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Engine Cooling and Heating Systems

Engine Cooling

Process by which heat is removedEngine Cooling Radiation, convection and conduction 35% of total engine heat is removed by the cooling

Radiation, convection and conductionEngine Cooling Process by which heat is removed 35% of total engine heat is removed by

35% of total engine heat is removed by the cooling systemEngine Cooling Process by which heat is removed Radiation, convection and conduction

by which heat is removed Radiation, convection and conduction 35% of total engine heat is removed

Cooling System Functions

Carries heat that is produced by the engine combustion process away from the engineCooling System Functions Helps the engine to reach normal operating temperature faster Maintains a constant temperature

Helps the engine to reach normal operating temperature fasteris produced by the engine combustion process away from the engine Maintains a constant temperature throughout

Maintains a constant temperature throughout the engineby the engine combustion process away from the engine Helps the engine to reach normal operating

Helps the engine to reach normal operating temperature faster Maintains a constant temperature throughout the engine

Cooling System Functions

Picks up engine heat through conduction and carries it to the radiator where it is released to the atmosphere through conduction and carries it to the radiator where it is released to the atmosphere through convection

Keeps system under pressure to raise the boiling point and prevent liquid lose from evaporationengine heat through conduction and carries it to the radiator where it is released to the

through convection Keeps system under pressure to raise the boiling point and prevent liquid lose from

Coolant Flow

Coolant Flow Standard Flow Coolant is drawn from the bottom of the radiator into the engine

Standard Flow

Coolant is drawn from the bottom of the radiator into the engineCoolant Flow Standard Flow Flows through the water jackets in the block and up to the

Flows through the water jackets in the block and up to the cylinder headis drawn from the bottom of the radiator into the engine Flows from the cylinder head

Flows from the cylinder head out the thermostat and back into the top of the radiatorfrom the bottom of the radiator into the engine Flows through the water jackets in the

Coolant Flow

Coolant Flow Reverse Flow Coolant is drawn from the bottom of the radiator into the engine

Reverse Flow

Coolant is drawn from the bottom of the radiator into the engineCoolant Flow Reverse Flow The water pump directs coolant through the water jackets in the cylinder

The water pump directs coolant through the water jackets in the cylinder head and down into the blockis drawn from the bottom of the radiator into the engine Flows from the block out

Flows from the block out the thermostat and back into the top of the radiatorinto the engine The water pump directs coolant through the water jackets in the cylinder head

Radiators

Radiators
Radiators

Components

TanksComponents Core Fins Oil Cooler

CoreComponents Tanks Fins Oil Cooler

FinsComponents Tanks Core Oil Cooler

Oil CoolerComponents Tanks Core Fins

Components Tanks Core Fins Oil Cooler

Radiator

Construction

Radiator Construction Tanks Constructed from copper, brass, aluminum or plastic Collects the coolant and transfers it

Tanks

Radiator Construction Tanks Constructed from copper, brass, aluminum or plastic Collects the coolant and transfers it

Constructed from copper, brass, aluminum or plasticRadiator Construction Tanks Collects the coolant and transfers it through the tubes to be cooled Receiving

Collects the coolant and transfers it through the tubes to be cooledTanks Constructed from copper, brass, aluminum or plastic Receiving tank contains baffles to help direct the

Receiving tank contains baffles to help direct the coolant evenly over the tubesthe coolant and transfers it through the tubes to be cooled May include an internal tank

May include an internal tank for automatic transmission fluid coolingit through the tubes to be cooled Receiving tank contains baffles to help direct the coolant

Radiator Construction

Radiator Construction Core Tubes or fins made of copper or aluminum Fins are thin sheets of

Core

Tubes or fins made of copper or aluminumRadiator Construction Core Fins are thin sheets of metal that are soldered together to form channels

Fins are thin sheets of metal that are soldered together to form channels for the coolant to pass through between the tanksRadiator Construction Core Tubes or fins made of copper or aluminum Most are only a few

Most are only a few thousandths of an inch thickare thin sheets of metal that are soldered together to form channels for the coolant to

to form channels for the coolant to pass through between the tanks Most are only a

Radiator

Construction

Radiator Construction Core (cont) Tubes are either soldered or crimped to the tank The number of

Core (cont)

Radiator Construction Core (cont) Tubes are either soldered or crimped to the tank The number of

