to one of the schematics included in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.
5.2.1.3

Processing and alarm monitoring systems


The following description corresponds to the schematic BD614196 Blatt 1. Check the schematic
against the similar image displayed in Figure 5-1.

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Printed circuit boards

Figure 5-1. BD614196 Blatt 1

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The two processing systems


The mainboard contains two complimentary but independent processing systems:
Microprocessor C167CR and
related components

This is the main processor in RAPHAEL. Its primary function is to


monitor analog inputs from the pressure sensors, and to
generate digital outputs to control the valves. Its secondary
function is to manage a sophisticated alarm-condition
monitoring system.

Alarm monitor ASIC and


related components

This ASIC has one function: to manage an alarm-condition


monitoring system that functions completely independently of
the more sophisticated alarm system managed by P C167CR.
This backup alarm system triggers in the event of near or total
system failure, including times at which P C167CR cannot
function. (In practice, some alarm conditions trigger both alarm
systems. For more information about alarms, see Section 14.2,
Understanding RAPHAEL alarms, on page 14-1, and the
RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language
equivalent.)

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Printed circuit boards

Details of the microprocessor C167CR processing system


Microprocessor C167CR is supported by the following physical and logical components:
EPROM 27C4002 #1

Contains the software program that controls P C167CR.

EPROM 27C4002 #2

On second generation of board only. For holding graphics


definitions for the color TFT display.

RAM HM62128

On first generation of board only. Provides memory for


P C167CR.

RAM HM62512

Installed on some boards as an aid to research and


development.

RAM with clock DS1746P

Provides memory for P C167CR, and contains the real-time


clock (RTC). On second generation boards onward.

RAM HY628400

Can provide memory for P C167CR. However, is not used,


except in development.

UART TL16C550B

Provides the RS232 port electronics. The port is connected to


the mainboard at connector P20.

P8 Debug connector

A connector for use only by research and development.

P12 Testconnector 3

A set of test pins used with the test software accessed in test
mode. (See Figure 9-7, Test pin values for test connectors 3
and 1, on page 9-7.)

Power Supply Status

A piece of logic positioned physically on the power supply. It is


used to inform P C167CR and the alarm monitor ASIC of the
status of the power supply. Any problem with the power
supply causes an alarm.

p-source / Exp Valve

A regulatory loop on the mainboard that manages the


inspiratory valve. Its task is to keep the pressure of the gases in
the patient airway at the required level.

SW Status

A set of four LEDs controlled by P C167CR, positioned on the


mainboard. The LEDs indicate software status.

EEPROM serial

Provides the configuration settings for P C167CR.

S1 DIP-Switch

A set of four micro-switches that enable the user to put


RAPHAEL into test mode.

P Startup Config

Determines aspects of the way in which P C167CR runs. For


instance, the bus system.

Loudspeaker

Provides the alarm sounds for the main alarm system based on
P C167CR. It joins the mainboard at connector P5. Its volume
is adjusted with jumper P6.

Details of the ASIC alarm monitor processing system


The alarm monitor ASIC PN 157249 is supported by the following physical and logical components:
Buzzer

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Provides the alarm sound used by the alarm monitor system. It


functions completely independently of the loudspeaker
controlled by P C167CR. See also 5 V Backup power supply
on page 5-6.

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5 Electronic components

P Watchdog

Monitors the microprocessor, and informs the alarm monitor


ASIC of alarm conditions.

Backup Reset

A piece of logic that watches over the 5 V Backup power


supply on page 5-6. It generates a reset if the 5 V supply drops
below 4.75 V.

32.768 KHz

The clock that sets the frequency for the alarm monitor ASIC.

5 V Backup power supply

Because the alarm monitor system functions totally


independently of P C167CR, it must have its own power
source. This is provided by two high-performance capacitors
that can power the buzzer for more than two minutes of
continuous sound. (See also Buzzer above.)

12 V Fan

This logical component continually monitors the ventilation


fan. Electronic failure or physical interruption causes an alarm.

p-source / Exp Valve

The process named p-source / Exp Valve (explained in Details of


the microprocessor C167CR processing system on page 5-5) is
continually monitored.
In fact, the current to the inspiratory valve and expiratory valve
is monitored.

5.2.1.4

Power Supply Status

This logical component continually monitors the status of the


power supply for P C167CR.

Power Supervisor

This logical component continually monitors the outputs from


the power supply.

Pressure sensors and valves management on microprocessor C167CR


The following description corresponds to the schematic named Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
Sensor/Valves, and numbered BD614196 Blatt 2.
Check the schematic against the similar image displayed in Figure 5-2.

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Printed circuit boards

Figure 5-2. BD614196 Blatt 2

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Sensing devices
On the left of the schematic are the four symbols shown in Figure 5-3.

Pressure sensors

Oxygen cell

Figure 5-3. Sensing devices shown in schematic BD614196 Blatt 2

These symbols represent the following sensing devices:


Ptank pressure sensor

Measures the pressure in the tank (or reservoir).

dPblende pressure
sensor (also called
dPmixer)

Measures the differential pressure across the sintered disk flow


restrictor placed at the inlet to the tank. (This is labelled (13) in
schematic ZCH614186 Blatt 2.)
RAPHAEL calculates the flow of gas to the tank from this
measurement.

Pprox pressure sensor

Measures the pressure proximal to the patient airway. (This is near to


valve (16) in schematic ZCH614186 Blatt 2.)

dPptm pressure sensor

Measures the differential pressure between the two chambers of the


Flow Sensor. (This is near to valve (16) in schematic ZCH614186 Blatt
2.)
From this measurement, RAPHAEL calculates the flow of gas to and
from the patient.

oxygen cell

Measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the mixture in the tank.

The four pressure sensors connect to the mainboard at connector J5. The oxygen cell connects at
connector P4. (See Figure 5-7 on page 5-11.) Each sensor outputs an analog electrical signal.

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Printed circuit boards

Preprocessing of sensor signals


The following two columns of symbols (Figure 5-4) represent processes and components that affect
the input signals before they are fed into microprocessor C167CR.

Voltage to frequency
converter symbol

Bessel low-pass
filter symbol

Test pin symbol


Amplifier
symbol

Figure 5-4. Input processes shown in schematic BD614196 Blatt 2

As can be seen, all signals are amplified. Some also require a low-pass Bessel filter. The signal from
the dPblende pressure sensor is converted to a frequency. At this point, you can test all signals at the
test pins shown in Figure 5-5.

Front cover

Test pins

Figure 5-5. The mainboard, showing test pins

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Processing of sensor signals


The signals are fed into the microprocessor, where the following processes take place:
Conversion of the input signals from analog to digital
Application of the logic contained in EPROM 27C4002
Output of digital control signals for the inspiratory valve, expiratory valve, and the solenoid
valves on the pneumatic block (the digital signals for the inspiratory and expiratory valves
are converted to analog signals on the mainboard before being fed to the valves)
Processing of control signals
Each control signal now passes through an output transistor, which has the effect of amplifying it to
the 15 V necessary to operate the valves. (Figure 5-6.)

Figure 5-6. Output amplification in schematic BD614196 Blatt 2

The final control signals are output to the following connectors (Figure 5-7 on page 5-11):
P17: Flow Sensor autozero valves, Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve, extended
rinse flow valves
P18: mixer valves, nebulizer valve
P19: inspiratory valve
P7: expiratory valve

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Printed circuit boards

Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board

J5 (pressure sensor inputs)

Front cover

P19

P18

P17
P7

Figure 5-7. The mainboard, showing input and output connectors for

microprocessor C167CR
5.2.2
5.2.2.1

Display Control Unit (DCU) board


Placement
The Display Control Unit (DCU) board, or graphics controller board, is positioned on top of the
mainboard, as shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4 and Figure 5-7.

5.2.2.2

Description and function


The DCU board is a standard display card that can be used for many purposes. The windows you see
on the RAPHAEL display comprise predefined graphical elements and text that are downloaded into
the PROM memory on the board at the factory and during some software updates. The display
windows and text are then called up, by number, over a serial interface, in response to:
The user operating the press-and-turn knob or keys
The patient breathing (the patient determines many of the numerics displayed)
All operating languages and graphics are built into each Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board.
Therefore, if you need to replace a board, there is only one DCU board part number to consider.
In software versions 1.x and 2.*C, text and graphics can be downloaded to the DCU board from the
software PROM during the boot procedure in the event of an error on the DCU board, or after you
have performed a software upgrade. With other software versions, this is not the case.

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5.2.3
5.2.3.1

Communication interface board


Placement
Where fitted, the communication interface board is mounted on the rear of the chassis, so that the
two ports protrude at the rear of RAPHAEL. This is shown in Figure 2-3 on page 2-4.

5.2.3.2

Description and function


The communication interface board is an option that the customer can order from the factory with
RAPHAEL, or that you can fit in the field. However, if fitting in the field, note that the
communication interface board can only function with the mainboards PN 157265 and PN 157373,
as these boards are fitted with a suitable interface board connector.
The communication interface board mounts directly on the chassis, and provides two ports:
The RS232 port can communicate with peripherals such as a computer or monitor. It is
used for patient data, including waveforms.
The Special port can be used to activate an external nurse alarm, external nebulizer, or
external nitric oxide device.
For full information, see Section 6, The optional communication interface.
For details of the RS232 communication protocols, see Appendix A, RS232 port configuration
settings and messages.

5.2.4
5.2.4.1

dc/ac board
Placement
The dc/ac board is mounted under the front cover, immediately above the display, as shown in
Figure 2.3.6 on page 2-14.

5.2.4.2

Description and function


The function of the dc/ac board is to provide a high voltage to illuminate the monochrome display in
RAPHAEL, or the color display RAPHAEL Color and RAPHAEL XTC. The board takes its input from the
5 V supply.
WARNING
Output from the board is approximately 1700 V unloaded.

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Printed circuit boards

There are three types of dc/ac board. They are similar in appearance, and are mounted in an
identical manner. (Figure 5-8.)

The HITACHI board used


in all RAPHAELs apart from
RAPHAEL Color and
RAPHAEL XTC.
(PN 396150)

The TDK board used in


RAPHAEL Color.
(PN 396167)

The TDK board used in


RAPHAEL XTC.
(PN 396193)

Figure 5-8. The three types of dc/ac board

5.2.5
5.2.5.1

Power supply board and backup batteries


Placement
The power supply board is located on a drawer that slides into the main body of RAPHAEL, in
approximately the middle of the unit. Both it and the batteries are completely covered by RAPHAELs
outer casing.
You can see photographs of these components in their positions in RAPHAEL in:
Power supply board on page 2-6
Backup batteries on page 2-7.

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5 Electronic components

You can see the power supply board alone in Figure 5-9, and one of the backup batteries in
Figure 5-10.

Figure 5-9. The power supply board

Figure 5-10. BB 12 V backup battery

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Printed circuit boards

5.2.5.2

Description and function


Power supply board
This unit is a standard modern switched power supply that provides power to RAPHAEL at a number
of voltages. (Figure 5-11.)
Nominal 28 V supply

+5 V
220V
or
110V

Second stage
of power
supply

First stage
of power
supply

+15 V
-15 V

Test measurement point


Nominal 26 V supply
to charge battery
Two 12 V backup batteries,
wired in series
Figure 5-11. Simplified diagram of power supply

The power supply has two stages.


Mains input voltages to the first stage of the power supply are:
100 V to 125 V (50 to 60 Hz at 0.7 A)
200 V to 240 V (50 to 60 Hz at 0.35 A)
Output voltages from the second stage of the power supply are:
+5 V
+15 V
-15 V
The output voltages are generated from a supply of 24 to 28 V. This can come from:
The primary side of the switching power supply
The backup batteries
The wide flexibility of input voltages means that RAPHAEL can function in a wide range of countries
without the need for additional power supply boards.
The Test measurement point shown in Figure 5-11 on page 5-15 is where voltage is measured in:
Test 14: Supply Voltages, on page 11-85
Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 12-111
Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 13-113
Backup batteries
The backup batteries comprise two sealed 12 V lead/acid batteries that can keep RAPHAEL
functioning for between 30 minutes and two hours without mains power. You do not have to
service the batteries, but you must replace them approximately every three years, depending on
their usage and operating environment.

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5 Electronic components

While connected to a mains supply (whether RAPHAEL is switched on or off) RAPHAEL continuously
charges the batteries. During mains operation, RAPHAEL performs a battery check every 20 minutes
(with software version 1.x and 2.*) or 30 minutes (with software version 3.*). The user sees no
evidence of this check providing the batteries are in good condition.

5.3

Oxygen cell
WARNING
Do not dispose of oxygen cells in fire.

5.3.1

Placement
The oxygen cell is mounted in the oxygen cell holder, which screws into the chassis immediately
beneath the front cover. This is shown in Figure 2-5 on page 2-13 and in O2 cell holder on
page 2-15.

5.3.2

Description and function


The oxygen cell measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas in the tank, and therefore the gas
supplied from the tank to the patient circuit. Because the cell is not physically positioned in the tank,
it must be continuously supplied with a small flow of gas from the tank. This is documented in
Section 3.6, Components managing minor gas flows from the tank, on page 3-21.
Because of the very small flow of gas used for sampling, and because the oxygen cell is open to the
room air, sampling takes place at ambient pressure.
The synchronizing of the opening of the mixer valves to enable the inflow of oxygen and air is not
dependent upon the measurement of the oxygen cell (see Section 3.3.2.3, Gas flow through mixer
valves, on page 3-6 and Section 3.3.2.4, Gas flow through sintered disk flow restrictor, on
page 3-7). For this reason, RAPHAEL can function without the oxygen cell.
WARNING
Although RAPHAEL can funtion without its oxygen cell, the cell serves a safety function by enabling
the user to monitor the level of oxygen delivered to the patient. For this reason, RAPHAEL must
never be used without the oxygen cell present, and oxygen monitoring configured as on.

There are two oxygen cells available for RAPHAEL, produced by the following manufacturers:
MSA (Catalyst research)
Teledyne (Sensor technologies)
Both units are Galvanic fuel cells that produce a voltage (around 10 mV, depending on the oxygen
concentration) in response to a chemical reaction with oxygen.
5.3.3

Further information
Considerations for use
The oxygen cell and holder are reliable devices, but if misused can fail to function properly. Make
sure that you and the hospital staff you support are aware of the information in the following
warning.

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Oxygen cell

WARNING

To function properly, the oxygen cell holder must have its O-ring present, and must be fully
tightened into place.
The gas exhausts in the oxygen cell holder must not be blocked.
If RAPHAEL cannot calibrate an oxygen cell, you must replace the cell with a new one.
An oxygen cell must not be used immediately it is taken from cold storage. It must first be
allowed to come up to ambient temperature to prevent condensation forming.

Working life
Because of the build-up of lead at the anode, both types of cell supplied by HAMILTON
MEDICAL AG have a limited working life and must be replaced when RAPHAEL can no longer
calibrate them. Typically, this is about a year for a new cell (although lifespan depends on the
oxygen concentration at which they are used: the higher the concentration, the shorter the working
life).
Table 5-1, which displays manufacturers figures, compares the cells:
Feature

MSA

Teledyne

Measurement range

0 to 100% O2

0 to 100% O2

Operating temperature

-5 C to 50 C

0 C to 50 C

Table 5-1. Oxygen cell characteristics

Storage life
At HAMILTON MEDICAL AG, we have found that the storage life of all cells depends largely on
temperature. When kept refrigerated and in their original packing, storage life increases
significantly.
CAUTION
Do not open the container in which the cell is packed, until you want to use the cell. The
container holds a special gas that lengthens the storage life of the cell.

Warranty period
The oxygen cell is a disposable item, and as such does not have a warranty. However, an active
lifetime of at least 1 year, beginning at the date marked on the cell, can be anticipated. This date is
embossed in the rim of the MSA cell, as shown in Figure 5-12.
It is printed on the Teledyne cell, as shown in Figure 5-13:

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5 Electronic components

Date stamp

Figure 5-12. Date stamp on the MSA oxygen cell PN 396008

Date stamp

Figure 5-13. Date stamp on the Teledyne oxygen cell PN 396009

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Oxygen cell

The code shown on the following tables is used for the date stamp on both kinds of oxygen cell:
Letter

Month

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Table 5-2. Code for month on oxygen cell

Number

Year

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

10

201

Table 5-3. Code for year on oxygen cell

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5 Electronic components

5.4
5.4.1

Pressure sensors
Placement
RAPHAEL uses five pressure sensors, all of which are mounted directly on the pneumatic block.
These are shown in schematic ZCH157276 Blatt 1, a part of which is displayed in Figure 5-14, and in
the photograph in Figure 5-15.

Figure 5-14. The gas pressure sensors on the pneumatic block

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Pressure sensors

dPptm

Pprox
(under
metal
cover)

Ptank

Pvent

dPmixer

Figure 5-15. The gas pressure sensors on the pneumatic block


5.4.2

Description and function


The five pressure sensors are:
dPptm

Tachometer differential pressure. (Differential pressure across


Flow Sensor.) This is shown in detail in Figure 5-16.

Pprox

Proximal pressure. (Pressure at Flow Sensor.) This is shown in


detail in Figure 5-17.
Note
The following pressure sensors look very similar to the Pprox
sensor. However, they not exchangeable.

Ptank

Tank pressure.

dPmixer

Mixer differential pressure. (Differential pressure across


sintered disk flow restrictor.)

Pvent

Patient circuit pressure, as measured at the inspiratory valve


outlet.

The pressure sensors have no moving parts, require no servicing, and are extremely reliable.
However, they can be damaged by electro-static discharge (ESD).
Because they are sealed units, pressure sensors cannot be repaired, and must be replaced if they fail.

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5 Electronic components

You cannot adjust the pressure sensors directly. Instead, you calibrate RAPHAEL to compensate for
performance changes in the pressure sensors over time. You do this by running the test software in
RAPHAELs test mode.
Radio interference shield

Sealing rings

Radio
interference
shield top

Pressure sensor

PC Board

Push-fit
connections
to pneumatic
block

Contact spring

Figure 5-16. The dPptm pressure sensor assembly

Screw
connection
to pneumatic
block

Figure 5-17. The Pprox pressure sensor

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Fan

5.5
5.5.1

Fan
Placement
The fan is mounted on the chassis, at the rear of RAPHAEL. It is covered by the top enclosure, on
which are fitted the fan filter, and the filter cover. (Figure 5-18 and Figure 5-19).

Figure 5-18. The fan, top enclosure removed

Filter

Gauze

Cover

Figure 5-19. The fan filter, gauze, and filter cover, top enclosure in place

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5 Electronic components

5.5.2

Description and function


The purpose of the fan is:
To stop oxygen accumulating inside RAPHAEL, and thereby stop the risk of explosion.
To provide cooling to the electrical circuits.
The fan draws room air through a filter, and blows it into RAPHAEL. The air circulating inside
RAPHAEL is therefore always clean.
WARNING
To prevent oxygen accumulation in the ventilator, and the associated risk of fire, never block the air
exit holes for the fan.

Figure 5-20. The fan air exit holes

5.5.3

Further information
As with many parts of RAPHAEL, the fan is connected to both alarm systems. Electrical failure or
physical mechanical interruption causes an alarm.
You or a member of hospital staff must replace (or wash) the filter regularly as indicated in the
maintenance schedule in the RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language
equivalent.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Section

The optional communication interface

6.1

Introduction
This section describes the functions, pin locations and pin assignments of the RS232 and the Special
ports of the communication interface.
For more information about the protocols used by the RS232 port, see Appendix A, RS232 port
configuration settings and messages.
For general information about the communication interface board, see Section 5.2.3,
Communication interface board, on page 5-12.

6.2
6.2.1

RS232 port
Overview
The RS232 port enables RAPHAEL to send patient data and patient waveforms, ventilation modes,
control settings, and alarms to a patient monitor or a computer.
When sent to a patient monitor, users have the advantage of being able to read all patient data and
patient waveforms from one display. However, alarms are not always displayed identically on the
patient monitor to the manner in which they are displayed on RAPHAEL. (For information about
alarm message limitations, see Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems, on
page A-2.)
When sent to a computer, data can be manipulated using software such as Microsoft Excel. This is
useful for data management and clinical studies.
To use the RS232 port with an external device, you require additional hardware. This is documented
in Section 6.2.2, Sending data to a patient monitor and Section 6.2.3, Sending data to a computer,
on page 6-2. Pin locations and assignments are documented in Section 6.2.4, RS232 pin locations
and assignments, on page 6-3.

6.2.2

Sending data to a patient monitor


The RS232 port supports a number of patient monitors in addition to HAMILTON MEDICALs
LEONARDO.
WARNING
Not all monitors provide detailed alarm message information. For more information, see
Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems.

Using the RAPHAEL with a patient monitor requires the hardware shown in Figure 6-1. Suitable
interfacing hardware, specific to the manufacturers monitors, must be ordered directly from the
monitor manufacturer.

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Full details of patient monitors supported, and hardware required are available in RAPHAEL
Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent.

RS232C

Monitor module
suitable for
HAMILTON MEDICAL
ventilators
Patient
monitor

9- to 25-pin
adaptor

RAPHAEL

Communications cable
(shielded and grounded
on one side only)
Figure 6-1. RAPHAEL connected to a patient monitor

6.2.3

Sending data to a computer


Sending data requires the hardware shown in Figure 6-2. It also requires the RAPHAEL Data Logger
software and manual, which can be downloaded from the HAMILTON MEDICAL website, in the
Science section (www.hamilton-medical.com).
WARNING
Any computer connected to the RAPHAEL must be for medical use, and must meet the requirements
of IEC 60601-1. Do not connect an ordinary personal computer, because such computers do not fulfill
the requirements of the standard. Consult a technical specialist or safety inspector in your hospital
for more information.

RS232C
Computer

RAPHAEL

Printer
9- to 25-pin
adaptor
Communications cable
(shielded and grounded
on one side only)
Figure 6-2. RAPHAEL connected to a computer

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

RS232 port

6.2.4

RS232 pin locations and assignments


Figure 6-3 shows the locations of the RS232 port connector pins. Table 6-1 lists the pin assignments.

Pin 1

Pin 6

Pin 5
Pin 9

Figure 6-3. RS232 port connector pin locations

RS232 port connector


Pin

Signal

GND

RXD

TXD

DTR

GND (signal ground)

DSR

RTS

CTS

--

Shield

Chassis ground

Table 6-1. RS232 port connector pin assignments

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6.3
6.3.1

Special port
Overview
The 15-pin Special port can be used to send inspiratory:expiratory timing signals for administering
nitric oxide or for controlling an external nebulizer. It can also be used for activating a remote nurse
alarm. The remote alarm (nurses call) capability allows alarm conditions to be indicated at locations
away from the ventilator (for example, when the ventilator is in an isolation room).
To use the Special port with an external device, you require additional hardware. This is documented
in Section 6.3.2, Sending inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) timing signals and Section 6.3.3, Sending a
remote nurse alarm. Pin locations and assignments are documented in Section 6.3.4, Special port
pin locations and assignments, on page 6-5.

6.3.2

Sending inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) timing signals


To use inspiratory:expiratory timing signals for controlling external equipment, you must fit the
hardware shown in Figure 6-4.

Communications cable
(shielded and grounded
on one side only)

RAPHAEL
15-pin male
connector

External device

Figure 6-4. RAPHAEL connected to an external device through the Special port

6.3.3

Sending a remote nurse alarm


The remote alarm capability is based on a relay inside the RAPHAEL.
CAUTION
The functionality of this relay was changed in March 2004, to make it consistent with GALILEO.
For revision 00 interface boards (PN 157269/00), the non-alarm and alarm positions of the
relay are shown in Figure 6-5.
For revision 01 interface boards (PN 157269/01), the non-alarm and alarm positions of the
relay are shown in Figure 6-6.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Special port

In both cases, you can use either pins 7 and 14, or pins 7 and 6, depending on the logic of your
nurse call system.

14

14
Output

Output
6

Relay position in alarm condition,


(alarm not silenced)

Relay position in non-alarm


condition, or alarm silenced, or
ventilator unpowered

Figure 6-5. Remote alarm relay positions on interface board PN 157269/00

14

14
Output

Output
6

Relay position in non-alarm condition,


or alarm silenced

Relay position in alarm


condition (alarm not silenced)
or ventilator unpowered

Figure 6-6. Remote alarm relay positions on interface board PN 157269/01

Note
The RAPHAEL alarm silence key silences the audible portions of the alarms at both the ventilator and
the remote alarm device.

6.3.4

Special port pin locations and assignments


Figure 6-7 shows the locations of the Special port connector pins. Table 6-2 lists the pin
assignments.

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CAUTION
Do not use any of the undescribed pins of the Special port.
The maximum allowable voltage and current between the relay contacts is 48 V and 0.5 A.

Pin 1

Pin 9

Pin 6 (Remote alarm return)


Pin 7 (Remote alarm)
Pin 8 (I:E relay)

Pin 14 (Remote alarm return)


Pin 15 (I:E relay return)

Figure 6-7. Special port connector pin locations

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Special port

Special port connector


Pin

Signal
Interface board
PN 157269/00

Interface board
PN 157269/01

None

None

None

None

None

None

None

None

None

None

Remote alarm return


(Closed in non-alarm
condition.)

Remote alarm return


(Open in non-alarm
condition.)

Remote alarm

Remote alarm

I:E relay

I:E relay

None

None

10

None

None

11

None

None

12

None

None

13

None

None

14

Remote alarm return


(Open in non-alarm
condition.)

Remote alarm return


(Closed in non-alarm
condition.)

15

I:E relay return

I:E relay return

Table 6-2. Special port connector pin assignments


6.3.5

Electrical specifications of Special port


Parameter

Value

Maximum voltage between relay contacts

48 V

Maximum current through relay contacts

0.5 A

Table 6-3. Electrical specifications of the Special port

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Part 2:
Preventative
maintenance and
testing

PN 61067/05

Section

Overview of preventive maintenance and testing

7.1

Introduction
WARNING

You must perform all preventive maintenance and testing once a year. To do this, you perform
all the steps shown in Table 7-2.
You must complete a service training course for RAPHAEL ventilators with HAMILTON MEDICAL
before undertaking the maintenance, testing or replacement procedures described in this
manual.
If the pneumatic block fails, replace it. Never attempt to repair the pneumatic block.
Never clean the pneumatic block.
Never allow alcohol near the pneumatic block.
To reduce risk of fire, never use the self-emptying water trap on the oxygen inlet.
To prevent disease transmission, you must use personal protective equipment when handling
contaminated bacterial filters or other patient accessories. Refer to one of the operators
manuals for instructions on sterilizing patient system parts.

CAUTION
Make sure to take full ESD (electrostatic discharge) precautions before handling any
EPROM, or before opening RAPHAEL. For more information, see Appendix G,
Maintenance tools and test equipment.

7.2

Check your software level


In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).
WARNING
You must upgrade immediately if you have software version 1.0.
Note
There is a particular recommendation to update if you have software version 2.2*.
The reason for this is that under very specific conditions, the precision of RAPHAEL's adaptive
volume controller can be impaired. As a result, RAPHAEL sometimes fails to fully compensate for
compliance and resistance changes.
Note, however, that the functionality of the alarms is at no time affected; there is therefore no risk
to the patient, providing the user operates the ventilator in accordance with the manual.

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7.3

Check you have all the items you require


For normal maintenance and testing (not repairing) you require the following parts:
Step

Items required, or possibly required

Hospital preventive maintenance

Fan filter PN 281264


Flow Sensor:
PN 279331, pediatric/adult, single-patient use
PN 155362, pediatric/adult, reusable
Oxygen cell:
PN 396008 from Catalyst
PN 396009 from Teledyne

Engineer preventive maintenance

BERULUB OX 40 EP or similar grease suitable for pneumatic fittings.


Gas supply microfilters:
PN 279676
In addition, the following tubing can be useful for the self-emptying
water trap:
PN 7249057 Tube, 4 mm ID x 7 mm OD. (Order by meter.)

Backup battery and voltage tests


Running version 1.x test software

Service tools, as shown in Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test


equipment.

Running version 2.* test software

Glass of water.

Running version 3.* test software

Table 7-1. Items required for maintenance and testing

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Procedure

7.4

Procedure
Work methodically through the sections shown in Table 7-2.

Repeat until all tests run correctly

WARNING
Maintenance and testing is not complete until all steps are successfully performed.

Step

Task

Perform (or assure yourself that


someone else has performed)
the preventive maintenance
normally undertaken by
hospital staff.

Section 8.1, Hospital preventive maintenance, on


page 8-1.

515 min

Perform the engineer


preventive maintenance.

Section 8.2, Engineer preventive maintenance, on


page 8-1.

10 min

Perform the backup battery


and voltage tests.

Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests.

15 min

Perform the electrical safety


tests.

Section 10, Manual electrical safety tests.

10 min

Perform the tests and


calibrations in the test software
built into RAPHAEL.

Depending on the software installed in your


RAPHAEL, these are described in:

Where found

Time
Required

Optionally, if you have the necessary equipment, also


perform the tests shown in Appendix I, Automated
electrical safety tests.
90 min

Section 11, Running version 1.x test software


Section 12, Running version 2.* test software
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software

Perform any replacements


necessary.

Section 15, Maintenance and replacement


procedures

Unknown

Lock all the potentiometer


adjustment screws in place
using proprietary locking paint
or nail varnish.

No special description included in manual.

2 min

Finish the testing of the unit by


completing the tasks
documented in the Tests and
calibrations section of the
RAPHAEL Operators Manual.

RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994).

10 min

Table 7-2. Overview of maintenance and testing

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Section

Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

8.1

Hospital preventive maintenance


Perform (or assure yourself that someone else has performed) all preventive maintenance normally
undertaken by hospital staff. This is detailed in the RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) and
local-language equivalents, and also outlined below in Table 8-1.
Part/accessory

Procedure

Breathing circuit (including inspiratory filter, Flow


Sensor, expiratory valve housing and membrane).

Replace with sterilized or new single-patient use parts. Run the


tightness test and Flow Sensor test, as required.

Breathing circuit.

Empty any water from hoses or water traps.


Inspect parts for damage. Replace as necessary.

Air-inlet water trap, gas-inlet water trap.

Empty any water.

Air-inlet self-emptying water trap (where fitted).

None.

Fan filter (rear panel).

Check for dust and lint. If needed, clean or replace. (Details in


operating manual.)

Oxygen cell.

Replace if exhausted.
If exhausted, one of the following messages appears on screen
during normal operation:
O2 cell defective
No O2 cell in use

Table 8-1. Hospital preventive maintenance tasks

8.2
8.2.1
8.2.1.1

Engineer preventive maintenance


Dealing with water traps
Do you need a self-emptying water trap?
Some RAPHAELs in the field have a self-emptying water trap fitted to the high-pressure air inlet. If
the RAPHAEL that you are maintaining does not have a self-emptying trap, consider fitting one.
WARNING
To reduce risk of fire, never use the self-emptying water trap on the oxygen inlet.

Deciding whether to fit the self-emptying water trap


In most countries in the world, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG has experienced no problems with water
entering RAPHAEL through the air inlet when the normal (non-self-emptying) water trap is fitted.

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8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance


Nevertheless, you must give consideration to fitting the self-emptying water trap included with
RAPHAEL. Table 8-2offers guidance:
Reasons for fitting the
self-emptying water trap
The self-emptying water trap does not require manual
emptying, and is therefore particularly suited to
operation with damp air supplies.
You use VENTILAIRII as your air supply.
You operate RAPHAEL in Asia, or in a hot and humid
country.
You know that the RAPHAEL air supply is damp.

Reasons for not fitting the


self-emptying water trap
The self-emptying water trap dumps water vigorously.
The water from the self-emptying trap must be
channeled with a pipe to a suitable receptacle. The
receptacle could be a nuisance.
The self-emptying trap is larger than the normal water
trap, and requires that the shelf mount (but not the
trolley) be adapted to house it.
Cleaning the self-emptying water trap lengthens the
yearly maintenance.

Table 8-2. Considerations for fitting the self-emptying water trap

If you have decided not to fit the self-emptying water trap, go now to Section 8.2.1.2, General
maintenance of water traps. If you have decided to fit the self-emptying water trap, go now to
Section , Fitting the self-emptying water trap.
Fitting the self-emptying water trap
1. Unscrew the non-self-emptying water trap from the air inlet, as shown in Figure 8-1.

Figure 8-1. Unscrewing the non-self-emptying water trap from the air inlet

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Engineer preventive maintenance

2. Screw in the self-emptying water trap to the air inlet, as shown in Figure 8-2.

Figure 8-2. Screwing the self-emptying water trap into the air inlet

Preparing the self-emptying water trap for use


Before operating the ventilator with the self-emptying water trap, make sure the drain screw is
turned fully clockwise (the thread is fully extended) as shown in Figure 8-3. This action activates the
automatic self-emptying function.
Note
The thread is reversed: turning clockwise unscrews it.

Clockwise

Fully extended
(open)

Figure 8-3. Activating the self-emptying function

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8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

8.2.1.2

General maintenance of water traps


This section applies to both the standard and to the self-emptying water trap.
1. Inspect the microfilters on the water traps.
Details of the standard water trap are shown in Figure 8-4 on page 8-4.
Details of the self-emptying water trap are shown in Figure 8-5 on page 8-5.
2. Replace the microfilters if dirty or discolored.
Note
You require only one type of filter, PN 279676. It fits all types of water trap: standard air,
standard oxygen, and self-emptying air trap.
If the microfilters are very discolored, consider:
Changing the filters more regularly than during yearly maintenance only.
Improving the cleanliness of the hospital gas supplies.
3. Clean the filter housings if necessary.

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here
Gas from hospital
supply enters
at connector

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)
Gas flow through
microfilter

High-level mark
for water

Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

Bowl

Water release/pressure
check valve

Figure 8-4. Details of the standard water trap (with air connector)

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Engineer preventive maintenance

Gas flows into RAPHAEL


here
Gas from hospital
supply enters
at connector

Gas flow through


filter

Screw thread on PN 279808


(PN 279808 available as a
separate part)
Microfilter (supported by
black plastic assembly)

Bowl

Drain screw
(Must be turned fully
clockwise for automatic
draining)

Figure 8-5. Details of the self-emptying water trap (only available for air)
8.2.1.3

Special maintenance of the self-emptying water trap


If there is a self-emptying water trap fitted to RAPHAELs air inlet, perform the maintenance
described in this section. If there is no self-emptying water trap, go to Section 8.2.2, Internal cable
and tubing checks, on page 8-9.
During cleaning and maintenance, use Figure 8-6 as a reference.

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Figure 8-6. Exploded view of water trap self-emptying mechanism

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Engineer preventive maintenance

Perform the following steps:


1. Unscrew nut 5 using a 17 mm wrench (spanner), and remove the complete self-emptying
mechanism from the bowl.

Figure 8-7. Unscrewing nut 5

2. Pull the float assembly 11, 10 and 1, from the main body assembly. (These assemblies snap
apart.)

Figure 8-8. Pulling float assembly from main body

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8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

3. Separate main body parts 8 and 2. (These snap apart.)

Figure 8-9. Separating body parts

4. Clean washers 15 and 16, and filters 13 and 14.


5. Apply pneumatic grease to washers 15 and 16.
6. Reassemble, making sure that:
Seal 6 is positioned with the black washer facing downwards (Figure 8-10).
The shallow, wide cutouts on main body 8 and cap 11 are facing forwards
(Figure 8-11).

Pin 10

Seal 6

Black
washer

Figure 8-10. Position of seal 6

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Engineer preventive maintenance

Cap 11

Wide cut-outs
at front

Body 8

Pin 10

Figure 8-11. Position of cut-outs

CAUTION
Before operating the ventilator with the self-emptying water trap, make sure the drain screw 17 is
turned fully clockwise to activate automatic, periodic dumping.
You may replace the drain tube using ordinary tubing with an internal diameter of 4-5 mm and a
length not exceeding 2 m.

8.2.2

Internal cable and tubing checks


1. Disconnect all tubing and cables (pneumatic and electric) from the RAPHAEL.
2. Using a 2.5mm hexagonal (Allen) key, remove the 8 screws that secure the closure. Four
screws are at the rear of RAPHAEL, four are underneath. (Figure 8-12.)
3. Remove the closure.
4. Verify that all cables and tubing in RAPHAEL are in good condition, connected, and in the
right place.

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8 Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance

Figure 8-12. Positions of the 8 screws you remove to open RAPHAEL

5. Make sure the tubing for the oxygen cell measurement is not squeezed between the tank
and the white inspiratory tube. (Figure 8-13.)

Oxygen
measurement
tube

Patient outlet

Figure 8-13. The position of the oxygen measurement tube

6. Check all assemblies for damage and incorrect installation.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Engineer preventive maintenance

8.2.3

External checks
1. Make sure the expiratory valve ring turns smoothly and that the valve plunger pin is clean
and moves up and down easily (Figure 8-14). If cleaning is required, see Section 15.3.3,
Cleaning the expiratory valve, on page 15-14.

Valve plunger pin

Expiratory valve ring

Figure 8-14. The expiratory valve ring and plunger pin

2. Make sure the oxygen cell holder is in place and the O-ring is present. (Figure 8-15.)

O-ring

Figure 8-15. The oxygen cell holder O-ring

3. Make sure the air and oxygen inlet connectors are mounted correctly.
4. Go to Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Section

Backup battery and voltage tests

9.1

Introduction
For this series of tests you require:
A multimeter
A watch, clock, or timer displaying seconds
The tests you perform are:
Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test:
You make sure that the required voltages are available at the mainboard.
In Section 9.4, 12 V batteries condition test:
You measure the performance of the two 12 V backup batteries under load and over time.
Section 9.5, Connector condition test:
You test the quality of the connections between the 12 V backup batteries and
mainboard.

9.2
9.2.1

Backup battery replacement


Checking the age of the backup batteries
1. Partially remove the batteries from the RAPHAEL, so that the date stamps are visible.
(Figure 9-1.)

Figure 9-1. The date stamp on the top of each battery

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

2. Determine type of the batteries:


BB: The latest battery type used in RAPHAEL. (Figure 9-2.)
YUASA: An intermediate battery type used in RAPHAEL. (Figure 9-3.)
MICROLYTE Plus: The original battery type used in RAPHAEL. (Figure 9-4.)

Figure 9-2. BB 12 V backup battery

Figure 9-3. YUASA 12 V backup battery

Figure 9-4. MICROLYTE Plus 12 V backup battery

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Backup battery replacement

3. Locate the date stamp. Figure 9-5 shows the stamp on a BB battery. Other date stamps
are similarly placed.

Date code
on top of
battery

Figure 9-5. Detail of date stamp on BB battery type

4. Read the date, according to the battery type.


For BB backup batteries, read the date using Table 9-1.
For YUASA batteries made in Taiwan, read the date using Table 9-2.
For YUASA batteries made in Japan, read the date using Table 9-3.
For YUASA batteries made in the UK and USA, read the date stamp using
Table 9-4.
For MICROLYTE Plus batteries, read the date stamp using Table 9-5.
Code key

ppyymmdd

Explanation

Example for code


AA031209

p p is a code indicating an internal


product line.

AA
Meaning unknown.

y y is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the year of manufacture.

03
The year 2003.

m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the month of manufacture.

12
The twelfth month of year:
December.

d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the day of the month of manufacture.

09
The ninth day of the month.

Table 9-1. Codes for BB 12 V backup batteries

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

Code key

yymmddfc

Explanation

Example for code


0206133Q

y y is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the year of manufacture.

02
The year 2002.

m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the month of manufacture.

06
The sixth month of year: June.

d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the day of the month of manufacture.

13
The thirteenth day of the
month.

f is a numeral, and indicates a factory


(unimportant for HAMILTON MEDICAL
AG).

3
The factory code 3
(unimportant).

c is an upper case alphabetic character,


and indicates a code associated with
manufacture (unimportant for
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG).

Q
The code 3 (unimportant).

Table 9-2. Codes for YUASA Taiwan 12 V backup batteries

Code key
yymmddc

Explanation

Example for code 9703211

y y is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the year of manufacture.

97
The year 1997.

m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the month of manufacture.

03
The third month of year:
March.

d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the day of the month of manufacture.

21
The twenty-first day of the
month.

c is a numeral, and indicates a code


associated with manufacture
(unimportant for HAMILTON MEDICAL
AG).

1
The code 1 (unimportant).

Table 9-3. Codes for YUASA Japan 12 V backup batteries

Code key
ymmddcc

Explanation

Example for code 7032152

y is a numeral, and indicates the year of


manufacture.

7
The year 1997.

m m is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the month of manufacture.

03
The third month of year:
March.

d d is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the day of manufacture.

21
The twenty-first day of the
month.

c c is a pair of numerals, and indicates a


manufacturing code (unimportant for
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG).

52
The manufacturing code 52
(unimportant).

Table 9-4. Codes for YUASA UK and USA 12 V backup batteries

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Backup battery replacement

Code key
ywwd

Explanation
y is one of the following upper case
alphabetic characters, and indicates the
year of manufacture:

Example for code I132


I
The year 1999.

H (1998)
I (1999)
J (2000)
K (2001)
L (2002)
M (2003)

w w is a pair of numerals, and indicates


the week of manufacture.

13
The thirteenth week of the
year.

d is a numeral, and indicates the day of


manufacture.

2
The second day of the week:
tuesday.

Table 9-5. Codes for MICROLYTE Plus 12 V backup batteries

5. If the batteries are more than three years old, replace them now according to
Section 15.5, Changing the 12V batteries, on page 15-17.

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9.3
9.3.1

Mainboard voltages test


Overview
In this test, you make sure that all the voltages on the mainboard are correct. Some of these voltages
represent power supplied directly from the power supply, some are created on the mainboard itself.

9.3.2

Procedure
WARNING
Be careful not to inadvertently short pins together.
1. Make sure the backup batteries are correctly connected to the power supply board.
2. Connect mains power and switch the unit on.
3. Locate test connectors 3 and 1 on the mainboard. (Figure 9-6 on page 9-6.)
Use a multimeter to check all voltages on both connectors, as shown in Figure 9-7 on
page 9-7. Always measure between the ground (GND) and the corresponding signal.
Test
connector 1

Test
connector 3

Figure 9-6. The position of test connectors 3 and 1 on all mainboards (details of

other components can vary)


4. If you have mainboard PN 157373, locate the three-pin test connector on the mainboard.
(Figure 9-8 and Figure 9-9 on page 9-8.)
Use a multimeter to check both voltages, as shown in Figure 9-9, Test pin values for the
three-pin test connector (on mainboard PN 157373 only), on page 9-8. Always measure
between the ground (GND) on Test connector 1 and the corresponding signal.
Note
Do not use the middle pin on the three-pin test connector.

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Mainboard voltages test

Test connector 3

Test connector 1
GND (Ground)
You measure from this
point for all tests on
connector 1

GND (Ground)
You measure
from this point
for all tests on
connector 3

+5 V BACKUP
(4.8 to 5.2 V)
-10 V
(-9.98 to -10.02 V)
+10 V
(9.98 to 10.02 V)
+24 V
(26.6 to 30.0 V)
-15 V
(-13.5 to -16.5 V)
+15 V
(13.5 to 15.75 V)

+5.0 V Ref
(4.99 to 5.01 V)

+5 V
(4.95 to 5.25 V)

Figure 9-7. Test pin values for test connectors 3 and 1

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

The three-pin
test connector
Microswitches

Figure 9-8. The position of the three-pin test connector (on

mainboard PN 157373 only)

Microswitches

3.3 V BACKUP
(+3.2 to +3.4 V)

3.3 V
(+3.2 to +3.4 V)
Figure 9-9. Test pin values for the three-pin test connector (on

mainboard PN 157373 only)

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Mainboard voltages test

9.3.3

Troubleshooting mainboard voltages test

Test connectors 3 and 1

Failed Pin

Actions

+5 V

1.

Check cabling from power supply board to the test


connectors.

+15 V

2.

If the cabling is in order, replace the power supply board.

-15 V
+5 V Ref
+ 5 V BACKUP
-10 V

If voltages shown above (+5 V, +15 V and -15 V) are in order,


replace the mainboard. Otherwise, check the power supply
board.

Three-pin test connector


(Mainboard PN 157373 only.)

+10 V
+24 V

Go to Section 9.4, 12 V batteries condition test, on


page 9-10.

+3.3 V BACKUP

If voltages shown at top of this table (+5 V, +15 V and -15 V)


are in order, replace the mainboard. Otherwise, check the
power supply board.

+3.3 V

1.

Remove the power supply from the display to determine


whether their is a fault in the display.

2.

Replace the mainboard.

Table 9-6. Mainboard voltage test troubleshooting

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9 Backup battery and voltage tests

9.4
9.4.1

12 V batteries condition test


Overview
In this test, you measure battery voltage against time, while at the same time activating valves within
RAPHAEL to create current drain. You test two completely separate performance characteristics:
The absolute battery voltage after a first, 2-minute period of battery use. This voltage must
be greater than, or equal to 23.5 V (23.5 V).
The drop in battery voltage after a second, 3-minute period of battery use. This drop must
be less than, or equal to 0.5 V (0.5 V).
Figure 9-10 shows the performance characteristics of three imaginary battery pairs.
3 minutes operation

2 minutes operation
Battery pair A: Fail

Battery Voltage (V)

25
24.9 V (Good)
Drop of 0.7 V (Fail)

Battery pair B: Pass


Drop of 0.1 V (Good)

24

24.1 V (Good)

Battery pair C: Fail

23.4 V (Fail)

23
0

3
Time (min)

Figure 9-10. Examples of acceptable and unacceptable 12 V

batteries
Battery pair A displays more than 23.5 V after the first period of use. However, it has a
drop of more than 0.5 V after the second period of use. It therefore fails.
Battery pair B displays more than 23.5 V after the first period of use. It has a drop of less
than 0.5 V after the second period of use. It therefore passes.
Battery pair C displays less than 23.5 V after the first period of use. It therefore fails.
9.4.2

Procedure
Note
You can only perform this test when RAPHAEL is at room temperature (2030C).

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12 V batteries condition test

9.4.2.1

Overview
The overview in Figure 9-11 exactly matches the detailed description in Section 9.4.2.2, Detailed
instructions. You might find it useful to refer to while performing these instructions.
Replace batteries

8. Note voltage.

23.5 V

Timed
period

Drop 0.5 V

Next test

Timed
period

Drop >0.5 V
9. Note voltage drop.

7. Remove mains cable.

6. Activate V1 to V5.

< 23.5 V
5. Enter test 5 or test 6.

4. Enter test software mode.

3. Connect mains cable.

2. Connect multimeter to 12 V batteries.

1. Switch RAPHAEL off.

Charge or replace batteries

Minutes

Figure 9-11. 12 V batteries condition test procedure

9.4.2.2

Detailed instructions
1. Ensure RAPHAEL is switched off.
2. Connect a multimeter, set to measure voltage, across the two 12 V batteries, as shown in
Figure 9-12.
Note
Be sure to connect the probes directly on the battery contacts, and not on any other part
of RAPHAEL.

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Positive (+) 24 V contact

Probes directly
connected to
battery contacts

Negative (-) contact


Multimeter
probes

Figure 9-12. Test meter probes connected directly to battery

contacts
3. Ensure that the mains cable is attached to RAPHAEL, and is supplying power.
4. Enter test software mode.
5. Enter, but do not perform, one of the following tests:
Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on page 11-35 of Section 11, Running version 1.x
test software
Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on page 12-47 of Section 12, Running version 2.*
test software.
6. Activate : V1, : V2, : V3, : V4, : V5.
7. Remove the mains cable and wait exactly 2 minutes.
8. Make a note of the voltage displayed on the multimeter.
If the voltage is 23.5 V, wait exactly 3 minutes, and go to step (9) below.
If the voltage is <23.5 V, stop the test and go to Section 9.4.2.3, If the voltage is too
low, on page 9-13.
9. Make a note of the voltage displayed on the multimeter.
If the voltage drop between step (8) and step (9) is 0.5 V, the batteries are in good
condition. Go to Section 9.5, Connector condition test.
If the voltage drop between step (8) and step (9) is >0.5 V, the batteries are not in
good condition. Replace the batteries, and repeat Section 9.4.2.2, Detailed
instructions, on page 9-11.
10. Remove the multimeter probes from the batteries.

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12 V batteries condition test

9.4.2.3

If the voltage is too low


If the voltage of the batteries is <23.5 V when measured in step (8) on page 9-12, perform
Section 9.5, Connector condition test. If this does not resolve the problem, you can do one of two
things:
Charge the batteries for 6 hours and repeat Section 9.4.2, Procedure, on page 9-10.
(To charge the batteries, you simply leave RAPHAEL attached to mains power. It is not
necessary to switch it on.)
Replace the batteries, and repeat Section 9.4.2, Procedure, on page 9-10.

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9.5

Connector condition test


Note
This test assumes that you have just performed Section 9.4, 12 V batteries condition test, that the
five valves are still active, and that the mains power supply is disconnected.
If this is not the case, perform step (1) on page 9-11 to step (6) on page 9-12 now.

9.5.1

Overview
In this test you check the condition of all electrical connections between the batteries and the
mainboard. You do this by measuring the voltage differences between the batteries and the
mainboard.

9.5.2

Procedure
1. Check the voltage difference between the battery negative contact and the mainboard
ground:
a. Connect the positive multimeter probe to the ground pin on test connector 1.
(Figure 9-13 on page 9-14.)
b. Connect the negative multimeter probe to the negative contact of the batteries.
(Figure 9-12 on page 9-12.)
c. Ensure that the difference in voltage between battery negative and test pin
ground is equal or smaller than 0.5 V ( 0.5 V).
d. Disconnect the multimeter.

Ground test pin

0.5 V

ON
OFF

V dc
V ac
200 mA
10 A
A
V
com
mA
Negative battery contact
Figure 9-13. Connections for negative/ground test

2. Check the voltage difference between the battery +24 V contact and the mainboard:
a. Connect the negative multimeter probe to the +24 V on test connector 1.
(Figure 9-14 on page 9-15.)
b. Connect the positive multimeter probe to the +24 V contact of the batteries.
c. Ensure that the difference in voltage between battery 24 V and test pin 24 V is
equal or smaller than 0.7 V ( 0.7 V).
d. Disconnect the multimeter.

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Connector condition test

0.7 V

+24 V test pin

ON
OFF

V dc
V ac
200 mA
10 A
A
V
mA com

Positive battery contact

Figure 9-14. Connections for battery positive/+24 V test

3. If either of the values from step (1) or step (2) above are out of range, test and correct all
connections between batteries and mainboard.
Repeat this test as necessary.
4. Go to one of the following sections:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software

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Section

10 Manual electrical safety tests


10

WARNING
To comply with EN 60601-1 and EN 60601-2, you must perform these electrical safety tests after:
Performing test software
Replacing the power supply
Removing any earth (ground) contact from RAPHAEL

10.1

Introduction
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG performs a set of electrical safety tests, according to Norm EN 60601-1
and EN 60601-2, on all the ventilator and compressor units that it manufactures. HAMILTON
MEDICAL AG performs these tests automatically, using the Metron Safety Analyzer (Figure I-1, The
Metron Safety Analyzer, on page I-1).
It is a legal necessity that you too, after performing a repair or adjustment that includes replacing the
power supply or removing any of the internal earth connectors, perform similar tests on your
RAPHAEL. It is a HAMILTON MEDICAL recommendation, that even if you do not make a repair, you
perform such tests. These tests are described in this section.
If you have an automated safety device such as the Metron used by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG, it is
recommended that you also perform the more sophisticated, automated tests shown in Appendix I,
Automated electrical safety tests in addition to the tests shown in this section.

10.2

Procedure
1. Check the ground (earth) wires for proper connection. (Figure 10-1 and Figure 10-2.)

Ground
connectors
Backup
battery

Figure 10-1. Ground connectors by batteries

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10 Manual electrical safety tests

Ground
connectors

Fan

Figure 10-2. Ground connectors by fan

2. Make sure that the two screws that secure and ground (earth) the mainboard are in place
and are tight. (Figure 10-3.)

Figure 10-3. The two screws that secure and earth the mainboard

3. Check the resistance between the ground (earth) pin on RAPHAELs power inlet socket,
and:
The potential equalization terminal (Figure 10-4)
The tank (Figure 10-5)
The two screws securing the motherboard to the chassis (Figure 10-3 and
Figure 10-6)
In all cases, the resistance must be less than 1 Ohm (<1).

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Procedure

Figure 10-4. Measuring the earth pin to potential equalization

terminal resistance

Figure 10-5. Measuring the earth pin to tank resistance

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10 Manual electrical safety tests

Figure 10-6. Measuring earth pin to mainboard resistance

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Section

11 Running version 1.x test software


11

11.1

Introduction
This section explains how to use each of the test units comprising the RAPHAEL software version 1.x
test software.
The expression RAPHAEL software version 1.x refers to the following software releases:
1.0
1.1
1.2
Note
Software version 1.x can only function with mainboard PN 157250.
In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).
WARNING
If you are running software version 1.0, update it to the latest available version immediately.

On a few occasions, different software versions require different test procedures. Where necessary,
these are noted.

11.2

Checklist
Before starting, be sure that you:
Are familiar with the Typographic conventions and Expressions on page Conventions-2
Have the necessary equipment (Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment)
Have prepared RAPHAEL by performing actions described in the following sections:
Section 8, Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance
Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests
Have compressed air and oxygen attached to the rear of the RAPHAEL
Have sufficient time (testing takes approximately 90 minutes)
Consider also whether you must write a test report. Some hospitals require that you do this. If you
do not have a suitable form, you can photocopy and use the one named RAPHAEL version 1.x test
software report at the back of this manual.

11.3

Functions of the test software test units


The test units in the test software perform the following functions:
They display information
They enable you to run checks on RAPHAEL hardware and software
They enable you to calibrate RAPHAEL hardware and software

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11.4

Sequence of test software units


Table 11-1 lists each of the units found in the test software in software version 1.x.
WARNING

Always perform all Must do tests, in the prescribed sequence, as shown in Table 11-1. (Earlier
tests confirm the functioning of certain RAPHAEL components that are then used in later tests
to configure other components.)
If one of the tests indicates that you must replace a part or perform another test, do this
immediately, then repeat the test you are on. Then repeat the complete series of tests.

CAUTION
Air and oxygen must be connected to the high pressures inlets at the rear of the ventilator from test
5 onwards. Failure to do so can damage the inspiratory valve.

Must
do?

Software version 1.x

Comment

Yes

Test 1 Memory

None.

Yes

Test 2 Display

None.

Yes

Test 3 Frontpanel

None.

Yes

Test 4 Alarm monitor

None.

Yes

Test 5 Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

None.

Yes

Test 6 Pressure Sensors

None.

Yes

Test 7 Mixer and Tank Pressure

None.

Yes

Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve

None.

Yes

Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure

None.

Yes

Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement

None.

Yes

Test 11 Calibration + Scaling


Values

This unit does not enable you to test RAPHAEL, but enables
you to check that the calibration values you set in previous
test units appear correct.

No

Test 12 Gas Delivery Controls

No

These tests are performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.


Instructions are not included in this manual.

Test 13 Sensor Values

Yes

Test 14 Supply Voltages

None.

No

Test 15 Alarm Messages

This test is performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.


Instructions are not included in this manual.

Table 11-1. Sequence of test software units

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Entering test software mode

11.5

Entering test software mode


To enter test software mode:
1. Make sure RAPHAEL is switched off.
2. Set microswitch S1 on the main circuit board to the ON position using a pen or suitable
tool. (Figure 11-1.)

Figure 11-1. Setting microswitch S1 to ON

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)
3. Connect the RAPHAEL to the mains power supply.
4. Switch on the RAPHAEL. The RAPHAEL starts in test software mode.
5. Verify that the AC power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated. (Figure 11-2.)

Figure 11-2. AC power indicator LED

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6. Verify that the display shows Test 1: Memory. (Figure 11-3.)

Figure 11-3. The Test 1: Memory test, as first displayed

7. Verify that LED 1 on the mainboard starts blinking. (Figure 11-4.)

Switch S1
Off
On

Blinking LED 1

Figure 11-4. Switch S1 and LED 1

11.6

How to use the test software


Turn the P&T-knob to scroll to the required test, then press the knob to activate the test. When you
first enter test software mode, Test 1: Memory is selected (but not activated) as shown in
Figure 11-3.
After finishing each test, select and activate Close.

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How to use the test software

11.6.1

Alarms during test software mode


While in test software mode, no alarms are displayed except for Technical Fault 1 (TF 1 Code *).
You can find further information in the alarms section in the RAPHAEL Operators Manual
(PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, and in Section 14, Alarms, technical faults, and
troubleshooting.

11.6.2

Exiting test software mode


To exit the test software, switch off the RAPHAEL and set switch S1 on the main circuit board to the
off position.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for development
use only.)

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 1: Memory
Test 1.1

Overview
This series of tests checks:
The memory function
The setting of the altitude
The reading of operating hours
It also lets you reset the scaling values and configuration data if required.

Test 1.2

Preparation
Activate Test 1: Memory. You see a screen similar to the one shown Figure 11-5.

Operating Hours
shown here when
setting required

Figure 11-5. The Memory test screen

Note
If you run this test directly after installing a new software PROM, but not a new Flash PROM,
you see a message similar to the following:
Graphics Module needs to be reprogrammed
Please press button to reprogram Graphics Module
168 blocks need to be programmed
Respond to this by pressing the P&T-knob. For more information, see Download screen. on
page 14-17.
If you run this test directly after installing new software, it is very likely that you will see the
following message:
Checksum error while reading data from EEPROM.
Execute memory test and set factory settings.
In this case, perform Test 1: Memory in the normal way, making sure to activate:
Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings
Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
If the screen does not display text clearly, check the contrast adjustment as described in
Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast, on page 11-15.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

Cannot activate test.

Replace P&T-knob.

Screen is not clear.

Perform Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast, on page 11-15.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 1.3

Checking and setting the scaling Values


Verify that Scaling Values (the field near the bottom of the screen) reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings (the field near the
top of the screen).
WARNING

Only activate Scaling Values to Factory Settings or Configuration Data to Factory


Settings if the corresponding value reads Not OK. This action sets these parameters to their
factory-default, precalibration values. While these values make an appropriate starting point
for performing these tests, they are not correct for ventilating a patient.
If you set the scaling values to the factory settings, you must perform all the tests in this
section.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

11-8

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings.

Scaling Values: Not OK

If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.4

Checking and setting the configuration data


Verify that Configuration Data reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Configuration Data: Not OK

If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

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Test 1.5

Checking and adjusting the altitude setting


The altitude setting is for compensation of the flow measurement at the Flow Sensor. This
measurement influences RAPHAELs calculation of flow and volume.
Verify Altitude is set to the operating height of the RAPHAEL, measured in meters above sea level.
If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob. (The factory setting is 700m. You can adjust it in
increments of 100m.)
WARNING
You must adjust the altitude setting for the location in which RAPHAEL will operate. This is not
necessarily the same as the altitude at which you are performing this test.

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Test 1: Memory

Test 1.6

Checking and setting the number of operating hours


The Operating Hours value is displayed near the bottom of the screen, and shows the total
number of hours that the unit has been in operation (Figure 11-5 on page 11-6).
Unless you have just changed the mainboard, ensure that the value displayed approximates the
number of hours RAPHAEL has been in operation. (For help in this, see Test 1.6.1.)
If you have just changed the mainboard, use the P&T-knob to reset the operating hours as closely as
possible to the original value displayed on RAPHAEL.
Note
If you have not just changed the mainboard, you cannot reset the operating hours value. Go to
Test 2, Display.

Test 1.6.1

Determining the operating hours value


To estimate the time RAPHAEL has been in operation, you must answer two questions:
How long has the RAPHAEL been in the hospital?
What sort of regimen does the hospital practice are the machines left on all day and
night, or are they turned off between patients?
If the RAPHAEL is in a hospital where it is kept running continuously, the number of operating hours
is 720 multiplied by the number of months the ventilator was in the hospital.
In hospitals in which RAPHAEL is not kept running continuously, an average number of operating
hours is 400 a month. In this case, the number of operating hours is 400 multiplied by the number
of months of use.
Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

The following error message is displayed at the bottom of the


screen:
Operating Hours: Not OK

Reset the operating hours.


If this does not solve the problem, replace the
mainboard.

In addition the following message is shown in the middle of


the screen:
Operating Hours: 0
The value for the number of operating hours is unreasonably
high. (For example, 100000.)

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Contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG


(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch) for a solution.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 2: Display
Test 2.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the display, and enables you to adjust the screen contrast to the required
value.

Test 2.2

Preparation
Activate Test 2: Display. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 11-6.

Figure 11-6. The Display test screen

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display

Test 2.3

Testing the display


1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no lines are missing. (Figure 11-7 shows an approximation to the grid, but is limited in
accuracy because of the printing process.)

Figure 11-7. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. The a grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that
the pattern remains regular and no lines are missing. (Figure 11-8 shows an approximation
to the grid, but is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)

Figure 11-8. The second black-and-white test grid

3. Press the P&T-knob again. The Test 2: Display screen is displayed (Figure 11-6).

June 9, 2006

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Display is dark.

Action
Replace dc/ac converter board.
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display.

Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

11-14

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display

Test 2.4

Checking and adjusting display contrast


Note
The monochrome display is temperature-sensitive. Perform this test and adjustment in
conditions that approximate the temperature in which the RAPHAEL is normally used.
During normal operation, you can adjust the contrast of the monochrome display in the
Utilities window.
1. Activate Screen Contrast and check that the contrast can be adjusted with the
P&T-knob.
2. Set the reading to 22.0.
3. Use the potentiometer on the mainboard (Figure 11-9) to adjust the screen contrast to be
most easily readable. While doing this, look at the screen from the place at which the
operator normally uses the RAPHAEL. (This could be slightly below or above the screen,
depending on where the RAPHAEL is placed.)

Figure 11-9. Potentiometer for adjusting screen contrast

4. Activate Close.

June 9, 2006

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Contrast not adjustable with
P&T-knob.
Contrast not adjustable with
potentiometer.

Screen is not bright and clear and


easily readable, even after
adjustment.

11-16

Action
Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3: Frontpanel
Test 3.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the loudspeaker, the buzzer, and the entire user interface.

Test 3.2

Preparation
Activate Test 3: Frontpanel. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-10.

Figure 11-10. The Frontpanel test screen

June 9, 2006

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 3.3

Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time


1. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel. (Figure 11-11).
The alarm LED illuminates and Alarm Silence is activated on the screen.
Alarm LED

Figure 11-11. Alarm silence key with alarm LED

2. Verify that the alarm LED remains illuminated while the Alarm Silence Time counts up
to 120 5 seconds. At this time, the light must extinguish (must go out).
3. Activate : Buzzer using the P&T-knob.
4. Verify that the buzzer alarm sounds after Backup Buzzer Time displays 60 5 seconds.
5. Deactivate Buzzer.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Alarm LED does not illuminate after alarm silence key is pressed.

Replace front panel keyboard.


Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Timer does not start after alarm silence key is pressed.

Replace front panel keyboard.


Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

11-18

Backup buzzer does not function after 60 seconds.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Buzzer sounds after 60 seconds.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

Alarm silence time 120 seconds.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.4

Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs


1. Activate : Nebulizer and verify that the nebulizer LED on the front panel illuminates.
2. Repeat this procedure for : Trigger and : Alarm, making sure the corresponding front
panel LED illuminates in each case.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Nebulizer LED does not function.

Replace front panel keyboard.

Trigger LED does not illuminate.

Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).


Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest
type.

Alarm LED does not illuminate.

June 9, 2006

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11-19

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 3.5

Checking the alarm tones


Activate the three alarm level tests in turn, and check that the corresponding number of beeps
sound.
Alarm low (low priority): One sequence of two beeps.
Alarm medium (medium priority): One sequence of three beeps.
Alarm high (high priority): Two sequences of three-beeps-followed-by-two-beeps.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Alarm (low, medium, or high) does not function.

Replace loudspeaker.
Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
software to latest type.

11-20

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.6

Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards


Switch on and off each key on the display panel and the front panel. (Figure 11-12.)

Display panel keys

Front panel keys

Figure 11-12. Display panel and front panel keys

Verify that the display indicates each use of each key. (Figure 11-13 shows the screen with the Mode
key active.)

Figure 11-13. The Frontpanel test screen with the Mode key active

June 9, 2006

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Display panel keys do not operate.

Action
Check display panel keyboard cable.
Replace graphic controller board.
Replace display panel keyboard.

Front panel keys do not operate.

Check front panel keyboard cable.


Replace graphic controller board.
Replace front panel keyboard.

11-22

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.7

Testing the P&T-knob


1. Turn the P&T-knob clockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks modulo
16 counts from 0 to 15.
2. Turn the P&T-knob anticlockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks
modulo 16 counts from 0 to -15.
3. Activate Close to return to the main menu.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

P&T-knob does not count step-by-step.

June 9, 2006

Replace P&T-knob.

PN 61067/05

11-23

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4: Alarm monitor


Test 4.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the various different alarm conditions.

Test 4.2

Preparation
Activate 4: Alarm monitor. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-14.

Figure 11-14. The Alarm monitor test screen

11-24

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.3

Checking for error signals


Verify the following indicators remain inactive at all times during the tests you perform in
Test 4: Alarm monitor:
Voltage error
mP clock
P-Source fail

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Voltage error activated.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

mP clock activated.
P-source fail activated.

June 9, 2006

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.
Inspiratory valve current too high.

Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high.

Replace expiratory valve.

PN 61067/05

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.4

Testing the power down status flag


For background information about this test, see Appendix B.2, on page B-1.
1. Check that : Power down is activated. (This flag indicates that RAPHAEL was correctly
powered down, by using the switch at the back of the unit, the last time it was powered
down.)
2. Activate : Run status. (This simulates the start of normal ventilation.)
3. Verify that Power down is now deactivated. (This indicates that RAPHAEL has correctly
reset this field at the start of normal ventilation.)
Note
You cannot reactivate this field except by switching off and switching on RAPHAEL.
Note
Alarm sound is not used in this test. Do not activate this field.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

11-26

Action

Power down not activated at start of test.

Switch RAPHAEL off and on.

Power down cannot be deactivated by Run status.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.5

Checking the alarm LED


1. Activate : Alarm light.
2. Verify that the alarm LED starts blinking. (Figure 11-11 on page 11-18.)
3. Deactivate Alarm light.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Alarm silence LED does not blink.

Replace front panel cable.


Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.6

Testing the alarm silence function


1. Activate : Alarm silence.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel illuminates (turns on). (Figure 11-11 on
page 11-18.)
3. Deactivate Alarm silence.
4. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel.
5. Verify that the alarm LED illuminates.
6. Activate : New alarm.
7. Verify that the alarm LED extinguishes (turns off).
8. Activate the alarm silence key on the front panel. The LED must not illuminate.
9. Deactivate New alarm.
10. Press the alarm silence key again to silence future alarms (the alarm LED illuminates again).

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

New alarm does not cancel the alarm silence LED.


Alarm silence key does not function.

11-28

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
software to latest type.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.7

Checking the expiratory valve unpowered position


1. Activate : Valves off. As you do this, verify that the expiratory valve plunger pin moves
down to its unpowered (de-energized) position. (Figure 11-15.)

Pin in
unpowered
position

Pin in
normal
position

Figure 11-15. The expiratory valve plunger in normal and unpowered positions

2. Deactivate Valves off.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Expiratory valve does not move down to its unpowered position.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.
Replace expiratory valve.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.8

Testing the front panel LEDs


1. Activate : Lamp test.
2. Verify that each LED on the front panel illuminates and that the buzzer sounds.
3. Deactivate Lamp test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Alarm, nebulizer or trigger LED does not function.
Backup buzzer does not function.

11-30

Action
Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.9

Testing the watchdog


1. Activate : Stop Watchdog.
2. Verify that:
The expiratory valve plunger sinks to its unpowered (de-energized) position
(Figure 11-15)
The alarm LED blinks (turns on and off repeatedly)
The buzzer sounds
One of the following messages is displayed:
Watchdog working correctly (in later software)
Watchdog error (in earlier software)
3. Switch the unit off and on.
4. Activate Test 4: Alarm monitor again, and go to Test 4.10.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Stop watchdog has no effect.

June 9, 2006

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

PN 61067/05

11-31

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.10

Testing backup battery operation


1. Verify that:
Battery operation is not activated
Battery low is not activated
The ac power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated (switched on)
(Figure 11-2 on page 11-3)
2. Disconnect the power cord from the unit.
3. Verify that:
: Battery operation is activated
Battery low is not activated
The ac power indicator LED on the front panel extinguishes (switches off)
(Figure 11-2 on page 11-3)
4. Reconnect the unit to mains power.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Battery operation activated while mains connected.

Action
Replace fuse.
Replace power supply.
Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

Battery low activated.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

ac power indicator LED malfunctions.

Replace front panel keyboard.


Replace power supply.

Not possible to activate Battery operation by removing power cord.

11-32

Replace power supply.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.11

Testing the fan

Test 4.11.1

Fan test 1
1. Carefully stop the fan from rotating by applying light pressure to the center of rotor.
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Release the fan.
4. Verify that Fan error deactivates.

Test 4.11.2

Fan test 2
1. Disconnect the fan cable from the mainboard (plug P16/Fan).
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Reconnect the fan cable.
4. Verify that Fan error deactivates.
Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action
Replace fan.
Replace mainboard with one of same type
(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

Fan error activated while fan is running.

Replace fan.
Fan error deactivated while fan is not running.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade
mainboard and software to latest type.

11-33

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 4.12

Checking again for error signals


Verify the following indicators are still inactive:
Voltage error
mP clock
P-Source fail
Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Voltage error activated.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
software to latest type.

mP clock activated.
P-source fail activated.

11-34

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
software to latest type.
Inspiratory valve current too high.

Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high.

Replace expiratory valve.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.


Test 5.1

Overview
This series of tests checks each of the following:

The Flow Sensor autozero valves


The extended rinse flow valves
The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve
Thenebulizer valve

The schematics displayed in Table 11-2 show the positions of these components. You can find these
schematics in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.
Valve description

Valve names used in different places


This test

Schematic
ZCH157276 Blatt 1

Schematic
ZCH614186 Blatt 2

Flow Sensor autozero valve on


side proximal to patient.

V1

AZ dPptm proximal (V1)a

6 Autozero valve
proximal

Flow Sensor autozero valve on


side distal to patient.

V2

AZ dPptm distal (V2)a

7 Autozero valve distal

Extended rinse flow valve on


side proximal to patient.

V3

Ext. AZ dPptm proximal


(V3)b

4 Extended rinse flow


valve

Extended rinse flow valve on


side distal to patient.

V4

Ext. AZ dPptm distal (V4)b

5 Extended rinse flow


valve

Autozero valve for the Pvent


pressure sensor.

V5

AZ Pvent (V5)

16 Autozero valve
Pvent

Valve controlling flow of gas


from the tank to the nebulizer
outlet.

Nebulizer

Nebulizer

3 Nebulizer valve

Table 11-2. Valve naming conventions


a. dPptm stands for differential pressure of the pneumatic tachometer (Flow Sensor).
b. Despite the name used in this schematic, this is not an autozero valve.

June 9, 2006

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.2

Preparation
1. Connect the air and oxygen supplies to the unit. (Figure 11-16.)

Figure 11-16. The gas supplies connected to the unit

2. Activate Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 11-17.

This field reads


Extended Autozero Valves Test
with software version 1.0

Figure 11-17. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. test screen

11-36

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 5.3

Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors


1. Activate Autozero (not Autozero Valves Test).
2. Verify that Autozero procedure successful is displayed at the bottom of the screen
after a short time.
3. Verify that dPptm reads 0.00.1 mbar.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

dPptm 0.00.1 mbar

Check for unequal rinse flows by performing Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow
pills, on page 11-71. If the flow is uneven, replace the valve that appears
to be defective (indicated by an excessive flow of bubbles, or too few
bubbles).

The following message is displayed:


Autozero procedure NOT
successful

Replace each pressure sensor in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
Perform test Test 5.4, Testing the autozero valves, to see if the autozero
valves are defective.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

11-37

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.4

Testing the autozero valves


1. Activate Autozero Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-18.

Figure 11-18. The screen you see by activating Autozero Valves Test

The Flow Sensor autozero valves V1 and V2 switch on and off in the following sequence:
V1 and V2 (5 seconds)
: V1 and : V2 (5 seconds)
V1 and V2 (5 seconds)
and so on
2. Seal the silver Flow Sensor outlet with a finger or thumb as shown in Figure 11-19.

blue

Figure 11-19. Sealing the silver Flow Sensor outlet

11-38

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

3. With Autozero Valves Test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according
to Table 11-3.
Field

Blue connector sealed

Silver connector sealed

V1 deactivated

V1 activated

V2 deactivated

V2 activated

-----.--

-0.6 to 0.6

-----.--

-0.6 to 0.6

dPptm

Table 11-3. Values for dPptm reading during autozero valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Unseal the silver Flow Sensor, and seal the blue Flow Sensor outlet.
5. With Autozero Valves Test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according
to Table 11-3.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Autozero valves V1 & V2 do not switch on
and off in sequence.

Action
Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.
Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or
flow).

dPptm -----.-- while autozero valve


deactivated.

Check for internal tubing leak or disconnection (including nebulizer


tubing).
Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace pneumatic block.

Inspiratory valve zero


point out of range.
dPptm 00.6 while autozero valve
activated.

Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 11-58 to recalibrate the


inspiratory valve, then return to Test 5.4, Testing the autozero valves.
Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

11-39

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.5

Testing the extended rinse flow valves


1. Connect a Flow Sensor and stopper to RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 11-20. (Note that the
stopper must be in place.)

Stopper

Figure 11-20. The tubing setup for Test 5.5, Testing the extended rinse flow

valves
2. Activate Extended Rinse Flow Valves Test (this is Extended Autozero Valves
Test in software revision 1.0). You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-21.

These fields
activate
alternately

Figure 11-21. The screen you see by activating Extended Rinse Flow Valves

Test or Extended Autozero Valves Test


The extended rinse flow valves : V3 and : V4 switch in the sequence:
: V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and : V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
and so on

11-40

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

3. Using Table 11-4, verify that whichever valve is active (: V3 or : V4), pressure reading
dPptm displays the correct corresponding pressure.
Field

With V3 active, RAPHAEL


must display

With V4 active, RAPHAEL


must display

dPptm

0.8 mbar

-0.8 mbar
(-0.8, -2... - mbar)

Table 11-4. Values for dPptm reading in extended rinse flow valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Activate Stop running test.
5. Leave the stopper and Flow Sensor in place.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Extended autozero valves V3 & V4 do not function.

Replace each extended autozero valve in turn, performing


this test after each replacement.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

dPptm < 0.8 mbar while V3 active.

Replace pneumatic block

dPptm > -0.8 mbar while V4 active.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

11-41

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.6

Checking the Pprox and dPptm sensors


1. Activate Sensor Validation.
2. Validate that the following messages are both displayed at the bottom of the screen:
Pprox: Sensor OK
Dpptm: Sensor OK

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Sensor validation not performed is


displayed.

Check that stopper is in place during test.


Check that gases are connected.
Check for leak in the gas mixer components.

Pprox: Sensor defect is displayed.

Replace Pprox pressure sensor.


Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
Replace each extended rinse flow valve in turn, performing this test
after each replacement.

Dpptm: Sensor defect is displayed.

Replace dPptm pressure sensor.


Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
Replace each extended rinse flow valve in turn, performing this test
after each replacement.

11-42

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 5.7

Checking the Flow Sensor


1. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 11-22.

Figure 11-22. Tubing setup for Test 5.7, Checking the Flow Sensor

2. Activate Flow Sensor Check.


After a short period, the message Sensor deviation: xx% is displayed.
3. Verify that the value of xx is in the range -20% to 20%.
4. Disconnect both the tubing and the Flow Sensor.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Sensor deviation >20%.

June 9, 2006

Action
Replace Flow Sensor.

PN 61067/05

11-43

11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 5.8

Testing the nebulizer valve


1. Activate the Nebulizer (: Nebulizer) as shown in Figure 11-23.

Figure 11-23. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. screen with Nebulizer active

2. Verify that while the nebulizer is activated (: Nebulizer), a flow is provided at the
nebulizer outlet. (Figure 11-24.)

Flow of air from


nebulizer outlet

Figure 11-24. The flow of gas at the nebulizer outlet

3. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
No flow at nebulizer outlet.

Action
Check internal tubing for leaks or disconnections.
Replace nebulizer valve.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

11-44

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Test 6: Pressure Sensors


Test 6.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and calibrates the following pressure sensors:
dPptm (the sensor measuring pneumatic tachometer differential pressurethe pressure
differential across the Flow Sensor)
Pprox (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor)
Pvent (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the inspiratory valve)

Test 6.2

Preparation
Activate Test 6: Pressure Sensors. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-25.

Figure 11-25. The Pressure Sensors test screen

June 9, 2006

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 6.3

Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent


Activate Perform Autozero to perform zero-point calibrations for the dPptm, Pprox, and Pvent
pressure sensors.
After a short time, you must see the message Autozero procedure successful at the bottom of
the screen. In addition, Perform Autozero is replaced by Gain adjustment OK. (You will use this
confirmation text later.)

Troubleshooting
Symptom

11-46

Action

One of the following messages is displayed:

Check dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensor cables.

Autozero procedure for dPPTM NOT


successful

Replace dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors in turn,


performing this test after each replacement.

Autozero procedure for Pprox NOT


successful

Replace autozero valves in turn, performing this test after


each replacement.

Autozero procedure for Pvent NOT


successful

Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).


Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Test 6.4

Checking and adjusting dPptm gain


WARNING
During this procedure you must be sure to work to an accuracy of 0.01 mbar. This means you
must have a pressure gauge capable of this accuracy. Any RAPHAEL adjusted less accurately will
give an incorrect volume of gas to the patient.

1. Leave the message Gain adjustment OK.


2. Connect the tubing system as shown in Figure 11-26. The bottle should be one liter or
larger. (For an alternative system, see Appendix B.3, on page B-2.)

Stopper

Flow
regulator
Flow regulator

Pressure
controller
Pressure gauge

1 liter

Figure 11-26. Tubing setup for Test 6.4, Checking and adjusting dPptm gain

3. Provide a pressure of 2.0 to 2.5 mbar (as measured by the pressure gauge) to the silver
Flow Sensor outlet on the front panel, by adjusting the flow regulator. (The pressure is
generated by the rinse flow.)
dPptm zoom displays ----Note
Do not apply a pressure of more than 2.5 mbar.

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4. Verify that dPptm displays the correct value (Table 11-5).


Field

RAPHAEL must display

dPptm

With silver Flow Sensor outlet

With blue Flow Sensor outlet

Pressure gauge value 0.02 mbar


(shown as a negative value on
RAPHAEL)

Pressure gauge value 0.02 mbar


(shown as a positive value on
RAPHAEL)

Table 11-5. Values for dPptm gain adjustment

If the value is not in range, adjust it by using the dPptm gain potentiometer.
(Figure 11-27.)

Figure 11-27. Position of dPptm gain potentiometer

5. If dPptm shows the correct value, reduce the pressure to 0.8 to 0.9 mbar by adjusting the
flow regulator.
6. Verify that dPptm zoom displays the correct value. (Table 11-6).
Field

RAPHAEL must display

dPptm zoom

With silver Flow Sensor outlet

With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm value 0.01 mbar

dPptm value 0.01 mbar

Table 11-6. Values for dPptm zoom gain adjustment

7. Repeat step (2) to step (6), using the blue Flow Sensor outlet. It must not be necessary to
make any adjustments.
8. Confirm the gain adjustment is correct by activating Gain adjustment OK. (The text
changes to Pvent reading OK. You will use this confirmation later.)

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pressure sensor signal dPptm dPptm zoom.

Replace mainboard with one of same type


(PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and
software to latest type.

Pressure sensor dPptm not adjustable.

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Test 6.5

Checking the Pvent zero calibration


1. Disconnect all tubing.
2. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads 0.00.2 mbar.
3. Confirm the Pvent zero calibration is correct by activating Pvent reading OK. (The text
changes to Pvent gain adjustment OK. You will use this confirmation later.)

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pvent 00.2 mbar

Action
Check and adjust the inspiratory valve. Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 11-58. Then
return to Test 6.5Checking the Pvent zero calibration, on page 11-50.
Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.
Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively, upgrade mainboard
and software to latest type.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Pressure Sensors

Test 6.6

Checking and adjusting Pvent gain


1. Prepare the RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 11-28.
Pressure
controller
Pressure
gauge

Pressure connector

Figure 11-28. Tubing setup for Test 6.6, Checking and adjusting Pvent gain

2. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed with a finger or stopper while the system generates a
pressure of approximately 50 mbar. (Check this on the pressure gauge.)
3. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads the same as the pressure gauge, within
the tolerances given in Table 11-7.
Field

Pressure gauge

RAPHAEL must display

Pvent

45 to 55

Pressure gauge value 0.5

Table 11-7. Values for Pvent gain check

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If the value is not in range, adjust it by using the Pvent gain. (Figure 11-29.)

Figure 11-29. Position of the Pvent gain potentiometer

4. Confirm the Pvent gain calibration is correct by activating Pvent gain adjustment OK.
RAPHAEL now calibrates the Pprox gain so that it is in accordance with the Pvent gain.
After a short time, the message Calibration successful must be displayed.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pvent gain cannot be adjusted into the


correct range.

Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,


upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

RAPHAEL cannot generate 45 to 55


mbar.

Check for leak in tubing setup.


Check ambient valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
Check patient overpressure valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
Perform Test 8.4, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve, on page 11-62
to recalibrate expiratory valve, then return to Test 6.6, Checking and
adjusting Pvent gain.
Replace expiratory valve.

The following message is displayed:


Calibration not successful

11-52

Repeat the test, making sure that the pressure is in the correct range.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure


Test 7.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the gas mixer system and tank pressure. During the tests, both the oxygen
and the air mixer solenoid valves are activated separately for individual testing. Throughout the tests
the nebulizer valve remains open to allow you to measure the tank pressure at the nebulizer outlet.

Test 7.2

Preparation
Note
During this test series, RAPHAEL automatically switches on the nebulizer valve. If you switch the
valve off by using the nebulizer key on the front panel, you will obtain false readings.
1. Activate 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-30.

Figure 11-30. The Mixer and Tank Pressure test screen

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Test 7.3

Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves


1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 2 bars.
2. Connect the pressure gauge to the nebulizer outlet as shown in Figure 11-31.
Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper
Figure 11-31. The tubing setup for Test 7.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer

valves
3. Close the patient outlet with a stopper.
4. Activate Air Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-32.

Figure 11-32. The screen you see by activating Air Test

5. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings according to
Table 11-8.
Field

RAPHAEL must display

Ptank max

950 to 1100

Ptank min

840 to 860

Offset frequency Hz

4720 to 7080

Table 11-8. Values for the air and O 2 tests

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Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure

6. Activate Stop running test.


7. Activate O2 Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-33.

Figure 11-33. The screen you see by activating O2 Test

8. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings again, also
according to Table 11-8.
9. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Offset frequency outside specification
and mixer valve leak

Action
Replace dPmixer pressure sensor cable.
Replace dPmixer pressure sensor.
Replace rubber mounting block.
Replace air and oxygen mixer valves.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

Ptank Max pressure outside


specification

Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or flow).
Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including nebulizer tubing).
Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 11-58 to recalibrate the
inspiratory valve, then return to Test 7.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves, on page 11-54.
Replace the mixer valves in turn, performing this test after each replacement.

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Test 7.4

Testing the tank overpressure valve


1. Activate : Air Valve.
2. Verify the tank pressure reading according to Table 11-9. (During this test the tank
overpressure valve opens with a rasping sound.)
Field

Pressure Gauge

Ptank

1200 to 1600

RAPHAEL must display


Pressure gauge value 300

Table 11-9. Values for tank overpressure test

3. Deactivate Air Valve.


4. Remove the pressure gauge.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Ptank pressure sensor outside specification

Replace Ptank pressure sensor.


Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

Ptank measured on gauge > 1.6 bar

Replace tank overpressure valve.

Ptank measured on gauge < 1.2 bar

Check that gas supply is sufficient (low pressure or flow).


Replace tank overpressure valve.

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Test 7: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 7.5

Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage
1. Activate : Air Valve and then deactivate Air Valve to bring the tank up to a high
pressure.
2. Reduce the pressure in the tank to very approximately 100 mbar, as displayed by Ptank.
(Figure 11-1 on page 11-3.) You do this by activating and then deactivating the Nebulizer
key on the front panel.
3. Wait approximately 5 seconds, while the pressure in the tank stabilizes.
4. Monitor the pressure for a period of approximately 30 seconds.
Make sure that the pressure decreases during this time.
5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Ptank displays a constant or a rising pressure.

Action
Replace one of the mixer valves and perform this test again.
If necessary replace the second mixer valve.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve


Test 8.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and adjusts the electronic and mechanical functioning of the inspiratory
and expiratory valves.

Test 8.2

Preparation
Activate Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-34.

Figure 11-34. The I-Valve and E-Valve test screen

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.3

Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow


1. Connect the Flow Sensor as shown in Figure 11-35.

Blue tube
Blue
tube
Figure 11-35. Tubing setup for Test 8.3, Calibrating the inspiratory-valve

control signal for zero flow


2. Activate I-Valve zero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-36.

Figure 11-36. The screen you see by activating I-Valve zero

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3. Verify that the base of the flow curve is centered between points a and b. Adjust the curve
with potentiometer Vzero if required. (Figure 11-37.)
Note
It does not matter if the top of the curve lies in a position outside of the window.

Vzero
potentiometer

Figure 11-37. The position of the Vzero potentiometer

4. Check that the width of the curve is at no point is greater than the distance from a to b.
Figure 11-36 on page 11-59 shows a curve that is in range.
Figure 11-38 shows a curve that is out of range.

Figure 11-38. An incorrect I-Valve zero curve

5. Check Vaw min is in accordance with Table 11-10.


Value
Vaw min ml/s

RAPHAEL must display


10 to 66

Table 11-10. Values for I-Valve leak flow

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Width of curve is greater than distance


from a to b, as shown in Figure 11-38.

Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
Replace inspiratory valve.

Vaw_min too large or too small.

Adjust potentiometer Vzero.


Replace inspiratory valve.

Curve has bad shape.

Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
Replace inspiratory valve.

No signal.

Check Flow Sensor is connected in the correct direction.


Replace inspiratory valve.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250). Alternatively,
upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

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Test 8.4

Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve


Checking expiratory valve signal at zero pressure
1. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
2. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 11-39.
Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Pressure connector

Figure 11-39. Tubing setup for Test 8.4, Testing and calibrating the

expiratory valve
3. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-40.

Figure 11-40. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

4. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of different
pressures at intervals of 5 seconds.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

5. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
6. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 11-11.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 11-11. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal gain


7. Activate Continue.
8. When the PEEP pressure rises to 25.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 25.0 mbar continuously.)
9. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 11-41) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 11-12. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

24.5 to 25.5 mbar

24.8 to 25.2

Table 11-12. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 11-41. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

10. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pprox does not display correct zero


value

Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
connector marked P11, shown in Figure 11-42.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
Cable P11.
The mainboard.
The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required


offset or gain values

Check for leak in patient tubing.


Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
Replace expiratory valve.
Replace mainboard.

7 6

5 4 3

Figure 11-42. Connector P11

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.5

Testing the inspiratory valve controller


Note
You do not use the I-Valve controller (static) test.
1. Disconnect the transparent tube of the Flow Sensor from the RAPHAEL as shown in
Figure 11-43.

Flow sensor
tube disconnected

disconnect
flow sensor tube

Figure 11-43. Tubing setup for Test 8.5, Testing the inspiratory valve

controller
2. Activate I-Valve controller (dynamic). You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-44.

Figure 11-44. The screen you see by activating I-Valve controller (dynamic)

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3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper as shown in Figure 11-43.
4. Verify that each Pprox value is in range at all the different pressures generated by the unit
(Table 11-13). Because of the speed at which the display changes, it is helpful to activate
Hold at each step to enable you to better read the screen.
RAPHAEL must display
Pprox target

Pprox

Pprox peak

5 mbar

4 to 6 mbar

7 mbar

10 mbar

8.5 to 11.5 mbar

12 mbar

25 mbar

23.5 to 26.5 mbar

30 mbar

50 mbar

48.5 to 51.5mbar

60 mbar

Table 11-13. Values for I-Valve controller test

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Activate Close.
7. Disconnect all the tubing.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox_peak out of range.

Action
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.
Replace inspiratory valve.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure


Test 9.1

Overview
This test checks:

Test 9.2

The patient overpressure valve


The pills that protect from rinse flow overpressure
The pills that control the normal rinse flow
For leaks in internal and external tubing
The ambient valve

Preparation
1. Obtain a glass of water. You require this for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow pills, on
page 11-71.
2. Activate Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 11-45.

Figure 11-45. The Tightness and Overpressure test screen

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Test 9.3

Testing the patient overpressure valve


1. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 11-46.

Rubber bung
Stopper

Figure 11-46. Patient outlet closed with a stopper for Test 9.3, Testing the

patient overpressure valve


2. Activate Internal Pneumatic Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-47.

Figure 11-47. The screen you see by activating Internal Pneumatic Test

3. Activate : Mixer.
4. Verify that the Pvent value lies in the range 80.0 to 120.0 mbar.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.4.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pvent < 80 mbar.

Action
Check for internal leak.
Replace patient overpressure valve.
Replace pneumatic block.

Pvent > 120 mbar.

Check patient overpressure valve is not blocked.


Replace patient overpressure valve.

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Test 9.4

Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills


WARNING
During this test, make sure the pressure measured by the pressure gauge does not increase
above 350 mbar. (Disconnect the gauge if necessary!)
If it does, the dPptm pressure sensor will be damaged, and must be replaced.

1. Verify that the patient outlet is still closed with the stopper.
2. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
3. Connect the pressure gauge as shown in Figure 11-48, and wait for the pressure to rise
and stabilize.

Pressure gauge

Stopper

Rubber bung
Figure 11-48. Pressure gauge connected to Flow Sensor connector for Test 9.4,

Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills


4. Verify that the value on the pressure gauge lies in the range 100.0 to 300.0 mbar.
5. Remove the pressure gauge and the stopper.
6. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.5.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pressure gauge reading out of range.

11-70

Action
Replace pneumatic block.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.5

Testing the rinse flow pills


1. Connect two identical tubes to the Flow Sensor connectors as shown in Figure 11-49.
Immerse the tubes in the glass of water as shown in the diagram.

Identical
tubes of equal length
Equal
length

Approximately
equal
number ofequal
bubbles
number of bubbles

Figure 11-49. Setup for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow pills

2. Verify that the Internal Pneumatic Test and : Mixer are still activated.
3. Verify that bubbles appear at both tube outlets, and that the number of bubbles
(indicating the rate of flow) is approximately equal on each outlet.
4. Disconnect the two tubes. You do not require them or the water again.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.6.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Number of bubbles not equal.

June 9, 2006

Action
Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.6

Testing for internal leaks


1. Connect a piece of tubing between the two Flow Sensor connectors as shown in
Figure 11-50.

Tubing

Stopper
Figure 11-50. Tubing setup for Test 9.6, Testing for internal leaks

2. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 11-50.


3. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
4. Deactivate Mixer and measure the time required for the pressure to drop at Ptank.
Verify that the leakage of the tank is in the range displayed in Table 11-14.
Value

RAPHAEL display must


drop

Time span must be

Ptank

from 700 to 500 mbar

8 seconds

Table 11-14. Values for tank-pressure drop

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Disconnect the tube and the stopper.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Tank pressure drops too fast.

Action
Check inspiratory valve for leak.
Check tank overpressure valve for leak.
Check for leak between pneumatic block and attached component.
Check nebulizer valve for leak.
Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.7

Testing for external leaks


1. Connect the tubing as shown in Figure 11-51.

Figure 11-51. Tubing setup for Test 9.7, Testing for external leaks

2. Activate External Tightness Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 11-52.

Figure 11-52. The screen you see by activating External Tightness Test

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper, as shown in Figure 11-51, and verify that
the pressure displayed on RAPHAEL stays within the range 32.0 to 38.0 mbar.
4. Do not disconnect the Flow Sensor or tubing.
5. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox out of range.

Action
Check for leak in patient tubing.
Check for internal leak.
Check for ambient valve leak.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.8

Testing the ambient state


1. Connect your personal bacteria filter to the tubing as shown in Figure 11-53.
Note
An example of a suitable filter is shown on page G-5.

Bacteria
Bacteriafilter
filter
Figure 11-53. The bacteria filter connected for Test 9.8, Testing the ambient

state
2. Activate Ambient Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-54.

Figure 11-54. The screen you see by activating Ambient Test

3. Verify that inspiration and expiration are possible, by breathing through the filter.

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4. Disconnect the Flow Sensor and tubing.


5. Activate Stop running test.
6. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Cannot inhale or exhale.

Action
Check that ambient valve is not blocked or defective.
Check that expiratory valve is not blocked or defective.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement


Test 10.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and adjusts oxygen measurement and the calibration of the oxygen cell.
Note
If there is no oxygen supply connected to the unit, you cannot perform these tests.

Test 10.2

Preparation
1. Make sure you have an oxygen cell available.
2. Connect RAPHAEL to both an oxygen and an air supply.
3. Activate Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement.
You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 11-55 or Figure 11-56.

Figure 11-55. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen for 1.0 and 1.1

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Figure 11-56. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen for 1.2

The difference between the two screens is that the later software enables you to perform
a zero offset calibration for the oxygen cell in addition to the gain calibration.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.3

Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset


Note
You can only perform this test if you have software version 1.2. (If you have software version 1.0 or
1.1, go to Test 10.4, Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain.)
1. Make sure the oxygen cell is disconnected from the unit.
2. Wait 15 seconds for the FiO2 ADU signal to stabilize (it must not fluctuate by more than
plus or minus one digit).
3. Activate O2 Offset (at the top left of the screen).
4. Verify the value displayed for O2 offset (near the bottom of the screen). The dashes
displayed when the screen first opened must now be replaced by numerics (the value is
not important) as shown in Figure 11-57.

Dashes replaced
by value
(Here shown as 10
However, any
value can be
shown.)

Figure 11-57. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen after O2 offset calibration

5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.4.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Screen displays --- ADUs.

Action
Check oxygen cell is disconnected.
Replace mainboard with one of same type (PN 157250).
Alternatively, upgrade mainboard and software to latest type.

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Test 10.4

Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain


Note
This test can only run immediately after performing Test 10.3.
1. Install the oxygen cell.
2. Activate O2 Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 11-58.
This remains for two minutes during which time calibration takes place.

Figure 11-58. The screen you see by activating O2 Calibration

3. You see the original Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement screen again. (Figure 11-56.)
Verify that the message Calibration successful is displayed near the bottom of this
screen.
4. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.5.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Check oxygen cell is connected.

Calibration not OK

Check oxygen is connected.


Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.5

Checking the oxygen measurement


1. Activate FiO2 target (in the top part of the screen) and adjust it to the first of the two
readings (25%) displayed in Table 11-15.
RAPHAEL must display
FiO2 target vol%

FiO2 vol%

25

22.0 to 28.0

40

37.0 to 43.0

Table 11-15. Values for the oxygen measurement test

2. Verify that the FiO2 reading (in the center part of the screen) is in range after two
minutes. (Table 11-15.)
3. Repeat the activation, adjustment and check for the 40% value.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
FiO2 is out of range

Action
Check oxygen cell is connected.
Check oxygen is connected.
Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 11: Calibration + Scaling Values


Test 11.1

Overview
This is not a true test, but a display of the numerous calibration and scaling values you set in earlier
test units. The figures enable you to confirm, with reasonable certainty, that you performed the
earlier test units satisfactorily.

Test 11.2

Preparation
Activate one Test 11: Calibration + Scaling Values. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 11-59.

T e s t 1121 : C a l i b r a t i o n + S c a l i n g V a l u e s
Pprox gain
1.012
Pprox zoom gain
1.016
O2 offest/gain
6 0.800
Flow Insp/Exp
96
96
Insp:Exp
1.0
2.0
Monitoring 1
1
Monitoring 2
2
Monitoring 3
3
Mode
1
Sigh
0
Backup
1
Trigger
6
Available
000000011111

70
40
2
15
50
10
14
22.0

Curves
Language
O2 Cell
Flow Sensor
ASV enabled

0
1
1
1
0

6026
9
700

Weight
kg
Pmax
mbar
PEEP
mbar
Psupp
mbar
FiO2
vol%
VT
ml/kg
Rrmax
bpm
Screen Contrast
-V
Run Time
min
Altitude
m

Close
Figure 11-59. The Calibration + Scaling Values test screen

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 11: Calibration + Scaling Values

Test 11.3

Checking calibration values


Check that the following values are not at their factory defaults, and are therefore probably
correctly calibrated. (Table 11-16.)
Parameter

Factory default
value

Pprox gain

1.000

Pprox zoom gain

1.000

O2 offset

These values are displayed


together as O2 offset/gain

O2 gain
Flow Insp

These values are displayed


together as Flow Insp/Exp

Flow Exp

0
1.000

Action

Check that factory


default value is not
displayed.

100
100

Table 11-16. Calibrated values to check

If the values appear to be correctly calibrated, go to Test 14: Supply Voltages, on page 11-85.

Troubleshooting
If all or most of the values are still at their factory defaults as shown on Table 11-16, you did not
perform the full series of tests correctly as described in Section 11.4, Sequence of test software
units, on page 11-2. In this case, repeat all tests, starting from Test 1: Memory, on page 11-6.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 12: Gas Delivery Controls


Test 13: Sensor Values
Note
These tests are for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. Descriptions are not included in this
document.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 14: Supply Voltages

Test 14: Supply Voltages


Test 14.1

Overview
This test enables you to check that RAPHAEL s power supply can recognize and can automatically
switch to battery use when mains voltage is too low or unavailable. The test uses and therefore
checks the mechanism RAPHAEL uses automatically during normal ventilation to test the battery
every 20 minutes (with software version 1.x).

Test 14.2

Preparation
Activate Test 14: Supply Voltages. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 11-60.

Figure 11-60. The Supply Voltages test screen

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Test 14.3

Checking the power supply


1. Ensure that when Mains off is not activated, the Battery voltage shows a value in
the range 26.6 to 30 V.
This tells us that either the first part of the power supply, or the backup batteries, is
supplying a voltage in the acceptable range to the second part of the power supply.
2. Ensure that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 11-17.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly at the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.
Field

Range

+5

4.95 to 5.25V

+15

13.5 to 15.75V

-15

-13.5 to -16.5V

Table 11-17. Voltages

3. Activate : Mains off and make sure that the battery voltage reads 24 to 26.5 V.
This shows the voltage of the backup battery.
4. Check that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 11-17.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly with the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.
Note
You have now completed all required test software tests. (You cannot perform Test 15.)

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Battery voltage out of


range when Mains off
not activated.

Compare the voltage shown on screen with the voltage at the 24 V test point, as described
in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.

+5 V, +15 V or -15 V
value out of range.

Compare the voltages shown on screen with the voltages at the test points, as described in
Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.

If the voltage is out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltage is in range, but the
values shown on screen is wrong, replace the mainboard.

If the voltages are out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltages are in range, but
the screen values are wrong, replace the mainboard.
Battery voltage out of
range when Mains off
activated.

Check the backup batteries are connected.