Tubes are either soldered or crimped to the tankRadiator Construction Core (cont) The number of cores is equal to the rows of tubes or

The number of cores is equal to the rows of tubes or fins (2 core, 3 core, 4 core etc.)Radiator Construction Core (cont) Tubes are either soldered or crimped to the tank

Radiator Construction

FinsRadiator Construction Increase air movement across the core to remove heat faster from the tubes Oil

Increase air movement across the core to remove heat faster from the tubesRadiator Construction Fins Oil Cooler Circulates hot transmission fluid through tubes surrounded by cooler engine coolant

Oil Cooleracross the core to remove heat faster from the tubes Circulates hot transmission fluid through tubes

the core to remove heat faster from the tubes Oil Cooler Circulates hot transmission fluid through
the core to remove heat faster from the tubes Oil Cooler Circulates hot transmission fluid through

Circulates hot transmission fluid through tubes surrounded by cooler engine coolant

Radiator Designs

Radiator Designs Down-Flow Coolant moves vertically through the tubes or fins Typical of standard-flow systems moving

Down-Flow

Coolant moves vertically through the tubes or finsRadiator Designs Down-Flow Typical of standard-flow systems moving from top to bottom Based on the principle

Typical of standard-flow systems moving from top to bottomDown-Flow Coolant moves vertically through the tubes or fins Based on the principle that heat rises

Based on the principle that heat rises pushing hot coolant to the top and allowing cooler fluid to flow to the bottom (early systems w/o water pump)Down-Flow Coolant moves vertically through the tubes or fins Typical of standard-flow systems moving from top

Cross-Flow Radiator Designs Coolant moves horizontally through the tubes or fins Common on late model
Cross-Flow Radiator Designs Coolant moves horizontally through the tubes or fins Common on late model

Cross-Flow

Radiator Designs

Coolant moves horizontally through the tubes or finsCross-Flow Radiator Designs Common on late model vehicles in both standard and reverse-flow systems Works well

Common on late model vehicles in both standard and reverse-flow systemsDesigns Coolant moves horizontally through the tubes or fins Works well w/ modern low hood designs

Works well w/ modern low hood designsmodel vehicles in both standard and reverse-flow systems More efficient cooling due to longer tubes (allows

More efficient cooling due to longer tubes (allows air movement over the tubes for a longer period of time)or fins Common on late model vehicles in both standard and reverse-flow systems Works well w/

Coolant Flow

Coolant Flow

Radiators

Radiators

Radiator Failure

Radiator Failure Leaks in the core from physical abuse

Leaks in the core from physical abuse

Radiator Failure Leaks in the core from physical abuse
Radiator Failure Leaks in the core from corrosion or electrolysis

Radiator Failure

Leaks in the core from corrosion or electrolysis

Radiator Failure Leaks in the core from corrosion or electrolysis

Radiator Failure

Radiator Failure Leaks between the core and the tank

Leaks between the core and the tank

Radiator Failure Leaks between the core and the tank

Radiator Failure

Radiator Failure Cracked or damaged tank

Cracked

or

damaged

tank

Radiator Failure Cracked or damaged tank

Radiator Failure

Radiator Failure Leaking transmission cooler inside the tank

Leaking transmission cooler inside the tank

Radiator Failure Leaking transmission cooler inside the tank

Radiator Failure

Radiator Failure Damaged Fins

Damaged Fins

Radiator Failure Damaged Fins

Radiator Failure

Plugged fins from foreign media

Radiator Failure Plugged fins from foreign media
Radiator Failure Plugged fins from foreign media

Radiator Failure

Radiator Failure Plugged tubes from corrosion build-up

Plugged tubes from corrosion build-up

Radiator Failure Plugged tubes from corrosion build-up

Pressurized Cooling System

Maintained by capPressurized Cooling System Pressure is determined by the cap’s rating 15-17 psi gasoline engine 7 psi

Pressure is determined by the cap’s ratingPressurized Cooling System Maintained by cap 15-17 psi gasoline engine 7 psi diesel Excess pressure is

15-17 psi gasoline engineby cap Pressure is determined by the cap’s rating 7 psi diesel Excess pressure is allowed

7 psi dieseldetermined by the cap’s rating 15-17 psi gasoline engine Excess pressure is allowed to enter the

Excess pressure is allowed to enter the recovery (overflow) tankby the cap’s rating 15-17 psi gasoline engine 7 psi diesel During cool down Vacuum created