Unless the batteries have not been charged for a long time (perhaps RAPHAEL has not
been attached to the mains power supply for several months) replace the batteries.
If RAPHAEL has not been connected to the mains for a long time, connect it to the mains
power supply for at least six hours, and then perform this test again.

Table 11-18. Troubleshooting Test 14: Supply Voltages

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 14: Supply Voltages

Test 14.4

Mandatory completion point for test software


1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the off position and restarting the
unit.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)
2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3 to determine your next action.

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11 Running version 1.x test software

Test 15: Alarm Messages


Note
This test is for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. A description is not included in this document.

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Section

12 Running version 2.* test software


12

12.1

Introduction
This section explains how to use each of the test units comprising the RAPHAEL software version 2.*
test software.
The expression RAPHAEL software version 2.* refers to the following software releases:

2.0 and 2.0S


2.01 and 2.01S
2.1 (Japan only)
2.21 and 2.21S
2.2, 2.2S, and 2.2C
2.22, 2.22S, and 2.22C
2.23, 2.23S, and 2.23C
2.24CU
2.25CU

Note
There is a particular recommendation to update if you have software version 2.2*.
The reason for this is that under very specific conditions, the precision of RAPHAEL's adaptive
volume controller can be impaired. As a result, RAPHAEL sometimes fails to fully compensate
for compliance and resistance changes.
Note, however, that the functionality of the alarms is at no time affected; there is therefore no
risk to the patient, providing the user operates the ventilator in accordance with the manual.
Software version 2.* can function with all mainboard versions: PN 157250, PN 157265 and
PN 157373.
If using software version 2.* with mainboard PN 157373, you must be sure to set the jumpers
on the mainboard correctly. For more information, see Appendix E.2.1, Setting the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373, on page E-6.
(Mainboard PN 157373 is fitted only to software version 3.* units in the factory, but can be
fitted to software revision 2.* units as a field repair. For this reason, it might be necessary to
change the jumper settings when performing a field repair.)
In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).
On a few occasions, different software versions require different test procedures. Where necessary,
these are noted.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

12.2

Messages
While running test software, you can see any of the messages shown in Table 12-1:
Message

Action
Displays briefly

Mixer Valve Defect

Do nothing.

Displays continuously
Replace mixer valves.
Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure High

Do nothing.

Replace mixer valves.


Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure Low

Do nothing.

Ensure that both the high-pressure air and the


high-pressure oxygen supply at the rear of RAPHAEL are
functioning properly.

Air Missing

Do nothing.

Ensure that the high-pressure air connection at the rear


of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

O2 Missing

Do nothing.

Ensure that the high-pressure oxygen connection at the


rear of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

Baseline error

Do nothing.

Start again at Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on


page 12-47.

EEPROM Error: xxxx

Do nothing.

Replace mainboard. Perform the tests described in


Section 10, Manual electrical safety tests. Then perform
all test software again.

Table 12-1. Test software messages and user actions

12.3

Checklist
Before starting, be sure that you:
Are familiar with the Typographic conventions and Expressions on page Conventions-2
Have the necessary equipment (Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment)
Have prepared RAPHAEL by performing actions described in the following sections:
Section 8, Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance
Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests
Have compressed air and oxygen attached to the rear of the RAPHAEL
Have sufficient time (testing takes approximately 90 minutes)
Consider also whether you must write a test report. Some hospitals require that you do this. If you
do not have a suitable form, you can photocopy and use the one named RAPHAEL version 2.* and
3.* test software report at the back of this manual.

12.4

Functions of the test software test units


The test units in the test software perform the following functions:
They display information
They enable you to run checks on RAPHAEL hardware and software

12-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Sequence of test software units

They enable you to calibrate RAPHAEL hardware and software

12.5

Sequence of test software units


Table 12-2 lists each of the units found in the test software in software version 2.*.
WARNING

Always perform all Must do tests, in the prescribed sequence, as shown in Table 12-2. (Earlier
tests confirm the functioning of certain RAPHAEL components that are then used in later tests
to configure other components.)
If one of the tests indicates that you must replace a part or perform another test, do this
immediately, then repeat the test you are on. Then repeat the complete series of tests.

CAUTION
Air and oxygen must be connected to the high pressures inlets at the rear of the ventilator from test
5 onwards. Failure to do so can damage the inspiratory valve.

Must
do?

Software version 2.*

Comments

Yes

Test 1 Memory

None.

Yes

Test 2 Display

None.

Yes

Test 3 Frontpanel

None.

Yes

Test 4 Alarm monitor

None.

Yes

Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure

None.

Yes

Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

None.

Yes

Test 7 Pressure Sensors

None.

Yes

Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve

None.

Yes

Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure

None.

Yes

Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement

None.

Yes

Test 11 Interface

You only perform this test if the optional communication


interface is installed on RAPHAEL.

Yes

Test 12 Calibration + Scaling Values

There are two slightly different versions of this test:

Test 12 EEPROM Values

Test 12 Calibration + Scaling Values is for


Software version 2.0*
Test 12 EEPROM Values is for Software version 2.2*
This unit does not enable you to test RAPHAEL, but
enables you to check that the calibration values you set in
previous test units appear correct.

No

Test 13: Gas Delivery Controls

No

Test 14: Sensor Values

These tests are performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG


only. Instructions are not included in this manual.

Table 12-2. Sequence of test software units

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Must
do?

Software version 2.*

Comments

Yes

Test 15 Supply Voltages

None.

No

Test 16: Alarm Messages

This test is performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.


Instructions are not included in this manual.

No

Test 17 Event Log

These tests are not compulsory. However, you can perform


them if you wish.

No

Test 18 Trend Data

Table 12-2. Sequence of test software units

12.6

Entering test software mode


To enter test software mode:
1. Make sure RAPHAEL is switched off.
2. Set microswitch S1 on the main circuit board to the ON position using a pen or suitable
tool. (Figure 12-1.)

Figure 12-1. Setting microswitch S1 to ON

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)
3. Connect the RAPHAEL to the mains power supply.
4. Switch on the RAPHAEL. The RAPHAEL starts in test software mode.

12-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Entering test software mode

5. Verify that the AC power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated. (Figure 12-2.)

Figure 12-2. AC power indicator LED

6. Verify that the display shows Test 1: Memory. (Figure 12-3.)

Figure 12-3. The Test 1: Memory test, as first displayed

7. Verify that LED 1 on the mainboard starts blinking. (Figure 12-4.)

Blinking LED 1

Figure 12-4. Position of LEDs on mainboard PN 157373. (Other

mainboards are similar.)

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12 Running version 2.* test software

12.7

How to use the test software


Turn the P&T-knob to scroll to the required test, then press the knob to activate the test. When you
first enter test software mode, Test 1: Memory is selected (but not activated) as shown in
Figure 12-3.
After finishing each test, select and activate Close.

12.7.1

Alarms during test software mode


While in test software mode, no alarms are displayed except the Technical Fault 1 (TF 1 Code *),
and gas delivery alarms. You can find further information in the alarms section in the RAPHAEL
Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, and in Section 14, Alarms, technical
faults, and troubleshooting.

12.7.2

Exiting test software mode


To exit the test software, switch off the RAPHAEL and set switch S1 on the main circuit board to the
off position.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for development
use only.)

12-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1: Memory
Test 1.1

Overview
This series of tests checks:

The memory function


The setting of the altitude
The reading of operating hours
The real-time clock

It also lets you reset the scaling values and configuration data if required.
Test 1.2

Preparation
Activate Test 1: Memory. You see a screen similar to the one shown Figure 12-5.

Operating Hours
shown here when
setting required

These fields only


with mainboard
PN 157265 and
PN 157373

ASV enabled
or
ASV enabled
shown here,
depending on
software version

Displays None with mainboard PN 157250


Figure 12-5. The Memory test screen

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Note
If you run this test directly after installing a new software PROM with software version 2.*C,
but you did not install a new Flash PROM, you see a message similar to the following:
Graphics Module needs to be reprogrammed
Please press button to reprogram Graphics Module
168 blocks need to be programmed
Respond to this by pressing the P&T-knob. For more information, see Download screen. on
page 14-17.
If you run this test directly after installing any new software, it is very likely that you will see the
following message:
Checksum error while reading data from EEPROM.
Execute memory test and set factory settings.
In this case, perform Test 1: Memory in the normal way, making sure to activate:
Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings
Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
If any other message is displayed, look for the message in Section 14.6, General
troubleshooting, on page 14-13.
If the screen does not display text clearly, check the contrast adjustment as described in
Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only), on
page 12-20. (You cannot do this with RAPHAEL Color.)

Troubleshooting
Symptom

12-8

Action

Cannot activate test.

Replace P&T-knob.

Screen is not clear.

Perform Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome


RAPHAELs only), on page 12-20.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.3

Checking and setting the scaling values


Verify that Scaling Values (the field near the bottom of the screen) reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings (the field near the
top of the screen).
WARNING

Only activate Scaling Values to Factory Settings or Configuration Data to Factory


Settings if the corresponding value reads Not OK. This action sets these parameters to their
factory-default, precalibration values. While these values make an appropriate starting point
for performing these tests, they are not correct for ventilating a patient.
If you set the scaling values to the factory settings, you must perform all the tests in this
section.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings.

Scaling Values: Not OK

If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 1.4

Checking and setting the configuration data


Verify that Configuration Data reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

12-10

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Configuration Data: Not OK

If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.5

Checking and adjusting the altitude setting


The altitude setting is for compensation of the flow measurement at the Flow Sensor. This
measurement influences RAPHAELs calculation of flow and volume.
Verify Altitude is set to the operating height of the RAPHAEL, measured in meters above sea level.
If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob. (The factory setting is 700m. You can adjust it in
increments of 100m.)
WARNING
You must adjust the altitude setting for the location in which RAPHAEL will operate. This is not
necessarily the same as the altitude at which you are performing this test.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 1.6

Checking and setting the number of operating hours


The Operating Hours value is displayed near the bottom of the screen, and shows the total
number of hours that the unit has been in operation (Figure 12-5 on page 12-7).
Unless you have just changed the mainboard, ensure that the value displayed approximates the
number of hours that RAPHAEL has been in operation. (For help in this, see Test 1.6.1.)
If you have just changed the mainboard, use the P&T-knob to reset the operating hours as closely as
possible to the original value displayed on RAPHAEL.
Note
If you have not just changed the mainboard, you cannot reset the operating hours value. Go to
Test 1.7, Date and Time.

Test 1.6.1

Determining the operating hours value


To estimate the time RAPHAEL has been in operation, you must answer two questions:
How long has the RAPHAEL been in the hospital?
What sort of regimen does the hospital practice are the machines left on all day and
night, or are they turned off between patients?
If the RAPHAEL is in a hospital where it is kept running continuously, the number of operating hours
is 720 multiplied by the number of months the ventilator was in the hospital.
In hospitals in which RAPHAEL is not kept running continuously, an average number of operating
hours is 400 a month. In this case, the number of operating hours is 400 multiplied by the number
of months of use.
Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

The following error message is displayed at the


bottom of the screen:
Operating Hours: Not OK

Reset the operating hours.


If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

In addition the following message is shown in the


middle of the screen:
Operating Hours: ---The value for the number of operating hours is
unreasonably high. (For example, 100000.)

12-12

Contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG


(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch) for a solution.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.7

Date and Time


If these fields are present, verify both are correct. If required, adjust them using the P&T-knob.
Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore do not show this field.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Date or time incorrect.

Action
Reset the date and time.
If the date or time become incorrect again, change the real-time clock battery.
(Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on page 15-19.)

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 1.8

ASV enabled
Note
With software versions 2.2S and 2.2C, this field is not displayed.
This field, when present, displays either ASV enabled or ASV disabled, depending upon the way
RAPHAEL is configured.
1. If the ASV field is displayed, verify that it reads:
ASV enabled if you are in the USA
: ASV enabled if you are in the rest of the world
If necessary, activate or deactivate this field using the P&T-knob.
2. Activate Close.

12-14

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.9

Checking the clock battery


Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore show Clock Battery None.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.
Verify that the value of Clock Battery is OK or None.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

You have mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373, and,


the value of Clock Battery is None or Low.

June 9, 2006

Replace clock battery and set the date and time as shown in
Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on
page 15-19.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 2: Display
Test 2.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the display, and enables you to adjust the screen contrast to the required
value on monochrome instruments. The color and monochrome versions of this test differ slightly
from one another.

Test 2.2

Preparation
Activate Test 2: Display. If you have a RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Silver, you see a screen similar to
the one shown on Figure 12-6.

This field not


displayed in
RAPHAEL Color

Figure 12-6. The Display test screen for RAPHAEL basic and Silver

Note
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, the Screen Contrast field is not displayed.

12-16

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display

Test 2.3

Testing the display


1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no lines are missing. (Figure 12-7 shows an approximation to the grid, but is limited in
accuracy because of the printing process.)
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, make sure that the screen is only black and white: there
should not be any colored pixels.

Figure 12-7. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. The a grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that
the pattern remains regular and no lines are missing. (Figure 12-8 shows an approximation
to the grid, but is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, also make sure that the screen is only black and white: there
should not be any colored pixels.

Figure 12-8. The second black-and-white test grid

3. Press the P&T-knob again. If you do not have a RAPHAEL Color, the Test 2: Display
screen is displayed (Figure 12-6 on page 12-16). In this case, go now to Test 2.4, Checking
and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only), on page 12-20.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

If you have a RAPHAEL Color, the following screen is displayed. (Figure 12-9.)

Figure 12-9. The first color test screen

Make sure that all colors are clearly displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.
4. If you have a RAPHAEL Color, press the P&T-knob again. You see the same screen, but
inverted. (Figure 12-10.)

Figure 12-10. The second color test screen

5. Make sure that all colors are displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.Press the
P&T-knob again. You have now finished this test.
You cannot perform Test 2.4, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs
only), because you have a color display. Go to Test 3: Frontpanel, on page 12-22.

12-18

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Color pixels are visible on the black
and white screen grids.

Display is dark.

Action
You might decide that minor imperfections in the TFT color screen are
acceptable. However, if the imperfections make the screen in any way difficult to
read, replace the screen as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.
Replace dc/ac converter board.
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display.

Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 2.4

Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only)


Note
You cannot perform this test and adjustment if you have a RAPHAEL Color. However, RAPHAEL
Color has a more sophisticated screen that can be viewed from a wide range of angles without
the need for adjustment.
The monochrome display is temperature-sensitive. Perform this test and adjustment in
conditions that approximate the temperature in which the RAPHAEL is normally used.
During normal operation, you can adjust the contrast of the monochrome display in the
Utilities window.
1. Activate Screen Contrast and check that the contrast can be adjusted with the
P&T-knob.
2. Set the reading to 22.0.
3. Use the potentiometer on the mainboard (Figure 12-11) to adjust the screen contrast to
be most easily readable. While doing this, look at the screen from the place at which the
operator normally uses the RAPHAEL. (This could be slightly below or above the screen,
depending on where the RAPHAEL is placed.)

Buzzer

Figure 12-11. Potentiometer for adjusting screen contrast on all mainboards

4. Activate Close.

12-20

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Contrast not adjustable with P&T-knob.

You have a color display, with which it is (correctly) not possible to


adjust the contrast. No action is possible.

Contrast not adjustable with potentiometer.

Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4,


Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on
page 15-15.)
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,
on page 15-21.
Replace mainboard.

Screen is not bright and clear and easily


readable, even after adjustment.

June 9, 2006

Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,


on page 15-21.

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12 Running version 2.* test software

Test 3: Frontpanel
Test 3.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the loudspeaker, the buzzer, and the entire user interface.

Test 3.2

Preparation
Activate Test 3: Frontpanel. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-12.

Figure 12-12. The Frontpanel test screen

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.3

Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time


1. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel. (Figure 12-13).
The alarm LED illuminates and Alarm Silence is activated on the screen.
Alarm LED

Figure 12-13. Alarm silence key with alarm LED

2. Verify that the alarm LED remains illuminated while the Alarm Silence Time counts up
to 120 5 seconds. At this time, the light must extinguish (must go out).
3. Activate : Buzzer using the P&T-knob.
4. Verify that the buzzer alarm sounds after Backup Buzzer Time displays 60 5 seconds.
5. Deactivate Buzzer.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

Alarm LED does not illuminate after alarm silence key is pressed.

Replace front panel keyboard.

Timer does not start after alarm silence key is pressed.

Replace front panel keyboard.

Backup buzzer does not function after 60 seconds.

Replace mainboard.

Buzzer sounds after 60 seconds.

Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence time 120 seconds.

Replace mainboard.

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Test 3.4

Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs


1. Activate : Nebulizer and verify that the nebulizer LED on the front panel illuminates.
2. Repeat this procedure for : Trigger and : Alarm, making sure the corresponding front
panel LED illuminates in each case.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Nebulizer LED does not function.

Action
Replace front panel keyboard.
Replace mainboard.

Trigger LED does not illuminate.


Alarm LED does not illuminate.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.5

Checking the alarm tones


Activate the three alarm level tests in turn, and check that the corresponding number of beeps
sound.
Alarm low (low priority): One sequence of two beeps.
Alarm medium (medium priority): One sequence of three beeps.
Alarm high (high priority): Two sequences of three-beeps-followed-by-two-beeps.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Alarm (low, medium, or high) does not function.

Replace loudspeaker.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 3.6

Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards


Switch on and off each key on the display panel and the front panel. (Figure 12-14.)

Display panel keys

Front panel keys

Figure 12-14. Display panel and front panel keys

Verify that the display indicates each use of each key. (Figure 12-15 shows the screen with the Mode
key active.)

Figure 12-15. The Frontpanel test screen with the Mode key active

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Test 3: Frontpanel

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Display panel keys do not operate.

Action
Check display panel keyboard cable.
Replace graphic controller board.
Replace display panel keyboard.

Front panel keys do not operate.

Check front panel keyboard cable.


Replace graphic controller board.
Replace front panel keyboard.

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Test 3.7

Testing the P&T-knob


1. Turn the P&T-knob clockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks modulo
16 counts from 0 to 15.
2. Turn the P&T-knob anticlockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks
modulo 16 counts from 0 to -15.
3. Activate Close to return to the main menu.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
P&T-knob does not count step-by-step.

12-28

Action
Replace P&T-knob.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4: Alarm monitor


Test 4.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the various different alarm conditions.

Test 4.2

Preparation
Activate 4: Alarm monitor. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-16.

Figure 12-16. The Alarm monitor test screen

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Test 4.3

Checking for error signals


Verify the following indicators remain inactive at all times during the tests you perform in
Test 4: Alarm monitor:
Voltage error
uP clock
P-Source fail

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Voltage error activated.

Action
Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.
P-source fail activated.

12-30

Replace mainboard.
Inspiratory valve current too high.

Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high.

Replace expiratory valve.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.4

Testing the power down status flag


For background information about this test, see Appendix B.2, on page B-1.
1. Check that : Power down is activated. (This flag indicates that RAPHAEL was correctly
powered down, by using the switch at the back of the unit, the last time it was powered
down.)
2. Activate : Run status. (This simulates the start of normal ventilation.)
3. Verify that Power down is now deactivated. (This indicates that RAPHAEL has correctly
reset this field at the start of normal ventilation.)
Note
You cannot reactivate this field except by switching off and switching on RAPHAEL.
Note
Alarm sound is not used in this test. Do not activate this field.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Power down not activated at start of test.

Switch RAPHAEL off and on.


Replace mainboard.

Power down cannot be deactivated by Run status.

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Test 4.5

Checking the alarm LED


1. Activate : Alarm light.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly).
(Figure 12-13 on page 12-23.)
3. Deactivate Alarm light.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Alarm silence LED does not blink.

12-32

Action
Replace mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Testing the alarm silence function

Test 4.6

1. Activate : Alarm silence.


2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel illuminates (turns on). (Figure 12-13 on
page 12-23.)
3. Deactivate Alarm silence.
4. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel.
5. Verify that the alarm LED illuminates.
6. Activate : New alarm.
7. Verify that the alarm LED extinguishes (turns off).
8. Activate the alarm silence key on the front panel. The LED must not illuminate.
9. Deactivate New alarm.
10. Press the alarm silence key again to silence future alarms (the alarm LED illuminates again).

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

New alarm does not cancel the alarm silence LED.

Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence key does not function.

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Test 4.7

Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position


Activate : Valves off. As you do this:
1. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 12-17.)

Ambient
state LED

Figure 12-17. The ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157265

(Mainboard PN 157373 is very similar)

Note
This LED is not present on mainboard PN 157250.
2. Verify that the expiratory valve plunger pin moves down to its unpowered (de-energized)
position. (Figure 12-18.)

Pin in
normal
position

Pin in
unpowered
position

Figure 12-18. The expiratory valve plunger in normal and unpowered positions

3. Deactivate Valves off.

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Test 4: Alarm monitor

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Ambient state LED does not illuminate (fitted on mainboard PN 157265 and
PN 157373 only) and expiratory valve does not move down to its unpowered
position.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Replace mainboard.
Replace inspiratory valve.
Replace expiratory valve.

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Test 4.8

Testing the front panel LEDs


1. Activate : Lamp test.
2. Verify that each LED on the front panel illuminates and that the buzzer sounds.
3. Deactivate Lamp test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Alarm, nebulizer or trigger LED does not function.

Action
Replace mainboard.

Backup buzzer does not function.

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Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.9

Testing the watchdog


1. Activate : Stop Watchdog.
2. Verify that:
The expiratory valve plunger sinks to its unpowered (de-energized) position
(Figure 12-18)
The alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly)
The buzzer sounds
The following message is displayed: Watchdog working correctly
3. Switch the unit off and on.
4. Activate Test 4: Alarm monitor again, and go to Test 4.10.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Stop watchdog has no effect.

June 9, 2006

Replace mainboard.

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Test 4.10

Testing backup battery operation


1. Verify that:
Battery operation is not activated
Battery low is not activated
The ac power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated (switched on)
(Figure 12-2 on page 12-5)
2. Disconnect the power cord from the unit.
3. Verify that:
: Battery operation is activated
Battery low is not activated
The ac power indicator LED on the front panel extinguishes (switches off)
(Figure 12-2 on page 12-5)
4. Reconnect the unit to mains power.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Battery operation activated while mains connected.

Replace fuse.
Replace power supply.
Replace mainboard.

Battery low activated.

Replace mainboard.

ac power indicator LED malfunctions.

Replace front panel keyboard.


Replace power supply.

Not possible to activate Battery operation by removing


power cord.

12-38

Replace power supply.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.11

Testing the fan

Test 4.11.1

Fan test 1
1. Carefully stop the fan from rotating by applying light pressure to the center of rotor.
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Release the fan.
4. Verify that Fan error deactivates.

Test 4.11.2

Fan test 2
1. Disconnect the fan cable from the mainboard (plug P16/Fan).
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Reconnect the fan cable.
4. Verify that Fan error deactivates.
Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action
Replace fan.

Fan error activated while fan is running.

Replace mainboard.

Fan error deactivated while fan is not running.

June 9, 2006

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Replace fan.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 4.12

Checking again for error signals


Verify the following indicators are still inactive:
Voltage error
uP clock
P-Source fail
Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Voltage error activated.

Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.
P-source fail activated.

12-40

Replace mainboard.
Inspiratory valve current too high.

Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high.

Replace expiratory valve.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure


Test 5.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the gas mixer system and tank pressure. During the tests, both the oxygen
and the air mixer solenoid valves are activated separately for individual testing. Throughout the tests
the nebulizer valve remains open to allow you to measure the tank pressure at the nebulizer outlet.
WARNING
During this test series, RAPHAEL automatically switches on the nebulizer valve. If you switch
the valve off by using the nebulizer key on the front panel, you will obtain false readings.

Test 5.2

Preparation
1. Connect the air and oxygen supplies to the unit. (Figure 12-19.)

Figure 12-19. The gas supplies connected to the unit

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2. Activate 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-20.

Figure 12-20. The Mixer and Tank Pressure test screen

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Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.3

Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves


1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 2 bars.
2. Connect the pressure gauge to the nebulizer outlet as shown in Figure 12-21.
Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper
Figure 12-21. The tubing setup for Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer

valves
3. Close the patient outlet with a stopper.
4. Activate Air Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-22.

Figure 12-22. The screen you see by activating Air Test

5. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings according to
Table 12-3.
Field

RAPHAEL must display

Ptank max

950 to 1100

Ptank min

840 to 860

Offset frequency Hz

4720 to 7080

Table 12-3. Values for the air and O 2 tests

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6. Activate Stop running test.


7. Activate O2 Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-23.

Figure 12-23. The screen you see by activating O2 Test

8. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings again, also
according to Table 12-3 on page 12-43.
9. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Tank Pressure Low displayed

Action
Check the oxygen and the air supplies.
Check the tank and tank mounting for leaks.

Offset frequency outside specification


and mixer valve leak

Replace dPmixer pressure sensor cable.


Replace dPmixer pressure sensor.
Replace rubber mounting block.
Replace air and oxygen mixer valves.
Replace mainboard.

Ptank Max pressure outside


specification

Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or flow).
Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including nebulizer tubing).
Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 12-72 to recalibrate the
inspiratory valve, then return to Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves, on page 12-43.
Replace the mixer valves in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.4

Testing the tank overpressure valve


1. Confirm that the pressure gauge and stopper are still in place. (Figure 12-24.)
Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Stopper
Figure 12-24. The patient outlet closed for Test 6.3

2. Activate : Air Valve.


3. Verify the tank pressure reading according to Table 12-4. (During this test the tank
overpressure valve opens with a rasping sound.)
Field

Pressure Gauge

Ptank

1200 to 1600

RAPHAEL must display


Pressure gauge value 300

Table 12-4. Values for tank overpressure test

4. Deactivate Air Valve.


5. Remove the pressure gauge.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Ptank pressure sensor outside specification

Action
Replace Ptank pressure sensor.
Replace mainboard.

Ptank measured on gauge > 1.6 bar


Ptank measured on gauge < 1.2 bar

Replace tank overpressure valve.


Check that gas supply is sufficient (low pressure or flow).
Replace tank overpressure valve.

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Test 5.5

Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage
1. Activate : Air Valve and then deactivate Air Valve to bring the tank up to a high
pressure.
2. Reduce the pressure in the tank to very approximately 100 mbar, as displayed by Ptank.
(Figure 12-1 on page 12-4.) You do this by activating and then deactivating the Nebulizer
key on the front panel.
3. Wait approximately 5 seconds, while the pressure in the tank stabilizes.
4. Monitor the pressure for a period of approximately 30 seconds.
Make sure that the pressure decreases during this time.
5. Leave the stopper in place, and activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Ptank displays a constant or a rising pressure.

Replace one of the mixer valves and perform this test again.
If necessary replace the second mixer valve.

12-46

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.


Test 6.1

Overview
This series of tests checks each of the following:

The Flow Sensor autozero valves


The extended rinse flow valves
The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve
The nebulizer valve

The schematics displayed in Table 12-5 show the positions of these components. You can find these
schematics in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.
Valve description

Valve names used in different places


This test

Schematic
ZCH157276 Blatt 1

Schematic
ZCH614186 Blatt 2

Flow Sensor autozero valve on


side proximal to patient.

V1

AZ dPptm proximal (V1)a

6 Autozero valve
proximal

Flow Sensor autozero valve on


side distal to patient.

V2

AZ dPptm distal (V2)a

7 Autozero valve distal

Extended rinse flow valve on


side proximal to patient.

V3

Ext. AZ dPptm proximal


(V3)b

4 Extended rinse flow


valve

Extended rinse flow valve on


side distal to patient.

V4

Ext. AZ dPptm distal (V4)b

5 Extended rinse flow


valve

Autozero valve for the Pvent


pressure sensor.

V5

AZ Pvent (V5)

16 Autozero valve
Pvent

Valve controlling flow of gas


from the tank to the nebulizer
outlet.

Nebulizer

Nebulizer

3 Nebulizer valve

Table 12-5. Valve naming conventions


a. dPptm stands for differential pressure of the pneumatic tachometer (Flow Sensor).
b. Despite the name used in this schematic, this is not an autozero valve.

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Test 6.2

Preparation
Activate Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-25.

Figure 12-25. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. test screen

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Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.3

Testing the autozero valves


1. Activate Autozero Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-26.

Figure 12-26. The screen you see by activating Autozero Valves Test

The Flow Sensor autozero valves V1 and V2 switch on and off in the following sequence:
V1 and V2 (5 seconds)
: V1 and : V2 (5 seconds)
V1 and V2 (5 seconds)
and so on
2. Seal the silver Flow Sensor outlet with a finger or thumb as shown in Figure 12-27.

blue

Figure 12-27. Sealing one Flow Sensor outlet

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3. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 12-6.
Field

Silver connector sealed

Blue connector sealed

V2 deactivated

V2 activated

V1 deactivated

V1 activated

-.--

-0.6 to 0.6

-.--

-0.6 to 0.6

dPptm

Table 12-6. Values for dPptm reading during autozero valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Unseal the silver Flow Sensor, and seal the blue Flow Sensor outlet.
5. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 12-6.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Autozero valves V1 & V2 do not function.

Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after


each replacement.
Replace mainboard.
Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low
pressure or flow).

dPptm -----.-- while autozero valve activated.

Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including


nebulizer tubing).
Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace pneumatic block.

Inspiratory valve zero point out


of range.

dPptm 00.6 while autozero valve activated.

Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 12-72 to recalibrate


the inspiratory valve, then return to Test 6.3, Testing the autozero
valves, on page 12-49.
Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.
Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace each autozero valve in turn, performing this test after
each replacement.
Replace mainboard.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.4

Testing the extended rinse flow valves


1. Connect a Flow Sensor to RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 12-28. (Note that the stopper
must be in place.)

Stopper

Figure 12-28. The tubing setup for Test 6.4, Testing the extended rinse flow

valves
2. Activate Extended Rinse Flow Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 12-29.

These fields
activate
alternately

Figure 12-29. The screen you see by activating Extended Rinse Flow Valves

Test
The extended rinse flow valves : V3 and : V4 switch in the sequence:
: V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and : V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
and so on

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3. Using Table 12-7, verify that whichever valve is active (: V3 or : V4), pressure reading
dPptm displays the correct corresponding pressure.
Field

With V3 active, RAPHAEL


must display

With V4 active, RAPHAEL


must display

dPptm

0.8 mbar

-0.8 mbar
(-0.8, -2... - mbar)

Table 12-7. Values for dPptm reading in extended rinse flow valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Activate Stop running test.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor but leave the stopper in place.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
dPptm < 0.8 mbar while V3 active.

Action
Replace pneumatic block.

dPptm > -0.8 mbar while V4 active.


Extended autozero valves V3 & V4 do
not function.

Replace each extended autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
Replace mainboard.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.5

Testing the Pvent autozero valve


1. Activate Pvent Autozero Valve Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-30 on page 12-53.
Valve V5 switches on and off with an interval of 5 seconds.

Switches on and
off with an
interval of 5
seconds

Figure 12-30. The screen you see by activating Pvent Autozero Valves Test

2. Verify that while valve 5 is active (: V5), Pprox = Pvent (10.0).


3. Verify that while valve 5 is inactive ( v5), Pprox = 0.0 (5.0), Pvent 80.
4. Disconnect the stopper.
5. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pvent Pprox 10.0 while V5 active.
Pprox 0 5 while V5 inactive.

Action
Check the Pprox pressure sensor cable.
Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
Replace the Pvent autozero valve.

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Test 6.6

Testing the nebulizer valve


1. Activate the Nebulizer (: Nebulizer) as shown in Figure 12-31.

Figure 12-31. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. screen with Nebulizer active

2. Verify that while the nebulizer is activated (: Nebulizer), a flow is provided at the
nebulizer outlet. (Figure 12-32.)

Flow of air from


nebulizer outlet

Figure 12-32. The flow of gas at the nebulizer outlet

3. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
No flow at nebulizer outlet.

Action
Check internal tubing for leaks or disconnections.
Replace nebulizer valve.
Replace mainboard.

12-54

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7: Pressure Sensors


Test 7.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and calibrates the following pressure sensors:
dPptm (the sensor measuring pneumatic tachometer differential pressurethe pressure
differential across the Flow Sensor)
Pprox (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor)
Pvent (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the inspiratory valve)

Test 7.2

Preparation
Activate Test 7: Pressure Sensors. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-33.

Figure 12-33. The Pressure Sensors test screen

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Test 7.3

Autozeroing dPptm, Pprox and Pvent


1. Connect the inspiratory tube and expiratory tube, and make sure that the Flow Sensor is
not attached to the RAPHAEL. (Figure 12-34.)

Figure 12-34. Inspiratory and expiratory tube connected with Y-piece for

Test 7.3
2. Activate Autozero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-35.

Figure 12-35. The test screen you see by activating Autozero

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

3. Activate Perform Autozero to perform a zero-point error compensation for the pressure
sensors. Make sure that the screen displays the values shown in Table 12-8.

These rows
added for
information
only.

Field

RAPHAEL must display

dPptm

0.00 0.1 mbar

Paw

OK

Vaw

OK

Pvent

OK

dPptm
ADU

492 to 532

dPptm zoom
ADU

412 to 612 (Version 3.0)

Table 12-8. Values for autozero test

4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Paw not OK

Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.

Vaw not OK

Check dPptm pressure sensor cable.

Pvent not OK

Check Pprox pressure sensor cable.

dPptm out of range

Replace Pvent pressure sensor.


Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
Replace autozero valves in turn, performing this test after each replacement.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 7.4

Checking and adjusting dPptm gain


In this test, you calibrate the gain applied by RAPHAEL to the dPptm pressure sensor signal. You do
this by adjusting a potentiometer.
WARNING
During this procedure you must be sure to work to an accuracy of 0.01 mbar. This means you
must have a pressure gauge capable of this accuracy. Any RAPHAEL adjusted less accurately will
give an incorrect volume of gas to the patient.

1. Activate Adjust dPptm gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-36.

Figure 12-36. The screen you see by activating Adjust dPptm gain

2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 2.5 mbar.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

3. Connect the tubing system as shown in Figure 12-37. The bottle should be one liter or
larger. (For an alternative system, see Appendix B.3, on page B-2.)

Stopper

Flow
Flowregulator
regulator

Pressure
controller
Pressure gauge

1 liter

Figure 12-37. Tubing setup for Test 7.4

4. Provide a pressure of 2.0 to 2.5 mbar (as measured by the pressure gauge) to the silver
Flow Sensor outlet on the front panel, by adjusting the flow regulator. (The pressure is
generated by the rinse flow.)
dPptm zoom displays ----Note
Do not apply a pressure of more than 2.5 mbar.
5. Verify that dPptm displays the correct value (Table 12-9).
Field

dPptm

RAPHAEL must display


With silver Flow Sensor outlet

With blue Flow Sensor outlet

Pressure gauge value 0.02 mbar


(shown as a negative value on
RAPHAEL)

Pressure gauge value 0.02 mbar


(shown as a positive value on
RAPHAEL)

Table 12-9. Values for dPptm gain adjustment

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If the value is not in range, adjust it using the dPptm gain potentiometer. (Figure 12-38,
Figure 12-39 or Figure 12-40.)

Figure 12-38. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 12-39. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Figure 12-40. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

6. If dPptm shows the correct value, reduce the pressure to 0.8 to 0.9 mbar by adjusting the
flow regulator.
7. Verify that dPptm zoom displays the correct value. (Table 12-10).
Field

RAPHAEL must display


With silver Flow Sensor outlet

With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm value 0.01 mbar

dPptm value 0.01 mbar

dPptm zoom

Table 12-10. Values for dPptm zoom gain adjustment

If the value is not in range use the dPptm gain potentiometer for adjustment.
8. Repeat step (3) to step (7), using the blue Flow Sensor outlet. It must not be necessary to
make any adjustments.
9. Remove the stopper and wait 5 seconds.
10. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

Pressure sensor signal dPptm dPptm zoom.

Replace mainboard.

Pressure sensor dPptm not adjustable.

Replace mainboard.

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Test 7.5

Checking Pvent zero adjustment


1. Make sure that no tubing is connected to the front of the RAPHAEL.
2. Activate Pvent Zero Check. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-41.

Figure 12-41. The screen you see by activating Pvent Zero Check

3. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads zero, as shown in Table 12-11.
Field

RAPHAEL must display

Pvent

0.0 0.2

Table 12-11. Values for Pvent zero check

4. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pvent 0 mbar

Action
Check and adjust the inspiratory valve. Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 12-72. Then return
to test Test 7.5Checking Pvent zero adjustment, on page 12-62.
Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.
Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.6

Checking and adjusting Pvent gain


1. Prepare the RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 12-42.
Pressure
controller
Pressure
gauge

Pressure connector

Figure 12-42. Tubing setup for Test 7.6, Checking and adjusting Pvent gain

2. Activate Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-43.

Figure 12-43. The screen you see by activating Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain

3. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed with a finger or stopper while the system generates a
pressure of approximately 50 mbar (check this on the pressure gauge).

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4. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads the same as the pressure gauge, within
the tolerances given in Table 12-12.
Field

Pressure gauge

RAPHAEL must display

Pvent

45 to 55

Pressure gauge value 0.5

Table 12-12. Values for Pvent gain adjustment

5. Use the Pvent gain potentiometer to adjust the reading if it is out of range.
(Figure 12-44, Figure 12-45 or Figure 12-46.)

Figure 12-44. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Figure 12-45. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

Figure 12-46. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

6. Leave the tubing installation in place and continue to Test 7.7Adjusting Pprox gain.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pvent gain cannot be adjusted into the correct


range.

June 9, 2006

Replace the Pvent pressure sensor.


Replace mainboard.

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Symptom

Action

RAPHAEL cannot generate 45 to 55 mbar.

Check for leak in tubing setup.


Check ambient valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
Check patient overpressure valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
Perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 12-77 or Test 8.5, Testing and
calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373, on
page 12-81 to recalibrate expiratory valve, then return to
Test 7.6, Checking and adjusting Pvent gain, on page 12-63.
Replace expiratory valve.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.7

Adjusting Pprox gain


1. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed as shown in Figure 12-42 on page 12-63. Remain on the
screen shown in Figure 12-43 on page 12-63.
2. Verify that pressure Pvent still reads approximately 50 mbar. (Refer again to Table 12-12
on page 12-64.)
3. Activate Adjust Pprox gain.
4. Verify that the message Calibration successful appears.
5. Leave all tubing in place.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
The following message is displayed:
Calibration not successful

June 9, 2006

Action
Repeat the test, making sure that the pressure is in the correct
range.

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Test 7.8

Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure


sensors
1. Disconnect the Flow Sensor body (but not the sensor tubing) and the pressure gauge as
shown in Figure 12-47.

Figure 12-47. Tubing setup for Test 7.8, Checking the automatic analysis of

the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors


2. Activate Sensor Analysis. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-48.

Figure 12-48. The screen you see by activating Sensor Analysis

3. Activate Perform Sensor Analysis.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

4. Verify that Pprox and dPptm read Sensor OK, as shown on Table 12-13.
Fields

RAPHAEL displays

Pprox and dPptm

Comment
This is the expected and correct result.

Sensor OK

Table 12-13. Result from the Sensor Analysis test

5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

One of the following error messages is displayed:

Check the tubing for leaks.

Sensor out of range


Sensor defect

Check Pprox pressure sensor cable is connected and not


defective.

Problems with tubes

Replace Pprox pressure sensor.


Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 7.9

Calibrating the Flow Sensor


1. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 12-49.

Figure 12-49. Tubing setup for Test 7.9, Calibrating the Flow Sensor

2. Activate Flow Sensor Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-50.

Figure 12-50. The screen you see by activating Flow Sensor Calibration

3. Activate Perform Inspiration Calibration.


4. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Inspiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

5. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 12-14.


Field

RAPHAEL must display

Inspiration deviation

<35%

Expiration deviation

<35%

Table 12-14. Values for Flow Sensor calibration

6. Turn the Flow Sensor.


7. Activate Perform Expiration Calibration.
8. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Expiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.
9. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 12-14.
Note
You do not use the 100% O2 test.
10. Disconnect all tubing and the Flow Sensor.
11. Activate Close twice.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Calibration fails.

June 9, 2006

Action
Replace Flow Sensor.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve


Test 8.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and adjusts the electronic and mechanical functioning of the inspiratory
and expiratory valves.

Test 8.2

Preparation
Activate Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-51.

Figure 12-51. The I-Valve and E-Valve test screen

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.3

Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow


1. Connect the Flow Sensor as shown in Figure 12-52.

Blue tube
Blue
tube
Figure 12-52. Tubing setup for Test 8.3, Calibrating the inspiratory-valve

control signal for zero flow


2. Activate I-Valve zero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-53.

Figure 12-53. The screen you see by activating I-Valve zero

3. Verify that the base of the flow curve is centered between points a and b. Adjust the curve
with potentiometer Vzero if required. (Figure 12-54, Figure 12-55 or Figure 12-56.)
Note
It does not matter if the top of the curve lies in a position outside of the window.

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Figure 12-54. Vzero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 12-55. Vzero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Figure 12-56. Vzero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

4. Check that the width of the curve is at no point is greater than the distance from a to b.
Figure 12-53 on page 12-73 shows a curve that is in range.
Figure 12-57 shows a curve that is out of range.

Figure 12-57. An incorrect I-Valve zero curve

5. Check Vaw min is in accordance with Table 12-15.


Value

RAPHAEL must display

Vaw min ml/s

10 to 66

Table 12-15. Values for I-Valve leak flow

6. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Width of curve is greater than distance


from a to b, as shown in Figure 12-57.

Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
Replace inspiratory valve.

Vaw_min too large or too small.

Adjust potentiometer Vzero.


Replace inspiratory valve.

Curve has bad shape.

Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
Replace inspiratory valve.

No signal.

Check Flow Sensor is connected in the correct direction.


Replace inspiratory valve.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.4

Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265


Note
This test is for mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265 only.
If you have mainboard PN 157373, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve
with mainboard PN 157373, on page 12-81.
In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage gain.
1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157373, do not perform this test.
Instead, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard
PN 157373, on page 12-81.
2. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 12-58.
Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Pressure connector

Figure 12-58. Tubing setup for Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with

mainboard PN 157250 or 157265

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3. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-59.

Figure 12-59. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

4. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of different
pressures at intervals of 5 seconds.
5. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
6. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 12-16.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 12-16. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.
7. Activate Continue.
8. When the PEEP pressure rises to 25.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 25.0 mbar continuously.)
9. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 12-60) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 12-17. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

24.5 to 25.5 mbar

24.8 to 25.2

Table 12-17. Pprox gain tolerance

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Figure 12-60. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250 and PN 157265

10. Activate Stop running test.


11. Go to Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve controller, on page 12-86

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox does not display correct zero
value

Action
Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
connector marked P11, shown in Figure 12-61.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
Cable P11.
The mainboard.
The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required


offset or gain values

Check for leak in patient tubing.


Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
Replace expiratory valve.
Replace mainboard.

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7 6

5 4 3

Figure 12-61. Connector P11

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.5

Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373


Note
If you do not have mainboard PN 157373, use Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with
mainboard PN 157250 or 157265, on page 12-77 instead of this test.
In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage offset and
gain.
Checking expiratory valve signal at zero pressure
1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157250 or PN 157256, do not
perform this test. Instead, perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 12-77.
2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
3. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 12-62.
Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Pressure connector

Figure 12-62. Tubing setup for Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the

expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373

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4. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-63.

Figure 12-63. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

5. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of pressures at
intervals of 5 seconds.
6. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
7. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 12-18.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 12-18. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal offset


8. Activate Continue.
9. When the PEEP pressure rises to 5.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 5.0 mbar continuously.)

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

10. Turn the Exp. Zero potentiometer (Figure 12-64) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 12-19. This sets the offset applied to the expiratory valve.
Note
It is acceptable for the value to fluctuate momentarily outside of this range.

Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

4.7 to 5.3 mbar

4.7 to 5.3 mbar

Table 12-19. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 12-64. Exp. Zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal gain


11. Activate Continue.
12. When the PEEP pressure rises to 50.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 50.0 mbar continuously.)

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13. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 12-65) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 12-20. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.
Pprox field on screen

Pprox value on pressure gauge

49.5 to 50.5 mbar

49.8 to 50.2

Table 12-20. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 12-65. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.
14. Activate Continue.
15. Repeat step (9) on page 12-82 to step (13) until no further adjustment is needed.
16. Activate Stop running test.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pprox does not display correct zero


value

Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
connector marked P11, shown in Figure 12-66.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
Cable P11.
The mainboard.
The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required


offset or gain values

Check for leak in patient tubing.


Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
Replace expiratory valve.
Replace mainboard.

7 6

5 4 3

Figure 12-66. Connector P11

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Test 8.6

Testing the inspiratory valve controller


1. Disconnect the transparent tube of the Flow Sensor from the RAPHAEL as shown in
Figure 12-67.

Flow sensor
tube disconnected

disconnect
flow sensor tube

Figure 12-67. Tubing setup for Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve

controller
2. Activate I-Valve controller (dynamic). You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-68.

Figure 12-68. The screen you see by activating I-Valve controller (dynamic)

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper as shown in Figure 12-67.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Verify that each Pprox value is in range at all the different pressures generated by the unit
(Table 12-21). Because of the speed at which the display changes, it is helpful to activate
Hold at each step to enable you to better read the screen.
RAPHAEL must display
Pprox target

Pprox

Pprox peak

5 mbar

4 to 6 mbar

7 mbar

10 mbar

8.5 to 11.5 mbar

12 mbar

25 mbar

23.5 to 26.5 mbar

30 mbar

50 mbar

48.5 to 51.5mbar

60 mbar

Table 12-21. Values for I-Valve controller test

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Activate Close.
7. Disconnect all the tubing.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox_peak out of range.

Action
Replace mainboard.
Replace inspiratory valve.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure


Test 9.1

Overview
This test checks:

Test 9.2

The patient overpressure valve


The pills that protect from rinse flow overpressure
The pills that control the normal rinse flow
For leaks in internal and external tubing
The ambient valve

Preparation
1. Obtain a glass of water. You require this for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow pills, on
page 12-92.
2. Activate Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 12-69.

Figure 12-69. The Tightness and Overpressure test screen

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.3

Testing the patient overpressure valve


1. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 12-70.

Rubber bung
Stopper

Figure 12-70. Patient outlet closed with a stopper for Test 9.3, Testing the

patient overpressure valve


2. Activate Internal Pneumatic Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-71.

Figure 12-71. The screen you see by activating Internal Pneumatic Test

3. Activate : Mixer.
4. Verify that the Pvent value lies in the range 80.0 to 120.0 mbar.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.4.

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Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pvent < 80 mbar.

Action
Check for internal leak.
Replace patient overpressure valve.
Replace pneumatic block.

Pvent > 120 mbar.

Check patient overpressure valve is not blocked.


Replace patient overpressure valve.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.4

Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills


WARNING
During this test, make sure the pressure measured by the pressure gauge does not increase
above 350 mbar. (Disconnect the gauge if necessary!)
If it does, the dPptm pressure sensor will be damaged, and must be replaced.

1. Verify that the patient outlet is still closed with the stopper.
2. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
3. Connect the pressure gauge as shown in Figure 12-72, and wait for the pressure to rise
and stabilize.

Pressure gauge

Stopper

Rubber bung
Figure 12-72. Pressure gauge connected to Flow Sensor connector for Test 9.4,
Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills
4. Verify that the value on the pressure gauge lies in the range 100.0 to 300.0 mbar.
5. Remove the pressure gauge and the stopper.
6. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.5.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pressure gauge reading out of range.

June 9, 2006

Action
Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.5

Testing the rinse flow pills


1. Connect two identical tubes to the Flow Sensor connectors as shown in Figure 12-73.
Immerse the tubes in the glass of water as shown in the diagram.

Identical
tubes of equal length
Equal
length

Approximately
equal
number ofequal
bubbles
number of bubbles

Figure 12-73. Setup for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow pills

2. Verify that the Internal Pneumatic Test and : Mixer are still activated.
3. Verify that bubbles appear at both tube outlets, and that the number of bubbles
(indicating the rate of flow) is approximately equal on each outlet.
4. Disconnect the two tubes. You do not require them or the water again.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.6.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Number of bubbles not equal.

12-92

Action
Replace pneumatic block.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.6

Testing for internal leaks


1. Connect a piece of tubing between the two Flow Sensor connectors as shown in
Figure 12-74.

Tubing

Stopper
Figure 12-74. Tubing setup for Test 9.6, Testing for internal leaks

2. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 12-74.


3. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
4. Deactivate Mixer and measure the time required for the pressure to drop at Ptank.
Verify that the leakage of the tank is in the range displayed in Table 12-22.
Value

RAPHAEL display must


drop

Time span must be

Ptank

from 700 to 500 mbar

8 seconds

Table 12-22. Values for tank-pressure drop

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Disconnect the tube and the stopper.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Tank pressure drops too fast.

Action
Check inspiratory valve for leak.
Check tank overpressure valve for leak.
Check for leak between pneumatic block and attached component.
Check nebulizer valve for leak.
Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.7

Testing for external leaks


1. Connect the tubing as shown in Figure 12-75.

Figure 12-75. Tubing setup for Test 9.7, Testing for external leaks

2. Activate External Tightness Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-76.

Figure 12-76. The screen you see by activating External Tightness Test

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper, as shown in Figure 12-75, and verify that
the pressure displayed on RAPHAEL stays within the range 32.0 to 38.0 mbar.
4. Do not disconnect the Flow Sensor or tubing.
5. Activate Stop running test.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox out of range.

Action
Check for leak in patient tubing.
Check for internal leak.
Check for ambient valve leak.

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Test 9.8

Testing the ambient state


1. Connect your personal bacteria filter to the tubing as shown in Figure 12-77.
Note
An example of a suitable filter is shown on page G-5.

Bacteria
Bacteriafilter
filter
Figure 12-77. The bacteria filter connected for Test 9.8, Testing the ambient

state
2. Activate Ambient Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-78.

Figure 12-78. The screen you see by activating Ambient Test

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

3. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 12-79.)

Ambient
state LED

Figure 12-79. Ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157265

(Mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157373 are very similar)

Note
This LED is not present on the older mainboard PN 157250.
4. Verify that inspiration and expiration are possible, by breathing through the filter.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor and tubing.
6. Activate Stop running test.
7. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Cannot inhale or exhale.

Action
Check that ambient valve is not blocked or defective.
Check that expiratory valve is not blocked or defective.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement


Test 10.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and adjusts oxygen measurement and the calibration of the oxygen cell.
Note
If there is no oxygen supply connected to the unit, you cannot perform these tests.

Test 10.2

Preparation
1. Make sure you have an oxygen cell available.
2. Connect RAPHAEL to both an oxygen and an air supply.
3. Activate Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement.
You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 12-80.

Figure 12-80. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.3

Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset


For this test, the oxygen cell must be electronically disconnected from RAPHAEL.
1. If necessary, disconnect the oxygen cell from RAPHAEL now.
2. Wait 15 seconds for the FiO2 ADU signal to stabilize (it must not fluctuate by more than
plus or minus one digit).
3. Activate O2 Offset (at the top left of the screen).
4. Verify the value displayed for O2 offset (near the bottom of the screen). The dashes
displayed when the screen first opened must now be replaced by numerics (the value is
not important) as shown in Figure 12-81.

Dashes replaced
by value
(Here shown as -10
However, any
value can be
shown.)

Figure 12-81. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen after O2 offset calibration

5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.4.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Screen displays --- ADUs.

Check oxygen cell is disconnected.


Replace mainboard.

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Test 10.4

Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain


Note
This test can only run immediately after performing Test 10.3.
1. Install the oxygen cell.
2. Activate O2 Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-82.
This remains for two minutes during which time calibration takes place.

Figure 12-82. The screen you see by activating O2 Calibration

3. You see the original Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement screen again. (Figure 12-80 on
page 12-98.) Verify that the message Calibration successful is displayed near the
bottom of this screen.
4. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.5.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Check oxygen cell is connected.

Calibration not OK

Check oxygen is connected.


Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.5

Checking the oxygen measurement


1. Activate FiO2 target (in the top part of the screen) and adjust it to the first of the two
readings (25%) displayed in Table 12-23.
RAPHAEL must display
FiO2 target vol%

FiO2 vol%

25

22.0 to 28.0

40

37.0 to 43.0

Table 12-23. Values for the oxygen measurement test

2. Verify that the FiO2 reading (in the center part of the screen) is in range after two
minutes. (Table 12-23.)
3. Repeat the activation, adjustment and check, for the 40% value.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
FiO2 is out of range

Action
Check oxygen cell is connected.
Check oxygen is connected.
Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 11: Interface


Note
You can only perform the checks in this test unit if RAPHAEL has the optional communication
interface installed.

Test 11.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the:
Inspiratory/expiratory signal (used with the Special port of the optional communication
interface to synchronize an optional nebulizer)
The nurse call signal (used with the Special port to trigger an external alarm system)
In addition, you can check the RS232 port of the interface if you have a suitable external monitor.
(For details of external monitors, see Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring
systems, on page A-2.)
You can find general information about the communication interface in Section 6, The optional
communication interface.

Test 11.2

Preparation
Activate Test 11: Interface. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-83.

Figure 12-83. The Interface test screen

Note
If no interface board is installed, the message Not available is displayed on a blank screen. In this
case, there is not interface fitted, and you cannot perform this test. Go to Test 12: EEPROM Values.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 11: Interface

Test 11.3

Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal


1. Set the multimeter to measure resistance (Ohms).
2. Connect the multimeter to pin 8 and pin 15 of the special connecting socket
(Figure 12-84).

Pin 1

Pin 9

Pin 6 (Remote alarm return)


Pin 7 (Remote alarm)

Pin 14 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 8 (I:E relay)

Pin 15 (I:E relay return)

Figure 12-84. Special port connector pin locations

3. Activate : I/E Signal.


4. Check that the multimeter displays a very low resistance.
5. Deactivate I/E Signal. The connection opens.
6. Check that the multimeter displays a very high resistance.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action
Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.

Resistance is not as specified.

Replace communication interface board.


Replace mainboard.

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Test 11.4

Nurse Call (alarm switch)


Note
The results you expect from this test depend upon the revision of interface board fitted to your
RAPHAEL. The differences are noted in the following instructions. (Old interface board:
PN 157269/00. New board: PN 157269/01. The new board was fitted from March 2004.)
1. Make sure the multimeter remains set to measure resistance (Ohms).
2. Connect the multimeter to pin 7 and 14 of the special socket. (Figure 12-84.)
3. Activate : Nurse Call.
4. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
5. Deactivate Nurse Call.
6. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
7. Connect the multimeter to pin 6 and 7.
8. Activate : Nurse Call.
9. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
10. Deactivate Nurse Call.
11. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action
Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.

Resistance is not as specified.

Replace communication interface board.


Replace mainboard.

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Test 11: Interface

Test 11.5

RS232C port loopback test


This test enables you to check the interface with the loopback procedure. This procedure takes the
output signals from two of the pins on the RS232 connector, and returns them to the RAPHAEL. The
test reads the returned signal.
1. Short-circuit the following pins of the RS232 connector with appropriate wires:
Pin 2 and pin 3
Pin 4 and pin 6
Pin 7 and pin 8
(The pins are shown in Figure 12-84 on page 12-103.)
2. Activate Check Serial Interface.
3. Verify that the message Interface test successful appears.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting .
Symptom

Action

One of the following error messages is displayed:

Check connecting wire.

Transmission Error

Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.

Transmission Timeout

Replace interface board.

RTS/CTS Error

Replace mainboard.

DTR/DSR Error

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Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values


Test 12: EEPROM Values
Test 12.1

Overview
This is not a true test, but a display of the numerous calibration and scaling values you set in earlier
test units. The figures enable you to confirm, with reasonable certainty, that you performed the
earlier test units satisfactorily.
The different versions of this test perform identical functions.

Test 12.2

Preparation
Depending on the software you are using, activate one of the following:
Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values (Software version 2.0* and 2.1)
Test 12: EEPROM Values (Software version 2.2*)

Test 12.2.1

Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values


If you are running software version 2.0*, you see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-85.
In this case, go directly to Test 12.3, Checking calibration values, on page 12-108.

Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values


Pprox gain
1.012
Pprox zoom gain
1.016
O2 offest/gain
6 0.800
Flow Insp/Exp
96
96
Insp:Exp
1.0
2.0
Monitoring 1
1
Monitoring 2
2
Monitoring 3
3
Mode
1
Sigh
0
Backup
1
Trigger
6
Available
000000011111

70
40
2
15
50
10
14
22.0

Curves
Language
O2 Cell
Flow Sensor
ASV enabled

0
1
1
1
0

6026
9
700

Weight
kg
Pmax
mbar
PEEP
mbar
Psupp
mbar
FiO2
vol%
VT
ml/kg
Rrmax
bpm
Screen Contrast
-V
Run Time
min
Altitude
m

Close
Figure 12-85. The Calibration + Scaling Values test screen

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Test 12: Calibration + Scaling Values

Test 12.2.2

Test 12: EEPROM Values


If you are running software version 2.2*, you see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-86.

Figure 12-86. The EEPROM Values test screen

In this case, do the following:


1. Activate EEPROM Scaling Data.
You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-87.

Figure 12-87. The screen you see by activating EEPROM Values

2. Go to Test 12.3, Checking calibration values.


Note
This test does not use EEPROM Configuration Data or EEPROM Time Data.

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Test 12.3

Checking calibration values


Check that the following values are not at their factory defaults, and are therefore probably
correctly calibrated. (Table 12-24.)
Parameter

Factory default
value

Pprox gain

1.000

Pprox zoom gain

1.000

O2 offset
O2 gain
Flow Insp
Flow Exp

These values are displayed


together as O2 offset/gain
in software version 2.0*.

These values are displayed


together as Flow Insp/Exp
in software version 2.2*.

100

1.000

Action

Check that factory


default value is not
displayed.

100

Table 12-24. Calibrated values to check

If the values appear to be correctly calibrated, go to Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 12-111.

Troubleshooting
If all or most of the values are still at their factory defaults as shown in Table 12-24, you did not
perform the full series of tests correctly as described in 12.5Sequence of test software units, on
page 12-3. In this case, repeat all tests, starting from Test 1: Memory, on page 12-7.

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Test 13: Gas Delivery Controls

Test 13: Gas Delivery Controls


Test 14: Sensor Values
Note
These tests are for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. Descriptions are not included in this
document.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 15: Supply Voltages

Test 15: Supply Voltages


Test 15.1

Overview
This test enables you to check that RAPHAEL s power supply can recognize and can automatically
switch to battery use when mains voltage is too low or unavailable. The test uses and therefore
checks the mechanism RAPHAEL uses automatically during normal ventilation to test the battery
every 20 minutes (with software version 2.*).

Test 15.2

Preparation
Activate Test 15: Supply Voltages. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 12-88.

Figure 12-88. The Supply Voltages test screen

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Test 15.3

Checking the power supply


1. Ensure that when Mains off is not activated, the Battery voltage shows one of the
following:
A value in the range 26.6 to 30 V
The characters -.---V
This tells us that either the first part of the power supply, or the backup batteries, is
supplying a voltage in the acceptable range to the second part of the power supply.
Note
RAPHAELs with the older mainboard (PN 157250) display the voltage at the battery when
the mains supply is attached.
RAPHAELs with a newer mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373) display -.---V if the
voltage is 28 V or more. If it is lower, they display the voltage.
2. Ensure that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 12-25.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly at the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.
Field

Range

+5

4.95 to 5.25V

+15

13.5 to 15.75V

-15

-13.5 to -16.5V

Table 12-25. Voltages

3. Activate : Mains off and make sure that the battery voltage reads 24 to 26.5 V.
This shows the voltage of the backup battery.
4. Check that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 12-25.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly with the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.
Note
You have now completed all required software tests. You cannot perform test Test 16: , Alarm
Messages, and you do not have to perform tests 17 and 18.
If you wish to perform the two final tests, go to Test 17: , Event Log, on page 12-117 now. If not, go
to Section 12.8, Optional completion point for test software, on page 12-114.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Battery voltage out of range when


Mains off not activated.

Compare the voltage shown on screen with the voltage at the 24 V test point, as
described in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
If the voltage is out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltage is in range,
but the values shown on screen is wrong, replace the mainboard.

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Test 15: Supply Voltages

Symptom
+5 V, +15 V or -15 V value out of
range.

Action
Compare the voltages shown on screen with the voltages at the test points, as
described in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
If the voltages are out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltages are in
range, but the screen values are wrong, replace the mainboard.

Battery voltage out of range when


Mains off activated.

Check the backup batteries are connected.


Unless the batteries have not been charged for a long time (perhaps RAPHAEL
has not been attached to the mains power supply for several months) replace
the batteries.
If RAPHAEL has not been connected to the mains for a long time, connect it to
the mains power supply for at least six hours, and then perform this test again.

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12.8

Optional completion point for test software


You are permitted to finish the test software tests at this point. (Alternatively, you can perform Test
17: Event Log and Test 18: Trend Data.) If you choose to exit the test software now, do the
following:
1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the off position and restarting the
unit.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)

2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3.

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Test 16: Alarm Messages

Test 16: Alarm Messages


Note
This test is for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. A description is not included in this document.

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Test 17: Event Log

Test 17: Event Log


Note
It is not necessary to perform this test. However, you can do so if you want.

Test 17.1

Overview
This test enables you to check:
That the event log is held in memory, and that entries appear correct
That the RS232 port can transmit the event log to a computer or printer
Note
Only RAPHAELs containing mainboard PN157265 or PN 157373 have an event log that is held
in memory and is therefore accessible for this test. These boards were fitted to RAPHAELs with
serial numbers of 2000 and above. If you do not have such a mainboard, you cannot perform
this test or Test 18: Trend Data.
Only RAPHAELs with a communication interface can transmit the event log to a computer or
printer. (See Figure 2-3, RAPHAELs chassis from above, on page 2-4.) If your RAPHAEL has no
communication interface, you cannot test the RS232 port, and you cannot perform
Test 18: Trend Data. (However, you can check that entries in the event log appear correct.)

Test 17.2

Background

Test 17.2.1

The event log


The event log stores up to 1000 events which you can display at will. These events are stored in the
sequence that they take place. Each event includes date, time, description, and/or alarms with alarm
priority.
The event log can be transmitted to the RS232 port of the communication interface (if this interface
is installed) and then be displayed on a computer or printer.
Information is transmitted in the following order:

Software version
DCU version
Configuration data
Scaling data
Operating hours
List of events

Note
!!! indicates an event associated with a high priority alarm
!! indicates an event associated with a medium priority alarm
! indicates an event associated with a low priority alarm
For more information about alarms, see Section 14, Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting
and your operators manual.

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Test 17.2.2

The two views of the event log


The event log as viewed or downloaded in this test unit displays a wider range of events than the
same event log when viewed during normal ventilation. The additional fields are:
Alarm off

This displays the time at which an alarm-causing condition


ended. When read in the context of the alarm events in the log,
it enables the user to see how many alarms are active.

Battery

This displays the voltage measured during the battery test that
takes place every 20 minutes (with software version 1.x and
2.*) or 30 minutes (with software version 3.*).

Date change

This displays the newly-set date (in addition to the date of the
event) when the date displayed by the real time clock is
changed.
This event can help you to analyze the cause of an
inconsistency in the dates shown in the event log, as this can
be due to a change being made to the real-time clock date.

12-118

Time change

This displays the newly-set time (in addition to the time of the
event) when the time displayed by the real time clock is
changed.

Test entered

This displays the number of the test every time a test software
test is used.

Software event

This string is displayed if a software event is discovered.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 17: Event Log

Test 17.3

Preparing your computer or printer to receive data from the RS232 port

Test 17.3.1

Introduction
If you plan to test the RS232 port by using it to send information to a computer, you must first
prepare your computer as explained in this section. (Transmission to a computer is the method
recommended by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG to perform this test.)
If you plan to test the RS232 port by sending data to a printer, you do not have to prepare a
computer. In this case, connect your printer to the RAPHAELs RS232 port (using a cable with the
characteristics shown in Table 12-26) and go to Test 17.4, Displaying and checking the event log.
Note
This document does not offer instructions for preparing a printer to perform this test.

Test 17.3.2

Method
If you have a standard installation of Windows 95 or later, you can use the HyperTerminal bundled
software to read and print data sent from your RAPHAELs RS232 port.
To prepare your computer, do the following:
1. Locate an RS232 cable with the following pin configuration:
Connector type

Pin number

9-pin male

9-pin female

Table 12-26. RS232 cable specification

RS232 cable PN 157354 is a suitable choice.


2. Using the cable, join the RS232 connector on the RAPHAEL to an RS232 connector on
your computer. (The RAPHAEL RS232 port is shown on Figure 12-84 on page 12-103.)
3. Run HyperTerminal. You normally do this by clicking
Start>Programs>Accessories>Communications>HyperTerminal.
The Connection Description dialog box appears.
4. Type any name in the Name: text box and click OK. (The name you type is the name of the
connection configuration. It is not the name of the file that will contain the event log
data.)
The Connect To dialog box is displayed.
5. In the Connect To dialog box, select the communication port on your computer that you
used for the RS232 connection. (This is usually COM 1.)
Click OK. The Properties dialog box for your port is displayed.
6. Select the following values in the Properties dialog box:
Bits per second: 9600
Data bits: 7
Parity: Even
Stop bits: 2
Flow control: Hardware
7. Click OK.

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8. Click Transfer > Capture Text.


The Capture Text dialog box opens.
9. In the Capture Text dialog box, type the path and file name for the file to which you will
write the event log.
10. Click Start.
Your computer is now prepared to display any data you send to it from the RS232 port of your
RAPHAEL.

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Test 17: Event Log

Test 17.4

Displaying and checking the event log


To show the event log on RAPHAELs display, do the following:
1. Activate Test 17: Event Log.
You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 12-89.

Figure 12-89. The Event Log test screen

Note
If no communication interface is installed, Transmit is not displayed.
2. Activate Previous or Next to scroll through the event log file. You are able to display a
list of up to 1000 of the most recent events.
3. Verify that the log appears reasonable. In particular, look for the most recent Power on
event, and the events immediately following this. These events must correspond to the
actions you have taken with the RAPHAEL.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

There are no events in the event log.

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Replace the mainboard.

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Test 17.5

Transmitting the event log


1. Confirm that one of the following is true:
Your computer is connect to the RAPHAEL as instructed in Test 17.3, Preparing your
computer or printer to receive data from the RS232 port
A printer is connected to your RAPHAEL, using the
2. Activate Transmit to send the event log data to the printer or computer. You are able to
display a list of up to 1000 of the last events. (However, it is not necessary to transmit all of
these. Activate Abort if you want to shorten the time required for this test.)
Note
The latest stored data is transmitted first.
3. Activate Close.
4. On your computer

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

You cannot transmit the event log to a computer.

Check that the computer is properly configured.


Check that the RS232 cable connecting the computer and the
communication interface is properly in place.
Replace the interface board.

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Test 17: Optional completion point for test software

12.9

Optional completion point for test software


You are permitted to finish the test software tests at this point. (Alternatively, you can perform
Test 18: Trend Data.) If you choose to exit the test software now, do the following:
1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the off position and restarting the
unit.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)
2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3.

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Test 18: Trend Data


Note
It is not necessary to perform this test. However, you can do so if you want.

Test 18.1

Overview
This test enables you to check that the 1-, 12-, and 24-hour trends of 16 monitored parameters can
be transmitted through the RS232 port of the communication interface to a computer or printer.
Note
Only RAPHAELs containing mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373 have trends that are held in
memory and are therefore accessible for this test. These boards were fitted to RAPHAELs with
serial numbers of 2000 and above. If you do not have such a mainboard, you cannot perform
this test.
Only RAPHAELs with a communication interface can transmit trend data to a computer or
printer. (See Figure 2-3, RAPHAELs chassis from above, on page 2-4.) If your RAPHAEL has no
communication interface, you therefore cannot perform this test.

Test 18.2

Preparation
1. If you want to send your trend data to a computer (the method recommended by
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG for this test) first prepare your computer as described in
Test 17.3.2, Method, on page 12-119.
Note
This document does not contain instructions for sending data to a printer.
2. Activate Test 18: Trend Data. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 12-90.

Figure 12-90. The Trend Data test screen

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Test 18: Trend Data

Test 18.3

Transmitting trend data


1. Connect your suitably prepared computer to the RS232 port.
2. Select any combination of the following:
: 1 hr Trend
: 12 hr Trend
: 24 hr Trend
3. Activate Transmit to send the selected trend data to the computer.
Note
You can only activate Transmit if one of the trends is selected.
You can activate Abort at any time to stop transmission, and shorten the time required for this
test.
The file transmitted is a text file, with columns separated by tabs. The easiest way to read it is
to import it into a spreadsheet program.
4. Verify that the transmitted data have been received by the computer. (An example is
shown in Figure 12-91.) The newest data is displayed at the top of the list.
Raphael Trend Data
1 hr Trend (16.41sec per value)
Exp min vol
VEneg
0.1 l/min
ml
36
256
36
259
36
258
36
258
36
257
36
258
36
258
36
257
36
258
36
259
36
257
36
259
36
259
36
258
36
257
36
258
36
259
36
261
36
261
36
260
36
258
36
259

FiO2
vol%
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22

PEEP
0.1 mbar
25
24
24
24
24
25
25
24
24
25
25
24
25
25
24
25
24
24
24
24
24
24

Ti
0.5 ms
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716
716

Ppeak
0.1mbar
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154

Ftot
bpm
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14

Pmean
0.1 mbar
67
66
66
66
66
67
67
66
66
66
67
66
67
67
66
67
66
66
66
66
66
66

Insp flow
ml/s
969
974
952
968
951
963
955
974
958
961
996
969
970
959
968
966
966
973
971
972
954
980

Fspont
bpm
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Exp min vol spont


0.1 l/min
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

RCexp
ms
396
404
402
404
399
400
400
400
396
401
400
402
403
400
401
400
404
408
400
404
402
403

AutoPEEP
0.1 mbar
4
4
4
4
5
4
4
5
4
4
3
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5

R
mbar/l/s
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7

C
ml/mbar
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22

Pcontrol
mbar
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

Te
0.5 mas
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428
1428

VI
ml
269
272
271
270
270
271
271
272
272
271
272
271
270
270
270
270
272
271
274
272
272
272

VTexp
ml
256
259
258
258
257
257
258
257
258
259
257
259
259
258
257
258
259
260
260
260
258
259

Figure 12-91. Start of data found in a 1 hour trend

5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
There are no trends available.

Action
Check that the computer is properly configured.
Check that the RS232 cable connecting the computer and the communication
interface is properly in place.
Check that you have mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373. (Mainboard PN
157250 does not save trend data.)
Replace the interface board.
Replace the mainboard.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

12-125

12 Running version 2.* test software

12.10

Mandatory completion point for test software


1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the off position and restarting the
unit.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)

2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3.

12-126

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Section

13 Running version 3.* test software


13

13.1

Introduction
This section explains how to use each of the test units comprising the RAPHAEL software version 3.*
test software.
The expression RAPHAEL software version 3.* refers to the following software releases:

3.0 (basic RAPHAEL)


3.0S (RAPHAEL Silver)
3.0C (RAPHAEL Color)
3.0CU (RAPHAEL Color, US version)
3.1 (basic RAPHAEL)
3.1S (RAPHAEL Silver)
3.1C (RAPHAEL Color)
3.1CU (RAPHAEL Color, US version)
3.2CX (RAPHAEL XTC)
3.2CXU (RAPAEL XTC US version)

Note
Software version 3.* can function with all mainboard versions: PN 157250, PN 157265 and
PN 157373.
For information about jumper settings for mainboard PN 157373 when used with software
version 3.*, see Appendix E.2.1, Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157373, on page E-6.
(However, jumpers were set correctly at the factory, and it is unlikely you must change them.)
In general, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG recommend that you always update to the latest software
available. Software is shown in Appendix D, Upgrade routes and kits, although for the latest
changes you must look on the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Website
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site).

13.2

Messages
While running test software, you can see any of the messages shown in Table 13-1:
Message

Action
Displays briefly

Mixer Valve Defect

Do nothing.

Displays continuously
Replace mixer valves.
Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure High

Do nothing.

Replace mixer valves.


Replace mainboard.

Tank Pressure Low

Do nothing.

Ensure that both the high-pressure air and the


high-pressure oxygen supply at the rear of RAPHAEL are
functioning properly.

Table 13-1. Test software messages and user actions

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-1

13 Running version 3.* test software

Message

Action
Displays briefly

Displays continuously

Air Missing

Do nothing.

Ensure that the high-pressure air connection at the rear


of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

O2 Missing

Do nothing.

Ensure that the high-pressure oxygen connection at the


rear of RAPHAEL is functioning properly.

Baseline error

Do nothing.

Start again at Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul., on


page 13-50.

EEPROM Error: xxxx

Do nothing.

Replace mainboard. Perform the tests described in


Section 10, Manual electrical safety tests. Then perform
all test software again.

Table 13-1. Test software messages and user actions

13.3

Checklist
Before starting, be sure that you:
Are familiar with the Typographic conventions and Expressions on page Conventions-2
Have the necessary equipment (Appendix G, Maintenance tools and test equipment)
Have prepared RAPHAEL by performing actions described in the following sections:
Section 8, Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance
Section 9, Backup battery and voltage tests
Have compressed air and oxygen attached to the rear of the RAPHAEL
Have sufficient time (testing takes approximately 90 minutes)
Consider also whether you must write a test report. Some hospitals require that you do this. If you
do not have a suitable form, you can photocopy and use the one named RAPHAEL version 3.* test
software report at the back of this manual.

13.4

Functions of the test software test units


The test units in the test software perform the following functions:
They display information
They enable you to run checks on RAPHAEL hardware and software
They enable you to calibrate RAPHAEL hardware and software

13.5

Sequence of test software units


Table 13-2 lists each of the units found in the test software in software version 3.*.

13-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Sequence of test software units

WARNING

Always perform all tests marked Must do? Yes, in the prescribed sequence, as shown in
Table 13-2. (Earlier tests confirm the functioning of certain RAPHAEL components that are then
used in later tests to configure other components.)
If one of the tests indicates that you must replace a part or perform another test, do this
immediately, then repeat the test you are on. Then repeat the complete series of tests.

CAUTION
Air and oxygen must be connected to the high pressures inlets at the rear of the ventilator from test
5 onwards. Failure to do so can damage the inspiratory valve.

Must
do?

Software version 3.*

Comments

Yes

Test 1 Memory

None.

Yes

Test 2 Display and Loudspeaker

None.

Yes

Test 3 Frontpanel

None.

Yes

Test 4 Alarm monitor

None.

Yes

Test 5 Mixer and Tank Pressure

None.

Yes

Test 6 Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

None.

Yes

Test 7 Pressure Sensors

None.

Yes

Test 8 I-Valve and E-Valve

None.

Yes

Test 9 Tightness and Overpressure

None.

Yes

Test 10 O2 Cell Measurement

None.

Yes

Test 11 Interface

You only perform this test if the optional communication


interface is installed on RAPHAEL.

Yes

Test 12 EEPROM Values

This unit does not enable you to test RAPHAEL, but


enables you to check that the calibration values you set in
previous test units appear correct.

No

Test 13 Gas Delivery System

No

These tests are performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG


only. Instructions are not included in this manual.

Test 14 Sensor Values

Yes

Test 15 Supply Voltages

None.

No

Test 16 Alarm Messages

This test is performed at HAMILTON MEDICAL AG only.


Instructions are not included in this manual.

No

Test 17 Event Log

These tests are not compulsory. However, you can perform


them if you wish.

No

Test 18 Trend Data

Table 13-2. Sequence of test software units

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-3

13 Running version 3.* test software

13.6

Entering test software mode


To enter test software mode:
1. Make sure RAPHAEL is switched off.
2. Set microswitch S1 on the main circuit board to the ON position using a pen or suitable
tool. (Figure 13-1.)

Figure 13-1. Setting microswitch S1 to ON

WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)
3. Connect the RAPHAEL to the mains power supply.
4. Switch on the RAPHAEL. The RAPHAEL starts in test software mode.
5. Verify that the AC power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated. (Figure 13-2.)

Figure 13-2. AC power indicator LED

6. Verify that the display shows Test 1: Memory. (Figure 13-3.)


Note
Test 1 has not yet started.

13-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

How to use the test software

Figure 13-3. Test 1: Memory, as first displayed

7. Verify that LED 1 on the mainboard starts blinking. (Figure 13-4.)

Blinking LED 1

Figure 13-4. Position of LEDs on mainboard PN 157373.

(Other mainboards are similar.)

13.7

How to use the test software


Turn the P&T-knob to scroll to the required test, then press the knob to activate the test. When you
first enter test software mode, Test 1: Memory is selected (but not activated) as shown in
Figure 13-3.
After finishing each test, select and activate Close.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-5

13 Running version 3.* test software

13.7.1

Alarms during test software mode


While in test software mode, no alarms are displayed except the Technical Fault 1 (TF 1 Code *),
and gas delivery alarms. You can find further information in the alarms section in the RAPHAEL
Operators Manual (PN 610994) or local-language equivalent, and in Section 14, Alarms, technical
faults, and troubleshooting.

13.7.2

Exiting test software mode


To exit the test software, switch off the RAPHAEL and set switch S1 on the main circuit board to the
off position.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for development
use only.)

13-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1: Memory
Test 1.1

Overview
This series of tests checks:

The memory function


The setting of the altitude
The reading of operating hours
The real-time clock

It also lets you reset the scaling values and configuration data if required.
Test 1.2

Preparation
Activate Test 1: Memory. You see a screen similar to the one shown Figure 13-5.

Operating Hours
shown here when
setting required

Serial number
of RAPHAEL
(identifies
event log
print-out)

These fields only


with mainboard
PN 157265 and
PN 157373

Displays None with mainboard PN 157250


Figure 13-5. The Memory test screen

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-7

13 Running version 3.* test software

Note
If you run this test directly after installing a new software PROM with software version 3.*C,
but you did not install a new Flash PROM, you see a message similar to the following:
Graphics Module needs to be reprogrammed
Please press button to reprogram Graphics Module
168 blocks need to be programmed
Respond to this by pressing the P&T-knob. For more information, see Download screen. on
page 14-17.
If you run this test directly after installing any new software, it is very likely that you will see the
following message:
Checksum error while reading data from EEPROM.
Execute memory test and set factory settings.
In this case, perform Test 1: Memory in the normal way, making sure to activate:
Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings
Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.
If any other message is displayed, look for the message in Section 14.6, General
troubleshooting, on page 14-13.
If the screen does not display text clearly, check the contrast adjustment as described in
Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only), on
page 13-20. (You cannot do this with RAPHAEL Color.)

Troubleshooting
Symptom

13-8

Action

Cannot activate test.

Replace P&T-knob.

Screen is not clear.

Perform Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome


RAPHAELs only), on page 13-20.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.3

Checking and setting the scaling values


Scaling values are the gain and other factors used to process the outputs of various pressure and
other sensors.
Verify that Scaling Values (the field near the bottom of the screen) reads OK.
If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings (the field near the
top of the screen).
WARNING

Only activate Scaling Values to Factory Settings or Configuration Data to Factory


Settings if the corresponding value reads Not OK. This action sets these parameters to their
factory-default, precalibration values. While these values make an appropriate starting point
for performing these tests, they are not correct for ventilating a patient.
If you set the scaling values to the factory settings, you must perform all the tests in this
section.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Activate Set Scaling Values to Factory Settings.

Scaling Values: Not OK

If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

PN 61067/05

13-9

13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 1.4

Checking and setting the configuration data


Configuration data are the record of RAPHAELs settings, such as:

Start-up mode and controls


Altitude
Language
Absence or presence of Flow Sensor and oxygen cell

Verify that Configuration Data reads OK.


If the reading is Not OK, activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

13-10

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Activate Set Configuration Data to Factory Settings.

Configuration Data: Not OK

If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.5

Checking and adjusting the altitude setting


The altitude setting is for compensation of the flow measurement at the Flow Sensor. This
measurement influences RAPHAELs calculation of flow and volume.
Verify Altitude is set to the operating height of the RAPHAEL, measured in meters above sea level.
If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob. (The factory setting is 700m. You can adjust it in
increments of 100m.)
WARNING
You must adjust the altitude setting for the location in which RAPHAEL will operate. This is not
necessarily the same as the altitude at which you are performing this test.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-11

13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 1.6

Checking and setting the serial number


Verify Serial Number displays the serial number of the RAPHAEL. You can find this clearly marked
on a sticker on the rear of RAPHAEL. If required, adjust the value with the P&T-knob.
This value is used only to identify print-outs of the event log.

13-12

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.7

Checking and setting the number of operating hours


The Operating Hours value is displayed near the bottom of the screen, and shows the total
number of hours that the unit has been in operation (Figure 13-5 on page 13-7).
Unless you have just changed the mainboard, ensure that the value displayed approximates the
number of hours that RAPHAEL has been in operation. (For help in this, see Test 1.7.1.)
If you have just changed the mainboard, use the P&T-knob to reset the operating hours as closely as
possible to the original value displayed on RAPHAEL.
Note
If you have not just changed the mainboard, you cannot reset the operating hours value. Go to
Test 1.8, Date and Time.

Test 1.7.1

Determining the operating hours value


To estimate the time RAPHAEL has been in operation, you must answer two questions:
How long has the RAPHAEL been in the hospital?
What sort of regimen does the hospital practice are the machines left on all day and
night, or are they turned off between patients?
If the RAPHAEL is in a hospital where it is kept running continuously, the number of operating hours
is 720 multiplied by the number of months the ventilator was in the hospital.
In hospitals in which RAPHAEL is not kept running continuously, an average number of operating
hours is 400 a month. In this case, the number of operating hours is 400 multiplied by the number
of months of use.
Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

The following error message is displayed at the


bottom of the screen:
Operating Hours: Not OK

Reset the operating hours.


If this does not solve the problem, replace the mainboard.

In addition the following message is shown in the


middle of the screen:
Operating Hours: ---The value for the number of operating hours is
unreasonably high. (For example, 100000.)

June 9, 2006

Contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG


(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch) for a solution.

PN 61067/05

13-13

13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 1.8

Date and Time


If these fields are present, verify both are correct. If required, adjust them using the P&T-knob.
Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore do not show this field.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Date or time incorrect.

Action
Reset the date and time.
If the date or time become incorrect again, change the real-time clock battery.
(Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on page 15-19.)

13-14

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 1: Memory

Test 1.9

Checking the clock battery


Note
Only RAPHAEL units with serial numbers higher than 2000 were fitted in the factory with a real-time
clock on their mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373). Earlier units, with serial numbers below 2000,
were fitted with mainboard PN157250, and, unless later changed, do not have a real-time clock.
They therefore show Clock Battery None.
For more information, see Appendix E, Hardware and software versions and compatibility.
Verify that the value of Clock Battery is OK or None.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

You have mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373, and,


the value of Clock Battery is None or Low.

June 9, 2006

Replace clock battery and set the date and time as shown in
Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on
page 15-19.

PN 61067/05

13-15

13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker


Test 2.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the display, and enables you to adjust the screen contrast to the required
value on monochrome instruments. The color and monochrome versions of this test differ slightly
from one another.
The tests also enable you to check the loudspeaker.

Test 2.2

Preparation
Activate Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker. If you have a RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Silver, you see
a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 13-6.

This field not


displayed in
RAPHAEL Color

Figure 13-6. The Display and Loudspeaker test screen

Note
If you have a RAPHAEL Color, the Screen Contrast field is not displayed.

13-16

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Test 2.3

Testing the display (monochrome RAPHAELs only)


If you have a monochrome RAPHAEL, follow the instructions below. If you have a RAPHAEL Color,
go to Test 2.4, Testing the display (RAPHAEL Colors only), on page 13-18.
1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no columns or rows are missing. (Figure 13-8 shows an approximation to the grid, but
is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)

Figure 13-7. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. A grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that the
pattern remains regular and no rows or columns are missing.
3. Press the P&T-knob again. The Test 2: Display screen is displayed (Figure 13-6 on
page 13-16). Go to Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome
RAPHAELs only), on page 13-20.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Display is dark.

Action
Replace dc/ac converter board.
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display.

Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-17

13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2.4

Testing the display (RAPHAEL Colors only)


1. Activate Display Test. A grid of dots is displayed. Make sure that the pattern is regular
and no columns or rows are missing. (Figure 13-8 shows an approximation to the grid, but
is limited in accuracy because of the printing process.)
Make sure that the screen is only black and white: there should not be any colored pixels.

Figure 13-8. The first black-and-white test grid

2. Press the P&T-knob again. A grid of a darker shade is displayed. Again, make sure that the
pattern remains regular and no rows or columns are missing.
Also make sure that the screen is only black and white: there should not be any colored
pixels.
3. Press the P&T-knob again. A white screen is displayed. Perform the same checks.
4. Press the P&T-knob again. A black screen is displayed. Perform the same checks.
5. Press the P&T-knob again. The following screen (or similar) is displayed. (Figure 13-9.)

Figure 13-9. The first color test screen

13-18

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Make sure that all colors are clearly displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.
6. Press the P&T-knob again. You see the same screen, but inverted. (Figure 13-10.)

Figure 13-10. The second color test screen

Make sure that all colors are displayed as in the picture. There must be no wrongly
illuminated pixels, and there must be no more than 5 unilluminated pixels.
7. Press the P&T-knob again. You have now finished this test.
You cannot perform Test 2.5, Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs
only), because you have a color display. Go to Test 2.6, Checking the loudspeaker sound level, on
page 13-22.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Color pixels are visible on the black
and white screen grids.

Display is dark.

Action
You might decide that minor imperfections in the TFT color screen are
acceptable. However, if the imperfections make the screen in any way difficult to
read, replace the screen as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.
Replace dc/ac converter board.
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

Lines missing on display.

Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4, Replacing
the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15.)
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on
page 15-21.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

13-19

13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2.5

Checking and adjusting display contrast (monochrome RAPHAELs only)


Note
You cannot perform this test and adjustment if you have a RAPHAEL Color. However, RAPHAEL
Color has a more sophisticated screen that can be viewed from a wide range of angles without
the need for adjustment.
The monochrome display is temperature-sensitive. Perform this test and adjustment in
conditions that approximate the temperature in which the RAPHAEL is normally used.
During normal operation, you can adjust the contrast of the monochrome display in the
Utilities window.
If you have a monochrome RAPHAEL, follow the instructions below. If you have a RAPHAEL Color,
go to Test 2.6, Checking the loudspeaker sound level, on page 13-22.
1. Activate Screen Contrast and check that the contrast can be adjusted with the
P&T-knob.
2. Set the reading to 22.0.
3. Use the potentiometer on the mainboard (Figure 13-11) to adjust the screen contrast to
be most easily readable. While doing this, look at the screen from the place at which the
operator normally uses the RAPHAEL. (This could be slightly below or above the screen,
depending on where the RAPHAEL is placed.)

Buzzer

Figure 13-11. Potentiometer for adjusting screen contrast on all mainboards

13-20

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Contrast not adjustable with P&T-knob.

You have a color display, with which it is (correctly) not possible to


adjust the contrast. No action is possible.

Contrast not adjustable with potentiometer.

Replace Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (Section 15.4,


Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on
page 15-15.)
Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,
on page 15-21.
Replace mainboard.

Screen is not bright and clear and easily


readable, even after adjustment.

June 9, 2006

Replace display as explained in Section 15.7, Replacing the display,


on page 15-21.

PN 61067/05

13-21

13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 2.6

Checking the loudspeaker sound level

Test 2.6.1

Preparation
Note
With software version 3.* and later, the loudness of the loudspeaker can be adjusted by the
operator, using software controls. However, this is only fully possible if the loudspeaker-loudness
jumper on the mainboard is set to maximum loudness.
Before running this test, ensure that the loudspeaker-loudness jumper on the mainboard is set to
maximum loudness.
On mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265, the loudspeaker jumper must be removed,
as shown in Figure 13-12 and Figure 13-13.
Jumper position
for low setting

Jumper position
for medium setting

medium

medium

Jumper position
for high setting
medium

Correct
low

low

low

Figure 13-12. Diagram of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings on

mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265

Jumper
completely
removed

Buzzer
Figure 13-13. Photograph of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings

on mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265


On mainboard PN 157373, the jumper must be in its high position as shown in

13-22

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 2: Display and Loudspeaker

Figure 13-14 and Figure 13-15.

Jumper position
for low setting

Jumper position
for medium setting

Jumper position
for high setting

high

high

high

med

med

med

low

low

low

Correct

Figure 13-14. Diagram of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings on

mainboard PN 157373

Loudspeaker
loudness
jumper positions
High
Buzzer
Medium
Low

Figure 13-15. Photograph of loudspeaker-loudness jumper-settings on

mainboard PN 157373
Test 2.6.2

Procedure
1. Activate Alarm Loudness.
2. Turn the P&T-knob slowly, listening to the alarm loudness at each of the values displayed
(1 to 10). Ensure that you can hear the alarm at all displayed values, and that each
displayed value corresponds to an appropriate audible volume level.
It is not important at what value you leave the control.
3. Press the P&T-knob to exit the Alarm Loudness test.
4. Activate Close.
Note
Leave the loudspeaker-loudness jumper on its maximum setting.

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Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Alarm is not audible, or audible alarm levels do


not match the values displayed.

13-24

Check loudspeaker contacts.


Replace mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3: Frontpanel
Test 3.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the buzzer, and the entire user interface.

Test 3.2

Preparation
Activate Test 3: Frontpanel. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-16.

Figure 13-16. The Frontpanel test screen

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Test 3.3

Testing the backup buzzer and the alarm silence time


The buzzer acts as a backup alarm to the loudspeaker. It functions completely independently of the
loudspeaker. The alarm silence time is the maximum time for which an audio alarm is silenced when
a user presses the alarm silence key during an alarm condition in normal ventilation.
1. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel. (Figure 13-17).
The alarm LED illuminates, and Alarm Silence is activated on the screen.
Alarm LED

Figure 13-17. Alarm silence key with alarm LED

2. Verify that the alarm LED remains illuminated while the Alarm Silence Time counts up
to 120 5 seconds. At this time, the alarm LED must extinguish (must go out).
3. Activate : Buzzer using the P&T-knob.
4. Verify that the buzzer alarm sounds after Backup Buzzer Time displays 60 5 seconds.
5. Deactivate Buzzer.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

13-26

Action

Alarm LED does not illuminate after alarm silence key is pressed.

Replace front panel keyboard.

Timer does not start after alarm silence key is pressed.

Replace front panel keyboard.

Backup buzzer does not function after 60 seconds.

Replace mainboard.

Buzzer sounds after 60 seconds.

Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence time 120 seconds.

Replace mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Test 3.4

Checking the nebulizer, trigger, and alarm LEDs


The nebulizer-, trigger-, and alarm LEDs are located on the front panel. When illuminated during
normal operation, they indicate:
RAPHAELs nebulizer-gas output is active (nebulizer LED).
The patient has triggered a breath (trigger LED).
There is an alarm active (blinking alarm LED) or the audio alarms are silenced (continuously
illuminated alarm LED).
1. Activate : Nebulizer and verify that the nebulizer LED on the front panel illuminates.
(Figure 13-18.)
Nebulizer LED

Figure 13-18. The nebulizer LED on the front panel

2. Repeat this procedure for : Trigger (Figure 13-19) and : Alarm, (Figure 13-17)
making sure the corresponding front panel LED illuminates in each case.

Trigger LED

TRIGGER
Figure 13-19. The TRIGGER LED on the front panel

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Nebulizer LED does not function.

Replace front panel keyboard.


Replace mainboard.

Trigger LED does not illuminate.


Alarm LED does not illuminate.

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Test 3.5

Testing the display panel and front panel keyboards


This test checks the mechanical and electronic functioning of each key on the display and front
panel.
Switch on and off each key on the display panel and the front panel. (Figure 13-20.)

Display panel keys

Front panel keys

Figure 13-20. Display panel and front panel keys

Verify that the display indicates each use of each key. (Figure 13-21 shows the screen with the Mode
key active.)

Figure 13-21. The Frontpanel test screen with the Mode key active

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 3: Frontpanel

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Display panel keys do not operate.

Action
Check display panel keyboard cable.
Replace graphic controller board.
Replace display panel keyboard.

Front panel keys do not operate.

Check front panel keyboard cable.


Replace graphic controller board.
Replace front panel keyboard.

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Test 3.6

Testing the P&T-knob


This test checks the mechanical and electronic functioning of the P&T-knob.
1. Turn the P&T-knob clockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks modulo
16 counts from 0 to 15.
2. Turn the P&T-knob anticlockwise, and verify that the field named P&T-Knob Clicks
modulo 16 counts from 0 to -15.
3. Activate Close to return to the main menu.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
P&T-knob does not count step-by-step.

13-30

Action
Replace P&T-knob.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4: Alarm monitor


Test 4.1

Overview
This series of tests ensures that the hardware alarm monitor responds correctly to a range of alarm
conditions.

Test 4.2

Preparation
Activate 4: Alarm monitor. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-22.

Figure 13-22. The Alarm monitor test screen

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Test 4.3

Checking for error signals


Verify the following indicators remain inactive at all times during the tests you perform in
Test 4: Alarm monitor:
Voltage error
uP clock
P-Source fail

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Voltage error activated.

Action
Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.
P-source fail activated.

13-32

Replace mainboard.
The inspiratory valve current too high.

Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high.

Replace expiratory valve.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.4

Testing the power down status flag


The power down status flag keeps a record of the way in which RAPHAEL is switched off: this can be
by means of the on/off switch on the instrument, or can take place when the backup batteries
empty, some time after the mains power supply is disconnected.
For more information about this test, see Appendix B.2, on page B-1.
1. Check that : Power down is activated. (This flag indicates that RAPHAEL was correctly
powered down, by using the switch at the back of the unit, the last time it was powered
down.)
2. Activate : Run status. (This simulates the start of normal ventilation.)
3. Verify that Power down is now deactivated. (This indicates that RAPHAEL has correctly
reset this field at the start of normal ventilation.)
Note
You cannot reactivate this field except by switching off and switching on RAPHAEL.
Note
Alarm sound is not used in this test. Do not activate this field.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

Power down not activated at start of test.

Switch RAPHAEL off and on.

Power down cannot be deactivated by Run status.

Replace mainboard.

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Test 4.5

Checking the alarm LED


1. Activate : Alarm light.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly).
(Figure 13-17 on page 13-26.)
3. Deactivate Alarm light.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Alarm silence LED does not blink.

13-34

Action
Replace mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Testing the alarm silence function

Test 4.6

This test checks that the alarm ASIC functions that govern the alarm silence key and alarm LED are
functioning correctly.
1. Activate : Alarm silence.
2. Verify that the alarm LED on the front panel illuminates (turns on). (Figure 13-17 on
page 13-26.)
3. Deactivate Alarm silence.
4. Press the alarm silence key on the front panel.
5. Verify that the alarm LED illuminates.
6. Activate : New alarm.
7. Verify that the alarm LED extinguishes (turns off).
8. Activate the alarm silence key on the front panel. The LED must not illuminate.
9. Deactivate New alarm.
10. Press the alarm silence key again to silence future alarms (the alarm LED illuminates again).

Troubleshooting
Symptom

June 9, 2006

Action

New alarm does not cancel the alarm silence LED.

Replace mainboard.

Alarm silence key does not function.

Replace mainboard.

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Test 4.7

Checking the inspiratory and expiratory valve unpowered position


This test checks the relay governing the inspiratory and expiratory valves. (Figure 13-23.)
Activate : Valves off. As you do this:
1. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 13-23.)

Ambient
state LED

Inspiratory
and
expiratory
valve
relay

Figure 13-23. The ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157373

(mainboard PN 157265 is similar)

Note
This LED is not present on mainboard PN 157250.
2. Verify that the expiratory valve plunger pin moves down to its unpowered (de-energized)
position. (Figure 13-24.)

Pin in
normal
position

Pin in
unpowered
position

Figure 13-24. The expiratory valve plunger in normal and unpowered positions

3. Deactivate Valves off.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Ambient state LED does not illuminate (fitted on mainboard PN 157265 and
PN 157373 only) and expiratory valve does not move down to its unpowered
position.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Replace mainboard.
Replace inspiratory valve.
Replace expiratory valve.

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Test 4.8

Testing the front panel LEDs


This test checks ability of the alarm ASIC to control the front panel LEDs and the buzzer.
1. Activate : Lamp test.
2. Verify that each LED on the front panel illuminates and that the buzzer sounds.
3. Deactivate Lamp test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Alarm, nebulizer or trigger LED does not function.

Action
Replace mainboard.

Backup buzzer does not function.

13-38

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.9

Testing the watchdog


This test checks that the alarm ASIC and supporting components are triggered when the main
processor fails to function correctly. In this situation, all valves move to a position that enables the
patient to breath for himself if he is able to do so (although RAPHAEL cannot actively assist with
ventilation) and the backup alarm buzzer is activated.
1. Activate : Stop Watchdog.
2. Verify that:
The expiratory valve plunger sinks to its unpowered (de-energized) position
(Figure 13-24)
The alarm LED on the front panel blinks (turns on and off repeatedly)
The buzzer sounds
The following message is displayed: Watchdog working correctly
3. Switch the unit off and on.
4. Activate Test 4: Alarm monitor again, and go to Test 4.10.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Stop watchdog has no effect.

June 9, 2006

Replace mainboard.

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Test 4.10

Testing backup battery operation


This test checks that the power supply unit correctly communicates to the alarm monitor ASIC when
it switches to using the backup batteries. Switching takes place automatically if the mains power
supply is interrupted.
1. Verify that:
Battery operation is not activated
The ac power indicator LED on the front panel is illuminated (switched on)
(Figure 13-2 on page 13-4)
2. Disconnect the power cord from the unit.
3. Verify that:
: Battery operation is activated
The ac power indicator LED on the front panel extinguishes (switches off)
(Figure 13-2 on page 13-4)
4. Reconnect the unit to mains power.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Battery operation activated while mains connected.

Replace fuse.
Replace power supply.
Replace mainboard.

ac power indicator LED malfunctions.

Replace front panel keyboard.


Replace power supply.

Not possible to activate Battery operation by removing


power cord.

13-40

Replace power supply.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 4: Alarm monitor

Test 4.11

Testing the fan


These tests check that the ASIC creates an alarm condition when the fan fails.

Test 4.11.1

Fan test 1
1. Carefully stop the fan from rotating by applying light pressure to the center of rotor.
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Release the fan.
4. Verify that Fan error deactivates.

Test 4.11.2

Fan test 2
1. Disconnect the fan cable from the mainboard (plug P16/Fan).
2. Verify that : Fan error activates.
3. Reconnect the fan cable.
4. Verify that Fan error deactivates.
Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action
Replace fan.

Fan error activated while fan is running.

Replace mainboard.

Fan error deactivated while fan is not running.

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Replace fan.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 4.12

Checking again for error signals


Verify the following indicators are still inactive:
Voltage error
uP clock
P-Source fail
Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Voltage error activated.

Replace mainboard.

uP clock activated.
P-source fail activated.

13-42

Replace mainboard.
The inspiratory valve current too
high.

Replace inspiratory valve.

Expiratory valve current too high.

Replace expiratory valve.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure


Test 5.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the gas mixer system and tank pressure. During the tests, both the oxygen
and the air mixer solenoid valves are activated separately for individual testing. Throughout the tests
the nebulizer valve remains open to allow you to measure the tank pressure at the nebulizer outlet.
WARNING
During this test series, RAPHAEL automatically switches on the nebulizer valve. If you switch
the valve off by using the nebulizer key on the front panel, you will obtain false readings.