During cool downpressure is allowed to enter the recovery (overflow) tank Vacuum created in the radiator Valve in

Vacuum created in the radiatorto enter the recovery (overflow) tank During cool down Valve in the cap allows coolant to

Valve in the cap allows coolant to flow back from the recovery tankdiesel Excess pressure is allowed to enter the recovery (overflow) tank During cool down Vacuum created

Radiator Cap

Radiator Cap

A

PressureA Release B Vacuum Cool-down

Release

B

VacuumA Pressure Release B Cool-down

Cool-down

A Pressure Release B Vacuum Cool-down

Coolant Recovery System

Recovery/overflow tank

Under atmospheric pressureCoolant Recovery System Recovery/overflow tank Stores expanded hot fluid Releases stored fluid back into the radiator

Stores expanded hot fluidSystem Recovery/overflow tank Under atmospheric pressure Releases stored fluid back into the radiator during vacuum

Releases stored fluid back into the radiator during vacuum cool downCoolant Recovery System Recovery/overflow tank Under atmospheric pressure Stores expanded hot fluid

Under atmospheric pressure Stores expanded hot fluid Releases stored fluid back into the radiator during vacuum

Coolant Recovery System

Coolant Recovery System Expansion tank Sealed and pressurized with the pressure cap Purges air from the

Expansion tank

Sealed and pressurized with the pressure capCoolant Recovery System Expansion tank Purges air from the cooling system May have a bleeder valve

Purges air from the cooling systemCoolant Recovery System Expansion tank Sealed and pressurized with the pressure cap May have a bleeder

May have a bleeder valveCoolant Recovery System Expansion tank Sealed and pressurized with the pressure cap Purges air from the

Expansion tank Sealed and pressurized with the pressure cap Purges air from the cooling system May

Coolant Recovery System

Coolant Recovery System Air Bleed Located in a high part of the cooling system Used to

Air Bleed

Located in a high part of the cooling systemCoolant Recovery System Air Bleed Used to purge air from the system when filling w/ new

Used to purge air from the system when filling w/ new coolantCoolant Recovery System Air Bleed Located in a high part of the cooling system

Air Bleed Located in a high part of the cooling system Used to purge air from

Radiator Service

Visually inspect for leaks and external damage of radiator and recovery tankRadiator Service Visually inspect for corrosion build-up in radiator core Pressure test to check for leaks

Visually inspect for corrosion build-up in radiator coreService Visually inspect for leaks and external damage of radiator and recovery tank Pressure test to

Pressure test to check for leaksfor leaks and external damage of radiator and recovery tank Visually inspect for corrosion build-up in

of radiator and recovery tank Visually inspect for corrosion build-up in radiator core Pressure test to
of radiator and recovery tank Visually inspect for corrosion build-up in radiator core Pressure test to

Radiator Service

Radiator Service Pressure test and inspect cap Inspect sealing surface of cap on the radiator neck

Pressure test and inspect cap

Inspect sealing surface of cap on the radiator neck for nicks or damageRadiator Service Pressure test and inspect cap A failed cap can cause lose of coolant, overheating,

A failed cap can cause lose of coolant, overheating, collapsed hoses and component failure due to excessive pressure build-upRadiator Service Pressure test and inspect cap Inspect sealing surface of cap on the radiator neck

cap can cause lose of coolant, overheating, collapsed hoses and component failure due to excessive pressure

Radiator Service

Radiator Service Inspect shroud for damage and proper mounting A fan shroud can increase cooling by

Inspect shroud for damage and proper mounting

A fan shroud can increase cooling by 30%

A fan shroud can increase cooling by 30%

A failed or improperly mounted fan shroud

A failed or improperly mounted fan shroud

can cause overheating and/or damage to the radiator core

Radiator Service System Bleeding All air must be bled from the system after refilling with

Radiator Service

System Bleeding

Radiator Service System Bleeding All air must be bled from the system after refilling with coolant

All air must be bled from the system after refilling with coolantRadiator Service System Bleeding Many systems include an air bleed May have to loosen a hose

Many systems include an air bleedmust be bled from the system after refilling with coolant May have to loosen a hose

May have to loosen a hose at the highest point in the system to release all the air (heater hose)System Bleeding All air must be bled from the system after refilling with coolant Many systems