Test 5.2

Preparation
1. Connect the air and oxygen supplies to the unit. (Figure 13-25.)

Figure 13-25. The gas supplies connected to the unit

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2. Activate 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-26.

Figure 13-26. The Mixer and Tank Pressure test screen

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.3

Testing the air and oxygen mixer valves


This test checks the ability of the air and the oxygen mixer valves, the pneumatic connections, and
the controlling electronics to maintain the tank pressure between set limits.
1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 2 bars.
2. Connect the pressure gauge to the nebulizer outlet as shown in Figure 13-27.
Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper
Figure 13-27. The tubing setup for Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer

valves
3. Close the patient outlet with a stopper.
4. Activate Air Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-28.

Figure 13-28. The screen you see by activating Air Test

5. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings according to
Table 13-3.
Field

RAPHAEL must display


950 to 1100

Ptank max

Table 13-3. Values for the air and O 2 tests

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Field

RAPHAEL must display

Ptank min

840 to 860

Offset frequency Hz

4720 to 7080

Table 13-3. Values for the air and O 2 tests

6. Activate Stop running test.


7. Activate O2 Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-29.

Figure 13-29. The screen you see by activating O2 Test

8. Verify the Ptank max, Ptank min, and Offset frequency readings again, also
according to Table 13-3 on page 13-45.
9. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Tank Pressure Low displayed

Action
Check the oxygen and the air supplies.
Check the tank and tank mounting for leaks.

Offset frequency outside specification


and mixer valve leak

Replace dPmixer pressure sensor cable.


Replace dPmixer pressure sensor.
Replace rubber mounting block.
Replace air and oxygen mixer valves.
Replace mainboard.

13-46

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Symptom
Ptank Max pressure outside
specification

Action
Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low pressure or flow).
Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including nebulizer tubing).
Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 13-75 to recalibrate the
inspiratory valve, then return to Test 5.3, Testing the air and oxygen mixer
valves, on page 13-45.
Replace the mixer valves in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.

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Test 5.4

Testing the tank overpressure valve


This test fully opens the mixer valve controlling the flow of air to the tank. The pressure in the tank
then increases until the tank overpressure valve opens. The test checks that the overpressure valve
opens at the correct pressure.
1. Confirm that the pressure gauge and stopper are still in place. (Figure 13-30.)
Pressure
Pressurecontroller
gauge

Range:
0 to 2 bars

Stopper
Figure 13-30. The tubing setup for Test 5.4, Testing the tank overpressure

valve
2. Activate : Air Valve.
3. Verify the tank pressure reading according to Table 13-4. (During this test the tank
overpressure valve opens with a rasping sound.)
Field

Pressure Gauge

RAPHAEL must display

Ptank

1200 to 1600 mbar

Pressure gauge value 300 mbar

Table 13-4. Values for tank overpressure test

4. Deactivate Air Valve.


5. Remove the pressure gauge.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Ptank pressure sensor outside specification

Replace Ptank pressure sensor.


Replace mainboard.

Ptank measured on gauge > 1.6 bar


Ptank measured on gauge < 1.2 bar

Replace tank overpressure valve.


Check that gas supply is sufficient (low pressure or flow).
Replace tank overpressure valve.

13-48

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 5: Mixer and Tank Pressure

Test 5.5

Testing the air and oxygen inlet mixer valves for leakage
This test first reduces the pressure in the tank to 150 mbar. Then, after a period of pressure
stabilization, the tank pressure is monitored to make sure that neither oxygen nor air is leaking into
the tank from either of the mixer valves.
1. Activate : Air Valve and then deactivate Air Valve to bring the tank up to a high
pressure.
2. Reduce the pressure in the tank to very approximately 100 mbar, as displayed by Ptank.
(Figure 13-26 on page 13-44.) You do this by activating and then deactivating the
Nebulizer key on the front panel.
3. Wait approximately 5 seconds, while the pressure in the tank stabilizes.
4. Monitor the pressure for a period of approximately 30 seconds.
Make sure that the pressure decreases during this time.
5. Leave the stopper in place, and activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Ptank displays a constant or a rising pressure.

Action
Replace one of the mixer valves and perform this test again.
If necessary replace the second mixer valve.

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Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.


Test 6.1

Overview
This series of tests checks each of the following:

The Flow Sensor autozero valves


The extended rinse flow valves
The Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve
The nebulizer valve

The schematics displayed in Table 13-5 show the positions of these components. You can find these
schematics in Appendix J, Spare parts and schematics.
Valve description

Valve names used in different places


This test

Schematic ZCH157276
Blatt 1

Schematic ZCH614186
Blatt 2

Flow Sensor autozero valve on


side proximal to patient.

V1

AZ dPptm proximal (V1)a

6 Autozero valve proximal

Flow Sensor autozero valve on


side distal to patient.

V2

AZ dPptm distal (V2)a

7 Autozero valve distal

Extended rinse flow valve on


side proximal to patient.

V3

Ext. AZ dPptm proximal (V3)b

4 Extended rinse flow valve

Extended rinse flow valve on


side distal to patient.

V4

Ext. AZ dPptm distal (V4)b

5 Extended rinse flow valve

Autozero valve for the Pvent


pressure sensor.

V5

AZ Pvent (V5)

16 Autozero valve Pvent

Valve controlling flow of gas


from the tank to the nebulizer
outlet.

Nebulizer

Nebulizer

3 Nebulizer valve

Table 13-5. Valve naming conventions


a. dPptm stands for differential pressure of the pneumatic tachometer (Flow Sensor).
b. Despite the name used in this schematic, this is not an autozero valve.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.2

Preparation
Activate Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-31.

Figure 13-31. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. test screen

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Test 6.3

Testing the autozero valves


This test checks the electronic and mechanical functioning of the Flow Sensor autozero valves. (In
normal use, the autozero valves open periodically to enable RAPHAEL to perform calibrations of the
pressure sensors associated with the Flow Sensor.)
1. Activate Autozero Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-32.

Figure 13-32. The screen you see by activating Autozero Valves Test

The Flow Sensor autozero valves V1 and V2 switch on and off in the following sequence:
V1 and V2 (5 seconds)
: V1 and : V2 (5 seconds)
V1 and V2 (5 seconds)
and so on
2. Seal the silver Flow Sensor outlet with a finger or thumb as shown in Figure 13-33.

blue

Figure 13-33. Sealing one Flow Sensor outlet

13-52

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

3. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 13-6.
Field

Silver connector sealed

Blue connector sealed

V2 deactivated

V2 activated

V1 deactivated

V1 activated

-.--

-0.6 to 0.6 mbar

-.--

-0.6 to 0.6 mbar

dPptm

Table 13-6. Values for dPptm reading during autozero valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Unseal the silver Flow Sensor, and seal the blue Flow Sensor outlet.
5. With Autozero Valve test still running, verify the pressure reading dPptm according to
Table 13-6.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Autozero valves V1 & V2 do not function.

Replace each of the autozero valves in turn, performing this


test after each replacement.
Replace mainboard.
Check gas is connected and supply is sufficient (no low
pressure or flow).
Check internal tubing for leak or disconnection (including
nebulizer tubing).

dPptm -----.-- while autozero valve activated.

Check the dPptm pressure sensor cable.


Replace the dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace the pneumatic block.
The inspiratory valve zero point
is out of range.

dPptm 00.6 while autozero valve activated.

Perform Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 13-75 to recalibrate


the inspiratory valve, then return to Test 6.3, Testing the autozero
valves, on page 13-52.
Check the dPptm pressure sensor cable.
Replace the dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace each of the autozero valves in turn, performing this
test after each replacement.
Replace the mainboard.

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Test 6.4

Testing the extended rinse flow valves


This test checks the electronic and mechanical functioning of the extended rinse flow valves. (During
normal use, these valves activate individually from time to time, to cause a flow pulse in the Flow
Sensor tubes. This enables RAPHAEL to analyze the condition of the tubes.)
1. Connect a Flow Sensor to RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 13-34. (Note that the stopper
must be in place.)

Stopper

Figure 13-34. The tubing setup for Test 6.4, Testing the extended rinse flow

valves
2. Activate Extended Rinse Flow Valves Test. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 13-35.

These fields
activate
alternately

Figure 13-35. The screen you see by activating Extended Rinse Flow Valves

Test

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

The extended rinse flow valves : V3 and : V4 switch in the sequence:


: V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and : V4 (5 seconds)
V3 and V4 (5 seconds)
and so on
3. Using Table 13-7, verify that whichever valve is active (: V3 or : V4), pressure reading
dPptm displays the correct corresponding pressure.
Field

With V3 active, RAPHAEL


must display

With V4 active, RAPHAEL


must display

dPptm

0.8 mbar

-0.8 mbar
(-0.8, -2... - mbar)

Table 13-7. Values for dPptm reading in extended rinse flow valve test

(dPptm is the differential pressure at the pneumatic tachometer, normally called the Flow
Sensor.)
4. Activate Stop running test.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor but leave the stopper in place.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

dPptm < 0.8 mbar while V3 active.

Check for leaks on the pneumatic block.

dPptm > -0.8 mbar while V4 active.

Replace the dPptm pressure sensor.


Replace pneumatic block.

Extended autozero valves V3 & V4 do


not function.

Replace each extended autozero valve in turn, performing this test after each
replacement.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 6.5

Testing the Pvent autozero valve


This test checks the electronic and mechanical functioning of the Pvent autozero valve. (During
normal operation, this valve switches periodically to expose the Pprox sensor to the same pressure as
the Pvent sensor. This enables RAPHAEL to compensate for the offset drift of the Pvent sensor.)
1. Activate Pvent Autozero Valve Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-36 on page 13-56.
Valve V5 switches on and off with an interval of 5 seconds.

Switches on and
off with an
interval of 5
seconds

Figure 13-36. The screen you see by activating Pvent Autozero Valves Test

2. Verify that while valve 5 is active (: V5), Pprox = Pvent (10.0 mbar).
3. Verify that while valve 5 is inactive ( v5), Pprox = 0.0 (5.0 mbar), Pvent 80 mbar.
4. Disconnect the stopper.
5. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pvent Pprox 10.0 mbar while V5 active.


Pprox 0 5 mbar while V5 inactive.

Check the Pprox pressure sensor cable.


Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
Replace the Pvent autozero valve.

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Test 6: Ext. Autozero and Nebul.

Test 6.6

Testing the nebulizer valve


This test checks the electronic and mechanical function of the nebulizer valve. (During normal
ventilation, this valve is activated by RAPHAEL synchronously with the inspiratory and expiratory
phases of the breath pattern, if the nebulization function is selected by the user.)
1. Activate the Nebulizer (: Nebulizer) as shown in Figure 13-37.

Figure 13-37. The Ext. Autozero and Nebul. screen with Nebulizer active

2. Verify that while the nebulizer is activated (: Nebulizer), a flow is provided at the
nebulizer outlet. (Figure 13-38.)

Flow of air from


nebulizer outlet

Figure 13-38. The flow of gas at the nebulizer outlet

3. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
No flow at nebulizer outlet.

Action
Check internal tubing for leaks or disconnections.
Replace nebulizer valve.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors


Test 7.1

Overview
This series of tests the following pressure sensors:
dPptm (the sensor measuring pneumatic tachometer differential pressurethe pressure
differential across the Flow Sensor)
Pprox (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor)
Pvent (the sensor measuring pressure in the patient circuit at the inspiratory valve)
In addition, the test calculates scaling (calibration) values for the Pprox sensor signal.

Test 7.2

Preparation
Activate Test 7: Pressure Sensors. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-39.

Figure 13-39. The Pressure Sensors test screen

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.3

Autozeroing the dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors


This test exposes the dPptm pressure sensor and Pprox pressure sensor to ambient pressure so that
RAPHAEL can calculate offset values for zero pressure.
1. Connect the inspiratory tube and expiratory tube, and make sure that the Flow Sensor is
not attached to the RAPHAEL. (Figure 13-40.)

Figure 13-40. Inspiratory and expiratory tube connected with Y-piece for

Test 7.3
2. Activate Autozero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-41.

Figure 13-41. The test screen you see by activating Autozero

3. Activate Perform Autozero to perform a zero-point error compensation for the pressure
sensors. Make sure that the screen displays the values shown in Table 13-8.

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Note
dPptm ADU and dPptm zoom ADU values depend on the software version you are running.

These rows
added for
information
only.

Field

RAPHAEL must display

dPptm

0.00 0.1 mbar

Paw

OK

Vaw

OK

Pvent

OK

dPptm
ADU

492 to 532 (Version 3.0)

dPptm zoom
ADU

412 to 612 (Version 3.0)

472 to 552 (Version 3.1 and higher)

312 to 712 (Version 3.1 and higher)

Table 13-8. Values for autozero test

4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Paw not OK
Vaw not OK
Pvent not OK
dPptm out of range

Action
Check the combined cable for the Pvent pressure sensor, dPptm pressure sensor, and
Pprox pressure sensor.
Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
Replace dPptm pressure sensor.
Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
Replace each of the autozero valves in turn, performing this test after each replacement.
Replace the mainboard.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.4

Checking and adjusting dPptm gain


In this test, you calibrate the gain applied by RAPHAEL to the dPptm pressure sensor signal. You do
this by adjusting a potentiometer.
WARNING
During this procedure you must be sure to work to an accuracy of 0.01 mbar. This means you
must have a pressure gauge capable of this accuracy. Any RAPHAEL adjusted less accurately will
give an incorrect volume of gas to the patient.

1. Activate Adjust dPptm gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-42.

Figure 13-42. The screen you see by activating Adjust dPptm gain

2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 2.5 mbar.

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3. Connect the tubing system as shown in Figure 13-43. The bottle should be one liter or
larger. (For an alternative system, see Appendix B.3, on page B-2.)

Stopper

Flow
Flowregulator
regulator

Pressure
controller
Pressure gauge

Range:
2.0 to
2.5 mbar

1 liter

Figure 13-43. Tubing setup for Test 7.4

4. Provide a pressure of 2.0 to 2.5 mbar (as measured by the pressure gauge) to the silver
Flow Sensor outlet on the front panel, by adjusting the flow regulator. (The pressure is
generated by the rinse flow.)
dPptm zoom displays ----Note
Do not apply a pressure of more than 2.5 mbar.
5. Verify that dPptm displays the correct value (Table 13-9).
Field

dPptm

RAPHAEL must display


With silver Flow Sensor outlet

With blue Flow Sensor outlet

Pressure gauge value 0.02 mbar


(shown as a negative value on
RAPHAEL)

Pressure gauge value 0.02 mbar


(shown as a positive value on
RAPHAEL)

Table 13-9. Values for dPptm gain adjustment

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

If the value is not in range, adjust it by using the dPptm gain potentiometer.
(Figure 13-44, Figure 13-45 or Figure 13-46.)

Figure 13-44. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 13-45. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

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Figure 13-46. dPptm gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

6. If dPptm shows the correct value, reduce the pressure to 0.8 to 0.9 mbar by adjusting the
flow regulator.
7. Verify that dPptm zoom displays the value shown on Table 13-10.
Field

RAPHAEL must display


With silver Flow Sensor outlet

With blue Flow Sensor outlet

dPptm value 0.01 mbar

dPptm value 0.01 mbar

dPptm zoom

Table 13-10. Values for dPptm zoom gain adjustment

8. Repeat step (3) to step (7), using the blue Flow Sensor outlet. It must not be necessary to
make any adjustments.
9. Remove the stopper and wait 5 seconds.
10. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

13-64

Action

Pressure sensor signal dPptm dPptm zoom.

Replace mainboard.

Pressure sensor dPptm not adjustable.

Replace mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.5

Checking Pvent pressure sensor zero adjustment


In this test, you expose the Pvent pressure sensor to ambient pressure, and confirm that a zero
reading is displayed. This confirms that the offset values performed in Test 7.3, Autozeroing the
dPptm, Pprox and Pvent pressure sensors, on page 13-59 was successful.
1. Make sure that no tubing is connected to the front of the RAPHAEL.
2. Activate Pvent Zero Check. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-47.

Figure 13-47. The screen you see by activating Pvent Zero Check

3. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads zero, as shown in Table 13-11.
Field

RAPHAEL must display

Pvent

0.0 0.2 mbar

Table 13-11. Values for Pvent zero check

4. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pvent 0 mbar

Action
Check and adjust the inspiratory valve using Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 13-75. Then
return to test Test 7.5, Checking Pvent pressure sensor zero adjustment, on page 13-65.
Check Pvent pressure sensor cable.
Replace Pvent pressure sensor.
Replace Pprox pressure sensor.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 7.6

Checking and calibrating Pvent pressure sensor gain


In this test, you calibrate the gain applied by RAPHAEL to the Pvent pressure sensor signal. You do
this by adjusting a potentiometer.
1. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
2. Prepare the RAPHAEL as shown in Figure 13-48.
Pressure
controller
Pressure
gauge

Range:
0 to 100 mbar

Pressure connector

Figure 13-48. Tubing setup for Test 7.6, Checking and calibrating Pvent

pressure sensor gain


3. Activate Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-49.

Figure 13-49. The screen you see by activating Adjust Pvent/Pprox gain

4. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed with a finger or stopper while the system generates a
pressure of approximately 50 mbar (check this on the pressure gauge).

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

5. Verify that Pvent (on the left of the screen) reads the same as the pressure gauge, within
the tolerances given in Table 13-12.
Field

Pressure gauge

RAPHAEL must display

Pvent

45 to 55 mbar

Pressure gauge value 0.5 mbar

Table 13-12. Values for Pvent gain adjustment

6. Use the Pvent gain potentiometer to adjust the reading if it is out of range.
(Figure 13-50, Figure 13-51 or Figure 13-52.)

Figure 13-50. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

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Figure 13-51. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

Figure 13-52. Pvent gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

7. Leave the tubing installation in place and continue to Test 7.7, Adjusting Pprox gain.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pvent gain cannot be adjusted into the correct


range.

13-68

Replace the Pvent pressure sensor.


Replace mainboard.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Symptom
RAPHAEL cannot generate 45 to 55 mbar.

Action
Check for leak in tubing setup.
Check ambient valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
Check patient overpressure valve is tightly fitted, without leak.
Perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 13-80 to recalibrate expiratory
valve, then return to Test 7.6, Checking and calibrating Pvent
pressure sensor gain, on page 13-66.
Replace expiratory valve.

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Test 7.7

Adjusting Pprox gain


In this test, RAPHAEL calculates a scaling (calibration) value for the gain applied to the Pprox
pressure sensor signal.
1. Keep the Flow Sensor sealed as shown in Figure 13-48 on page 13-66. Remain on the
screen shown in Figure 13-49 on page 13-66.
2. Verify that pressure Pvent still reads approximately 50 mbars. (Refer again to Table 13-12
on page 13-67.)
3. Activate Adjust Pprox gain.
4. Verify that the message Calibration successful appears.
5. Leave all tubing in place.
6. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
The following message is displayed:
Calibration not successful

13-70

Action
Repeat the test, making sure that the pressure is in the correct
range.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.8

Checking the automatic analysis of the dPptm and Pprox pressure


sensors
In this test you initiate RAPHAELs automatic analysis of the dPptm pressure sensor and Pprox
pressure sensor and associated tubing. (During normal ventilation, this analysis is automatically
performed every two minutes.)
1. Disconnect the Flow Sensor body (but not the sensor tubing) and the pressure gauge as
shown in Figure 13-53.

Figure 13-53. Tubing setup for Test 7.8, Checking the automatic analysis of

the dPptm and Pprox pressure sensors


2. Activate Sensor Analysis. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-54.

Figure 13-54. The screen you see by activating Sensor Analysis

3. Activate Perform Sensor Analysis.

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4. Verify that Pprox and dPptm read Sensor OK, as shown on Table 13-13.
Fields

RAPHAEL displays

Pprox and dPptm

Sensor OK

Comment
This is the expected and correct result.

Table 13-13. Result from the Sensor Analysis test

5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

One of the following error messages is displayed:

Check the tubing for leaks.

Sensor out of range

Pprox pressure sensor cable is connected and not defective.

Sensor defect

Replace Pprox pressure sensor.

Problems with tubes

Replace dPptm pressure sensor.


Replace mainboard.

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Test 7: Pressure Sensors

Test 7.9

Calibrating the Flow Sensor


In this test, you enable RAPHAEL to calculate scaling (calibration) values for the Flow Sensor you are
currently using. The scaling value is applied to the signal from the dPptm pressure sensor. (During
normal use, the operator can initiate this test in the utilities window.)
1. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 13-55.

Figure 13-55. Tubing setup for Test 7.9, Calibrating the Flow Sensor

2. Activate Flow Sensor Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-56.

Figure 13-56. The screen you see by activating Flow Sensor Calibration

3. Activate Perform Inspiration Calibration.


4. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Inspiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.

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5. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 13-14.


Field

RAPHAEL must display

Inspiration deviation

<35%

Expiration deviation

<35%

Table 13-14. Values for Flow Sensor calibration

6. Turn the Flow Sensor.


7. Activate Perform Expiration Calibration.
8. Wait while the RAPHAEL displays Calibration running. After a time, the Expiration
deviation is displayed on the screen.
9. Verify that the reading corresponds to Table 13-14.
Note
You do not use the 100% O2 test.
10. Disconnect all tubing and the Flow Sensor.
11. Activate Close twice.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Calibration fails.

Action
Check Flow Sensor direction.
Replace Flow Sensor.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve


Test 8.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and adjusts the electronic and mechanical functioning of the inspiratory
and expiratory valves.
The Baseflow segment of this test is for internal use only, and is not performed in the field.

Test 8.2

Preparation
Activate Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-57.

Figure 13-57. The I-Valve and E-Valve test screen

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Test 8.3

Calibrating the inspiratory-valve control signal for zero flow


This test enables you to calibrate the inspiratory valve control voltage to the precise level required for
the inspiratory valve to begin to open. The test also checks the hysteresis of the valve.
1. Connect the Flow Sensor as shown in Figure 13-58.

Blue tube
Blue
tube
Figure 13-58. Tubing setup for Test 8.3, Calibrating the inspiratory-valve

control signal for zero flow


2. Activate I-Valve zero. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-59.

Figure 13-59. The screen you see by activating I-Valve zero

3. Verify that the base of the flow curve is centered between points a and b.
Note
It does not matter if the top of the curve lies in a position outside of the window.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Adjust the curve with potentiometer Vzero if required. (Figure 13-60, Figure 13-61 or
Figure 13-62.)

Figure 13-60. Vzero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250

Figure 13-61. Vzero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157265

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Figure 13-62. Vzero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

5. Check that the width of the curve is at no point is greater than the distance from a to b.
Figure 13-59 on page 13-76 shows a curve that is in range.
Figure 13-63 shows a curve that is out of range.

Figure 13-63. An incorrect I-Valve zero curve

6. Check Vaw min is in accordance with Table 13-15.


Value
Vaw min ml/s

RAPHAEL must display


10 to 66 ml/s

Table 13-15. Values for I-Valve leak flow

7. Activate Stop running test.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Width of curve is greater than distance


from a to b, as shown in Figure 13-63.

Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
Replace inspiratory valve.

Vaw_min too large or too small.

Adjust potentiometer Vzero.


Replace inspiratory valve.

Curve has bad shape.

Check inspiratory valve is clean. (See Section 15.3.2, Cleaning the inspiratory
valve, on page 15-3.)
Replace inspiratory valve.

No signal.

Check Flow Sensor is connected in the correct direction.


Replace inspiratory valve.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 8.4

Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard PN 157250 or 157265


Note
This test is for mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265 only.
If you have mainboard PN 157373, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve
with mainboard PN 157373, on page 13-84.
In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage gain.
1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157373, do not perform this test.
Instead, go to Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard
PN 157373, on page 13-84.
2. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
3. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 13-64.
Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Range:
0 to 100 mbar

Pressure connector

Figure 13-64. Tubing setup for Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with

mainboard PN 157250 or 157265

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-65.

Figure 13-65. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

5. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of different
pressures at intervals of 5 seconds.
6. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
7. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 13-16.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 13-16. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.
8. Activate Continue.
9. When the PEEP pressure rises to 25.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 25.0 mbar continuously.)
10. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 13-66) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 13-17. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

24.5 to 25.5 mbar

24.8 to 25.2 mbar

Table 13-17. Pprox gain tolerance

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Figure 13-66. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157250 and PN 157265

11. Activate Stop running test.


12. Go to Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve controller, on page 13-89

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox does not display correct zero
value

Action
Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
connector marked P11, shown in Figure 13-67.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
Cable P11.
The mainboard.
The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required


offset or gain values

Check for leak in patient tubing.


Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
Replace expiratory valve.
Replace mainboard.

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

7 6

5 4 3

Figure 13-67. Connector P11

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Test 8.5

Testing and calibrating the expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373


Note
If you do not have mainboard PN 157373, use Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with
mainboard PN 157250 or 157265, on page 13-80 instead of this test.
In this test, you check and calibrate the expiratory valve by adjusting the control voltage offset and
gain.
Checking expiratory valve signal at zero pressure
1. Identify your mainboard. If you have mainboard PN 157250 or PN 157256, do not
perform this test. Instead, perform Test 8.4, Testing/calibrating exp. valve with mainboard
PN 157250 or 157265, on page 13-80.
2. Set your pressure gauge to read in a range of approximately 0 to 100 mbar.
3. Connect the Flow Sensor and the tubing as shown in Figure 13-68.
Pressure
Pressuregauge
controller

Range:
0 to 100 mbar

Pressure connector

Figure 13-68. Tubing setup for Test 8.5, Testing and calibrating the

expiratory valve with mainboard PN 157373

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

4. Activate E-Valve test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-69.

Figure 13-69. The screen you see by activating E-Valve test

5. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper. RAPHAEL generates a range of pressures at
intervals of 5 seconds.
6. When the PEEP pressure is at 0.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now displays
0.0 mbar continuously.)
7. Check that the Pprox value is in the range displayed in Table 13-18.
Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

0.0 to 1.0 mbar

Table 13-18. Pprox zero-check tolerance

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal offset


8. Activate Continue.
9. When the PEEP pressure rises to 5.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 5.0 mbar continuously.)

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10. Turn the Exp. Zero potentiometer (Figure 13-70) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 13-19. This sets the offset applied to the expiratory valve.
Note
It is acceptable for the value to fluctuate momentarily outside of this range.

Pprox field on screen

Value on pressure gauge

4.7 to 5.3 mbar

4.7 to 5.3 mbar

Table 13-19. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 13-70. Exp. Zero potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.

Setting expiratory valve signal gain


11. Activate Continue.
12. When the PEEP pressure rises to 50.0 mbar, activate Hold. (The PEEP pressure now
displays 50.0 mbar continuously.)

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

13. Turn the Exp. Gain potentiometer (Figure 13-71) until the Pprox value is in the range
displayed in Table 13-20. This sets the gain applied to the expiratory valve.
Pprox field on screen

Pprox value on pressure gauge

49.5 to 50.5 mbar

49.8 to 50.2 mbar

Table 13-20. Pprox gain tolerance

Figure 13-71. Exp. Gain potentiometer on mainboard PN 157373

Note
Keep the Flow Sensor sealed during the following steps.
14. Activate Continue.
15. Repeat step (9) on page 13-85 to step (13) until no further adjustment is needed.
16. Activate Stop running test.

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Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Pprox does not display correct zero


value

Check the voltage between Pin 6 and Pin 7 on the mainboard. This is the
connector marked P11, shown in Figure 13-72.
To do this, do not remove the connector from the mainboard, but use the test
probes on the connector itself.
If the voltage difference is greater than 20 mV (>20 mV) replace each of the
following in turn, testing after each replacement.
Cable P11.
The mainboard.
The power supply.

Pprox cannot be adjusted to required


offset or gain values

Check for leak in patient tubing.


Check expiratory valve cover and membrane for leaks and defects.
Replace expiratory valve.
Replace mainboard.

7 6

5 4 3

Figure 13-72. Connector P11

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Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve

Test 8.6

Testing the inspiratory valve controller


This test checks the response characteristics of the inspiratory valve and its analog regulator. The test
is largely automatic.
1. Disconnect the transparent tube of the Flow Sensor from the RAPHAEL as shown in
Figure 13-73.

Flow sensor
tube disconnected

disconnect
flow sensor tube

Figure 13-73. Tubing setup for Test 8.6, Testing the inspiratory valve

controller
2. Activate I-Valve controller (dynamic). You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-74.

Figure 13-74. The screen you see by activating I-Valve controller (dynamic)

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper as shown in Figure 13-73.

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4. Verify that each Pprox value is in range at all the different pressures generated by the unit
(Table 13-21). Because of the speed at which the display changes, it is helpful to activate
Hold at each step to enable you to better read the screen.
RAPHAEL must display
Pprox target

Pprox

Pprox peak

1 mbar

Unimportant

Unimportant

5 mbar

4 to 6 mbar

7 mbar

10 mbar

8.5 to 11.5 mbar

12 mbar

25 mbar

23.5 to 26.5 mbar

30 mbar

50 mbar

48.5 to 51.5mbar

60 mbar

Table 13-21. Values for I-Valve controller test

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Activate Close.
7. Disconnect all the tubing.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox_peak out of range.

Action
Replace mainboard.
Replace inspiratory valve.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure


Test 9.1

Overview
This test checks:

Test 9.2

The patient overpressure valve


The pills that protect from rinse flow overpressure
The pills that control the normal rinse flow
For leaks in internal and external tubing
The ambient valve

Preparation
1. Obtain a glass of water. You require this for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow pills, on
page 13-95.
2. Activate Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure. You see a screen similar to the one
shown in Figure 13-75.

Figure 13-75. The Tightness and Overpressure test screen

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Test 9.3

Testing the patient overpressure valve


In this test you check the pressure at which the patient overpressure valve opens. You do not make
any adjustment.
1. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 13-76.

Stopper
Rubber bung

Figure 13-76. Patient outlet closed with a stopper for Test 9.3, Testing the

patient overpressure valve


2. Activate Internal Pneumatic Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-77.

Figure 13-77. The screen you see by activating Internal Pneumatic Test

3. Activate : Mixer. The mixer valves open to admit air and oxygen into the instrument.
4. Verify that the Pvent value lies in the range 80.0 to 120.0 mbar. (As pressure is released
by the overpressure valve).
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.4.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pvent < 80 mbar.

Action
Check for internal leak.
Replace patient overpressure valve.
Replace pneumatic block.

Pvent > 120 mbar.

Check patient overpressure valve is not blocked.


Replace patient overpressure valve.

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Test 9.4

Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills


This test checks that the pills that limit pressure in the Flow Sensor circuit in the event of a
blockage, are functioning properly. These pills are labelled 15 in ZCH614186 Blatt 2.
WARNING
During this test, make sure the pressure measured by the pressure gauge does not increase
above 350 mbar. (Disconnect the gauge to stop this happening, if necessary!)
If pressure becomes too high, the dPptm pressure sensor can be damaged, and must be
replaced.
1. Verify that the patient outlet is still closed with the stopper.
2. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
3. Set your pressure gauge to measure in a range of approximately 0 to 1 bar.
4. Connect the pressure gauge as shown in Figure 13-78, and wait for the pressure to rise
and stabilize.

Pressure gauge

Range:
0 to 1 bar

Stopper

Rubber bung
Figure 13-78. Pressure gauge connected to Flow Sensor connector for Test 9.4,
Testing the rinse flow overpressure pills
5. Verify that the value on the pressure gauge lies in the range 100.0 to 300.0 mbar.
6. Remove the pressure gauge and the stopper.
7. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.5.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pressure gauge reading out of range.

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Action
Replace pneumatic block.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Test 9.5

Testing the rinse flow pills


This test checks that the flow-restricting pills, that control the rinse flow from the tank through
the Flow Sensor tubes, are functioning correctly.
1. Connect two identical tubes to the Flow Sensor connectors as shown in Figure 13-79.
Immerse the tubes in the glass of water as shown in the diagram.

Identical
tubes of equal length
Equal
length

Approximately
equal
number ofequal
bubbles
number of bubbles

Figure 13-79. Setup for Test 9.5, Testing the rinse flow pills

2. Verify that the Internal Pneumatic Test and : Mixer are still activated.
3. Verify that bubbles appear at both tube outlets, and that the number of bubbles
(indicating the rate of flow) is approximately equal on each outlet.
4. Disconnect the two tubes. You do not require them or the water again.
5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 9.6.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Number of bubbles not equal.

June 9, 2006

Action
Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.6

Testing for internal leaks


This test checks that the sum of all internal leaks is at an acceptable level.
1. Connect a piece of tubing between the two Flow Sensor connectors as shown in
Figure 13-80. (The tubing blocks the rinse flow, that would otherwise drain gas from the
tank.)

Tubing

Stopper
Figure 13-80. Tubing setup for Test 9.6, Testing for internal leaks

2. Close the patient outlet with a stopper as shown in Figure 13-80.


3. Verify that : Mixer is still active.
4. Deactivate Mixer and measure the time required for the pressure to drop at Ptank.
Verify that the leakage of the tank is in the range displayed in Table 13-22.
Value

RAPHAEL display must


drop

Time span must be

Ptank

from 700 to 500 mbar

8 seconds

Table 13-22. Values for tank-pressure drop

5. Activate Stop running test.


6. Disconnect the tube and the stopper.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Tank pressure drops too fast.

Action
Check inspiratory valve for leak.
Check tank overpressure valve for leak.
Check for leak between pneumatic block and attached component.
Check nebulizer valve for leak.
Replace pneumatic block.

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Test 9.7

Testing for external leaks


This test checks that RAPHAEL is able to maintain adequate pressure in the patient circuit. It is the
same as the tightness test that the operator initiates during normal use, after every change of
tubing.
1. Connect the tubing as shown in Figure 13-81.

Figure 13-81. Tubing setup for Test 9.7, Testing for external leaks

2. Activate External Tightness Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-82.

Figure 13-82. The screen you see by activating External Tightness Test

3. Seal the Flow Sensor with a finger or stopper, as shown in Figure 13-81, and verify that
the pressure displayed on RAPHAEL stays within the range 32.0 to 38.0 mbar.
4. Do not disconnect the Flow Sensor or tubing.

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

5. Activate Stop running test.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Pprox out of range.

Action
Check for leak in patient tubing.
Check for internal leak.
Check for ambient valve leak.

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Test 9.8

Testing the ambient state


This test checks that RAPHAEL can enter ambient state.
1. Connect your personal bacteria filter to the tubing as shown in Figure 13-83.
Note
An example of a suitable filter is shown on page G-5.

Bacteria
Bacteriafilter
filter
Figure 13-83. The bacteria filter connected for Test 9.8, Testing the ambient

state
2. Activate Ambient Test. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-84.

Figure 13-84. The screen you see by activating Ambient Test

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Test 9: Tightness and Overpressure

3. Verify that the ambient state LED on the mainboard (if present) illuminates. (Figure 13-85.)

Ambient
state LED

Figure 13-85. Ambient state LED on mainboard PN 157373

(Mainboard PN 157265 is very similar)

Note
This LED is not present on the older mainboard PN 157250.
4. Verify that inspiration and expiration are possible, by breathing through the filter.
5. Disconnect the Flow Sensor and tubing.
6. Activate Stop running test.
7. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
Cannot inhale or exhale.

Action
Check that ambient valve is not blocked or defective.
Check that expiratory valve is not blocked or defective.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement


Test 10.1

Overview
This series of tests checks and adjusts oxygen measurement, and the offset and calibration of the
oxygen cell.
Note
If there is no oxygen supply connected to the unit, you cannot perform these tests.

Test 10.2

Preparation
1. Make sure you have an oxygen cell available.
2. Connect RAPHAEL to both an oxygen and an air supply.
3. Activate Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement.
You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 13-86.

Figure 13-86. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.3

Calibrating the oxygen measurement zero offset


In this test, you calibrate RAPHAEL against a zero signal from the oxygen cell.
For this test, the oxygen cell must be electronically disconnected from RAPHAEL.
1. If necessary, disconnect the oxygen cell from RAPHAEL now.
2. Wait 15 seconds for the FiO2 ADU signal to stabilize (it must not fluctuate by more than
plus or minus one digit).
3. Activate O2 Offset (at the top left of the screen).
4. Verify the value displayed for O2 offset (near the bottom of the screen). The dashes
displayed when the screen first opened must now be replaced by numerics (the value is
not important) as shown in Figure 13-87.

Dashes replaced
by value
(Here shown as -10
However, any
value can be
shown.)

Figure 13-87. The O2 Cell Measurement test screen after O2 offset calibration

5. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.4.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Screen displays --- ADUs.

Check oxygen cell is disconnected.


Replace mainboard.

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Test 10.4

Calibrating the oxygen measurement full-scale gain


In this test, you calibrate RAPHAEL against a 100% oxygen concentration at the oxygen cell. This
enables RAPHAEL to establish the scaling (calibration) value for gain.
Note
This test can only run immediately after performing Test 10.3.
1. Install the oxygen cell.
2. Activate O2 Calibration. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-88.
This remains for two minutes during which time calibration takes place.

Figure 13-88. The screen you see by activating O2 Calibration

3. You see the original Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement screen again. (Figure 13-86 on
page 13-102.) Verify that the message Calibration successful is displayed near the
bottom of this screen.
4. Do not stop the test. Go to Test 10.5.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

The following error message is displayed:

Check oxygen cell is connected.

Calibration not OK

Check oxygen is connected.


Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 10: O2 Cell Measurement

Test 10.5

Checking the oxygen measurement


In this test, you check that the oxygen concentration measured by the oxygen cell is approximately
equal to the oxygen concentration delivered by the mixer valves.
1. Activate FiO2 target (in the top part of the screen) and adjust it to the first of the two
readings (25%) displayed in Table 13-23.
RAPHAEL must display
FiO2 target vol%

FiO2 vol%

25%

22.0% to 28.0%

40%

37.0% to 43.0%

Table 13-23. Values for the oxygen measurement test

2. Verify that the FiO2 reading (in the center part of the screen) is in range after two
minutes. (Table 13-23.)
3. Repeat the activation, adjustment and check, for the 40% value.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
FiO2 is out of range

Action
Check oxygen cell is connected.
Check oxygen is connected.
Check sintered disk flow restrictor is not blocked.
Check oxygen cell is not old or defective.

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Test 11: Interface


Note
You can only perform the checks in this test unit if RAPHAEL has the optional communication
interface installed.

Test 11.1

Overview
This series of tests checks the:
Inspiratory/expiratory signal (used with the Special port of the optional communication
interface to synchronize an optional nebulizer)
The nurse call signal (used with the Special port to trigger an external alarm system)
In addition, you can check the RS232 port of the interface if you have a suitable external monitor.
(For details of external monitors, see Appendix A.3, Alarm messages with patient monitoring
systems, on page A-2.)
You can find general information about the communication interface in Section 6, The optional
communication interface.

Test 11.2

Preparation
Activate Test 11: Interface. You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-89.

Figure 13-89. The Interface test screen

Note
If no interface board is installed, the message Not available is displayed on a blank screen. In this
case, there is not interface fitted, and you cannot perform this test. Go to Test 12: EEPROM Values.

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Test 11: Interface

Test 11.3

Testing the inspiratory/expiratory signal


1. Set the multimeter to measure resistance (Ohms).
2. Connect the multimeter to pin 8 and pin 15 of the special connecting socket
(Figure 13-90).

Pin 1

Pin 9

Pin 6 (Remote alarm return)


Pin 7 (Remote alarm)

Pin 14 (Remote alarm return)

Pin 8 (I:E relay)

Pin 15 (I:E relay return)

Figure 13-90. Special port connector pin locations

3. Activate : I/E Signal.


4. Check that the multimeter displays a very low resistance.
5. Deactivate I/E Signal. The connection opens.
6. Check that the multimeter displays a very high resistance.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action
Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.

Resistance is not as specified.

Replace interface board.


Replace mainboard.

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Test 11.4

Testing the Nurse Call (alarm switch)


Note
The results you expect from this test depend upon the revision of interface board fitted to your
RAPHAEL. The differences are noted in the following instructions. (Old interface board:
PN 157269/00. New board: PN 157269/01. The new board was fitted from March 2004.)
1. Make sure the multimeter remains set to measure resistance (Ohms).
2. Connect the multimeter to pin 7 and 14 of the special socket. (Figure 13-90.)
3. Activate : Nurse Call.
4. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
5. Deactivate Nurse Call.
6. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
7. Connect the multimeter to pin 6 and 7.
8. Activate : Nurse Call.
9. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
10. Deactivate Nurse Call.
11. Check that the multimeter displays:
Interface board PN 157269/00: A very low resistance, showing that the
connection is closed.
Interface board PN 157269/01: A very high resistance, showing that the
connection is open.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action
Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.

Resistance is not as specified.

Replace communication interface board.


Replace mainboard.

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Test 11: Interface

Test 11.5

Testing the RS232C port


This test enables you to check the interface with the loopback procedure. This procedure takes the
output signals from three of the pins on the RS232 connector, and returns them to the RAPHAEL.
The test reads the returned signal.
1. Short-circuit the following pins of the RS232 connector with appropriate wires:
Pin 2 and pin 3
Pin 4 and pin 6
Pin 7 and pin 8
(The pins are shown in Figure 13-90 on page 13-107.)
2. Activate Check Serial Interface.
3. Verify that the message Interface test successful appears.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting .
Symptom

Action

One of the following error messages is displayed:

Check connecting wire.

Transmission Error

Check ribbon cable connecting interface board to mainboard.

Transmission Timeout

Replace interface board.

RTS/CTS Error

Replace mainboard.

DTR/DSR Error

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Test 12: EEPROM Values


Test 12.1

Overview
This is not a true test, but a display of the numerous calibration and scaling values you set in earlier
test units. The figures enable you to confirm, with reasonable certainty, that you performed the
earlier test units satisfactorily.
In this test unit, you are only instructed to look at a small sub-set of the total data available.

Test 12.2

Preparation
Activate Test 12: EEPROM Values.
You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-91.

Figure 13-91. The EEPROM Values test screen

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Test 12: EEPROM Values

Test 12.3

Checking EEPROM Scaling Data


1. Activate EEPROM Scaling Data.
You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-92.

Figure 13-92. The screen you see by activating EEPROM Values

2. Check that the following values are not at their factory defaults, and are therefore
probably correctly calibrated. (Table 13-24.)
Parameter

Factory default
value

Pprox gain

1.000

Pprox zoom gain

1.000

O2 offset

O2 gain

1.000

Flow Insp

100

Flow Exp

100

Action

Check that factory


default value is not
displayed.

Table 13-24. Calibrated values to check

If the values appear to be correctly calibrated, to Test 15: Supply Voltages, on page 13-113.

Troubleshooting
If all or most of the values are still at their factory defaults as shown in Table 13-24, you did not
perform the full series of tests correctly as described in Section 13.5, Sequence of test software
units, on page 13-2. In this case, repeat all tests, starting from Test 1: Memory, on page 13-7.
Note
This test does not include EEPROM Configuration Data or EEPROM Time Data.

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Test 13: Gas Delivery System


Test 14: Sensor Values
Note
These tests are for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. Descriptions are not included in this
document.

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Test 15: Supply Voltages

Test 15: Supply Voltages


Test 15.1

Overview
This test enables you to check that RAPHAEL s power supply can recognize and can automatically
switch to battery use when mains voltage is too low or unavailable. The test uses and therefore
checks the mechanism RAPHAEL uses automatically during normal ventilation to test the battery
every 30 minutes (with software version 3.*).

Test 15.2

Preparation
Activate Test 15: Supply Voltages. You see a screen similar to the one shown on Figure 13-93.

Figure 13-93. The Supply Voltages test screen

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Test 15.3

Checking the power supply


The following test measures the voltage at the battery with mains power connected and
unconnected. In addition, you check the outputs from the power supply unit in both of the above
conditions.
1. Ensure that when Mains off is not activated, the Battery voltage shows one of the
following:
A value in the range 26.6 to 30 V (Mainboard PN 157250)
The characters -.---V (Mainboard PN 157265 and PN 157373)
This tells us that either the first part of the power supply, or the backup batteries, is
supplying a voltage in the acceptable range to the second part of the power supply.
Note
RAPHAELs with the older mainboard (PN 157250) display the voltage at the battery when
the mains supply is attached.
RAPHAELs with a newer mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373) display -.---V if the
voltage is 28 V or more. If it is lower, they display the voltage.
2. Ensure that the +5 V, +15 V, and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 13-25.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly at the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.
Field

Range

+5

4.95 to 5.25V

+15

13.5 to 15.75V

-15

-13.5 to -16.5V

Gen

0 to 2a

Table 13-25. Voltages


a. 0 indicates mainboard PN 157250
1 indicates mainboard PN 157265
2 indicates mainboard PN 157373

3. Activate : Mains off and make sure that the battery voltage reads 24 to 26.5 V.
This shows the voltage of the backup battery.
4. Check that the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V values are within the range shown in Table 13-25.
This confirms that the second part of the power supply is working correctly with the input
voltage shown in the Battery field.
5. Check that the value for Gen corresponds to the mainboard fitted, as shown in
Table 13-25.
Note
You have now completed all required software tests. You cannot perform test Test 16: , Alarm
Messages, and you do not have to perform tests 17 and 18.
If you wish to perform the two final tests, go to Test 17: , Event Log, on page 13-119 now. If not, go
to 13.8.

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Test 15: Supply Voltages

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

Battery voltage out of range when


Mains off not activated.

Compare the voltage shown on screen with the voltage at the 24 V test point, as
described in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
If the voltage is out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltage is in range,
but the values shown on screen is wrong, replace the mainboard.

+5 V, +15 V or -15 V value out of


range.

Compare the voltages shown on screen with the voltages at the test points, as
described in Section 9.3, Mainboard voltages test, on page 9-6.
If the voltages are out of range, replace the power supply. If the voltages are in
range, but the screen values are wrong, replace the mainboard.

Battery voltage out of range when


Mains off activated.

Check the backup batteries are connected.


Unless the batteries have not been charged for a long time (perhaps RAPHAEL
has not been attached to the mains power supply for several months) replace
the batteries.
If RAPHAEL has not been connected to the mains for a long time, connect it to
the mains power supply for at least six hours, and then perform this test again.

Gen value out of range.

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Replace mainboard.

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13.8

Optional completion point for test software


You are permitted to finish the test software tests at this point. (Alternatively, you can perform Test
17: Event Log and Test 18: Trend Data.) If you choose to exit the test software now, do the
following:
1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the off position and restarting the
unit.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)

2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3 to determine your next action.

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Test 16: Alarm Messages

Test 16: Alarm Messages


Note
This test is for HAMILTON MEDICAL internal use only. A description is not included in this document.

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Test 17: Event Log

Test 17: Event Log


Note
It is not necessary to perform this test. However, you can do so if you want.

Test 17.1

Overview
This test enables you to check:
That the event log is held in memory, and that entries appear correct
That the RS232 port can transmit the event log to a computer or printer
Note
Only RAPHAELs containing mainboard PN 157265 or PN 157373 have an event log that is held
in memory when RAPHAEL is switched off, and is therefore accessible for this test. These
boards were fitted to RAPHAELs with serial numbers of 2000 and above. If you do not have
such a mainboard, you cannot perform this test or Test 18: Trend Data.
Only RAPHAELs with a communication interface can transmit the event log to a computer or
printer. (See Figure 2-3, RAPHAELs chassis from above, on page 2-4.) If your RAPHAEL has no
communication interface, you cannot test the RS232 port, and you cannot perform
Test 18: Trend Data. (However, you can check that entries in the event log appear correct.)

Test 17.2

Background

Test 17.2.1

The event log


The event log stores up to 1000 events which you can display at will. These events are stored in the
sequence that they take place. Each event includes date, time, description, and/or alarms with alarm
priority.
You can view the event log directly on RAPHAELs screen, or you can transmit it using the RS232 port
of the communication interface (if this interface is installed) for display on a computer or printer.
Information is transmitted in the following order:

Software version
DCU version
Configuration data
Scaling data
Operating hours
List of events

Note
!!! indicates an event associated with a high priority alarm
!! indicates an event associated with a medium priority alarm
! indicates an event associated with a low priority alarm
For more information about alarms, see Section 14, Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting
and your operators manual.

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Test 17.2.2

The two views of the event log


The event log as viewed or downloaded in this test unit displays a wider range of events than the
same event log when viewed during normal ventilation. The additional fields are:
Alarm off

This displays the time at which an alarm-causing condition


ended. When read in the context of the alarm events in the log,
it enables the user to see how many alarms are active.

Battery

This displays the voltage measured during the battery test that
takes place every 30 minutes (with software version 3.*).

Date change

This displays the newly-set date (in addition to the date of the
event) when the date displayed by the real time clock is
changed.
This event can help you to analyze the cause of an
inconsistency in the dates shown in the event log, as this can
be due to a change being made to the real-time clock date.

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Time change

This displays the newly-set time (in addition to the time of the
event) when the time displayed by the real time clock is
changed.

Test entered

This displays the number of the test every time a test software
test is used.

Software event

This string is displayed if a software event is discovered.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 17: Event Log

Test 17.3

Preparing your computer to receive data from the RS232 port

Test 17.3.1

Introduction
If you plan to test the RS232 port by using it to send information to a computer, you must first
prepare your computer as explained in this section. (Transmission to a computer is the method
recommended by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG to perform this test.)
If you plan to test the RS232 port by sending data to a printer, you do not have to prepare a
computer. In this case, connect your printer to the RAPHAELs RS232 port (using a cable with the
characteristics shown in Table 13-26) and go to Test 17.4, Displaying and checking the event log.
Note
This document does not offer instructions for preparing a printer to perform this test.

Test 17.3.2

Method
If you have a standard installation of Windows 95 or later, you can use the HyperTerminal bundled
software to read and print data sent from your RAPHAELs RS232 port.
To prepare your computer, do the following:
1. Locate an RS232 cable with the following pin configuration:
Connector type

Pin number

9-pin male

9-pin female

Table 13-26. RS232 cable specification

RS232 cable PN 157354 is a suitable choice.


2. Using the cable, join the RS232 connector on the RAPHAEL to an RS232 connector on
your computer. (The RAPHAEL RS232 port is shown on Figure 13-90 on page 13-107.)
3. Run HyperTerminal. You normally do this by clicking
Start>Programs>Accessories>Communications>HyperTerminal.
The Connection Description dialog box appears.
4. Type any name in the Name: text box and click OK. (The name you type is the name of the
connection configuration. It is not the name of the file that will contain the event log
data.)
The Connect To dialog box is displayed.
5. In the Connect To dialog box, select the communication port on your computer that you
used for the RS232 connection. (This is usually COM 1.)
Click OK. The Properties dialog box for your port is displayed.
6. Select the following values in the Properties dialog box:
Bits per second: 9600
Data bits: 7
Parity: Even
Stop bits: 2
Flow control: Hardware
7. Click OK.

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13 Running version 3.* test software

8. Click Transfer > Capture Text.


The Capture Text dialog box opens.
9. In the Capture Text dialog box, type the path and file name for the file to which you will
write the event log.
10. Click Start.
Your computer is now prepared to display any data you send to it from the RS232 port of your
RAPHAEL.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 17: Event Log

Test 17.4

Displaying and checking the event log


To show the event log on RAPHAELs display, do the following:
1. Activate Test 17: Event Log.
You see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 13-94.

Figure 13-94. The Event Log test screen

Note
If no communication interface is installed, Transmit is not displayed.
2. Activate Previous or Next to scroll through the event log file. You are able to display a
list of up to 1000 of the most recent events.
3. Verify that the log appears reasonable. In particular, look for the most recent Power on
event, and the events immediately following this. These events must correspond to the
actions you have taken with the RAPHAEL.
4. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

There are no events in the event log.

June 9, 2006

Replace the mainboard.

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13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 17.5

Transmitting the event log


1. Connect a computer or printer to the RS232 port. (This is the smaller connector shown in
Figure 13-90 on page 13-107.)
If you are using a computer, verify that it is ready to receive data. (See Test 17.3, Preparing
your computer to receive data from the RS232 port, on page 13-121.)
2. Activate Transmit to send the event log data to the printer or computer. You are able to
display a list of up to 1000 of the last events. (However, it is not necessary to transmit all of
these. Activate Abort if you want to shorten the time required for this test.)
Note
The latest stored data is transmitted first.
3. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom

Action

You cannot transmit the event log to a computer.

Check that the computer is properly configured.


Check that the RS232 cable connecting the computer and the
communication interface is properly in place.
Replace the interface board.

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Test 17: Optional completion point for test software

13.9

Optional completion point for test software


You are permitted to finish the test software tests at this point. (Alternatively, you can perform
Test 18: Trend Data.) If you choose to exit the test software now, do the following:
1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the off position and restarting the
unit.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)
2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3 to determine your next action.

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13 Running version 3.* test software

Test 18: Trend Data


Note
It is not necessary to perform this test. However, you can do so if you want.

Test 18.1

Overview
This test enables you to check that the 1-, 12-, and 24-hour trends of 22 monitored parameters can
be transmitted through the RS232 port of the communication interface to a computer or printer.
Note
Only RAPHAELs containing mainboard PN157265 or PN 157373 have trends that are held in
memory and are therefore accessible for this test. These boards were fitted to RAPHAELs with
serial numbers of 2000 and above. If you do not have such a mainboard, you cannot perform
this test.
Only RAPHAELs with a communication interface can transmit trend data to a computer or
printer. (See Figure 2-3, RAPHAELs chassis from above, on page 2-4.) If your RAPHAEL has no
communication interface, you therefore cannot perform this test.

Test 18.2

Preparation
1. If you want to send your trend data to a computer (the method recommended by
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG for this test) first prepare your computer as described in
Test 17.3.2, Method, on page 13-121.
Note
This document does not contain instructions for sending data to a printer.
2. Activate Test 18: Trend Data. You see a screen similar to the one shown in
Figure 13-95.

Figure 13-95. The Trend Data test screen

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 18: Trend Data

Test 18.3

Transmitting trend data


1. Connect your suitably prepared computer to the RS232 port.
2. Select any combination of the following:
: 1 hr Trend
: 12 hr Trend
: 24 hr Trend
3. Activate Transmit to send the selected trend data to the computer.
Note
You can only activate Transmit if one of the trends is selected.
You can activate Abort at any time to stop transmission, and shorten the time required for this
test.
The file transmitted is a text file, with columns separated by tabs. The easiest way to read it is
to import it into a spreadsheet program.
The number of trends available in the exported file is greater than the number of trends shown
on RAPHAEL. The additional trends are: VI (inspiratory volume), breath length, and mode.
4. Verify that the transmitted data have been received by the computer. (An example is
shown in Figure 13-96.) The newest data is displayed at the top of the list.
5. Activate Close.

Troubleshooting
Symptom
There are no trends available.

Action
Check that the computer is properly configured.
Check that the RS232 cable connecting the computer and the communication
interface is properly in place.
Check that you have mainboard PN157265 or PN 157373. (Mainboard
PN 157250 does not save trend data.)
Replace the interface board.
Replace the mainboard.

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13 Running version 3.* test software

Figure 13-96. Start of data found in a 1 hour trend in file trend.TXT

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Test 18: Mandatory completion point for test software

13.10

Mandatory completion point for test software


1. Exit the test software by setting microswitch S1 to the off position and restarting the
unit.
WARNING
All other switches must, at all times, remain in the off position. (They are for
development use only.)
2. Go to Section 7.4, Procedure, on page 7-3 to determine your next action.

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13-130

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Part 3:
Troubleshooting and
replacements

PN 61067/05

Section

14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting


14

14.1

Overview
This section is your main information resource for all troubleshooting.
The section is in four parts:

14.2
14.2.1

Section 14.2, Understanding


RAPHAEL alarms, on
page 14-1

An overview of RAPHAELs alarm system.

Section 14.3, The role of the


event log in troubleshooting,
on page 14-3

An introduction to using the event log to help troubleshooting.

Section 14.4, Troubleshooting


technical fault alarms, on
page 14-5

A list of all the technical fault alarms, complete with their


technical fault number, and with suggested actions for
troubleshooting. (Technical fault alarms indicate a problem with
RAPHAEL; normal alarms indicate a problem with the patient.)

Section 14.5, Troubleshooting


normal alarms, on page 14-11

A short list of normal alarm messages (that do not have a


technical fault number) that can result from a ventilator
problem. Suggested troubleshooting actions are included.

Section 14.6, General


troubleshooting, on
page 14-13

A general section on troubleshooting, for problems with


RAPHAEL that are not related to either patient or technical fault
alarms.

Note
Reading the event log is the starting point for troubleshooting.

Understanding RAPHAEL alarms


Two alarm systems
RAPHAEL has two completely independent alarm systems. The first uses the main processor
(P C167CR) to evaluate alarm conditions, and uses the loudspeaker to produce sound. The second
alarm system uses an ASIC to evaluate alarm conditions, and uses the buzzer to produce sound. (See
The two processing systems on page 5-4.) The advantage of the second, backup, alarm system is
that it has its own power source in the form of two capacitors, which can cause the buzzer to sound
for more than two minutes, even in the absence of mains electricity or power from the backup
batteries.
Note
Despite its name, the buzzer produces a high-pitched sound.

14.2.2

Two kinds of alarm


RAPHAEL has two kinds of alarm: the normal alarms that take place during ventilation, and the
Technical Fault alarms that indicate RAPHAEL cannot perform ventilation.

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14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

Normal alarms have three priorities: high, medium and low. High and medium alarms activate the
loudspeaker followed by the buzzer if the loudspeaker is not silenced for more than a minute. Low
priority alarms activate only the loudspeaker.
Technical fault alarms use the loudspeaker and buzzer in the same way as normal high and medium
alarms with the exception of Technical Fault 1, Code 0, which only uses the buzzer. (Table 14-1.)

Technical Fault

Normal

Alarm Type

Loudspeaker

Buzzer

High

Yes

After 1 minute

Medium

Yes

After 1 minute

Low

Yes

No

TF 1 Code 0

No

Yes

All other TF

Yes

After 1 minute

Table 14-1. Use of loudspeaker and buzzer by alarms

Note
It is not the case that the alarm system based on the main processor produces normal alarms, and
the alarm system based on the ASIC produces technical faults.
A normal alarm indicates a condition that can be managed by hospital staff. Examples are a loss of
mains electricity or a failure of the oxygen supply. For full information about the many different
normal alarms and how to respond to them, see the RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) or
local-language equivalent.
A technical fault alarm indicates RAPHAEL has an internal fault, and cannot continue to actively
ventilate the patient. In this case, RAPHAEL switches to ambient state. This is a state in which the
patient is permitted to breathe if he is able to do so but is not actively ventilated by RAPHAEL.
(For more information about ambient state, see Section 4.6, Inspiratory valve and ambient valve, on
page 4-11.)
The symptoms of a technical fault are:
A continuous sound on the buzzer, the loudspeaker, or both
The disappearance of the normal screen display
A message similar to the following:
Technical fault x Alarm Code #y (where x and y are any numbers)
A technical fault requires that RAPHAEL is taken out of service until it is repaired by a service
engineer. The following table lists all technical faults, and how you can respond to them.
Note
If you report a failure to HAMILTON MEDICAL AG, be careful to note:

14-2

Technical fault number


Alarm code
RAPHAEL serial number
Software version of unit

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

The role of the event log in troubleshooting

14.3

The role of the event log in troubleshooting


Note
RAPHAELs with the original mainboard, PN 157250 do not have an event log memory that can store
events when RAPHAEL is switched off. For this reason, it is probably not practical to view the event
log of these RAPHAELs as a part of troubleshooting. However, newer RAPHAELs with mainboards
PN 157265 and PN 157373 store events in memory even when switched off.

14.3.1

Introduction
Do not react immediately to the technical fault or other problem that was reported to you. Instead,
use the event log to view the events leading up to the problem that you are troubleshooting.
There are three ways you can view the event log. Of these, by far the most useful is in test software
mode:
How to access

View in normal ventilation


mode

View in configuration mode

Characteristics

Press the P&T-knob at any time that


there is no window open.

You see a subset of the event log.


Furthermore, you only see events that
took place after the ventilator was last
switched on.

Enter configuration mode. To do this,


power on the ventilator, then
immediately press the P&T-knob. Do
not release the knob until the system
check is finished.

You see a subset of the event log.

Select Event Log in the configuration


mode screen.

View and download in test


software mode
(Software versions 2.* and
3.* only.)

Enter test software mode. For details of


how to do this, see Section 13.6,
Entering test software mode, on
page 13-4. Go to Test 17: Event Log.

You see, and can download to a printer


or computer, the complete event
log.

Note
You must have an interface board
fitted to RAPHAEL, and have a suitable
RS232 cable.

Table 14-2. Three ways of viewing the event log

Note
For more information about the event log, see Test 17: Event Log, on page 13-119.

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14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

14.3.2

Interpreting events
Try to identify events in the event log that can help you identify the underlying cause of the problem
that you must troubleshoot. The following strategies are suggested:
It is likely that you are trying to troubleshoot a problem that occurred during normal
ventilator operation, several days previously. In this case, scroll through the event log until
you find the date and time at which the problem event took place. You can then examine
the events leading up to the problem.
Be aware that some apparent ventilator misfunctions can be the result of user error. Look
in particular for a record of incorrect user settings, such as inappropriate alarm settings.
Send the event log to us by e-mail, so that we can analyze it.
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch)

14-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

Troubleshooting technical fault alarms


Technical
fault
#1

Alarm code
and meaning
0

Software or hardware failure, or


5 V supply less than 4.75 V.

14.4

Possible cause

Action

PROM contact problem.

Try each of the following possible


solutions in the order given.

Defective mainboard.

1.

If you are in test software mode,


connect the mains power supply.

2.

Make sure the software PROM is


properly seated in its socket.

3.

Check the 5 V supply voltage.

4.

Replace the software PROM.

5.

Replace the mainboard.

5 V supply less than 4.75 V.


Watchdog stopped.
Software failure.
You are in test software
mode, you are using the
backup batteries only, and
the batteries have insufficient
charge.
Defective on/off switch.

Check on/off switch at rear of RAPHAEL,


as well as cables between power supply
and on/off switch.

WARNING

1 to
19

30

Power supply monitor. (See


Power Supply Status on page 5-5.)

#1
continued

Software or
hardware failure.

The on/off switch does not isolate


RAPHAEL from the mains power
supply. It only turns RAPHAEL on and
off. Mains voltages are present in the
power supply, even when RAPHAEL is
switched off.

PROM contact problem.

Try each of the following possible


solutions in the order given.
1.

Make sure the software PROM is


properly seated in its socket.

2.

Replace the software PROM.

3.

Replace the mainboard.

Software failure.

Defective power supply.

Try each of the following possible


solutions in the order given.

Defective mainboard.

1.

Replace the power supply.

2.

Replace the mainboard.

Table 14-3. Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

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14-5

14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

#1
continued

35

36

No communication with
graphics controller
board software.

33,
34

Possible cause

Action

PROM contact problem.

Try each of the following possible


solutions in the order given.

Software failure.

1.

Make sure the software PROM is


properly seated in its socket.

2.

Replace the software PROM.

3.

Replace the mainboard.

Display Control Unit (DCU


graphics) board defective.

Try each of the following possible


solutions in the order given.
1.

Replace the Display Control Unit (DCU


graphics) board.

2.

Replace the mainboard.

3.

Replace the software PROM.

Defective mainboard.
Software failure.

Software
failure.

31

Software failure.

Alarm code
and meaning

Software failure.

Try replacing the software PROM.

The measured values are outside of the range that RAPHAEL can compensate for.

Technical
fault

Defective pressure sensor


cable.

Try each of the following possible


solutions in the order given.

Defective pressure sensor


connector. (Possibly a bad
electrical contact.)

1.

Check the ribbon cable between the J5


connector on the mainboard and the
pressure sensors.

2.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 7: Pressure Sensors,
subtest Autozero. You are guided to
replace one of the following sensors:

Defective dPptm pressure


sensor.

Paw not OK:


- Replace Pprox pressure sensor
Vaw not OK:
- Replace dPptm pressure sensor
Pvent not OK:
- Replace Pvent pressure sensor

Defective Pvent pressure


sensor.
Defective Pprox pressure
sensor.
Defective autozero valves.

3.

Check the +10 V supply at Pin 5 on Test


Connector 1.

Defective mainboard.

If it is out of range, check for a short


circuit on pressure sensors.

Defective pneumatic block.

To do this, disconnect the ribbon cable


between the J5 connector on the
mainboard and the pressure sensors. If
the +10 V supply is corrected, the
problem lies with one of the pressure
sensors. Try replacing each of the
sensors in turn.
If the +10 V supply is not corrected,
replace the mainboard.

Table 14-3. Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

14-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

Alarm code
and meaning
Software
failure.

Technical
fault

Possible cause

Technical fault.

Action

If you have software version 2* or 3.*,


download the event log as described in
either:

99 to 2000

Test 17: Event Log, on page 12-117


Test 17: Event Log, on page 13-119
and contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).
If you have software version 1.*, you
cannot download the event log. Contact
technical support.

#2

21

Current to inspiratory valve or


expiratory valve too high.

Check the resistance of the inspiratory and


expiratory valve coils. They must be in the
range 13 to 23 .

#5

23

24

Failure of patient
overpressure valve.

1.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 9: Tightness and
Overpressure.

Defective Pvent pressure


sensor.

2.

Replace the safety block or Pvent


pressure sensor, depending upon the
results of this test.

Microprocessor clock
frequency problem.

#4

22

Defective alarm monitor.

Replace the mainboard.

Pressure in patient circuit


greater than the value set
(Pmax) for more than 5 s.

#3

Pvent pressure greater


than 140 mbar.

If necessary, replace one of the valves.

Defective Pprox or Pvent


sensor.

Defective mainboard.

1.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 7: Pressure Sensors.

2.

Replace the faulty sensor.

Table 14-3. Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

June 9, 2006

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14-7

14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

#6

Alarm code
and meaning
25

Pressure of tank too high.

Technical
fault

Possible cause

Action

Defective tank pressure


sensor cable.

Check the ribbon cable between the J5


connector on the mainboard and the
pressure sensors.

Defective tank pressure


sensor connector.

If this does not solve the problem, do the


following:

Defective tank pressure


sensor.
Defective mixer valves or
valve.

1.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 5: Mixer and Tank
Pressure.

2.

If possible, identify and replace the


faulty component.

3.

If you cannot identify the faulty


component, try replacing each
component in turn, in the sequence
suggested by the Possible cause
column.

1.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 5: Mixer and Tank
Pressure.

2.

Check especially the Offset


frequency Hz value.

Defective mainboard.
Defective pneumatic block.

#7

26

Defective mixer.

Leaking rubber mounting


block on one of mixer valves.
Defective pneumatic block.
Defective mainboard.
Defective mixer valves or
valve.
Leaking rubber mounting
block on one of mixer valves.
Defective dPmixer pressure
sensor.

If this out of range when no gas is


connected, the mainboard is defective.
If this is out of range only when gas is
connected, one of the pneumatic
components (mixer valve, mounting
block or pneumatic block) is defective.

Table 14-3. Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

14-8

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

#8

Alarm code
and meaning
28

Pressure sensor dPptm defective.

Technical
fault

Possible cause

Defective or old version


dPptm pressure sensor.

Action

Try each of the following possible


solutions in the order given.
1.

Make sure you have the latest type of


dPptm pressure sensor board. The latest
type of pressure sensor is equipped with
printed circuit board PN 157412 (dpPtm
sensor and PC board on page F-8). If
you have an old type, order and install
kit PN 157411.

2.

Check the ribbon cable between the J5


connector on the mainboard and the
pressure sensors.

3.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 7: Pressure Sensors,
subtest Autozero. You might be
guided to replace the dPptm sensor by
the following message: Vaw not OK:

4.

Check the +10 V supply at Pin 5 on Test


Connector 1.

Defective dPptm pressure


sensor cable.
Defective dPptm pressure
sensor connector.
Defective autozero valves.
Defective extended rinse flow
valve.
Defective mainboard.
Defective pneumatic block.

If it is out of range, check for a short


circuit on pressure sensors.
To do this, disconnect the ribbon cable
between the J5 connector on the
mainboard and the pressure sensors. If
the +10 V supply is corrected, the
problem lies with one of the pressure
sensors. Try replacing each of the
sensors in turn.

#9

29

Pressure sensor Pprox defective.

If the +10 V supply is not corrected,


replace the mainboard.
Defective Pprox pressure
sensor cable.
Defective Pprox pressure
sensor.

1.

Check the ribbon cable between the J5


connector on the mainboard and the
pressure sensors.

2.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 7: Pressure Sensors,
subtest Autozero. You might be
guided to replace the Pprox sensor by
the following message: Paw not OK

3.

Check the +10 V supply at Pin 5 on Test


Connector 1.

Defective Flow Sensor


autozero valves.
Defective extended rinse flow
valve.
Defective mainboard.
Defective pneumatic block.

If it is out of range, check for a short


circuit on pressure sensors.
To do this, disconnect the ribbon cable
between the J5 connector on the
mainboard and the pressure sensors. If
the +10 V supply is corrected, the
problem lies with one of the pressure
sensors. Try replacing each of the
sensors in turn.
If the +10 V supply is not corrected,
replace the mainboard.

Table 14-3. Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

14-9

14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

#10

37

#11

38

Possible cause

Action

No inspiration/expiration
cycle for more than the sum
of the set apnea time + 2 s.

Alarm code
and meaning

Software failure.

Try replacing the software PROM.

Pressure sensor Pvent defective.

Technical
fault

Defective Pvent pressure


sensor cable.

1.

Check the ribbon cable between the J5


connector on the mainboard and the
pressure sensors.

2.

Go into test software mode, and


perform Test 7: Pressure Sensors,
subtest Autozero. You might be
guided to replace the Pvent sensor by
the following message: Pvent not OK:

3.

Check the +10 V supply at Pin 5 on Test


Connector 1.

Defective Pvent pressure


sensor.
Defective Pvent autozero
valve.
Defective mainboard.
Defective pneumatic block.

If it is out of range, check for a short


circuit on pressure sensors.
To do this, disconnect the ribbon cable
between the J5 connector on the
mainboard and the pressure sensors. If
the +10 V supply is corrected, the
problem lies with one of the pressure
sensors. Try replacing each of the
sensors in turn.
If the +10 V supply is not corrected,
replace the mainboard.

#12

39

Defective mainboard.

Replace the mainboard.

The 5 V backup power,


supplied by the two
capacitors, dropped to 4.7 V
or below. (This alarm does
not occur during normal
discharge of the condensers
when driving the alarm
buzzer.)
#13

Technical fault.

Software
failure.

99 to 2000

#14

If you have software version 2* or 3.*,


download the event log as described in
either:
Test 17: Event Log, on page 12-117
Test 17: Event Log, on page 13-119
and contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).
If you have software version 1.*, you
cannot download the event log. Contact
technical support.

Table 14-3. Troubleshooting technical fault alarms

14-10

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Troubleshooting normal alarms

14.5

Troubleshooting normal alarms


Use this section to troubleshoot some specific normal (patient) alarm messages.
These messages are included in the RAPHAEL operators manuals, as they are normally caused by a
patient condition or application problem, not a ventilator problem. However, because in some cases
the messages can be caused by a ventilator problem, a selected subset of messages is included here.
Always perform the actions in the sequence suggested.
WARNING
After making a repair to RAPHAEL, always perform the complete range of tests described in one of
the following sections:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software

Alarm message

Check flow sensor is displayed.

Possible
cause
V2
V4

Flow sensor missing is displayed.

V1
V2

High min volume is displayed.

V2
V3

High tidal volume, disconnection


is displayed.

V1
V4
V5

High tidal volume, flow sensor


missing is displayed.

V2

See Table 14-5 and Figure 14-1 on page 14-12

V3

Action

Refer to your RAPHAEL operators manual,


and correct the application problem if
possible.
Locate the source of the problem by
performing one of the following test
software tests:
If you are running software version 1.x,
perform Test 5, Ext. Autozero and
Nebul., on page 11-35
If you are running software version 2.*,
perform Test 6, Ext. Autozero and
Nebul., on page 12-47
If you are running software version 3.*,
perform Test 6, Ext. Autozero and
Nebul., on page 13-50
Having corrected the problem, perform all
the test software tests in Section 11,
Section 12 or Section 13.

Table 14-4. Troubleshooting normal alarms

June 9, 2006

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14-11

14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

Nebulizer

Oxygen
mixer

Air
mixer

V4

V2

V1

V3

V5

Figure 14-1. The solenoid valves

Valve
number

Valve description

V1

Flow Sensor (differential pressure) dPptm autozero proximal.

V2

Flow Sensor (differential pressure) dPptm autozero distal.

V3

Extended rinse flow, proximal.

V4

Extended rinse flow, distal.

V5

Flow Sensor Pvent autozero.

Table 14-5. Key to solenoid valve naming

14-12

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

General troubleshooting

14.6

General troubleshooting
Use this section to troubleshoot problems that are not associated with a technical fault or an alarm
message. Typically, these problems take place in RAPHAEL before software has fully booted. In this
case, it is not possible for RAPHAEL to display a technical fault or other alarm message.
Always perform the actions in the sequence suggested.
WARNING
After making a repair to RAPHAEL, always perform the complete range of tests described in one of
the following sections:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software

Problem area
RAPHAEL is dead.

Symptom

Action

RAPHAEL is completely dead.

Replace the power supply.

RAPHAEL is dead, except for the fan, which runs


as normal.

Check the 5 V supply on the test


pins. (Figure 9-7, Test pin values
for test connectors 3 and 1, on
page 9-7.)
Replace power supply if necessary.

LED 1 on mainboard
is blinking.

Verify cables from ac/dc converter


board to display are connected.
Replace dc/ac converter board.
Replace display.

HAMILTON MEDICAL screen


(This is the screen that
displays during the boot
sequence, immediately
before the System check
screen.)

During the boot


sequence, RAPHAEL
displays the HAMILTON
MEDICAL screen, but
does not continue
further.

LED 2 on mainboard
is illuminated.

Replace graphic controller board.

LED 1 on mainboard
does not blink.

Make sure the PROM is properly


seated in its socket on the
mainboard.
Check the 5 V supply on the test
pins. (Figure 9-7, Test pin values
for test connectors 3 and 1, on
page 9-7.)
Replace 5 V power supply if
necessary.

LED 2 on mainboard
is illuminated.
The following message is
displayed:
Checking DCU PROM...

Replace mainboard.

The message is displayed after fitting a new


graphics PROM and new software PROM and
switching on RAPHAEL.

Replace graphic controller board.


Replace mainboard.
None.

The message indicates the start the of the color


software download to the Display Control Unit
(DCU graphics) board.
The message does not indicate an error.

Table 14-6. General troubleshooting

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14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

Problem area

Symptom

Action

The following message is


displayed:

The message is displayed after fitting a defective


graphics PROM and switching on RAPHAEL.

Ensure the PROM is properly


seated.

DCU PROM checksum


Error

The message indicates a problem with the


Display Control Unit software PROM on the
mainboard.

Replace the PROM with a similar


one.

The message is displayed shortly after switching


on RAPHAEL, after fitting a new graphics PROM
and new software PROM.

Replace the DCU board.

The following message is


displayed:
Download Error Status
= xxxx

The following message is


displayed:
Wrong Graphics Version
Please replace
Graphics PROM
PROM Version xxxx
required

The message indicates that an error occurred


during the software download to the Display
Control Unit (DCU graphics) board. (The status
codes are only of use to HAMILTON MEDICAL
research and development, and are not listed
here.)
The message is displayed after fitting an
incompatible Display Control Unit (DCU
graphics) PROM and switching on RAPHAEL.
The message indicates that the graphics PROM
on the mainboard is not compatible with the
installed software or hardware. (Color and XTC
only).
For more information about compatibility, see
Appendix E, Hardware and software versions
and compatibility.

Contact your HAMILTON MEDICAL


representative.

Replace the mainboard.


Contact your HAMILTON MEDICAL
representative.

Ensure that you have Display


Control Unit (DCU graphics) board
version L4 or version L7. (This
information is printed on the
board.)
Ensure that the Display Control
Unit software PROM on the
mainboard is compatible with the
software PROM (also on the
mainboard).
Contact your HAMILTON MEDICAL
representative.

The following message is


displayed:
Monochrome Software in
Color device
Please insert Color
Software

The following message is


displayed:
Color Software in
monochrome device
Please insert
monochrome Software

The message is displayed after fitting


incompatible software components and
switching on RAPHAEL.
The message indicates that monochrome
software was installed in a RAPHAEL Color.

Make sure that you have installed


the correct update/upgrade kit.
Contact your HAMILTON MEDICAL
representative.

For more information about compatibility, see


Appendix E, Hardware and software versions
and compatibility.
The message is displayed after fitting
incompatible software components and
switching on RAPHAEL.
The message indicates that color software was
installed in a monochrome RAPHAEL.

Make sure that you have installed


the correct update/upgrade kit.
Contact your HAMILTON MEDICAL
representative.

For more information about compatibility, see


Appendix E, Hardware and software versions
and compatibility.

Table 14-6. General troubleshooting

14-14

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

General troubleshooting

Problem area
The following message is
displayed:
Wrong Graphics Version
Please replace
Graphics PROM
Installed Software
Version: xxxx
Installed Graphics
Version: xxxx

Symptom
The message is displayed after fitting
incompatible hardware or software components
and switching on RAPHAEL.
The message indicates that the graphics on the
Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board are
not compatible with the installed software
(monochrome RAPHAELs only).

Action
Make sure that you have installed
the correct update/upgrade kit.
Contact your HAMILTON MEDICAL
representative.

For more information about compatibility, see


Appendix E, Hardware and software versions
and compatibility.

Required Graphics
Version: xxxx
The following message is
displayed:

The message is displayed on otherwise blank


screen. Buzzer sounds continuously.

FATAL PROM Checksum


Error!

Make sure the PROM is properly


seated in its socket on the
mainboard.
Replace PROM.
Replace mainboard.

The following message is


displayed:

The message is displayed on otherwise blank


screen. Backup buzzer sounds continuously.

Replace mainboard.

Fatal RAM Error!

Table 14-6. General troubleshooting

June 9, 2006

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14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

Problem area
System check screen.
(This screen displays the
HAMILTON MEDICAL logo,
together with some system
information.)

Symptom
All indicator LEDs on front panel should briefly
illuminate. Some or all do not.

Action
Check keypad is properly
connected.
Replace front panel keypad.
Replace mainboard.

Only the alarm


silence key indicator
LED does not
illuminate.

Replace alarm monitor ASIC.


Replace front panel keypad.
Replace mainboard.

Backup buzzer does not work.

Replace mainboard.

Loudspeaker does not work.

Replace loudspeaker.
Replace mainboard

After changing the mainboard, the following


message is displayed: EEPROM time data
error.

Set the operating hours value.


See one of the following:
Test 1.6, Checking and setting the
number of operating hours, on
page 11-11
Test 1.6, Checking and setting the
number of operating hours, on
page 12-12
Test 1.7, Checking and setting the
number of operating hours, on
page 13-13

EEPROM config data error displayed.

Set the configuration data to factory


settings.
See one of the following:
Test 1.4, Checking and setting the
configuration data, on page 11-9
Test 1.4, Checking and setting the
configuration data, on page 12-10
Test 1.4, Checking and setting the
configuration data, on page 13-10

EEPROM scaling data error displayed.

Set the scaling values to factory


settings.
See one of the following:
Test 1.3, Checking and setting the
scaling Values, on page 11-8
Test 1.3, Checking and setting the
scaling values, on page 12-9
Test 1.3, Checking and setting the
scaling values, on page 13-9

Table 14-6. General troubleshooting

14-16

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

General troubleshooting

Problem area
Download screen.

Symptom

Action

This screen displays a text telling you that it must


download graphics from the PROM on the
mainboard to the Flash EPROM on the Display
Control Unit (DCU graphics) board.

Press P&T-knob to start download.


The PROM on the mainboard
overwrites the Flash EPROM on the
graphics controller card with the
graphics items required by the
software on the mainboard PROM.

The text varies between software versions.


However, typical text is:
Graphics Module needs to be
reprogrammed
Please press button to reprogram
Graphics Module
168 blocks need to be programmed

Note
The cause of this message is that you have
changed the PROM software carrier on the
mainboard without changing the Flash PROM
on the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics)
board.

You do not have a


RAPHAEL Color.

Note
With software version 2.* you cannot
do this.
With software version 2.* and
non-color units, you must replace the
Flash PROM on the Display Control
Unit (DCU graphics) board with a
new, preprogrammed Flash PROM
corresponding to the version of the
software PROM.
With color units, you must replace
the second PROM on the mainboard.
For more information, contact
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).

Replace Display Control Unit (DCU


graphics) board.

After pressing the


P&T-knob, the
download requires
more than 5
minutes.
You have a
RAPHAEL Color.
After pressing the
P&T-knob, there is
no activity displayed
on screen, or the
LEDs on the
mainboard are not
blinking, or the
download requires
more than 20
minutes.
Power LED

LED does not illuminate.

Check the fuses.


Check the mains power supply.

(Figure 13-2, AC power


indicator LED, on
page 13-4.)

Replace the power supply.


Replace the front panel keyboard.

Table 14-6. General troubleshooting

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14 Alarms, technical faults, and troubleshooting

14-18

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Section

15 Maintenance and replacement procedures


15

WARNING

You must perform all preventive maintenance and testing once a year. To do this, you perform
all the steps shown in Section 7, Overview of preventive maintenance and testing.
You must complete a service training course for RAPHAEL ventilators with HAMILTON MEDICAL
before undertaking the maintenance, testing or replacement procedures described in this
manual.
If the pneumatic block fails, replace it. Never attempt to repair the pneumatic block.
Never clean the pneumatic block.
Never allow alcohol near the pneumatic block.
To reduce risk of fire, do not use the self-emptying water trap on the oxygen inlet.
To prevent disease transmission, you must use personal protective equipment when handling
contaminated bacterial filters or other patient accessories. Refer to one of the operators
manuals for instructions on sterilizing patient system parts.

CAUTION
Make sure to take full ESD (electrostatic discharge) precautions before handling any
EPROM, or before opening RAPHAEL. For more information, see Appendix G,
Maintenance tools and test equipment.

15.1

Introduction
This section deals with procedures that fall outside of the yearly preventive maintenance described in
Section 8, Hospital and engineer preventive maintenance.
The following procedures are detailed:

15.2

Section 15.2, Opening RAPHAELs enclosure, on page 15-1


Section 15.3, Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves, on page 15-3
Section 15.4, Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board, on page 15-15
Section 15.5, Changing the 12V batteries, on page 15-17
Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock battery, on page 15-19
Section 15.7, Replacing the display, on page 15-21

Opening RAPHAELs enclosure


If you have not already done so, do the following:
1. Disconnect all tubing and cables (pneumatic and electric) from the RAPHAEL.

June 9, 2006

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

2. Open the enclosure by removing the 8 screws, using a 2.5mm hexagonal (Allen) key.
(Figure 15-1.)

Figure 15-1. Positions of the 8 screws that are removed to open RAPHAEL

Note
The photograph shows a RAPHAEL with a self-emptying water trap at the air inlet. You
might have only the normal water trap fitted. If so, consider fitting the self-emptying trap,
as described

15-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves

15.3
15.3.1

Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves


Preparation
Open RAPHAELs enclosure, as explained in Section 15.2, on page 15-1.

15.3.2
15.3.2.1

Cleaning the inspiratory valve


Overview
Perform this cleaning procedure when indicated by Test 8: I-Valve and E-Valve, on page 12-72.
The procedure comprises the following steps:
1. Removing the inspiratory valve from the RAPHAEL.
2. Dismantling the inspiratory valve.
3. Cleaning the seal and plunger.
4. Reassembling and replacing the valve.

15.3.2.2

Removing the inspiratory valve from the RAPHAEL


To remove the inspiratory valve from the RAPHAEL you must first remove the complete pneumatic
unit from the RAPHAEL. You then remove the valve from the pneumatic unit.
1. Remove the mains cable from the RAPHAEL.
2. Remove all the cable connectors joining the pneumatic unit to the main circuit board. The
larger connectors clip into place, and must be removed with the help of a screwdriver.
(Figure 15-2)
3. Remove the earth connectors that connect the pneumatic unit to the casing.

Figure 15-2. Removing cable connectors

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

4. With the help of a small wrench, remove the pneumatic tubes from the pneumatic unit. To
do this, push down with the spanner on the innermost metal collar fixing each tube to its
connector, while pulling the tube. (Figure 15-3 on page 15-4.)
Note that when refixing the tubes, the wrench is not necessary.

Figure 15-3. Removing the pneumatic tubes with the help of a wrench

5. Remove the two screws that fix the patient outlet to the body of the RAPHAEL.
(Figure 15-4.)
CAUTION
Be careful. These are easy to damage.

Figure 15-4. Removing the screws attaching the patient outlet

15-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves

6. Push the patient outlet into the body of the RAPHAEL.


7. Remove the oxygen cell. You can now see the oxygen calibration tube. (Figure 15-5.)
Remove this tube from the front of the RAPHAEL

Oxygen
measurement
tube

Patient outlet

Figure 15-5. The position of the oxygen calibration tube

8. Remove the three hexagonal (Allen) bolts that secure the complete pneumatic block to the
rear of the RAPHAEL. (Figure 15-6)

Figure 15-6. Removing the hexagonal (Allen) bolts holding the pneumatic unit

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

9. Making sure that the patient outlet is well removed from its housing in the body of the
RAPHAEL, and making sure that all cables are removed, gently slide the pneumatic unit
from the rear of the RAPHAEL. (Figure 15-7)

Figure 15-7. Removing the entire pneumatic unit

10. Place the pneumatic unit on a suitable work surface and remove the thick white rubber
hose to the patient outlet. Finally, remove the hexagonal (Allen) bolts attaching the
inspiratory valve to the unit. (Figure 15-8)
Note
If necessary, unscrew the tank to obtain better access to the screws.

Tank
Rubber hose
removed
Hexagonal
(Allen) bolts

Figure 15-8. Removing the inspiratory valve from the pneumatic unit

15-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves

15.3.2.3

Dismantling the inspiratory valve


1. Remove the two outer hexagonal (Allen) screws from the top of the inspiratory valve. One
screw holds the ground wire in place, the other holds the small printed circuit board.
(Figure 15-9)

The two outer screws

Figure 15-9. Removing the two outer hexagonal (Allen) screws

2. Slide off the inspiratory valve top, containing the magnet. (Figure 15-10)

Figure 15-10. Sliding off the top of the inspiratory valve

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

3. Remove the two hexagonal (Allen) screws joining the upper and lower parts of the
inspiratory valve. (Figure 15-11)

Figure 15-11. Removing the screws joining the upper and lower casings

4. Gently slide the upper and lower casings apart (Figure 15-12). Note the position of the
black O-ring.
CAUTION
Do not damage the seal between the plunger and the plunger housing. Only use your hands for
this task. Do not force the unit apart with a screwdriver or similar tool.

Black O-ring

Figure 15-12. Separating the upper and lower parts

15-8

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves

5. Unscrew the coil from its housing.


CAUTION
When initially loosening the assembly, only turn the coil. Do not turn the plunger, as this can
damage the seal between the plunger and its housing.
Do not use pliers or similar to grasp the plunger, as this could cause damage.

If you have special tool PN 500293, shown in Figure 15-13, use it as shown in
Figure 15-14. If you also have an inspiratory valve with a hole for a hexagonal (Allen) key,
your task is further simplified. (Figure 15-15.)

Figure 15-13. PN 500293 special tool for removing coil from

inspiratory valve

Figure 15-14. PN 500293 in use with old-style plunger

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

Figure 15-15. PN 500293 in use with new-style plunger

Figure 15-16. Detail of new expiratory valve plunger

If you do not have special tool PN 500293, use your fingers, as shown in Figure 15-17.

Figure 15-17. Turning the coil to remove it from plunger

15-10

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves

6. Remove the coil from the plunger and the housing, and retain the white seal.
(Figure 15-18)

White seal

Figure 15-18. Removing the coil from the plunger

7. Slide the plunger out from the housing. (Figure 15-19.)

Figure 15-19. Removing the plunger and spring from the housing

15.3.2.4

Cleaning the seal and plunger


WARNING
Do not use any kind of lubrication, because of the risk of explosion.

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

CAUTION
Keep alcohol away from the pneumatic block. (A small quantity of alcohol can destroy the block.)
1. Clean the entire plunger using a clean cloth and an alcoholic liquid. (Figure 15-20.)

Figure 15-20. Cleaning the plunger with an alcoholic liquid

2. Clean the plunger housing with the alcoholic liquid. The most important parts to clean are
the sides of the housing that seal against the plunger. (Figure 15-21.)

Figure 15-21. Cleaning the plunger housing

15-12

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Cleaning the inspiratory and expiratory valves

3. Clean the plunger housing with the same alcoholic liquid. (Figure 15-22)

Figure 15-22. Cleaning the plunger housing

15.3.2.5

Reassembling and replacing the valve


To reassemble the valve, reverse the sequence of steps above.
CAUTION
You must not use any tools except PN 500293 to screw the coil into place.

When remounting the coil, make sure that you position the thin white wires going to the coil in the
large housing. Also make sure that you position the printed circuit board so that the soldered
connections are uppermost. Both of these details are shown in Figure 15-9, Removing the two outer
hexagonal (Allen) screws, on page 15-7.
Rebuild and replace the pneumatic unit in the RAPHAEL, and connect the cables and tubing. When
you replace the pneumatic tubing, you do not require a wrench.

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

15.3.3

Cleaning the expiratory valve


Perform this cleaning procedure when indicated by step (1) on page 8-11.
1. Clean the pin at the bottom of the expiratory valve using an alcoholic liquid and a clean
cloth. (Figure 15-23)

Figure 15-23. Cleaning the expiratory valve pin

2. Clean the rubber sealing ring with the same liquid. (Figure 15-24)

Figure 15-24. Cleaning the expiratory valve sealing ring

WARNING
After reassembling RAPHAEL, perform the complete series of tests in one of the following sections:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software, on page 11-1
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software, on page 12-1
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software, on page 13-1

15-14

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board

15.4
15.4.1

Replacing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board


Introduction
Perform this procedure when indicated by Test 2, Display, on page 11-12 or Test 2, Display, on
page 12-16.
Replacing the DCU (or graphics) board is not a difficult task. However, if you are replacing a color
unit, be sure to read the information in Section 15.4.3.1, Fitting the new board.

15.4.2

Preparation
Open RAPHAELs enclosure, as explained in Section 15.2, on page 15-1.

15.4.3

Removing the DCU board


1. Using a pair of thin-nosed pliers, squeeze the top of the rear plastic pin attaching the DCU
board to the mainboard. (Figure 15-25.)
2. Using a finger, pull the DCU board just free of the plastic pin.
CAUTION
Do not try to remove the board at this point.
3. Again using the pliers, squeeze the top of the plastic pin nearest the front of the
RAPHAEL.
4. Pull the DCU board just free of the second pin.
Supporting the DCU board on two sides, lift it free of the mainboard.

Chip present
here in
color
versions

Figure 15-25. Squeezing the top of the rear plastic pin supporting the DCU

board
15.4.3.1

Fitting the new board


1. Snap the new board into place on the plastic pins. You do not require tools.

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

2. If you have software version 1.x (which you should update see Appendix D) or
RAPHAEL Color, download the DCU software from the PROM on the mainboard to the
DCU board.
To do this:
a. Connect mains power and switch on the unit. Wait for the startup procedure to
complete. This is indicated by a tone from the loudspeaker.
b. Ensure that LED 1 on the mainboard is blinking.
c. Push the P&T-knob. Ensure that the 4 LEDs on the mainboard blink intermittently.
(If they do not blink, push the P&T-knob again.)
d. Wait 10 to 15 minutes for the download to complete.
You then see the Start ventilation screen.
WARNING
After reassembling RAPHAEL, perform the complete series of tests in one of the following sections:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software, on page 11-1
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software, on page 12-1
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software, on page 13-1

15-16

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Changing the 12V batteries

15.5
15.5.1

Changing the 12V batteries


Introduction
Perform this procedure when indicated by Section 9.4, 12 V batteries condition test, on page 9-10.

Note
Never replace only one battery. Always replace both together. It is recommended that you use
battery replacement kit PN 157313.

15.5.2

Preparation
Open RAPHAELs enclosure, as explained in Section 15.2, on page 15-1.

15.5.3

Removing the batteries


1. Remove the mains cable from the RAPHAEL.
2. Remove the battery connector from the power supply. (Figure 15-26.)
CAUTION
You must do this before disconnecting and removing the batteries.

Figure 15-26. Removing the battery connector from the power supply

3. Undo the Velcro strap holding each battery in place. (Figure 15-27.)

Figure 15-27. The battery straps

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

4. Remove the lower battery from its housing and disconnect each of the battery connectors,
being careful to pull the connector, and not the wire. (Figure 15-28)

Figure 15-28. Disconnecting a battery connector

5. Disconnect the upper battery, and then remove it.


(Do not remove the battery connector lead from the printed circuit board.)
15.5.4

Replacing the batteries


1. Connect the short, red wire that you removed from the old batteries, to the negative
terminal (-) of one new battery.
2. Place the new battery in the upper housing. Make sure the negative (-) terminal of the
battery is on the right. (A mark cut into the case of the RAPHAEL to shows you where to
place the negative (-) terminal.)
3. Connect the positive terminal (+) of the upper battery to the short, red wire of the
red/brown pair attached to the circuit board.
4. Connect the positive terminal (+) of the second new battery to the red wire now attached
to the upper battery.
5. Connect the negative terminal of the battery (-) to the brown wire.
6. Place the battery in the lower housing.
7. Tighten both straps.
8. Connect the battery connector on the power supply.

Note
When battery replacement is complete, the batteries and wiring must be identical to those shown
on Figure 15-28.
CAUTION
Be sure to dispose of the old batteries in an environmentally-friendly way.

15-18

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Changing the real-time lithium clock battery

15.6
15.6.1

Changing the real-time lithium clock battery


Introduction
Perform this procedure when indicated by Test 1: Memory.
You can order a new real-time clock battery using PN 369096.
The real-time clock battery is located on the mainboard, but is positioned under the Display Control
Unit (DCU graphics) board, where it is not visible.
The procedure comprises the following steps:
1. Removing the graphics controller (DCU) board.
2. Removing the real-time clock.
3. Replacing the real-time clock battery.

15.6.2

Removing the Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board


1. Remove the mains cable from the RAPHAEL.
2. Using a pair of thin-nosed pliers, squeeze the top of the rear plastic pin attaching the DCU
board to the mainboard. (Figure 15-29.)
3. Using a finger, pull the DCU board just free of the plastic pin.
CAUTION
Do not try to remove the board at this point.
4. Again using the pliers, squeeze the top of the plastic pin nearest the front of the
RAPHAEL.
5. Pull the DCU board just free of the second pin.
6. Supporting the DCU board on two sides, lift it free of the mainboard.

Chip present
here in
color
versions

Figure 15-29. Squeezing the top of the rear plastic pin supporting the Display

Control Unit (DCU graphics) board

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

15.6.3

Removing real-time clock battery


1. Insert a small screwdriver into the recess in the cover of the real-time clock. (Figure 15-30.)
2. Pivot the screwdriver away from the recess, thereby opening and removing the top cover
and battery.

Figure 15-30. Pivoting open the top of the real-time clock

15.6.4

Replacing the real-time clock battery


You can replace the battery and Display Control Unit (DCU graphics) board without tools.
CAUTION
Be sure to dispose of the old battery in an environmentally-friendly way.
WARNING
After reassembling RAPHAEL, perform the complete series of tests in one of the following sections:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software, on page 11-1
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software, on page 12-1
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software, on page 13-1

15-20

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

15.7
15.7.1

Replacing the display


Introduction
This section covers all displays, including the large color display in RAPHAEL XTC.
Replace a display when indicated by Test 2: Display, or by a general failure of the display.
Note
Always make sure that glass surfaces are free of dirt and dust when reassembling.

15.7.2

Preparation
Open RAPHAELs enclosure, as explained in Section 15.2, on page 15-1.

15.7.3

Removing cable connectors and tubing


1. Locate the cable connectors, as shown in one of the following photographs:
Figure 15-31, Cables in RAPHAELs with monochrome display
Figure 15-32, Cables in RAPHAEL Color
Figure 15-33, Cables in RAPHAEL XTC
dc/ac board

To display
To display
panel
keyboard

To P&T-knob

To front
panel
keyboard
To dc/ac
board

Figure 15-31. Cables in RAPHAELs with monochrome display

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

dc/ac board

To dc/ac board

To display
(this cable is
hidden by the
display panel
keyboard
cable)

To display
panel
keyboard

To P&T-knob
To front
panel
keyboard

Figure 15-32. Cables in RAPHAEL Color

dc/ac board

To dc/ac board

To display
(this cable is
hidden by the
display panel
keyboard
cable)

To display
panel
keyboard

To P&T-knob

To front
panel
keyboard

Figure 15-33. Cables in RAPHAEL XTC

2. Disconnect the P&T cable from the P&T (press and turn) knob. Do not attempt to remove
it from the mainboard.
CAUTION
Be extremely careful with the soldered connection of the P&T-knob cable to the mainboard.
You must not bend or stress this in any way.

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

3. Disconnect the four other cables indicated in Figure 15-31, Figure 15-32, or Figure 15-33.
CAUTION
If you have a RAPHAEL Color or RAPHAEL XTC, be very careful about disconnecting the cable
labelled To display. First loosen the collar on each side with a screwdriver (Figure 15-34) and
then to pull the cable free (Figure 15-35). The photographs show the mainboard on a work
surface (for a better view). You must perform this task with the mainboard inside RAPHAEL.

Figure 15-34. Loosening the display cable collar with a screwdriver, on a

RAPHAEL Color (RAPHAEL XTC is very similar)

Figure 15-35. Pulling the display cable free of the mainboard on a RAPHAEL

Color

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

4. Disconnect the three blue pneumatic tubes from the pneumatic block at the rear of the
RAPHAEL. To do this, use a wrench (spanner) to push down on the inner collar of the
connector, while pulling the tube free.

Figure 15-36. Removing the pneumatic tubes using a wrench

15.7.4

Removing RAPHAELs front cover


This procedure is the same for a monochrome RAPHAEL, a RAPHAEL Color, and for RAPHAEL XTC.
1. Remove the two hexagonal (Allen) screws attaching the font cover. (Figure 15-27.)

Figure 15-37. Removing the two hexagonal (Allen) screws

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

2. Remove the front cover. (Figure 15-38.)

Figure 15-38. Removing RAPHAELs front cover

15.7.5

Removing the display on a monochrome RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Color


This procedure is for a monochrome RAPHAEL or a RAPHAEL Color. If you have a RAPHAEL XTC, go
to Section 15.7.8, Removing, dismantling and replacing the display on a RAPHAEL XTC, on
page 15-41.
1. Remove the left-hand connector from the dc/ac board. Figure 15-39 shows the HITACHI
board fitted to RAPHAELs with monochrome displays. The color display in RAPHAEL Color
uses a very similar dc/ac board (shown in Figure 5-8, The three types of dc/ac board, on
page 5-13.)

Figure 15-39. Disconnecting the left connector from the dc/ac board

(monochrome display shown in photograph)

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

2. Remove the two screws attaching the dc/ac board. (Figure 15-40.)
Remove the board and fixings.

Figure 15-40. Removing the dc/ac converter board (HITACHI board shown in

photograph)
3. Remove the hexagonal (Allen) screws holding in place the two metal supports that secure
the display. (Figure 15-41.)

Metal supports

Figure 15-41. Removing the two display supports (monochrome display shown,

color displays are similar)

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

4. Remove the display panel. (Figure 15-42.)

Figure 15-42. Removing the display (monochrome display shown, color displays

are similar)
5. If it has stuck to the glass, carefully remove the black seal from the display panel keyboard.
(Figure 15-43.) You must use this seal when reassembling the RAPHAEL.

Figure 15-43. Removing the black seal (monochrome display shown)

6. Go to one of the following sections:


Section 15.7.6, Dismantling and replacing a monochrome display, on page 15-28
Section 15.7.7, Dismantling and replacing a RAPHAEL Color display, on page 15-32

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

15.7.6

Dismantling and replacing a monochrome display


This procedure is for a monochrome RAPHAEL. For other kinds of RAPHAEL, see:
Section 15.7.7, Dismantling and replacing a RAPHAEL Color display, on page 15-32
Section 15.7.8, Removing, dismantling and replacing the display on a RAPHAEL XTC,
on page 15-41

15.7.6.1

Dismantling the display


1. Remove the four hexagonal (Allen) screws attaching the display panel to the front glass
screen. (Figure 15-44.)

Figure 15-44. Removing the four hexagonal (Allen) screws

2. Remove the display panel from the front glass screen. (Figure 15-45.)

Figure 15-45. Removing the display panel

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

15.7.6.2

Replacing the display


1. If necessary, reposition the black seal inside the front cover. (Figure 15-46.)

Figure 15-46. Positioning the black seal to the front

2. Make sure that both the display panel and display panel glass are clean. Use a lint-free
cloth, or ideally, compressed air.
3. Place the display on the front glass. (Figure 15-47.)

Foam

Figure 15-47. Replacing the monochrome display on the display panel

4. Replace the hexagonal (Allen) screws.


5. Make sure that the foam is not visible from the front of the display panel.

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

6. Place the combined display panel and front glass in the front casing of the RAPHAEL.
(Figure 15-48.)

Figure 15-48. Installing the display

7. Replace the two supports, making sure that the foam dust protection does not stop a
good electrical connection between the support and the RAPHAEL front panel. To do this,
you must push the foam away from the connecting area between panel and support,
using a screwdriver. (Figure 15-49.)

Figure 15-49. Pushing the foam away from the connecting area

WARNING
The display supports must have a good electrical (ground) contact with the front
cover of the RAPHAEL to stop external electrical interference from disrupting the
operation of RAPHAEL.

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Replacing the display

8. Complete the fitting of the new display by reversing the removal procedure.
9. Make sure that all cables are correctly fitted by checking with Figure 15-31, Cables in
RAPHAELs with monochrome display, on page 15-21.
10. Go to one of the following sections, and perform the complete series of tests:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software, on page 11-1
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software, on page 12-1
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software, on page 13-1

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15.7.7

Dismantling and replacing a RAPHAEL Color display


Use the following procedure if you have a RAPHAEL Color. For other kinds of RAPHAEL, see:
Section 15.7.6, Dismantling and replacing a monochrome display, on page 15-28
Section 15.7.8, Removing, dismantling and replacing the display on a RAPHAEL XTC,
on page 15-41

15.7.7.1

Dismantling the display


1. Loosen the display ribbon cable collar with a screwdriver, as shown by arrow (a) in
Figure 15-50. Then pull the ribbon cable free of the display, as shown by arrow (b).

Figure 15-50. Removing the ribbon cable from the color display

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

2. Remove the four nuts and washers securing the display to the front glass screen.
(Figure 15-51.)

Figure 15-51. Removing the nuts

3. Remove the four Phillips screws securing the supports to the color display. (Figure 15-52.)

Figure 15-52. Removing the Phillips screws

The color display is now fully free of the RAPHAEL.

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

15.7.7.2

Replacing the display


1. If necessary, reposition the black seal inside the front cover. (Figure 15-46.)

Figure 15-53. Positioning the black seal to the front

2. Replace the four Phillips screws securing the supports to the color display.
Note
Do not fully tighten the screws. (Figure 15-52.)

Figure 15-54. Replacing the Phillips screws

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

3. Make sure that both the color display, and display panel glass are clean. Use a lint-free
cloth, or ideally, compressed air. (Figure 15-55.)

Figure 15-55. Cleaning the glass with a lint-free cloth

4. Replace the foam carefully around the bolts and locating lugs. (Figure 15-56.)

Bolts
Locating
lugs

Figure 15-56. Replacing the foam

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

5. Mount the color display onto the display panel glass, making sure that the foam is
correctly positioned, and that the display is tight against the locating lugs. (Figure 15-57.)

Foam under
display panel

Panel tight
against lug

Figure 15-57. Checking the foam position

6. Replace the four nuts and washers securing the color display to the front glass screen.

Figure 15-58. Replacing the washers and nuts

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

7. Fully tighten the four Phillips screws. (Figure 15-59.)

Figure 15-59. Fully tightening the Phillips screws

8. Push the ribbon cable into place. (Figure 15-60.)

Figure 15-60. Pushing the ribbon cable into place

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

And lock it with the special collar. (Figure 15-61.)

Figure 15-61. Locking the collar

9. Place the combined color panel and glass in the RAPHAEL front casing, and replace the
two supports, making sure that the foam does not stop a good electrical connection
between the support and RAPHAELs front panel. To do this, you must push the foam
away from the connecting area between panel and support, using a screwdriver.
(Figure 15-49.)

Figure 15-62. Pushing the foam away from the connecting area

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Replacing the display

Screw the supports into place. (Figure 15-63.)

Figure 15-63. Screwing the supports into place

WARNING
The display supports must have a good electrical (ground) contact with the front
cover of the RAPHAEL to stop external electrical interference from disrupting the
operation of RAPHAEL.

10. View the front cover carefully from the front, to make sure that the screen is correctly
aligned within the cover. If necessary, realign it.
11. Mount and connect the dc/ac converter board. (Figure 15-64 and Figure 15-65.)

Figure 15-64. Mounting the dc/ac converter board

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

Figure 15-65. Connecting the dc/ac converter board

12. Complete the fitting of the new color display by reversing the removal procedure.
13. Make sure that all cables are correctly fitted, by checking your installation against:
Figure 15-32, Cables in RAPHAEL Color, on page 15-22
Figure 15-66, below

Figure 15-66. Detail of schematic ZCH157332

14. Go to one of the following sections, and perform the complete series of tests:
Section 11, Running version 1.x test software, on page 11-1
Section 12, Running version 2.* test software, on page 12-1
Section 13, Running version 3.* test software, on page 13-1

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Replacing the display

15.7.8
15.7.8.1

Removing, dismantling and replacing the display on a RAPHAEL XTC


This procedure is for a RAPHAEL XTC. If you have a monochrome RAPHAEL, or a RAPHAEL XTC, go
to Section 15.7.5, Removing the display on a monochrome RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Color, on
page 15-25. Removing and dismantling the display
1. Loosen the display ribbon cable collar with a screwdriver, as shown by arrow (a) in
Figure 15-67. Then pull the ribbon cable free of the display, as shown by arrow (b).

Figure 15-67. Removing the display cable

2. Remove the five hexagonal (Allen) screws attaching the display panel to the front glass
screen. (Figure 15-44.)

Figure 15-68. Removing the four hexagonal (Allen) screws

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15 Maintenance and replacement procedures

3. Remove the display. (Figure 15-69).

Figure 15-69. Removing the display

15.7.8.2

Replacing the display


1. Make sure that both the display and display-panel glass are clean. Use a lint-free cloth, or
ideally, compressed air. (Figure 15-55.)

Figure 15-70. Cleaning the display-panel glass with a lint-free cloth

2. Complete the replacement of the new display by reversing the procedures shown in:
Section 15.7.8.1, This procedure is for a RAPHAEL XTC. If you have a monochrome
RAPHAEL, or a RAPHAEL XTC, go to Section 15.7.5, Removing the display on a
monochrome RAPHAEL or RAPHAEL Color, on page 15-25. Removing and
dismantling the display, on page 15-41
Section 15.7.4, Removing RAPHAELs front cover, on page 15-24
Section 15.7.3, Removing cable connectors and tubing, on page 15-21

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RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Replacing the display

3. Make sure that all cables are correctly fitted, by checking your installation against
Figure 15-33, Cables in RAPHAEL XTC, on page 15-22.
4. Go to Section 13, Running version 3.* test software, on page 13-1, and perform the
complete series of tests.

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Part 4:
Appendixes

PN 61067/05

Appendix

A RS232 port configuration settings and messages


A

A.1

Introduction
This appendix deals with the RS232 port of the optional communication interface. (Figure A-1.)

RS232 port

Special port

Figure A-1. RS232 port on the communication interface

The appendix shows the configuration settings required by the port, and gives details of the
messages that can be sent by the port to a patient monitoring system. However, details of the
RS232 protocols are not discussed.
For details of the RS232 protocols, download the document External Communication Hamilton
Ventilator RS232 Protocol from the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Web Site
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site/), or contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).
For a general description of the RS232 and Special ports, see Section 6, The optional communication
interface.

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A RS232 port configuration settings and messages

A.2

HAMILTON MEDICAL RS232 configuration settings


The following table shows the low-level protocols used by the RS232 port.
Parameter

Value

Baud rate

9600

Data bit

Stop bit

Parity

Even

Handshake

XON/XOFF

Table A-1. HAMILTON MEDICAL RS232 port configuration settings

A.3

Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems


WARNING
The table below shows the results of research carried out by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG. Please note:
Because companies can change equipment specifications at any time, HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
can take no responsibility for the accuracy of the information included.
Because an increasing number of companies are confirming their equipment is compatible with
the RAPHAEL ventilator, the table is not exhaustive at the time of publication.

RAPHAEL
Description

LEONARDO

Marquette

Possible screen messages

General Alarm

General Alarm

ALARM
(blinks red)

Spacelabs
Visual indication

Audible
indication

Alarmgrenzverstos VENT GENERAL ALARM

Beep every 3 to
10 s

High Pressure

High pressure
Pressure limitation

High Pressure

ALARM
(blinks red)

VENT (blinks)
Alarm bell symbol blinks
PEEP bell symbol blinks

Continuous
tone

Fail to Cycle

Apnea
Apnea backup activated

Apnea
Fail to Cycle

ALARM
(blinks red)

Alarmgrenzverstos

Beep every 3 to
10 s

Apnea

Apnea
Apnea backup activated

Apnea
Fail to Cycle

ALARM
(blinks red)

Alarmgrenzverstos

Beep every 3 to
10 s

Disconnection
Ventilator

Disconnection

Disconnection

ALARM
(blinks red)

Alarmgrenzverstos

Beep every 3 to
10 s

Low Min Vol

Low minute volume

Exp. Minute Vol

ALARM
(blinks red)

VENT (blinks)
Alarm bell symbol blinks
Vmin bell symbol blinks

Continuous
tone

High Min Vol

High minute volume

Exp. Minute Vol

ALARM
(blinks red)

VENT (blinks)
Alarm bell symbol blinks
Vmin bell symbol blinks

Continuous
tone

Table A-2. Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems

A-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems

RAPHAEL

LEONARDO

Marquette

Spacelabs

High Rate

High frequency

High Rate

ALARM
(blinks red)

VENT (blinks)
Alarm bell symbol blinks
Vmin bell symbol blinks

Continuous
tone

Oxygen
Concentration

Low oxygen
High oxygen

Oxygen
Concentration

ALARM
(blinks red)

VENT (blinks)
Alarm bell symbol blinks
FiO2 bell symbol blinks

Continuous
tone

Operator

Power loss during


ventilation
Battery power low
Flow Sensor missing
Turn Flow Sensor
Check Flow Sensor
Fan failure
Exhalation obstructed
High tidal volume
ASV: Initialisation failed
Replace clock battery
IRV
O2 calibration OK
O2 calibration failed
O2 calibration in progress
Tightness test OK
Tightness test failed
Flow Sensor test OK
Flow Sensor test failed
Flow sensing deactivated
O2 monitoring deactivated
No O2 cell in use
Main power loss
O2 cell defective
Disconnect patient
Connect patient
100% O2 activated
Tighten system
Flow Sensor test in progress
ASV: Unable to meet target
ASV: Pressure limitation

Flowsensor /
User

ALARM
(blinks red)

Alarmgrenzverstos

Beep every 3 to
10 s

Gas Supply

Oxygen and air supply


Oxygen supply
Air supply

Gas Supply

ALARM
(blinks red)

VENT (blinks)
Alarm bell symbol blinks
PIP bell symbol blinks
Alarmgrenzverstos
VENT - GAS SUPPLY
VENT - GENERAL ALARM

Continuous
tone

No reaction.
Previous values
displayed.

CONNECT CABLE
VENT OFF
(blinks)

COMMUNICATION LINK LOST

Beep every 3 to
10 s

RAPHAEL
switch off

Table A-2. Alarm messages with patient monitoring systems

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A RS232 port configuration settings and messages

A-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

B.1

Historical and background notes


Introduction
This appendix gives additional information about both RAPHAEL and the service manual. This
information is not required for testing, servicing or troubleshooting, but serves to:
Clarify the reasons for some of the tests
Offer reasons for some of the changes made between versions of this service manual

B.2
B.2.1

Notes on Test 4: Alarm monitor


Introduction
The following notes are about:
Test 4.4 Testing the power down status flag in Section 11
Test 4.4 Testing the power down status flag in Section 12

B.2.2

Notes on the power down status flag


The purpose of the power down status flag is to keep a record of the way in which RAPHAEL is
powered down. When the user correctly powers down RAPHAEL by using the switch at the back of
the unit, RAPHAEL sets the power down status flag to on. (Figure B-2.)

Power down flag

RAPHAEL switched on. No error message necessary.


RAPHAEL switched off

Normal ventilation started

On
RAPHAEL not ventilating

Off
RAPHAEL ventilating patient

RAPHAEL ventilating patient

Figure B-1. The power down flag in normal use

At switch on (not at the start of ventilation) RAPHAEL notes that the flag is set, and does not issue
an alarm message.
Later, at the start of ventilation, RAPHAEL resets the flag.
However, if RAPHAEL is not correctly switched off, but, for example, is allowed to continue
ventilation while running on the backup batteries until such time as the backup batteries fail, the
power down status flag is not set. Later, at switch on, RAPHAEL issues the following warning
message: Power loss during ventilation.

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B Historical and background notes

B.2.3

Notes on the test


This test enables you to check that RAPHAEL can set and unset the power down status flag. You do
this by:
Simulating switching off RAPHAEL during normal ventilation
Simulating starting ventilation
When you enter this test, RAPHAEL simulates a situation in which a user correctly switches off
RAPHAEL during normal patient ventilation. This sets the : Power down status flag to on.
(Figure B-2.)

Power down flag

Test 4: Alarm monitor entered.


Power down automatically set to on.

User activates Run status


to simulate normal ventilation.
Power down set to off.

On
Off
Simulation of normal mode
with ventilation

Simulation of normal mode


without ventilation

Simulation of normal mode


with ventilation

Figure B-2. The Power down flag in test mode

Later, during the test, you simulate a situation in which RAPHAEL starts normal ventilation (you do
this by activating : Run status).
RAPHAEL must respond to this by resetting the Power down status flag to off.

B.3

B.3.1

Notes on Test 6: Pressure Sensors and Test 7: Pressure


Sensors
Introduction
The following notes are about:
Test 6.4 Checking and adjusting dPptm gain in Section 11
Test 7.4 Checking and adjusting dPptm gain in Section 12

B.3.2

Notes on alternative test setup


It is possible to use an alternative tubing setup for checking and adjusting dPptm gain, to the one
shown in the main documentation. The advantage of the alternative shown here is that it offers a

B-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Notes on Test 14: Supply Voltages and Test 15: Supply Voltages

more stable pressure. The disadvantage is that it requires the use of a piece of equipment (flow
meter) that is not supplied by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG. (Figure B-3.)

Flow meter

Flow regulator

Pressure
controller
Pressure gauge

Approximately 10 cm tube

1 liter
Hospital gas supply

Figure B-3. Alternative tubing setup for checking and adjusting

dPptm gain

CAUTION
Do not construct the tubing setup using a single 4-way connector, as this can result in different
gas pressures at the pressure gauge and at RAPHAEL.

B.4

B.4.1

Notes on Test 14: Supply Voltages and Test 15: Supply


Voltages
Introduction
The following notes are about:
Test 14.3 Checking the power supply in Section 11
Test 15.3 Checking the power supply in Section 12.

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B Historical and background notes

B.4.2

General notes
These checks are very limited in their scope. Only two things are checked:
The RAPHAEL battery test. This is the test that RAPHAEL performs every 20 minutes (with
software version 1.x and 2.*) or 30 minutes (with software version 3.*) during normal
operation. It takes one minute, during which time the voltage from the first stage of the
power supply (nominally 28 V) drops to 21 V. RAPHAEL then tests the voltage at the point
shown Figure 11-27 on page 11-48 and Figure 12-36 on page 12-58 to make sure that it
is above 21 V. If it is, it shows that the battery is providing power. (RAPHAEL could drop
the voltage from the first stage of the power supply to 0 V. However, if the battery was
not in good condition, RAPHAEL would then fail to function. At 21 V, RAPHAEL can still
function, even if the backup batteries are disconnected.)
You start this test by activating : Mains off.
But note that this is not a very good battery test. Even a battery in poor condition can
maintain a voltage for a minute. To really test the battery condition, it is necessary to fully
charge the battery (this takes six hours) and then fully discharge the battery while it is
driving RAPHAEL (this should take about two hours if the battery is in good condition).
Because of time constraints, this is clearly not possible.
The second thing that this test checks is the second part of the power supply. By checking
the +5 V, +15 V and -15 V outputs at two different inputs (28 V with Mains off, and
the battery voltage with : Mains off) you can get a reasonable confirmation of the
performance of the second part of the power supply.

B.4.3

Notes on step (1) on page 11-86 and step (1) on page 12-112
The following note is possibly confusing. However, it is correct:
Note
RAPHAELs with the older mainboard (PN 157250) display the voltage at the battery when
the mains supply is attached.
RAPHAELs with one of the newer mainboard (PN 157265 or PN 157373) display -.---V if
the voltage is 28 V or more. If it is lower, they display the voltage.
The reasons are as follows:
The older mainboard (PN 157250) displays numerics, and lets the user decide whether the
value shown is in range.
The newer mainboards (PN 157265 and PN 157373) are designed to display the string
-.---V if the voltage is in range. The rational for this was that the precise voltage is not
important, and to a large extent is not meaningful, as it depends on such things as the
state of charge of the battery. It was therefore decided to hide this detail from the user.
However, at this point an inconsistency was introduced. While we give a range of 26.6 V
to 30.0 V for the correct range with the older boards, the newer boards switch from the
string -.---V to numerics at voltages below 28 V. This implicitly suggests a correct range
of 28 V to 30 V.
Nevertheless, if the user simply obeys the instructions, and checks the range or accepts the
string -.---V, he will not make a mistake, even if he does not understand the underlying
complications.

B-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Notes on Test 14: Supply Voltages and Test 15: Supply Voltages

B.4.4

Notes on step (3) on page 11-86 and step (3) on page 12-112
In versions of this manual before /02, we gave a range of 20 V to 26.5 V for the Mains off test.
However, even with the batteries disconnected, it is not possible for the voltage to drop below 21 V
(because, of course, the mains is not really switched off).
We have now therefore changed the range to 22 V to 26.5 V. (The original figure of 20 V was taken
because this is the lowest voltage at which RAPHAEL can function.)

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B Historical and background notes

B-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

C Software history and features


C

Note
Contact HAMILTON MEDICAL AG at any time for information about upgrading your RAPHAEL, or
view the product catalog at the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Web Site
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site/).

C.1

Software version 1.0


WARNING
Do not use software version 1.0. Upgrade to the latest available software.

Part Number
Date:

C.2

157251
From 16th November 1999.

Software version 1.1


Part Number
Date:
Changes:

157255
From 23rd February 2000.
Adaptive volume controller in (S)CMV+ and SIMV+
improved for use in pediatric patients (very low
compliance).
Ppeak (peak pressure) indication continuously shown on
screen above the pressure gauge.
Alarm information buffer introduced.
Technical fault #3 Code 22 used for extreme high pressure
(Pvent High Fatal).
Low battery level alarm available in standby mode.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

C-1

C Software history and features

C.3

Software version 1.2


Part Number
Date:
Changes:

157262
From 3rd July 2000.
Second patient data window, displaying:
P mean
Insp Flow
f spont
Compensation for the altitude dependency of the flow
measurement.
Compensation for the altitude dependency of the Flow
Sensor checks.
Battery low alarm during mains power use.

C.4

Software version 2.0


Part Number
Date:
Changes:

157281
From 8th October 2001.
Extended numerical monitoring with:

Rinsp
Cstat
AutoPEEP
RCe
spont Vexpmin

Flow Sensor calibration improved.


Event log.
Dynamic automatic compensation of resistance in
inspiratory limb of patient circuit.
Utilities window, containing tests and adjustments,
accessible from start-up window.
Choice of ventilation modes that are displayed.
Control parameters changed:
Body weight range extended
VT range extended
PEEP/CPAP range extended
SIMV+ used as apnea backup mode.
Mainboard supports communication interface as hardware
option at purchase, or for fitting in field.

C-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Software version 2.0S

C.5

Software version 2.0S


Part Number
Date:
Changes:

157282
From 8th October 2001.
Everything from 2.0, plus the following:
ASV.
Trends.
Loops.
DuoPAP/APRV.

C.6

Software versions 2.01, 2.01S


Part Number

157322 (Basic)
157323 (Silver)

Date:
Changes:

From September 2002.


This version was introduced to solve two problems:
Incorrect operating hours problem corrected.
Disconnection alarm algorithm improved.

C.7

Software version 2.1 (Japan only)


Part Number
Date:
Changes:

157312
From 24th August 2002.
As version 2.01, except for the following control parameters:
Body weight range not extended.
VT range not extended.
PEEP/CPAP range not extended.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

C-3

C Software history and features

C.8

Software versions 2.2, 2.2S, 2.2C


This version was not offered as a field upgrade.
Part Number

157337
157336 (Silver)
157335 (Color)

Date:
Changes:

From 28th November 2002.


As versions 2.01 and 2.01S, except for the following:
Color screen introduced on RAPHAEL Color only. Color
test software slightly extended to test the new color
screen.
Apnea time can be set from 15 to 60 seconds (all versions).
Expiratory trigger sensitivity (ETS) can be set from 5 to
70% (all versions).
Trigger setting range is now 1 to 10 l/min (all versions).

C.9

Software versions 2.21, 2.21S, 2.21C


Note
Use of software version 2.21x is not recommended. Upgrade to the latest available software.

Part Number

157353
157352 (Silver)
157351 (Color)

Date:
Changes:

C.10

From 16th December 2002.


As versions 2.2, 2.2S and 2.2C, except for improvement to
ASV graphics window, and some minor software
improvements.

Software versions 2.22, 2.22S, 2.22C


Note
Use of software version 2.22x is not recommended. Upgrade to the latest available software.

Part Number

157357
157356 (Silver)
157355 (Color)

Date:
Changes:

C-4

From 20th May 2003.


As versions 2.21, 2.21S and 2.21C, except for minor
software improvements.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Software versions 2.22, 2.22S, 2.22C

C.11

Software versions 2.23, 2.23S, 2.23C


Part Number

157362
157361 (Silver)
157360 (Color)

Date:
Changes:

C.12

From 5th August 2003.


As versions 2.22, 2.22S and 2.22C, except for minor
software improvements.

Software version 2.24CU (USA only)


Part Number
Date:
Changes:

157369 (USA Color)


From 24th October 2003.
As version 2.23C, except for following changes for USA
market:
Changes in automatic alarm calculation.
Disablement of ASV and APRV.

C.13

Software version 2.25CU (USA only)


Part Number
Date:
Changes:

June 9, 2006

157382 (USA Color)


From April 2004.
As version 2.24CU, except DuoPAP+ mode enabled.

PN 61067/05

C-5

C Software history and features

C.14

Software versions 3.0, 3.0S, 3.0C, 3.0CU


Part Numbers

157396
157397 (Silver)
157398 (Color)
157399 (USA Color)

Date:
Changes:

From February 2005.


As versions 2.2*, but with the following additional
functionality:
Non-invasive ventilation mask ventilation (not available
in USA)
Tube-resistance compensation (not available in USA)
Last Settings RAPHAEL memorizes its settings for a
quick return to ventilation after switching off for X-rays,
and so on
Bi-directional Apnea Backup RAPHAEL goes back to the
original mode if, while in the apnea backup mode, the
patient starts to trigger breaths
New Languages:
Korean
Norwegian
New Controls:
Pramp pressure ramp
Baseflow you can increase the flow from the
to-patient port to the from-patient port for easier
patient breathing, although at the expense of using
more gas
New Alarm Setting: f low frequency low: this is in
addition to the Apnea alarm
Timing parameters visible in the control window
Second Utilities window with:

Hardware options and versions


Software options and versions
Operating hours
Time since power-on (a new feature)

New Monitoring Values:


TE expiratory time
Exp Flow expiratory flow
Leak displays any leak at the patient (often due to a
badly-fitting cuff or mask)
Pressure limitation displayed in real time curve pressure
limitation, a value below that of Pmax, is displayed on
screen in all modes
Alarm Loudness control
Extra features in the Test Software:
Test 1: You can now enter the unit's serial number. This
serves to identify the Event Log print-out.
Test 2: You can test the loudspeaker loudness control.

C-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Software versions 2.22, 2.22S, 2.22C

C.15

Software versions 3.1, 3.1S, 3.1C, 3.1CU


Part Numbers

157437
157438 (Silver)
157439 (Color)
157440 (USA Color)

Date:
Changes:

From May 2006.


As versions 3.0*, but with the following additional
functionality:
Non-invasive ventilation mask ventilation now
available in USA with PN 157440.
Tube-resistance compensation now available in USA with
PN 157440.

C.16

Software versions 3.2CX, 3.2CXU


Part Numbers

157441 (Color and XTC)


157442 (USA Color and USA XTC)

Date:
Changes:

June 9, 2006

From May 2006.


As versions 3.1*. There is no additional functionality:

PN 61067/05

C-7

C Software history and features

C-8

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

D Upgrade routes and kits


D

D.1

Introduction
The chart included at the start of this section displays all current upgrade routes. At the time of
publication of this manual, the software version 3.0* upgrade, offering major new functionality,
replaces all earlier updates (updates offer minor software enhancements).

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

D-1

D Upgrade routes and kits

RAPHAEL Upgrade Routes


June 2006
RAPHAEL
Software version 1.x
1.0

1.1

1.2

Software version 2.*


2.0

Software version 3.*

2.01

2.21

2.22

2.23

3.1

3.0

Upgrade Route 1

RAPHAEL Silver
Software version 2.*S
2.0S

Upgrade Route 2

Software version 3.*S

2.01S

2.21S

2.22S

2.23S

3.0S

3.1S

Upgrade Route 3

RAPHAEL Color

Software version 3.*C

Software version 2.*C


2.21C

2.22C

2.23C

3.0C

3.1C

Upgrade Route 4

RAPHAEL Japan
Software version 2.*
2.1

2.23

RAPHAEL Silver Japan


Software version 2.*S
2.23S

RAPHAEL Color Japan


Software version 2.*C
2.23C

RAPHAEL Color US
Software version 3.*CU

Software version 2.*CU


2.24CU 2.25CU

3.0CU

3.1CU

Upgrade Route 5

RAPHAEL XTC

Software version 3.*C


3.2CX

RAPHAEL XTC US
Software version 3.*CU
3.2CXU

SN 1001

SN 2001

SN 3001

SN 6001 SN 7525
(June 2006)

Note: The vertical dotted lines relate RAPHAEL serial numbers to software originally fitted in the factory.

Figure D-1. Upgrade routes, June 2006

D-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Upgrade and language kits

Appendix D.2, Upgrade and language kits, immediately below, lists the kits available for each
current upgrade route.

D.2

Upgrade and language kits


Note
To upgrade a RAPHAEL you require two kits: an upgrade kit and a language kit.

Upgrade kit

Language kit

Upgrade route 1

PN 157300 English

PN 157403

Description of contents

PN 157302 French

Upgrade kit PN 157403, in combination with one of the


language kits, upgrades any basic RAPHAEL to basic
RAPHAEL, software version 3.1.

PN 157301 German

The upgrade kit includes three PROMs, new labels, and


installation guide PN 610873/06.

PN 157304 Italian

The language kit includes pre-operational check card


and operators manual.

PN 157303 Spanish

Upgrade route 2

PN 157300 English

PN 157404

PN 157302 French

Upgrade kit PN 157404, in combination with one of the


language kits, upgrades any basic RAPHAEL to RAPHAEL
Silver, software version 3.1S.

PN 157301 German

The upgrade kit includes three PROMs, labels, Silver


P&T-knob, and installation guide PN 610873/06.

PN 157304 Italian

The language kit includes pre-operational check card,


ASV card, and operating manual.

PN 157303 Spanish

Upgrade route 3

PN 157300 English

PN 157405

PN 157302 French

Upgrade kit PN 157405, in combination with one of the


language kits, upgrades any RAPHAEL Silver to RAPHAEL
Silver, software version 3.1S.

PN 157301 German

The upgrade kit includes three PROMs, labels, and


installation guide PN 610873/06.

PN 157304 Italian

The language kit includes pre-operational check card,


ASV card, and operating manual.

PN 157303 Spanish

Upgrade route 4

PN 157300 English

PN 157406

PN 157302 French

Upgrade kit PN 157406, in combination with one of the


language kits, upgrades any RAPHAEL Color to RAPHAEL
Color, software version 3.1C.

PN 157301 German

The upgrade kit includes two PROMs, and installation


guide PN 610930/02.

PN 157304 Italian

The language kit includes pre-operational check card,


ASV card, and operating manual.

PN 157303 Spanish

Table D-1. Upgrade and language kits

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

D-3

Upgrade route 5

D Upgrade routes and kits

Upgrade kit PN 157407, in combination with language


kits PN 157408, upgrades any RAPHAEL Color USA to
RAPHAEL Color USA, software version 3.1CU.
PN 157407

PN 157408 English (US)

The upgrade kit includes two PROMs and installation


guide PN 610978/02.
The language kit includes pre-operational check card
and operating manual.

Table D-1. Upgrade and language kits

D-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

E Hardware and software versions and compatibility


E

E.1

Mainboard versions and features


There are four categories of mainboard, as shown in Table E-1.
Mainboard
feature

Mainboard versions
Generation 1
PN 157250

Generation 2
PN 157265/0103

PN 157265/0409

Generation 3
PN 157373/00

Ambient state LED on


mainboard by alarm
ASIC.

No.

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

Monochrome/color
display functionality.

Monochrome only.

Monochrome only.

Monochrome and
color.

Monochrome and
color (including XTC).

Real-time clock.

No.

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

Connection for
optional
communication
interface board.

No.

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

Requires cable
PN 157388 to ensure
the electronic
switching signal to
the two extended
rinse flow valves is
optimized.

Requires cable.

Requires cable.

Requires cable.

Does not require


cable.

Three additional test


pins for 3.3 V testing.

No.

No.

No.

Yes.

Potentiometer for
expiratory valve
adjustment.

No.

No.

No.

Yes.

Software-version-com
patibility jumper.

No.

No.

No.

Yes.

WARNING
This must be set
correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1,
Setting the
jumpers on
mainboard
PN 157373, on
page E-6.

Table E-1. Mainboard features

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

E-1

E Hardware and software versions and compatibility

Software and mainboard compatibility

E.2

Mainboard versions
DCU version

Software version

Table E-2 shows the relationship between mainboard versions and software versions in RAPHAEL.

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.2

1.2

2.0

2.0

2.0S

2.01

2.0

2.01S

2.1

2.1

(Japan)

2.2

2.2

2.21
2.22

PN 157250

PN 157265/0103

PN 157265/0409

PN 157373/00

This mainboard fitted in


factory with software
version 1.x.

This mainboard cannot


function with software
version 1.x.

This mainboard cannot


function with software
version 1.x.

This mainboard cannot


function with software
version 1.x.

This mainboard fitted in


factory before SN 2000.
Can also be found on
RAPHAELs updated to
2.0(S) in the field.

This mainboard fitted in


factory from SN 2000
onwards.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.0* in factory.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.* in factory.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.0*.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.0*.

This mainboard can be


found on RAPHAELs
updated to 2.01(S) in the
field.

This mainboard fitted in


factory from SN 2000
onwards.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.0* in factory.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.* in factory.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.0*.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.0*.

This mainboard fitted in


factory before SN 2000.

This mainboard never


fitted in factory with
software version 2.1.

This mainboard fitted in


factory with software
version 2.1.

This mainboard never


fitted in factory with
software version 2.1.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.1.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.1.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.1.

This mainboard never


fitted in factory with 2.2x
software.

This mainboard never


fitted in factory with 2.2x
software.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.* in factory.

However, can be found


on RAPHAELs updated to
2.2x in the field.

However, can be found


on RAPHAELs updated to
2.2x in the field.

This mainboard fitted in


factory. (Serial numbers
start at 3001 for the 2.2,
2.2S, and 2.2C
ventilators.)

This mainboard never


fitted in factory with
2.2xS software.

This mainboard never


fitted in factory with
2.2xS software.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.* in factory.

However, can be found


on RAPHAELs updated to
2.2xS in the field.

However, can be found


on RAPHAELs updated to
2.2xS in the field.

This mainboard fitted in


factory. (Serial numbers
start at 3001 for the 2.2,
2.2S, and 2.2C
ventilators.)

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.2*.

2.23
2.2S
2.21S
2.22S

2.2

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.2*.

2.23S

Table E-2. Mainboards and software compatibility

E-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

2.2C

Mainboard versions
DCU version

Software version

Mainboard versions and features

2.2C

PN 157250

PN 157265/0103

2.21C

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

2.22C

Note

Note

2.23C

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

PN 157265/0409

This mainboard fitted in


factory with software
version 2.2xC. (Serial
numbers start at 3001 for
the 2.2, 2.2S, and 2.2C
ventilators.)

PN 157373/00

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.* in factory.
However, the mainboard
can operate with
software version 2.2*.

Note
You cannot update to
RAPHAEL Color.

2.24CU

2.2C

2.25CU

2.3C

3.0

3.0

3.0S

3.0C

3.0C4a
or
3.0C7a

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard fitted in


factory with software
version 2.2xC.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 2.* in factory.

Note

Note

Note

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 2.2*

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.* in factory.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.* in factory.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.* in factory.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.*C in factory.

Note

Note

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

Table E-2. Mainboards and software compatibility

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

E-3

3.0CU

3.1

Mainboard versions
DCU version

Software version

E Hardware and software versions and compatibility

3.0C4a
or
3.0C7a

3.1

3.1S

3.1C

3.1C7a

PN 157250

PN 157265/0103

PN 157265/0409

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.*C in factory.

Note

Note

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.* in factory.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.* in factory.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.* in factory.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.*C in factory.

Note

Note

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

PN 157373/00

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

Table E-2. Mainboards and software compatibility

E-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Software version

DCU version

Mainboard versions and features

3.1CU

3.1C7a

Mainboard versions

3.2CX

3.2CXU

3.2C7a

3.2C7a

PN 157250

PN 157265/0103

PN 157265/0409

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.*C in factory.

Note

Note

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.*C in factory.

Note

Note

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard cannot


function with RAPHAEL
Color.

This mainboard never


fitted with software
version 3.*C in factory.

Note

Note

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

You cannot update to


RAPHAEL Color.

However, the mainboard


can operate with
software version 3.0*.

PN 157373/00

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

This mainboard fitted


with software version 3.*
in factory.

WARNING
If fitting this
mainboard as a
replacement, you must
be sure to set the
jumpers correctly. See
Appendix E.2.1, Setting
the jumpers on
mainboard PN 157373,
on page E-6.

Table E-2. Mainboards and software compatibility


a. Depending on Display Graphics Unit (DCU graphics) board version. (The board is clearly embossed with DCU-L4 or DCU-L7.)

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

E-5

E Hardware and software versions and compatibility

E.2.1
E.2.1.1

Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157373


Introduction
If you are fitting mainboard PN 157373 as a replacement, you must check that the
software-version-compatibility jumper and loudspeaker-loudness jumper are set according to your
software version. Failure to do this can result in (minor) misfunction.
Loudspeaker-loudness jumper
With software version 1.x or 2.* and mainboard PN 157373, the loudspeaker loudness is set using a
jumper on the mainboard.
With software version 3.* and mainboard PN 157373, the operator can set the loudspeaker
loudness using a software feature. For this software feature to function correctly, the
loudspeaker-loudness jumper on mainboard PN 157373 must be set to maximum volume.
Software-version-compatibility jumper
Software version 3.*, when running on mainboard PN 157373 enables RAPHAEL to:
Better deal with some difficult combinations of patient tubing, that, previously, could
cause tubing oscillation
Respond more quickly to a patients inspiratory effort, resulting in reduced work of
breathing (WOB)
Note
For these two new software version 3.* features to operate properly on mainboard PN 157373, the
software version jumper must be set correctly for software version 3.*.
Note
For software version 1.x or 2.* to operate properly on mainboard PN 157373, the software-version
jumper must be set correctly for software versions 1.x and 2.*. (Failure to do this can cause minor
overpressure during inspiration.)

E-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Mainboard versions and features

E.2.1.2

Procedure
1. Determine your software version. The easiest way to do this is to look at the software
PROM on the mainboard.

Figure E-1. Software PROM on mainboard (software version 2.23C

in this case)
2. Set the jumpers according to Table E-3:
Software versions 1.x and 2.*

Software versions 3.* and higher

Loudspeaker-loudness
jumper

Move the jumper to the required loudness,


high, medium, or low. These positions are
shown in Figure E-2 and Figure E-3.

Move the jumper to its high position. This


position is shown in Figure E-2 and
Figure E-3.

Software-version-comp
atibility jumper

Move the jumper to the <3.x setting. The


jumper is shown on Figure E-4.

Move the jumper to the >=3.x setting, as


shown on Figure E-4.

Table E-3. Jumper settings on mainboard PN 157373

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

E-7

E Hardware and software versions and compatibility

Loudspeaker
loudness
jumper. (Shown
here in high
position.)
High
Buzzer
Medium
Low

Figure E-2. Loudspeaker-loudness jumper-settings on mainboard

PN 157373

Jumper position
for low setting

Jumper position
for medium setting

Jumper position
for high setting

high

high

high

med

med

med

low

low

low

Figure E-3. Diagram of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings on

mainboard PN 157373

E-8

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Mainboard versions and features

Softwareversioncompatibility
jumper. (Shown
here in position
for software
version 3.* and
higher.)

Figure E-4. Software-version-compatibility jumper on mainboard

PN 157373
E.2.2
E.2.2.1

Setting the jumpers on mainboard PN 157265


Introduction
If you are running software version 3.* or later on mainboard PN 157265, you must be sure that the
loudspeaker-loudness jumper is set according to the software version. Failure to do this can result in
(minor) misfunction. There is no software compatibility jumper.

E.2.2.2

Background information
With software version 2.* and earlier, the loudspeaker loudness is set using a jumper on the
mainboard.
However, software version 3.* and later enables operators to set the loudspeaker loudness using
software functions. For this software feature to function correctly, the loudspeaker-loudness jumper
on the mainboard must be set to maximum volume.

E.2.2.3

Procedure
1. Determine your software version. The easiest way to do this is to look at the software
PROM on the mainboard. (Figure E-1.)

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E-9

E Hardware and software versions and compatibility

2. Set the jumpers according to Table E-3:

Loudspeaker-loudness
jumper

Software versions 1.x and 2.*

Software versions 3.* and higher

Move the jumper to the required loudness,


high (jumper removed), medium, or low.
The positions are shown in Figure E-5 and
Figure E-6.

Move the jumper to its high position. This


is shown in Figure E-5 and Figure E-6.

Note
You do this by removing the jumper
completely.

Table E-4. Jumper settings on mainboard PN 157250 and PN 157265

Loudspeaker
loudness
jumper.
(Shown here
in high completely
removed position.)

Buzzer
Figure E-5. Loudspeaker-loudness jumper-settings on mainboards

PN 157250 and PN 157265

Jumper position
for low setting

Jumper position
for medium setting

medium

medium

medium

low

low

low

Jumper position
for high setting

Figure E-6. Diagram of loudspeaker-loudness jumper settings on

mainboards PN 157250 and PN 157265

E.3

Display control unit and mainboard compatibility


Display Control Unit (DCU) board L7 functions only on mainboard PN 157373 and later, and
requires software version 3.0 or later.
However, mainboard PN 157373 can function with any earlier version of DCU (for instance, L4).

E-10

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility


F

F.1

Introduction
This appendix brings together information found in other parts of the service manual concerning
hardware components that have changed over time. The appendix then adds additional
information, such as associated RAPHAEL serial numbers and the dates of changes.
There are two major sections in this appendix:
Appendix F.2, Component history chart, on page F-2 gives a historical overview of many changed
parts. It displays photographs of the latest version of each part. Appendix F.3, Component change
details, on page F-6 gives details about the items in the Appendix F.2 chart, and also some
additional items. It displays photographs of all major versions of all parts.
Note
The material in this section is not exhaustive: minor revisions are not shown.
In the Component history chart, on page E-2, the solid arrows represent time periods over
which a particular part was kept in production; the dotted arrows represent time periods in
which details of some revisions and dates are missing.

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F-1

F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility

F.2

Component history chart


Monochrome dc/ac board and display
dc/ac board on
page F-6

Date

RAPHAEL
Serial
Number

Description

11/1999

1001

Initial status.
Mainboard supports monochrome displays
only. Requires cable PN 157388.

03/2000

1200

Communication interface added as an option.

02/2003

3200

Electro-magnetic shielding added to dpPtm


sensor.

01/2004

4350

Color display added to RAPHAEL Color, and


mainboard support for color display added.

11/2004

Display on page F-7

PN 396150

PN 380020

Self-emptying water trap introduced, and


supplied in addition to standard water traps.

02/2005

6001

Mainboard does not now requires cable


PN 157388.
Following added to mainboard:
Additional test pins for 3.3 V testing.
Potentiometer for expiratory valve
adjustment.
Software-version compatibility jumper.

04/2005

6203

Filter added to dpPtm sensor.

05/2006

7507

Internal voltage of the dPptm pressure sensor


printed circuit board changed from 10 V to
8 V.

Future

F-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Introduction

Color dc/ac board and display


dc/ac board on
page F-6

Display on page F-7

XTC dc/ac board and display


dc/ac board on
page F-6

Display on page F-7

Communication
interface board on
page F-6

PN 396193

PN 155360

PN 396150

PN 380021

PN 396193

June 9, 2006

PN 380023

PN 61067/05

F-3

F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility

DCU (graphics) board and mainboard


dpPtm sensor and PC
board on page F-8

Date

RAPHAEL
Serial
Number

11/1999

1001

03/2000

1200

02/2003

3200

01/2004

4350

11/2004

DCU board on
page F-7

Mainboard on
page F-8

Description

Initial status.
Mainboard supports monochrome displays
only. Requires cable PN 157388.

Sensor PN 399045 with


PC board PN_157210

PN 396151
(DCU L3)

PN 157250

PN 157329
(DCU L4)

PN 157265

PN 157395
(DCU L7)

PN 157373

Sensor PN 399045 with


PC board PN 157315
Color display added to RAPHAEL Color, and
mainboard support for color display added.
Self-emptying water trap introduced, and
supplied in addition to standard water traps.

02/2005

6001

Mainboard does not now requires cable


PN 157388.
Following added to mainboard:
Additional test pins for 3.3 V testing.
Potentiometer for expiratory valve
adjustment.
Software-version compatibility jumper.

04/2005

6203

Electro-magnetic shielding added to dpPtm


sensor. Later, filter also added.

Sensor PN 399045 with


PC board PN 157409

05/2006

7507

Internal voltage of the dPptm pressure sensor


printed circuit board changed from 10 V to
8 V.

Sensor PN 399045 with


PC board PN 157412

Future

F-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Introduction

Water traps on
page F-9

PN 279729 standard water


trap

PN 157359 self-emptying
water trap introduced, and
supplied in addition to
standard water traps.

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F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility

F.3

Component change details


Communication interface board
See also:
Section 5.2.3, Communication interface board, on page 5-12
Appendix A, RS232 port configuration settings and messages, on page A-1
PN 155360
Comment

The communication interface board


was introduced as an option in March
2000.

Compatibility

There are no compatibility issues.

dc/ac board
See also Section 5.2.4, dc/ac board, on page 5-12.
Comment

dc/ac convertor board made by


HITACHI.
PN 396150

The board converts the 5 V dc input


to approximately 17000 V ac, to
power the light that illuminates the
display.

Compatibility

Does not function with RAPHAEL


Color and RAPHAEL XTC.

Fitted to all monochrome RAPHAELs.


In other words, it is fitted to all
RAPHAELs apart from RAPHAEL Color
and RAPHAEL XTC.
Comment
PN 396167

dc/ac convertor board made by TDK.


The board converts the 5 V dc input
to approximately 17000 V ac, to
power the light that illuminates the
display.

Compatibility

Only functions with RAPHAEL Color.

Fitted to RAPHAEL Color only.


Comment
PN 396193

dc/ac convertor board made by Power


Systems.
The board converts the 5 V dc input
to approximately 17000 V ac, to
power the light that illuminates the
display.

Compatibility

Only functions with RAPHAEL XTC.

Fitted to RAPHAEL XTC only.

F-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Introduction

DCU board
See also Section 5.2.2, Display Control Unit (DCU) board, on page 5-11.
PN 157329 (L4 version of board
shown, L7 version very similar)

Comment

A standard display card (not a VGA


card) that is preprogrammed with the
graphics and text required for
RAPHAEL to display.
It is mounted on the mainboard. You
can identify the type by the characters
L4 or L7 etched into the board.

Compatibility

Compatible with all RAPHAELs except


Color and XTC.

Note
Do not confuse with the DCU
graphics PROM, also mounted on the
mainboard in RAPHAEL Color and
XTC.

Compatibility

Compatible only with mainboard


PN 157373 and later, and requires
software version 3.0 or later.

Display
PN 380020 RAPHAEL monochrome
display
Compatibility
Comment

PN 380021 RAPHAEL Color display

The LCD that displays numerics and


graphics for RAPHAEL operators and
engineers. The screen can be LCD
(liquid crystal display) monochrome,
or LCD/TFT (thin film transistor) color.
Three displays are available for
RAPHAEL:
PN 380020 monochrome, fitted to
RAPHAEL basic and RAPHAEL
Silver.

PN 380023 RAPHAEL XTC display

Compatible only with RAPHAEL basic


and RAPHAEL Silver.

Compatibility

Compatible only with RAPHAEL Color.

PN 380021 color, fitted to


RAPHAEL Color.
PN 380023 color, fitted to
RAPHAEL XTC.

Compatibility

Compatible only with RAPHAEL XTC.

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F-7

F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility

dpPtm sensor and PC board


See also:
Section 5.4, Pressure sensors, on page 5-20.
Appendix E.3, Display control unit and mainboard compatibility, on page E-10
PN 399045 (PC board PN 157210)
Comment

The sensor that measures the pressure


difference between the front and rear
chambers of the Flow Sensor.

PN 399045 (PC board PN 157315)

PN 399045 (PC board PN 157409)

The part number of the sensor is


PN 399045 in all cases. The part
number of the printed circuit board
changed over time, as shown above
the photographs.
The three later types of sensor have
metal shielding to mitigate
interference from external
electro-magnetic signals. (Part
numbers for shielding components
are displayed in schematic
ZCH 157276 in Appendix J, Spare
parts and schematics, on page J-1.)

Compatibility

All kinds of sensor are completely


compatible. However, PN 157409 is
not completely reliable.

PC boards PN 157409 and PN 157412


also have an electronic filter to
mitigate external interference.

PN 399045 PC board (PN 157412)

In practice, all types work reliably,


with the exception of PN 157409.

WARNING
If you have PN 157409 replace it
with the latest model.

Mainboard
See also:
Section 5.2.1, Mainboard, on page 5-1.
Appendix E.1, Mainboard versions and features, on page E-1
Appendix E.2, Software and mainboard compatibility, on page E-2
PN 157250
PN 157265/0103
PN 157265/0409
PN 157373/00-02

Comment

The main printed-circuit board in


RAPHAEL. The DCU (Display Control
Unit) board is mounted on it.
The physical appearance of all
mainboard types is almost identical.
To identify a board, read the part
number etched on it.

F-8

Compatibility

Compatibility is dependent on the


software revision. This is dealt with
fully in Appendix E.2, Software and
mainboard compatibility, on
page E-2.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Introduction

Water traps
PN 279729 Standard water trap
Comment

The standard, non-self-emptying


water trap was introduced with the
first RAPHAEL.

PN 157359 Self-emptying water trap

In November 2004, the self-emptying


water trap was added to all
RAPHAELs, but was not mounted in
the factory. The self-emptying trap
can therefore be mounted by the
user, if required.

Compatibility

There are no compatibility issues


between the two kinds of water trap.
However, the self-emptying kind must
not be fitted to the oxygen inlet.

WARNING
The self-emptying water trap
must only be fitted to the air inlet,
not to the oxygen inlet.

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F-9

F Hardware revisions, features, and compatibility

F-10

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

G.1

Maintenance tools and test equipment


Overview
You require the standard tools, ESD protection and test equipment detailed in the following sections
to carry out the procedures explained in this manual.

G.2

Standard tools
To perform all procedures on equipment from HAMILTON MEDICAL AG, you require a range of:
Screwdrivers (both flat and cross-head)
Metric spanners (wrenches)
Metric hexagonal (Allen) keys

G.3
G.3.1

Special tools
IC extractor tool
Although this manual does not document software changes, your job requires you to often change
software. For this, you need an integrated-circuit extractor. You can purchase a suitable tool
(PN 239040) from HAMILTON MEDICAL AG. (Figure G-1.)

Figure G-1. PN 239040 integrated circuit extractor

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G-1

G Maintenance tools and test equipment

G.3.2

Potentiometer adjustment tool


To adjust potentiometers while running test software, you can use a small screwdriver. However, the
ideal tool is PN R70031. You can purchase this from HAMILTON MEDICAL AG. (Figure G-2.)

Figure G-2. PN R70031 tool for adjusting potentiometers

G.3.3

Grease for self-emptying water trap


When performing yearly maintenance on the self-emptying water trap (Section 8.2.1.3, Special
maintenance of the self-emptying water trap, on page 8-5) it is necessary to apply grease to some of
the seals. You must use a grease that is recommended for medical air and oxygen applications.
BERULUB OX 40 EP is one such example.

G.3.4

Inspiratory valve coil tool


To clean the inspiratory valve, you must first remove the coil. Although you can do this without a
special tool, PN 500293 makes the job a lot easier. (Figure G-3.)

Figure G-3. PN 500293 special tool for removing coil from

inspiratory valve
G.3.5

Interface board PN 157269 and RS232 cable PN 157354


A major aid to troubleshooting is the analysis of the event log. This is described in Section 14.3, The
role of the event log in troubleshooting, on page 14-3.
To download the event log, in order to send it to us for analysis, you require a computer, an
interface board (often already fitted in RAPHAEL) and a suitable RS232 cable. This is explained in
Test 17: Event Log, on page 13-119.

G-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

ESD protection

You can purchase the interface board by ordering the RAPHAEL interface board kit, PN 157287.

Communications interface
board PN 157269

RS232 cable PN 157354

Figure G-4. Interface board and RS232 cable fitted in RAPHAEL

G.3.6

Metron EST tester


Although not required by HAMILTON MEDICAL AG, some countries and some hospitals require that
you perform the tests described in Section I, Automated electrical safety tests. For this, you require a
Metron Safety Analyzer, or similar equipment.

Figure G-5. The Metron Safety Analyzer

G.4

ESD protection
You must use equipment for preventing damage caused by electrostatic discharge (ESD) whenever
you open a ventilator. Typically, this comprises:
ESD grounding cable and wrist band connected to the ventilator for use when you are
working on the ventilator
EDS grounding cable and wrist band connected to the work surface for use when you are
working on an electronic component from the ventilator

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G-3

G Maintenance tools and test equipment

Figure G-6 shows a wrist band and connecting cable complete with the crocodile clip that must be
attached to the ventilator or work surface.

Figure G-6. ESD band and cable

G.5

Equipment required for running test software


You require the following equipment, as well as the tools listed above, to carry out the tests and
calibrations included in this manual.
Pictures and details of most of these items are in the Product Catalog.
Item

G-4

Comment

Capillary tube with 20 ml/s


flow.

PN 500280.

Orifice tube with 500 ml/s


flow.

PN 500290.

Pressure connector.

PN 500300.

Microflow and pressure


regulator (also referred to as
a flow restrictor).

For example, PN 500335.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Equipment required for running test software

Item

Comment

Hand pump.

For example, PN 500330.

Suitable gauges are manufactured by THOMMEN


(www.thommenag.ch) and WIKA (www.wika.com). One
gauge from WIKA can be obtained from HAMILTON
MEDICAL, PN 500058.

Pressure gauge with the following specifications:


Range: 0 to 2.5 mbar. Accuracy: 0.5%.
Range: 0 to 25 mbar. Accuracy: 0.5%.
Range: 0 to 400 mbar. Accuracy: 0.5%.
Range: 0 to 10 bar. Accuracy: 0.5%.
T-piece, external pressure,
4-5 mm OD connector.

PN 279199.

Connector, cross, 4-5 mm


OD.

PN 279785.

Tube, silicone, 4 mm ID,


7 mm OD. Order by the
mm.

PN 7249057.

Test meter for measuring voltage.

Most volt meters are suitable.

Bacteria filter.

June 9, 2006

PN 279211.

PN 61067/05

G-5

G Maintenance tools and test equipment

Item

Comment

Proprietary locking paint or sealer.


Alternatively, nail polish.

G.5.1

For locking potentiometer setting screws in place after


adjustment.

Care of test equipment


Some test equipment must itself be tested and recalibrated periodically. HAMILTON MEDICAL
recommends the following schedule:
Item

G-6

Schedule

Action

Pressure gauge

As recommended by the
manufacturer, or at least
once per year.

Send the pressure gauge back to the manufacturer for testing.


You can usually find a convenient address by looking on the
appropriate website (for example, www.thommenag.ch or
www.wika.com).

Digital volt meter

As recommended by
manufacturer.

As recommended by manufacturer.

20 ml/s capillary tube

Every year.

Send the tube back to HAMILTON MEDICAL for checking.

500 ml/s orifice tube

Every year.

Send the tube back to HAMILTON MEDICAL for checking.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

H.1

NIST and DISS connectors


Overview
World-wide, there are two major standards for medical oxygen and air connectors: NIST (National
Institute of Standards and Technology) and DISS (Diameter Index Safety System).These standards
apply both to the connections on the air and oxygen inlets of the equipment, and also to the
connectors on the pipes that attach to them.
HAMILTON MEDICAL uses DISS fittings by default. To obtain NIST fittings you must order the
appropriate conversion kit. For more information, see the Product Catalog.

H.2

Photographs and part numbers

PN 155206

PN 500295

Figure H-1. NIST air connections

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H-1

H NIST and DISS connectors

PN 155207

PN 500296

Figure H-2. NIST oxygen connections

PN 155190

PN 279592

Figure H-3. DISS air connections

H-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Photographs and part numbers

PN 155205

PN 279622

Figure H-4. DISS oxygen connections

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H-3

H NIST and DISS connectors

H-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

Automated electrical safety tests

I.1

Introduction
HAMILTON MEDICAL AG performs an electrical safety test, according to Norm EN 60601-1 and
EN 60601-2, on all the ventilator and compressor units that it manufactures.
It is a legal necessity that you too, after performing a repair or adjustment that includes replacing the
power supply or removing any of the internal earth connectors, perform a similar test on your
RAPHAEL. You can do this manually, as described in Section 10, Manual electrical safety tests, on
page 10-1. In addition, you can do it automatically, as described here, if you have suitable
equipment, such as the Metron Safety Analyzer.
Because details of these automated electrical safety tests depend on the test equipment used, it is
impossible to offer here any detailed descriptions. Nevertheless, this section provides a general
outline for the parameters that you must test.
Note
The diagrams used in this section refer specifically to the Metron Safety Analyzer QA-90 Mk II.
(Figure I-1.)

Figure I-1. The Metron Safety Analyzer

I.2

Considerations
In this section, the following expressions are used:

June 9, 2006

ground, rather than earth


live rather than phase
MD Measurement Device
PE Protective Earth

PN 61067/05

I-1

I Automated electrical safety tests

I.3

Ground wire resistance

Figure I-2. Ground wire resistance setup

In this test, a measurement is made of the resistance from the ground stud to the earth, as measured
at the end of a power supply cord.
Tolerance: 200 m

I.4

Insulation resistance

Figure I-3. Insulation resistance setup

In this test, the neutral and live connectors in the units power input socket are shorted together, and
and the resistance measured between the ground stud and the shorted pair. Power is not applied to
RAPHAEL during this test.
CAUTION
If the neutral and live connectors are not shorted together, damage can result to the test unit.
Tolerance: 200 M

I.5

Ground leakage current


In this test, the leakage current is measured from the ground stud and the electrical ground (which
are connected for the test) to an external ground.

I-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

I Automated electrical safety tests

I.5.1

Ground leakage current under normal conditions

Figure I-4. Ground leakage current (normal conditions) setup

In the normal part of this test, nothing is disconnected.


Tolerance: 500 A
I.5.2

Ground leakage current with live open

Figure I-5. Ground leakage current (live open) setup

In the live open part of this test, the live connection is disconnected.
Tolerance: 1000 A
I.5.3

Ground leakage current with live and neutral reversed, and live open
The test is as Section I.5.2, Ground leakage current with live open, but with live and neutral
reversed.
Tolerance: 1000 A

I.5.4

Ground leakage current with live and neutral reversed, and neutral open
The test is as Section I.5.2, Ground leakage current with live open, but with live and neutral
reversed.
Tolerance: 500 A

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I-3

I Automated electrical safety tests

I.6

Chassis leakage current


In this test the leakage current from ground to the units chassis is measured.

I.6.1

Chassis leakage current under normal conditions

Figure I-6. Chassis leakage current (normal conditions) setup

In the normal part of this test, nothing is disconnected.


Tolerance: 100 A
I.6.2

Chassis leakage current with live open

Figure I-7. Chassis leakage current (live open) setup

In the live open part of this test, the live connection is disconnected.
Tolerance: 500 A

I-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

I Automated electrical safety tests

I.6.3

Chassis leakage current with ground open

Figure I-8. Chassis leakage current (ground open) setup

In the ground open part of this test, the ground connection is disconnected.
Tolerance: 500 A
I.6.4

Chassis leakage test with live and neutral reversed, and ground open
Picture as in Section I.6.3, Chassis leakage current with ground open.
In this part of this test, the ground connection is disconnected.
Tolerance: 500 A

I.6.5

Chassis leakage test under normal conditions, but with reversed


connections
Picture as in Section I.6.1, Chassis leakage current under normal conditions.
Tolerance: 100 A

I.6.6

Chassis leakage test with open ground and reversed connections


Picture as in Section I.6.3, Chassis leakage current with ground open.
Tolerance: 500 A

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I-5

I Automated electrical safety tests

I-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Appendix

Spare parts and schematics

J.1

Introduction
In this manual, the expression schematic applies to a range of drawings and diagrams.
A selection of these schematics is included in this section, as indicated by the Included in manual
column in each table. However, only the most recent schematic of each type is normally present. If
you require older schematics, you can order them from HAMILTON MEDICAL AG
(techsupport@hamilton-medical.ch).
Note
Schematics included in this manual are reviewed together with the manual.

J.2

Spare parts
This manual does not contain a list of spare parts and part numbers. This is because to find the
number of a part, it is much easier use the schematics included in this appendix.
The only significant spare parts not shown in the schematics are:
Backup battery kit PN 157313 (See Section 15.5, Changing the 12V batteries, on
page 15-17)
Lithium clock battery PN 369096 (See Section 15.6, Changing the real-time lithium clock
battery, on page 15-19)
Replacement wheels for the RAPHAEL trolley:
Wheel, complete with mounting, no brake: PN 281572
Wheel, complete with mounting and brake: PN 281573
Service pneumatic block (pneumatic block complete with flow restrictor pills, screws,
and three connectors, but no valves) PN 157254
While all schematics included are current at the time of publication, they can quickly become out of
date. In particular, it is possible that the part numbers of PROMs containing software are not the
latest available. Please see the HAMILTON MEDICAL AG Partner Web Site
(http://www.hamilton-medical.com/partner-site/) for the latest information about upgrade part
numbers.

J.3

List of schematics

J.3.1

Schematic ZCH157100
Revision 18, the current revision of this schematic, has only one sheet (Blatt). Sheets 2 and
following of earlier revisions are now renamed with new part numbers.

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J-1

J Spare parts and schematics

Note
Different revisions of this schematic contain different numbers of sheets (Blatts).
The content of any given sheet can change with the revision. In other words, Blatt X with
Rev 08 is not necessarily an update of Blatt X with Rev 07, and could contain completely
different information.

Schematic title and number

Description

Pneumaticblock Raphael on latest


version. (Some earlier versions had no
title.)
ZCH157100 Blatt 1

Raphael Front on latest revision.


(Centurian Front on earlier schematics)
ZCH157100 Blatt 2

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

A series of very detailed drawings showing


the components mounted on the
pneumatic block.

00 to 16

No

An exploded diagram showing all major


components.

18
NOTE: 17 was
not published.

Yes

A series of drawings showing the


construction of the front of RAPHAEL,
including the display and the
press-and-turn knob.

00 to 16

No

00 to 16

No

00 to 16

No

03 to 16
(Revisions 00 to
02 do not exist.)

No

05 (Revisions 00
to 04 do not
exist.)

No

A series of very detailed drawings showing


the placement of all the components on
the pneumatic block.

06

No

A moderately detailed, partly exploded


drawing of all components in RAPHAEL.

07 to 16

No

05
(Revisions 00 to
04 do not exist.)

No

06
(Revisions later
than 06 do not
exist.)

No

Now replaced by ZCH157332/00 and


ZCH157273/00.
Raphael Instrument on latest revision.
(Centurian Instrument on earlier
schematics.)

Partly exploded detailed drawing of the


main internal components of RAPHAEL.

ZCH157100 Blatt 3

Now replaced by ZCH157274/00 and


ZCH157275/00.

Wiring Diagram Raphael on latest


revision. (Centurian Wiring Diagram on
earlier schematics.)

A diagram showing the cables between


the mainboard, the power supply, and
various ancillary items such as the fan.

ZCH157100 Blatt 4

Now replaced by WD616056/00.

Pneumatikblock Raphael

Drawing showing the positions of


components on the pneumatic block.

ZCH157100 Blatt 5

Now included in ZCH157276/00.


Pneumaticblock Raphael

Drawing showing the positions of


components on the pneumatic block.

ZCH157100 Blatt 5

Now included in ZCH157276/00.


Pneumaticblock Raphael (Service Manual)
ZCH157100 Blatt 6

Raphael Instrument
ZCH157100 Blatt 6

Now replaced by ZCH157100/18.


Raphael Front (Service Manual)
ZCH157100 Blatt 7

A series of drawings showing the


construction of the front of RAPHAEL,
including the display and the
press-and-turn knob.
Now replaced by new drawings.

J-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

List of schematics

Raphael Instrument
ZCH157100 Blatt 8

Wiring Diagram Raphael (Service Manual)


ZCH157100 Blatt 9
Pneumaticblock Raphael (Service Manual)

Two partly-exploded, detailed drawings


showing most of the components in
RAPHAEL.

05
(Revisions 00 to
04 do not exist.)

No

Now replaced by new drawings.

06
(Revisions later
than 06 do not
exist.)

No

Despite the title of the later revision, this is


a diagram showing the wiring connections
between the mainboard, the power
supply, and various ancillary items such as
the fan.Now replaced by new drawings.

05
(Revisions 00 to
04 do not exist.)

No

06
(Revisions later
than 06 do not
exist.)

No

Drawing showing the positions of some


components on the pneumatic block. Now
replaced by new drawings.

05
(No other
revisions exist.)

No

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

01

No

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

No

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

No

ZCH157100 Blatt 9

Pneumaticblock Raphael (Service Manual)


ZCH157100 Blatt 10

J.3.2

Schematic ZCH157190
Schematic title and number

Patientenanschluss kpl.
ZCH157190 Blatt 1 von 1

J.3.3

Description

A small diagram showing the construction


of the to-patient port.

Schematic ZCH157271
Schematic title and number

Tankanschluss kpl.
ZCH157271 Blatt 1 von 1

J.3.4

Description

A small diagram showing the construction


of the connector between the tank and
the pneumatic block.

Schematic ZCH157272
Schematic title and number

O2 Zellenhalter kpl.
ZCH157272 Blatt 1 von 1

June 9, 2006

Description

A small diagram showing the construction


of the oxygen cell holder.

PN 61067/05

J-3

J Spare parts and schematics

J.3.5

Schematic ZCH157273
Schematic title and number

Frontpanel kpl.
ZCH157273 Blatt 1 von 1

Description

Three exploded, and one other diagram,


showing the construction of the front
panel and the display.

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

Yes

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

Yes

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

Yes

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

02

Yes

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

Yes

Compare with ZCH157332, which shows


the color version.

J.3.6

Schematic ZCH157274
Schematic title and number

Chassis kpl.
ZCH157274 Blatt 1 von 1

J.3.7

Chassis kpl. Japan


ZCH157275 Blatt 1 von 1

Pneumatikblock kpl. Japan


ZCH157276 Blatt 1 von 1

A major drawing of the chassis and


components. For Japan only.

Description

A series of drawings of the components on


the pneumatic block.

Schematic ZCH157277
Schematic title and number

Anschlussleiste kpl.
ZCH157277 Blatt 1 von 1

J-4

Description

Schematic ZCH157276
Schematic title and number

J.3.9

A major drawing of the chassis and


components. For all countries except
Japan.

Schematic ZCH157275
Schematic title and number

J.3.8

Description

Description

A small drawing showing details of the


high-pressure air inlet and oxygen inlet.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

List of schematics

J.3.10

Schematic ZCH157332
Schematic title and number

Frontpanel color kpl.


ZCH157277 Blatt 1 von 1

Description

Three exploded, and one other diagram,


showing the construction of the front
panel and the display.

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

Yes

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

Yes

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

01

No

02

Yes

01

No

02

Yes

Compare with ZCH157273, which shows


the non-color version and ZCH 157423,
which shows the XTC version.

J.3.11

Schematic ZCH 157423


Schematic title and number

Frontpanel

J.3.12

Description

Exploded diagram of the front panel of


RAPHAEL XTC.

Schematic ZCH614186
Schematic title and number

Blockdiagram Raphael
ZCH614186 Blatt 1 von 2
Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
Sensor / Valves
ZCH614186 Blatt 2 von 2

June 9, 2006

Description

A diagram giving an overview of all gas


and electronic circuits in RAPHAEL.

A diagram giving an overview of all gas


circuits in RAPHAEL. It is a subset of Blatt 1
above.

PN 61067/05

J-5

J Spare parts and schematics

J.3.13

Schematic ZCH614196 and BD614196


Schematic title and number

Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael


uP System / Alarmmonitor
ZCH614196 Blatt 1 von 4

Description

A diagram giving an overview the main


microprocessor P C167CR and
supporting components.

Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael


uP System / Alarmmonitor

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

01

No

02

Yes

01

No

02

Yes

01

No

02

Yes

00

No

01

No

02

Yes

Schematic
revision

Included
in manual

00

Yes

BD614196 Blatt 1 von 4


Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
Sensor / Valves
ZCH614196 Blatt 2 von 4

A diagram showing the logic of the inputs


and outputs to and from main
microprocessor P C167CR.

Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael


Sensor / Valves
BD614196 Blatt 2 von 4
Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
p-Source

A diagram showing the logic of the


mainboard.

ZCH614196 Blatt 3 von 4


Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
p-Source Inspiration Valve Regulator
BD614196 Blatt 3 von 4
Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
p-Source Exp Valve

A diagram showing the logic of the


functioning of the expiratory valve.

ZCH614196 Blatt 4 von 4


Blockdiagram MAINBOARD Raphael
p-Source Exp Valve
BD614196 Blatt 4 von 4

J.3.14

Schematic WD616056
Schematic title and number

WIRING DIAGRAM RAPHAEL


Basic, Silver, Color
ZCH616056 Blatt 1

J-6

Description

Block wiring diagram, showing the


electronic connections between the major
components.

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Plot Abs.: Juerg Schudel 2005-01-11T16:06

Plot Abs.: Juerg Schudel 2005-01-11T16:01

Plot Abs.: Juerg Schudel 2005-01-11T15:05

Plot Abs.: Juerg Schudel 2005-01-11T15:01

Plot Abs.: Juerg Schudel 2005-01-11T15:46

Plot Abs.: Juerg Schudel 2005-01-11T15:32

Glossary
This glossary offers definitions of expressions not included, or extended definitions of expressions briefly included, in the glossary of the
RAPHAEL Operators Manual (PN 610994) and local-language equivalents.

Expression
ambient state

Definition
A state that RAPHAEL uses when it cannot function normally because of an internal fault. In this state,
the patient is not actively ventilated in any way, but is allowed to inhale through the ambient valve, and
to exhale through the expiratory valve if he or she is able to do so.
A technical fault always causes RAPHAEL to go into the ambient state. RAPHAEL also uses the ambient
state when displaying the system check screen.

ambient valve

A simple mechanical valve that enables air in the room to enter the patient breathing circuit in response
to a patients efforts to inhale. It is built into the inspiratory valve.
The ambient valve only opens in event of RAPHAEL failing to function, in which case we say that
RAPHAEL is in ambient state.

ASIC

Application-specific integrated circuit. An integrated circuit containing logic, not a microprocessor


containing microcode.

autozero valves

See Flow Sensor autozero valves and Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve.

backup buzzer alarm

Note
Despite its name, the buzzer makes a high frequency sound. It functions independently of the
loudspeaker.
An alarm that sounds if the alarm from the loudspeaker is ignored for more than a minute.
baseflow

A continuous and constant gas flow from the inspiratory outlet to the expiratory outlet.

communication interface

The optional RS232 port and Special (analog) port on the rear of the RAPHAEL.
The RS232 port is used to communicate with peripherals such as a computer or monitor, and the Special
port is used to activate the external nurse alarm, or synchronize a nebulizer or nitric oxide device.

compliance

A numeric value expressing the volume of gas that must be added to a container to raise the pressure of
the gas in the container by one unit.
For instance, if a container has a value of 5.5 ml/mbar, then 5.5 ml of gas must be added to the
container to increase the pressure in the container by 1 mbar.
High compliance indicates that pressure remains relatively constant, independent of gas flow into (or out
of) a vessel.

display

The LCD screen used to show graphics and numerics on RAPHAEL. The screen can be LCD (liquid crystal
display) monochrome, or LCD/TFT (thin film transistor) color.

Display Control Unit (DCU


graphics) board

The Display Control Unit (DCU) board, or graphics board, is a standard display card (not a VGA card) that
is preprogrammed with the graphics and text required for RAPHAEL to display. The windows you see on
RAPHAELs display therefore comprise predefined graphical elements and text that are held in the PROM
memory on the DCU board, and are called up, by number, over a serial interface, as required.

Display Control Unit graphics


PROM
(DCU graphics PROM)

A PROM positioned on the mainboard (not the DCU board) in RAPHAEL Color and RAPHAEL XTC. It
contains text and graphical elements that are downloaded to the DCU board.

dPblende pressure sensor

A name sometimes used for the dPmixer pressure sensor.

June 9, 2006

(Text and graphics are downloaded only once: immediately after updating the DCU graphics PROM.)

PN 61067/05

Glossary-1

Glossary

Expression
dPmixer

Definition
Mixer differential pressure. A measurement of the pressure difference across the sintered disk flow
restrictor positioned between the two mixer valves and the tank. RAPHAEL calculates the flow of gas to
the tank from this value.
Also called dPblende in some schematics.

dPmixer pressure sensor

The pressure sensor that measures the dPmixer value. This is mounted on the pneumatic block.

dPptm

Pneumatic tachometer differential pressure.


A measurement of the pressure difference between the two chambers of the Flow Sensor. The
measurement is performed by a pressure sensor inside the RAPHAEL, and is used to measure the flow of
gas to and from the patients airway.

dPptm pressure sensor

The pressure sensor that measures the dPptm value. This is mounted on the pneumatic block.

event log

An area of memory used to record data about events such as ventilator alarms and setting changes.
With all RAPHAELs, the event log can be viewed in normal ventilating mode, in which case, only
clinical events since power-up are displayed.
With RAPHAELs containing mainboard PN 157265 and later, and having software version 2.0 and
later, the event log can be viewed in two further ways:
In configuration mode: in which case, all clinical events held in memory are displayed.
In Test 17, Event Log: in which case, all events held in memory (up to about 1000) are displayed,
and can be downloaded to a computer and printed.
With RAPHAELs containing software version 3.* and later, when using the Last Setup option, all
clinical events can be displayed in normal ventilating mode.

expiratory valve

A valve controlling pressure in the patient circuit, thereby enabling inspiration and expiration, and
maintaining PEEP/CPAP, if set, during expiration.
Its function is synchronized with that of the inspiratory valve.

extended rinse flow

A periodic flow pulse through the clear (ventilator side) and blue (patient side) tubes connecting the Flow
Sensor to the front panel of RAPHAEL. The flow is from the tank to the Flow Sensor, and enables
RAPHAEL to:
Test the connection of the Flow Sensor to the tubes
Test the tubes for kinks or blockages caused by moisture or mucous
Unlike the normal rinse flow, the extended rinse flow is electronically controlled.
See also rinse flow.

extended rinse flow valves

The two solenoid valves on the pneumatic block that control the extended rinse flow.

external interface

See communication interface.

external nurse alarm

See communication interface.

Flow Sensor

A device in the patient breathing circuit that measures gas pressure very near to (proximal to) the
patients airway, and gas flow to and from the patients airway. Flow is calculated from the pressure
difference between the front and rear chambers of the Flow Sensor. The pressure sensor that measures
the flow is the dPptm sensor, and is mounted on the pneumatic block. Pressure at the Flow Sensor is
measured by the Pprox sensor, also mounted on the pneumatic block.

(proximal Flow Sensor)

Flow Sensor autozero valves

Two valves, each controlling one side of the Flow Sensor circuit. During normal use they open periodically
to bring to ambient the pressure in each side of the Flow Sensor circuit. This enables RAPHAEL to
perform a zero calibration of the pressure sensor used to measure the differential pressure in the Flow
Sensor (the dPptm reading). At the same time, RAPHAEL also performs a zero calibration of the Pprox
pressure sensor used to measure pressure in the Flow Sensor.
These calibrations are necessary because of drift associated with changes in temperature.
See also Pvent pressure sensor autozero valve.

Glossary-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Glossary

Expression

Definition

inspiratory valve

A sophisticated electronically-governed valve that controls the pressure of the air/oxygen mixture flowing
to the patient breathing circuit. Its function is synchronized with that of the expiratory valve.

interface board

An optional printed circuit board, that supports the communication interface.

mainboard

The main printed circuit board in RAPHAEL. The two functions of the mainboard are:
To apply logic to the analog input signals from RAPHAELs pressure sensors, and thereby generate
digital control signals for the solenoid valves, and inspiratory valve and expiratory valve
To manage the two alarm systems
The mainboard is mounted at the top of the chassis of RAPHAEL.

mixer

The components that mix air and oxygen in RAPHAEL. These are the two mixer valves and the tank.

mixer valves

The two small solenoid valves mounted on the pneumatic block that control the flow of oxygen and air
from the water traps into the tank. These valves determine the gas mixture, and control the gas pressure,
in the tank.

nebulizer

An optional device in the patient circuit that vaporizes medical agents and adds them to the gas flowing
to the patient.

nebulizer valve

One of the three larger solenoid valves (the other two are the air and oxygen mixer valves) on the
pneumatic block that controls the flow of gas from the tank to the optional nebulizer.
During normal ventilation, this valve is activated by RAPHAEL synchronously with the inspiratory and
expiratory phases of the breath pattern, if the nebulization function is selected by the user.

oxygen cell

A small, replaceable, plastic unit used by RAPHAEL to measure oxygen concentration. (Also known as an
O2 cell.)
The oxygen cell used by RAPHAEL functions on a Galvanic principle, reacting to the presence of oxygen
and generating a voltage in proportion to the concentration of the oxygen.
Oxygen cells must be replaced by the user when RAPHAEL can no longer calibrate them. Typically, service
life is about a year.

patient overpressure valve

An simple mechanical relief valve that opens the patient breathing circuit to the external atmosphere in
the event of overpressure (caused, for instance, by the RAPHAEL malfunctioning).

pneumatic block

The composite plastic block containing most of the gas airways in RAPHAEL, and on which most of the
pneumatic components particularly pressure sensors and valves are mounted. The pneumatic block
is mounted at the rear of RAPHAELs chassis.

potential equalization
terminal

A contact on RAPHAELs chassis (or cover, in some older models) that enables users to connect RAPHAEL
to other hospital equipment, thereby ensuring no difference in electric potential between different pieces
of equipment used on a patient.
In some countries, use of the potential equalization terminal is a legal necessity. As specified by IEC
60601-1:1988.

power supply

The power supply comprises the following parts:


Voltage regulator
Two 12 V batteries
Battery charger

Pprox

Proximal pressure. A measurement of the pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor, as measured
by the Pprox pressure sensor mounted on the pneumatic block.

Pprox pressure sensor

The pressure sensor that measures the pressure in the patient circuit at the Flow Sensor. It is positioned
on the pneumatic block.

Ptank

Tank pressure. A measurement of the pressure in the tank. This must be in the range 850 to 1000 mbars.

Ptank pressure sensor

The pressure sensor that measures the tank pressure. It is positioned on the pneumatic block.

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Glossary-3

Glossary

Expression

Definition

Pvent

A measurement of the pressure in the patient circuit, as measured at the inspiratory valve outlet.

Pvent pressure sensor

The pressure sensor that measures the pressure in the patient circuit at the inspiratory valve outlet.

Pvent pressure sensor


autozero valve

A valve that periodically opens to expose the Pprox pressure sensor to the pressure at the Pvent pressure
sensor. (The pressure at the Pvent pressure sensor does not affected by this.) Because the Pprox pressure
sensor is already compensated for zero-point drift, RAPHAEL can perform a zero-point-drift
compensation on the Pvent pressure sensor by comparing it to the Pprox pressure sensor reading.
This calibration is necessary because of drift associated with changes in temperature.
See also Flow Sensor autozero valves.

rinse flow

A very small, continuous flow of gas through the blue (patient side) and clear (ventilator side) tubes
connecting the Flow Sensor to the front panel. The flow is from the tank to the Flow Sensor, and greatly
reduces the likelihood of moisture, mucous, bacteria or viruses from the patients expired gases from
contaminating the pressure sensors on the pneumatic block. The flow is controlled by two pill
restrictors mounted in the pneumatic block.
See also extended rinse flow.

safety valve block

A metal block comprising the ambient valve and the patient overpressure valve. It is mounted on the
pneumatic block.

sintered disk flow restrictor

The flow restrictor through which gas passes on its way from the solenoid mixer valves to the tank. The
purpose of the restrictor is to created a pressure difference from which RAPHAEL can measure the rate of
flow of the gas.
The flow restrictor is a large disc, and is physically positioned in the pneumatic block.

solenoid valves

The set of eight 12 V valves on the pneumatic block that control gas flows in RAPHAEL. The solenoid
valves, unlike the inspiratory valve and expiratory valve, only have two states: open and closed.

tank

The metal vessel holding the air/oxygen mixture delivered by the mixer valves.
The relatively large volume of the tank (2 liters) enables RAPHAEL to deliver a fairly steady flow of gas to
the inspiratory valve.

tank overpressure valve

A simple mechanical relief valve that is activated by the pressure of the gas in the tank, if that pressure
becomes too high. The valve is a part of the safety valve block that is mounted on the pneumatic block.

technical fault

An alarm condition in RAPHAEL in which RAPHAEL is not able to actively ventilate a patient.
If a technical fault occurs, RAPHAEL goes into ambient state and:
Displays a TF (technical fault) message in the place of the normal screen display
Sounds the alarm buzzer, loudspeaker, or both

test software mode

A special mode in RAPHAEL in which engineers access test software that enables them to
perform a range of checks and calibrations. You access test mode as shown in Section 13.6,
Entering test software mode, on page 13-4.

WARNING
When it is in test mode, the RAPHAEL cannot be used for ventilating patients.

Glossary-4

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Index
A

batteries

AC power indicator LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3, 12-5, 13-4


Adjust dPptm gain calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-58, 13-61
air
air and oxygen inlet assemblies, photograph of . . . . . . . 2-9
air mixer valve test 11-53, 11-54, 12-41, 12-43, 13-43, 13-45
Air Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-54, 12-43, 13-45
Air Valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-56
connector, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
water trap, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
water trap, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9, 3-5

alarm
Alarm LED test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19, 12-24, 13-27
Alarm light test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27, 12-32, 13-34
Alarm monitor test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24, 12-29, 13-31
Alarm silence test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-28, 12-33, 13-35
Alarm Silence Time test . . . . . . . . . 11-18, 12-23, 13-26
buzzer, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
checking tones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20, 12-25
conditions test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24, 12-29, 13-31
during test software mode . . . 11-4, 11-5, 12-6, 13-5, 13-6
high, medium and low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
LED check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27, 12-32, 13-34
LED test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19, 12-24, 13-27
LED, illustration of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18, 12-23, 13-26
messages from communication interface . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
monitoring systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
remote, nurse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
silence key illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18, 12-23, 13-26
understanding types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

backup, battery/mains switchover test 11-85, 12-111, 13-113


backup, changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-17
backup, checking age of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1
backup, checking charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10
backup, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13
backup, determining date of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-3
backup, determining type of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-2
backup, part number of kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
backup, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7
backup, position of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7
backup, removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17, 15-18
backup, replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-1
backup, testing operation . . . . . . . . . . . 11-32, 12-38, 13-40
backup, type BB, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-2
backup, type MICROLYTE Plus, photograph of . . . . . . . .9-2
backup, type YUASA, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-2
Battery operation test . . . . . . . . . . 11-32, 12-38, 13-40
of real-time clock, changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-19
of real-time clock, checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-15, 13-15
of real-time clock, part number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
Bessel filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9

boards
communication interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
communication interface, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-12
dc/ac converter board, position of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2
dc/ac converter, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-12
DCU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
DCU, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-11
Display Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2
mainboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2, 2-5
mainboard, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
mainboard, diagram of logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3
mainboard, input and output connectors, photograph of 5-11
mainboard, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
mainboard, test pins on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-9
power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2, 2-6
power supply, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13
power supply, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14

alarm monitor ASIC


details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
general description of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-12
warning about use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12
alcoholic liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12, 15-14

altitude setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6, 12-7, 13-7


checking and adjusting . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10, 12-11, 13-11

buzzer
Buzzer test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-18, 12-23, 13-26
function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-2
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
position of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-7
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17, 12-22

ambient state
Ambient Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-75, 12-96, 13-100
LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-97, 13-101, E-1
test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-75, 12-96, 13-100

ambient valve
action demonstrated in photograph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
cutaway photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
gas flow through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-75, 12-96, 13-100

C
cable connectors
removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-3

cable PN 157388 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1


cabling, photograph of

ASIC
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
general description of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4

ASV mode
test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14

autozero valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4

capillary tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .G-4


Caution, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
chassis

Autozero test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-37, 12-56, 13-59


Autozero Valves Test . . . . . . . . . . 11-38, 12-49, 13-52
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-38, 12-49, 13-52

autozeroing

components mounted on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4


photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
schematic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4
Check Serial Interface test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-105, 13-109

dPptm pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-46, 12-56, 13-59


Pprox pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-46, 12-56, 13-59
Pvent pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-46, 12-56, 13-59

check valves

photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-5

backup batteries See batteries


backup battery kit, part number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
backup buzzer See buzzer
backup reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6
bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-22
bacteria filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5

June 9, 2006

monochrome displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-21


RAPHAEL Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-22
RAPHAEL XTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-22
Calibration + Scaling Values test . . . . . . . . . . . 11-82, 12-106

cleaning
expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-14
inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15-3
self-emptying water traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-5
water trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-4
clock battery, part number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1

coil in inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10

PN 61067/05

Index-1

Index

communication interface

event log

alarm messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1


board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6, E-1
board, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
board, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

compatibility
of DCU and mainboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-10
of software and mainboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22

configuration data, checking and setting . . . . . . . 11-9, 12-10, 13-10


construction of RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
contrast, adjusting . . . . . . . . . 11-12, 11-15, 12-16, 12-20, 13-16, 13-20

D
Data Logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Date and Time field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13, 13-14
dc/ac converter board
cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-25
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
position of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
DCU board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
compatibility of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-10
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
introduction to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15, 15-19
diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J-1

display
adjusting contrast of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15, 12-20, 13-20
adjustment of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12, 12-16, 13-16
changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
contrast potentiometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15
description of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
display panel keyboard test . . . . . . . . . 11-21, 12-26, 13-28
display panel keyboard, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
Display Test . . . . . . . 11-13, 11-13, 12-17, 13-17, 13-18
Display test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12, 12-16, 13-16
testing . . . 11-12, 11-13, 12-16, 12-17, 13-16, 13-17, 13-18
DISS connectors, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4

dPblende pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8, 5-9


dPmixer

displaying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-121, 13-123


Event Log test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-117, 13-119
transmitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-122, 13-124
exhaust port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-17, 3-18, 4-17
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-13, 2-17
exiting test software mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-5, 12-6, 13-6

Exp. Gain potentiometer 11-63, 12-78, 12-83, 12-84, 13-81, 13-86, 13-87
expiratory signal, testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-103, 13-107
expiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
detailed photograph of external parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
details of gas flow through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
exhaust port of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17, 3-18, 4-17
expiratory valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58, 12-72, 13-75
from-patient port of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17, 3-18, 4-17
membrane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17, 3-18, 4-17
positioning coil of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17, 3-18, 4-17
potentiometer for adjusting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
schematic of logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J-6
testing 11-29, 11-62, 12-34, 12-77, 12-81, 13-36, 13-80, 13-84
testing and calibrating . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-62, 12-81, 13-84
explosion, risk of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11

Ext. Autozero and Nebul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-35, 12-47, 13-50


Ext. Autozero and Nebul. test . . . . . . . . . . . .11-35, 12-47, 13-50
extended rinse flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Extended Autozero Valves Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-40
Extended Rinse Flow Valves Test 11-40, 12-51, 13-54
testing valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-40, 12-51, 13-54
valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-23, 4-4
valves test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35, 12-47, 13-50
external nebulizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4

external tightness
External Tightness Test . . . . . . . 11-73, 12-94, 13-98
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-73, 12-94, 13-98

F
fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
Fan error tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-33, 12-39, 13-41
filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
filter, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
logic for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-33, 12-39, 13-41

pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8


pressure sensor, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11, 3-7

dPptm
autozeroing pressure sensor . . . . . . . . 11-46, 12-56, 13-59
checking and adjusting gain . . . . . . . . 11-47, 12-58, 13-61
gain adjustment of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-58, 13-61
gain potentiometer 11-48, 12-60, 12-61, 12-65, 13-63, 13-64
pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
pressure sensor, autozeroing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-37
pressure sensor, checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-42
pressure sensor, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22

dPptm pressure sensor


checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-68, 13-71

drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J-1

E
EEPROM
EEPROM Scaling Data test . . . . . . . . . . . 12-107, 13-111
EEPROM Values test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-106, 13-110
serial, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5

electronics
overview of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
schematic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-5

EPROM
27C4002 #1, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
27C4002 #2, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
equipment for testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
care of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .G-6
error signals, checking . . . . . . 11-25, 11-34, 12-30, 12-40, 13-32, 13-42

filter
bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5

Flow Exp check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-83, 12-108, 13-111


Flow Insp check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-83, 12-108, 13-111
flow measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-10, 12-11, 13-11
flow restrictor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
Flow Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
autozero valves test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35, 12-47, 13-50
calibrating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-70, 13-73
calibration test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-70, 13-73
checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-43, 12-68
connectors for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
in position on patient, photograph of . . . . . . . . . 3-17, 4-14
operation of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
photograph of associated components . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
photograph of autozero valves for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
position in patient tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
flow-controlled ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2, 1-3

from-patient port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-17, 3-18, 4-17


photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-13, 2-17

ESD protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-3


E-Valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-62, 12-78, 12-82, 13-81, 13-85

Index-2

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Index

front panel

13-89
inspiratory valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-58, 12-72, 13-75
I-Valve and E-Valve test . . . . . . . . 11-58, 12-72, 13-75
I-Valve controller (dynamic) test . . . . . . . . . . 11-65
I-Valve zero test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-59, 12-73, 13-76
O-ring for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
overview of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
plunger in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
plunger pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
reassembling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13
removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-34, 13-36
zero flow calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-59, 12-73, 13-76
zero pressure calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-73
inspiratory/expiratory signal, testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-103, 13-107

components mounted on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13


connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Flow Sensor connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Frontpanel test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17, 12-22, 13-25
keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
nebulizer connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
schematic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4, J-5

G
GALILEO
components managing principle gas flow . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

gas circuits

interface

schematic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-5

gas flows

Interface test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-102, 13-106


RS232, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Special, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
internal leakage test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-72, 12-93, 13-96

diagram of all gas flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2


diagram of flow in patient circuit and patient airway . . 3-14
diagram of flow to tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
diagram of major flows from tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
diagram of minor flows from tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
diagram of principle route through RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . 3-3
for rinse flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
from patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
from tank, components managing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
in patient airway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
in patient circuit and airway, components managing . . 3-13
minor, from tank, components managing . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
principle route of through RAPHAEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
to inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
to nebulizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
to O2 cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
to patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
to tank overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
to tank, components managing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

Internal Pneumatic Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-68, 12-89, 13-92

J
jumper
for loudspeaker loudness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-6
for software version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1, E-6
setting on mainboard PN 157265 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-9
setting on mainboard PN 257373 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-6

K
keyboard
on display panel, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
on front panel, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21, 12-26, 13-28

gas inlet
assembly, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
nipple, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
schematic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-4
gas mixer system test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53, 12-41, 13-43

gas water traps


details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
gauge, pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5

graphics controller board See DCU board

H
hand pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5

L
Lamp test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-30, 12-36, 13-38
LCD See display
leakage test
external . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-73, 12-94, 13-98
internal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-72, 12-93, 13-96
LED 1 on main board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4, 12-5, 13-5

LEDs, testing all on front panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-30, 12-36, 13-38


LEONARDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
lithium clock battery, part number of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
loopback test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-105, 13-109
loudspeaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-2
function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
loudness jumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-6, E-7
position of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
sound level of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22
test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17

I:E timing signals


I/E Signal test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-103, 13-107
sending with Special port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
inlet assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9

inspiratory valve
cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
cleaning seal and plunger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
controller test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-65, 12-86, 13-89
cutaway photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
gas flow to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
inspiratory valve controller (dynamic) test 11-65, 12-86,

lubrication
warning about use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11

M
mainboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2, 2-5
compatibility of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2, E-10
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
logic, diagram of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
PN 157265, setting jumpers on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-9
PN 257373, setting jumpers on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-6
schematic of logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-6
software supplied with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1, F-1
versions and features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
voltage test on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Mains off test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-86, 12-112, 13-114

maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1
overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1, I-1

June 9, 2006

PN 61067/05

Index-3

Index

Marquette patient monitors

oxygen

alarm messages with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2


membrane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18

and air inlet assemblies, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9


calibrating full-scale gain measurement 11-80, 12-100, 13-104
calibrating zero measurement . . . . . . 11-79, 12-99, 13-103
check valve, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
checking measurement of . . . . . . . . 11-81, 12-101, 13-105
connector, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
measurement test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77, 12-98, 13-102
offset/gain check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83, 12-108, 13-111
solenoid valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-53, 12-41, 13-43
water trap, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
water trap, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-9, 3-5

Memory test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6, 12-7, 13-7


messages from communication interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
microflow regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
microprocessor C167CR
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
diagram of logical inputs and outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
general description of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
schematic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-6
schematic of logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-6
mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Mixer and Tank Pressure test . . . . 11-53, 12-41, 13-43
Mixer test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-68, 12-89, 13-92
valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
valves test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-54, 12-43, 13-45
valves, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
P Startup Config, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5

multi-meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5

oxygen calibration tube


position of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10, 15-5
removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5

oxygen cell
storage life of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
working life of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
oxygen mixer valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-54, 12-43, 13-45

P
P&T-knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15

testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23, 12-28, 13-30

nebulizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
connector for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
gas flow to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Nebulizer LED test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19, 12-24, 13-27
nebulizer test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19, 12-24, 13-27
Nebulizer valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-44, 12-54, 13-57
nebulizer valve test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-35, 12-47, 13-50
valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
valve, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
valve, testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-44, 12-54, 13-57
Nebulizer test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-54, 13-57

P12 Testconnector 3, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5


P8 Debugconnector, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
part numbers list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1
patient
gas flow from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
gas flow to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15

patient airway
components managing gas flows in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
gas flow in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
patient circuit, components managing gas flow in . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

NIST connectors, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4


nitric oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Note, definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
nurse alarm, remote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Nurse Call test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-104, 13-108

patient outlet, removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4


patient overpressure valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12, 4-10

pin locations for RS232 port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3


plunger

details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-68, 12-89, 13-92
Perform Autozero calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-46

pill restrictors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23


testing . . . . . . . . . 11-70, 11-71, 12-91, 12-92, 13-94, 13-95

O2
O2 Cell Measurement test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77
O2 gain check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83, 12-108, 13-111
O2 offset check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83, 12-108, 13-111
O2 offset/gain check . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83, 12-108, 13-111
O2 Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-55, 12-44, 13-46
O2 test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-54, 12-43, 13-45
O2 cell
calibration of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-77, 12-98, 13-102
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
gas flow to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
holder and O-ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
input to main board from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
O2 Cell Measurement test . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-98, 13-102
removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
on/off switch, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8

in inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11


pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
pneumatic block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2, 2-5
components mounted on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
diagram of pressure sensors on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
partly assembled, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
photograph of gas flow through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
photograph of pressure sensors on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-5
schematic of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-2, J-4
service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J-1
pneumatic tubes, removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4

pneumatics
outstanding points of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
overview of circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

operating hours

port

checking and setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11, 12-12, 13-13


setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6, 12-7, 13-7
orifice tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4

positioning coil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18, 4-17


potentiometer

orifice, variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17


O-ring
black, for inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
for oxygen cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
white, for inspiratory valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
overpressure protection for rinse flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24

overpressure valve
for tank and patient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
for tank, testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-56, 12-45, 13-48

Index-4

Special, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1, 6-4

for adjusting dPptm gain 12-60, 12-61, 12-65, 13-63, 13-64


for adjusting Pvent gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68
for dPptm gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-48, 12-60, 13-63
for Pvent gain . . . . . . . . 11-52, 12-64, 12-65, 13-67, 13-68
for screen contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15, 12-20, 13-20
for Vzero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-74, 12-75, 13-77, 13-78
Vzero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-60, 12-73, 13-77
power down status flag test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-26, 12-31, 13-33

Power down test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2


power supervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6

RAPHAEL Service Manual Including Maintenance, Repairs and Tests

Index

power supply

rinse flows

board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2, 2-6


board, details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-6, 11-86, 12-112, 13-114
indicator LED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3, 12-5, 13-4
Power Supply Status, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
status, logic for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6

extended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
gas supply for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
normal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
overpressure protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
testing . . . . . . . . 11-70, 11-71, 12-91, 12-92, 13-94, 13-95

RS232 port

Pprox

alarm messages with patient monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2


details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
loopback test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-105, 13-109
low-level data transmission protocol for . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
pin configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-119, 13-121
pin locations and assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
preparing computer to receive data from . . 12-119, 13-121
sending data to a computer from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2

autozeroing pressure sensor . . . . . . . . 11-46, 12-56, 13-59


gain, adjusting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-67, 13-70
Pprox gain adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-67, 13-70
Pprox gain check . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-83, 12-108, 13-111
Pprox zoom gain check . . . . . . . . 11-83, 12-108, 13-111
pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
pressure sensor, autozeroing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-37
pressure sensor, checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-42
pressure sensor, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22

Pprox pressure sensor

checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-68, 13-71

press-and-turn knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15


testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23, 12-28, 13-30

pressure
connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-4
gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5

pressure sensors
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
diagram of positions on pneumatic block . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
dPptm sensor, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22
overview of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21
positions of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Pressure Sensors test . . . . . . . . . . . 11-45, 12-55, 13-58
processing signals from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
See also dPptm, Pprox, Ptank, Pvent and dPmixer
pressure-controlled ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2, 1-3

preventive maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1


overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1, I-1

S1 microswitch, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5


safety valve block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-12
construction of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11, 4-9
scaling values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8, 12-9, 13-9
checking and setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8, 12-9, 13-9
schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1

screen
adjusting contrast of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15, 12-20, 13-20
adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12, 12-16, 13-16
changing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-21
contrast potentiometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15
potentiometer for adjusting contrast of . . . . . . 12-20, 13-20
Screen Contrast test and adjustment 11-15, 12-20, 13-20
testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13, 12-17, 13-17, 13-18

self-emptying water trap


cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5

sensor

principle gas flow


components supporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

processing of sensor signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9


p-source / Exp Valve, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Ptank pressure sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
pump, hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5
Pvent
autozero valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
autozeroing pressure sensor . . . . . . . . 11-46, 12-56, 13-59
gain potentiometer . . . . 11-52, 12-64, 12-65, 13-67, 13-68
gain, checking and adjusting . . . . . . . . 11-51, 12-63, 13-66
pressure sensor autozero valves test . . . 11-35, 12-47, 13-50
pressure sensor, autozeroing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-37
pressure sensor, photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Pvent Autozero Valves Test . . . . . 11-42, 12-53, 13-56
Pvent Zero Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-62, 13-65
zero calibration, checking . . . . . . . . . . 11-50, 12-62, 13-65

Sensor Analysis test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-68, 13-71


Sensor Validation test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-42
signals from, processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9, 5-10
Sensor Analysis test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-68, 13-71

service pneumatic block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1


sintered disk flow restrictor
gas flow through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7, 3-8

software
and mainboard versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1, F-1
compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
jumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1
version history of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1

software version
compatibility jumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-7
jumper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-6

solenoid valves
details of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
overview of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
photograph of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6, 14-12

R
RAM

Spacelabs patient monitors

HM62128, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5


HM62512, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
HY628400, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
with clock DS1746P, function of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5

alarm messages with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2

spare parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J-1


Special port

RAPHAEL
definition of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
overview of function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
real-time clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-13, 12-15, 13-14, 13-15, E-1
checking battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-15, 13-15
removing battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .