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DRAFT SURVEY

by Dirk Rombaut

DECEMBER 2003
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written
permission of the Socit Gnrale de Surveillance S.A.

Preface
It is internationally accepted in bulk trading that cargo measurement by draft survey is the most
convenient and economical way of establishing the weight of cargo loaded on board a vessel.
However, many operators in the industry consider draft measurement as a doubtful practice in
which the cunning of the surveyor is more important than his professional expertise and
experience. As it often happens, this conviction is both right and wrong at the same time.
In fact, in many parts of the world, including some "industrialized" countries, this technique is
still surprisingly empirical and based on local habits. In such cases, cargo measurement by draft
survey ends up in a fish-market type of negotiation between the surveyor on one side and the
ship's officers on the other.
Yet, increasing value of raw materials commands a more professional approach.
Following this trend SGS recognizes the need of experienced and competent draft surveyors.
Experience has shown that draft surveys can be carried out by non-seafaring people provided
they have been properly instructed in both theory and practice. To support this instruction, a
need developed within SGS for an adequate training manual.
It should be evident that if cargo is measured by SGS affiliates at both loading port and
discharge port, it is of the utmost importance that the draft survey procedures used are the
same. In an attempt to standardize procedures within SGS, the first comprehensive draft survey
manual was written in 1967 by SMES (Rotterdam). However, this was designed for ex-captains
of seagoing vessels and somewhat difficult for non-specialists to understand.
Today, the Draft Survey Manual, prepared by SGS Belgium, is a modern, readily
understandable document.
This manual, when properly digested and applied, will contribute to enhance the professionalism
of our Marine Services and to change some of the unfavourable opinions which are still delaying
proper application of cargo measurement by draft survey.
No attempt should be made to read the manual from beginning to end. This would be a rather
discouraging task. Each section should be read and fully understood before moving on to the
next.
For the benefit of those studying the subject for the first time, the manual explains the basic
principles of draft survey procedures. For those who have no seafaring experience, certain
aspects are explained in greater detail than might otherwise be necessary. Furthermore bearing in mind that the manual may be used by SGS representatives whose first language is
not English - it has been written in a clear and uncomplicated way. It includes an explanation of
technical terms with translations from English into French, German and Spanish.
Draft survey will involve the surveyor in the measurement of a variety of vessels of different
types and nationalities - each with its own characteristics. The high level of accuracy required
depends on careful attention to detail and the proper handling of unusual circumstances which
may arise from time to time. Here, there is no substitute for proper practical training and
experience - the mere study of this manual is not enough.
It seems probable that in the years to come various additional corrections and new forms of
measurement apparatus may be developed and this manual will therefore need to be revised
from time to time in order to keep abreast of modern practice. Suggestions for improving this
manual are welcome and can be sent to the author, Dirk Rombaut, at SGS Belgium, Antwerp.

Table of Contents
1

GLOSSARY OF TERMS - ENGLISH

GLOSSARY OF TERMS - FRENCH

GLOSSARY OF TERMS - GERMAN

GLOSSARY OF TERMS - SPANISH

INTRODUCTION TO DRAFT SURVEY

READING OR MEASURING THE DRAFT


6.1 Introduction
6.2 Reading the draft
6.3 Measuring the draft
6.4 Calculation of the mean drafts fwd, aft and midships
6.5 Exercise m/v Mindiv

PERPENDICULAR CORRECTION
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Position of the draft marks
7.3 Principle of perpendicular correction
7.4 Formula
7.5 Exercise m/v Mindiv

CORRECTION FOR HULL DEFLECTION


8.1 Introduction
8.2 Types of deformation
8.3 Factors which can influence the deflection
8.4 Formula
8.5 Exercise m/v Mindiv

CALCULATION OF THE CORRESPONDING DISPLACEMENT


9.1 Introduction
9.2 Definitions
9.3 Hydrostatic particulars
9.4 Exercise m/v Mindiv

10

CORRECTING THE DISPLACEMENT FOR TRIM AND LIST


10.1 Introduction
10.2 Definitions
10.3 Principle of trim correction
10.4 First Trim Correction (FTC)
10.5 Second Trim Correction (STC)
10.6 Total Trim Correction (TTC)
10.7 Displacement corrected for trim
10.8 List correction
10.9 Exercise m/v Mindiv

Table of Contents
11

CORRECTING THE DISPLACEMENT FOR DENSITY


11.1 Introduction
11.2 Definitions
11.3 Sampling of the surrounding water
11.4 Measuring the density
11.5 Displacement corrected for density
11.6 Exercise m/v Mindiv

12

DETERMINATION OF THE DEDUCTIBLE LIQUIDS


12.1 Introduction
12.2 Definitions
12.3 Ballast water
12.4 Fresh water
12.5 Bunkers
12.6 Net displacement
12.7 Other items
12.8 Exercise m/v Mindiv

13

THE CARGO WEIGHT AND CONSTANT


13.1 The cargo weight
13.2 The constant
13.3 Exercise m/v Mindiv

Section 1: Glossary - English


SECTION 1
GLOSSARY OF TERMS - ENGLISH

Term or abbreviation

Definition and explanation

aft

At or towards the rear part of the vessel.

aft draft

Draft, measured at the aft part of the vessel.

aft perpendicular

An imaginary vertical line, at right angles to the keel,


passing through the first frame and therefore located on or
nearby the ship's rudder post.

AP

Aft perpendicular.

after peak tank

A compartment situated at the extreme rear of the vessel


often used to contain fresh water or ballast water.

ballast

Water pumped into or out of the vessel in order to maintain


stability.

ballast tanks

Tanks aboard the vessel especially designed to receive


ballast water or, in the case of tank vessels, cargo tanks
used to contain ballast.

breadth

Maximum width of the ship.

boiler feed water tanks

Tanks provided aboard the vessel to contain water used


for the production of steam.

bilges

Spaces at the bottom of the engine room or pump rooms


where water is allowed to accumulate. As the bilges
usually also contain waste oil, they may not be discharged
within the port limits. For draft survey purposes, the
quantity of liquid in the bilges should be controlled before
and after loading or discharge, so that any change in
quantity can be detected.

bunker tanks

Tanks intended to contain fuel oil either for steam raising


purposes or for the provision of power to the main engines
and auxiliaries.

calibration tables

See tank sounding tables

centre of flotation

The point around which a ship tips often called the "tipping
centre".

Section 1: Glossary - English


cofferdams fwd and aft

These terms apply more particularly to ocean tankers,


coastal tankers and tank barges. They are empty spaces
provided in order to separate the cargo tanks from the
machinery space aft, from the forward peak, and other
forward parts of the ship. Cofferdams frequently contain
water, either intentionally or accidentally, and should
therefore always be sounded both before and after cargo
is measured by draft survey.

constant

The difference between the light ship weight according to


ship's documents and the net empty survey displacement
after deducting all measurable weights.

deadweight

This is the weight of a vessel's cargo, fuel, water and


stores.

deck line

A line clearly marked on the port and starboard sides of the


vessel, amidships as required by International Load line
Regulations.

deep tanks

Tanks situated near to the bottom of the vessel.

density (true)

The mass of a volume unit of a liquid. It may be expressed


in terms of grams per millilitre, kilograms per cubic meter,
pounds per cubic foots, etc.

density (apparent)

Density, as defined above, but without allowing for the


buoyancy effect of the atmosphere. The apparent density
of seawater, fresh water, ballast water, etc. is measured by
the SGS draft survey hydrometer. This gives weights
comparable to those that would be obtained by weighing a
carefully calibrated container on an accurate weighbridge
to obtain commercial weights.

diesel oil

Fuel oil used to feed diesel engines. There are various


grades of diesel oil including light diesel oil for auxiliary
engines and heavier diesel oil for main engines.

displacement

The total weight of water displaced by the vessel.


Displacement includes the light ship weight and all other
weights on board including cargo, ballast bunkers, etc.

displacement table/scale

A table, especially prepared for each vessel, giving the


displacement corresponding to various drafts.

double bottom tanks

Tanks situated in the vessel's double bottom and used


either for bunkers or ballast water.

Section 1: Glossary - English


draft (draught)

Depth of water from the water surface down to the bottom


of the ship's keel.

draft marks

A series of figures painted or welded on the vessel's hull,


usually forward, midships and aft, on both port and
starboard sides and indicating the draft of the vessel at the
points where the draft marks are situated.

draft survey

A system of cargo measurement based on measuring the


draft of the vessel before and after loading or discharge,
taking into account any changes in weight other than
cargo, which may have taken place during cargo handling
operation, i.e. changes in the weight of water ballast,
bunkers, stores, etc.

drinkable water

Fresh water for human consumption.

engine water

Water used for the cooling of diesel engines.

even keel

When the forward and aft drafts of a vessel are identical,


the ship is said to be on an 'even keel'.

fore (forward)

At or towards the front part of the vessel.

forward draft

Draft, measured at the forward part of the vessel.

forepeak tank

A compartment situated at the extreme forward part of the


vessel often used to contain ballast water.

forward perpendicular

An imaginary vertical line, at right angles to the keel and


passing through the point where the summer load line
intersects the vessel's stem.

FP

Forward perpendicular.

free board

Distance between the upper part of the deck line and the
water level.

freeboard (assigned or statutory)

The distance from the upper part of the deck line to the
summer load line as 'assigned' or stated in the Freeboard
Certificate relating to the vessel concerned.

fresh water

Not salt water (sea water). This is the water on board a


vessel for drinking, washing, etc.

fuel oil (heavy)

High density fuel oil used either as boiler fuel or as fuel for
main diesel engines suitably adapted for the purpose.

Section 1: Glossary - English


hogging

The deflection of a vessel loaded in such manner that the


draft amidships is less than the mean of the forward and
aft drafts.

hydrostatic curves

A document especially prepared for each vessel indicating,


among other things, the centre of flotation or 'tipping
centre' at various drafts.

keel

The part of a ship extending along the bottom from stem to


stern.

LCF

Longitudinal centre of flotation.

length between

Distance between the forward and aft perpendiculars

perpendiculars (LBP)

measured parallel to the keel.

list

Inclination of the vessel from the vertical position


measured at the longitudinal midships axis. It is usually
measured by means of an inclinometer giving results in
degrees of angle. List can also be calculated, if necessary,
from the difference between the port and starboard
midships drafts.

light ship weight

The weight of the vessel after completion of construction


but without fuel bunkers, stores, etc. The light ship weight
is usually mentioned on the vessel's displacement scales
and represents the difference between the displacement
scale and the deadweight scale.

lubricants

Oils for lubricating the main engine, auxiliary engines and


other moving equipment aboard the vessel.

mean aft draft

Average of the aft drafts on port and starboard sides.

mean forward draft

Average of the midships drafts on port and starboard


sides.

mean midships draft

Average of the midships drafts on port and starboard


sides.

midships

Longitudinal centre of the vessel as indicated on the hull


by the Port and Starboard load line marks.

Section 1: Glossary - English


moment

The moment of a force is a measure of the rotating effect


of the force about a given point. The rotating effect will
depend upon the magnitude of the force and the length of
the lever upon which the force acts, i.e., the perpendicular
distance between the line of action of the force and the
point around which the moment is being exerted.

Moment to change
trim 1 cm (MTC)

The force required to change the trim of a vessel by


1 cm. This is defined as the weight - in metric tons,
multiplied the distance it is moved from the centre of
flotation - in meters.

Moment to change
trim 1 inch (MTI)

The force required to change the trim of a vessel by


1 inch. This is defined as the weight - in long tons,
multiplied the distance it is moved from the centre of
flotation - in feet.

Plimsoll line

Another name for summer load mark.

port side

The left-hand side of the vessel as seen by an observer


facing forward.

rudder post

The vertical axis around which the rudder turns.

sagging

The deflection of a vessel loaded in such manner that the


draft amidships is greater than the mean of the forward
and aft drafts.

scale drawings

Vessel's plans prepared so that each centimetre of


distance on the scale corresponds to a known distance on
the vessel. For example, a scale marked 1/100 means that
1 cm on the drawing corresponds to 1 m on the ship itself.

sounding

Distance between the bottom of a tank and the surface of


the liquid which it contains.

sounding pipe

A fixed pipe through which soundings are taken.

sounding tables

Calibration tables giving volumes corresponding to liquid


heights.

specific gravity

Ratio between the mass or weight in air of a given volume


of liquid and the mass or weight in air of the same volume
of distilled water. Both the temperature of the liquid and the
temperature of the water must be defined. There are thus
various forms of specific gravity which can lead to
considerable confusion. It is for this reason that the term
apparent density is preferred, as this corresponds to
weights obtained by weighing on a weighbridge.

Section 1: Glossary - English


starboard side

The right-hand side of the vessel as seen by an observer


facing forward.

stem correction

Correction applied to the mean forward draft when the


forward draft marks are not situated at the forward
perpendicular.

stern correction

Correction applied to the mean aft draft when the aft draft
marks are not situated at the aft perpendicular.

summer load line

An imaginary line, parallel to the keel passing through the


upper edge of the summer mark which corresponds to the
maximum draft permitted in the summer zone in sea water.

summer mark

The line, surrounded by a circle, permanently marked by


centre punch, or by welding, on the port and starboard
sides of the vessel amidships as prescribed by the ship's
load line certificate.

t per cm immersion
(TPC)

The number of metric tons required to change the


mean draft of the vessel by 1 cm.

t per inch immersion


(TPI)

The number of long tons required to change the mean


draft of the vessel by 1 inch.

trim

Difference between the mean draft forward and the mean


draft aft, both measurements having been corrected to the
forward and aft perpendiculars where necessary.

trim corrections

Corrections applied to the displacement of the vessel when


the vessel is not floating on an even keel.

ullage

Distance between the surface of the liquid in a tank and


the top of the tank or corresponding sounding pipe.

Section 2: Glossary - French


SECTION 2
GLOSSARY OF TERMS - FRENCH

Terme anglais/franais

Dfinition et explication

aft/arrire

A ou vers l'arrire du navire.

aft draft/enfoncement arrire

Enfoncement mesur l'arrire du navire.

aft perpendicular/
perpendiculaire arrire

Ligne verticale imaginaire, perpendiculaire la


quille, passant par la premire membrure et
passant par consquent sur ou proche de l'axe
du gouvernail.

AP

Aft perpendicular.

after peak tank/


compartiment de poupe

Compartiment situ l'extrmit arrire du


navire souvent utilis pour recevoir de l'eau
douce ou du ballast.

ballast/
ballast, lest

Eau de rivire ou de mer, pompe ou refoule


par le navire de faon ajuster l'assiette et/ou
l'enfoncement du navire.

ballast tanks/
compartiments ballast

Compartiments prvus spcialement pour


recevoir le ballast ou, dans le cas de navires
citerne, compartiments prvus pour contenir la
marchandise, mais aussi utiliss pour le
ballast.

breadth/largeur

Largeur maximale du navire.

boiler feed water tanks/


compartiments pour l'eau
des chaudires

Rservoirs du navire qui contiennent l'eau


utilise pour la production de vapeur.

bilges/
fonds de cale

Emplacements au fond de la salle des


machines ou des pompes o l'eau peut
s'accumuler. Du fait que les fonds de cale
contiennent galement de l'huile usage, ils ne
doivent pas tre vids dans l'enceinte
portuaire. En matire de jaugeage, les fonds
de cale doivent tre contrls avant et aprs
chargement afin de prendre en compte tout
changement quantitatif.

10

Section 2: Glossary - French


bunker tanks/
compartiments pour
hydrocarbures de soute

Compartiments conus pour recevoir le


combustible lourd (fuel-oil) pour la production
de vapeur et pour la propulsion des moteurs
principaux et auxiliaires.

bow/proue

Voir stem.

calibration tables/
tables d'palement

Tables donnant pour chaque compartiment ou


rservoir le volume correspondant la hauteur
de liquide (sounding) ou la hauteur libre
(ullage).

centre de flottaison

Point autour duquel le navire oscille, souvent


appel "point de bascule".

cofferdams fore and aft/


batardeaux avant et
arrire

Ce terme s'applique plus particulirement aux


navires citerne de haute mer, ctiers et aux
pniches citerne. Ce sont des caissons creux
conus pour sparer la citerne contenant la
marchandise, d'une part de la chambre des
machines et, d'autre part, du compartiment
avant ou de la partie avant de l'embarcation
l'avant.

constant/
constante

Diffrence entre le poids vide du navire


indiqu sur les documents du navire et le
dplacement net vide aprs dduction de
tous les poids mesurables.

deadweight/
poids lourd

Diffrence entre le poids vide du navire et


celui du navire en charge. Cela inclut le poids
du chargement, des combustibles, de l'eau et
de la constante.

deck line/
ligne de pont

Une ligne clairement marque sur les cts


babord et tribord au milieu du navire, au
niveau de pont, comme requis par
l'International Loadline Regulation.

deep tanks/
compartiments de cale

Compartiments situs prs du fond du navire.

density (true)/
densit (vraie)

Masse (dans le vide) d'une unit de volume


d'un liquide. On peut l'exprimer en grammes
par millilitre, kilogrammes par mtre cube,
livres par pied cube, etc.

11

Section 2: Glossary - French


density (apparent)/
densit apparente

Densit, comme dfinie ci-dessus, mais


exprime en termes de masse apparente dans
l'air, c'est--dire sans correction pour la
pousse exerce par l'air sur l'eau et sur les
poids normalement employs dans le
commerce. La densit apparente de l'eau de
mer, de l'eau douce, du ballast, etc. est
mesure par le densimtre SGS et permet
d'obtenir des poids comparables ceux que
l'on obtiendrait en pesant un conteneur
soigneusement calibr sur un pont bascule
prcis, de faon obtenir des poids
commerciaux.

diesel oil/
diesel

Combustible pour les moteurs diesel. Il y a


plusieurs types de diesel, depuis le diesel
lger pour les moteurs auxiliaires jusqu'au
diesel lourd utilis pour les moteurs
principaux.

displacement/
dplacement

Poids total du volume d'eau dplac par la


coque du navire; sont inclus le poids vide du
navire et tous les autres poids bord, y
compris le chargement, le ballast, les
hydrocarbures de soute, etc.

displacement table/
table de dplacement

Une table spcialement prpare pour chaque


navire donnant le dplacement correspondant
aux divers enfoncements.

double bottom tanks/


compartiments de
double fond

Compartiments situs dans le double fond du


navire, utiliss pour contenir soit du ballast,
soit des hydrocarbures.

draft (draught)/
enfoncement

Hauteur d'eau entre la surface de l'eau et le


bas de la quille du navire.

draft marks/
marques d'enfoncement

Srie de chiffres peints ou souds sur la


coque, ( l'avant, au milieu et l'arrire du
navire, babord et tribord), qui indiquent
l'enfoncement du navire aux endroits o ces
marques sont situes.

12

Section 2: Glossary - French


draft survey/
jaugeage

Systme de dtermination du poids d'une


cargaison bas sur la mesure de
l'enfoncement d'un navire avant et aprs
chargement ou dchargement, prenant en
considration toutes les variations du poids
autres que celles dues la marchandise, qui
peuvent survenir pendant la manutention de la
marchandise, c'est--dire les variations du
poids du ballast, des hydrocarbures de soute,
de la constante, etc.

drinkable water/eau potable

Eau potable pour l'quipage.

engine water/eau pour le moteur

Eau de refroidissement des moteurs diesel.

even keel/
quille "horizontale"

Lorsque les enfoncements avant et arrire


sont identiques, on dit que le navire a sa quille
"horizontale".

fore (forward)/avant

A ou vers l'avant du navire.

forward draft/
enfoncement avant

Enfoncement mesur l'avant du navire.

fore peak tank/


compartiment de proue

Compartiment situ l'extrmit avant du


navire, souvent utilis pour recevoir le ballast.

forward perpendicular/
perpendiculaire avant

Ligne imaginaire verticale, perpendiculaire la


quille qui passe par le point d'intersection
entre la ligne d't et la ligne de proue.

FP

Forward perpendicular.

freeboard/
hauteur libre

Distance variable entre le haut de la ligne de


pont et la ligne de flottaison.

freeboard (assigned
or statutory)/
hauteur libre officielle

Distance fixe entre le haut de la ligne de pont


et la ligne d't officielle figurant sur le
"certificat de hauteur libre" du navire concern.

fresh water/
eau douce

Pour la mesure des liquides dductibles d'un


jaugeage, c'est la somme de l'eau potable et
de l'eau (douce) non potable qui est prise en
compte.

fuel oil (heavy)/


combustible lourd

Combustible lourd utilis pour les chaudires


ou le moteur principal et spcialement adapt
cet usage.

13

Section 2: Glossary - French


hogging/
cambrure

Dformation du fond d'un navire telle que


l'enfoncement au milieu du navire est plus petit
que la moyenne des enfoncements avant et
arrire.

hydrostatic curves/
coubres hydrostatiques

Document propre chaque navire qui indique


entre autres, la position du centre de flottaison
en fonction de l'enfoncement.

keel/quille

Partie infrieure axiale de la coque du navire.

LCF

Le centre longitudinal de flottaison.

length between
perpendiculars (LBP)/
longueur entre les
perpendiculaires

Distance entre les perpendiculaires avant et


arrire paralllement la quille.

list/
bande, gite, assiette
latrale

Inclinaison du navire par rapport la position


verticale mesure au niveau de l'axe
longitudinal au milieu du navire. La bande est
normalement mesure l'aide d'un
inclinomtre donnant des rsultats en degrs
d'angle. La bande peut aussi tre calcule, si
ncessaire, par la diffrence entre les
enfoncements babord et tribord au milieu du
navire.

light ship weight/


poids vide du
navire

Poids du navire aprs construction mais sans


combustible, approvisionnements de bord, etc.
Le poids vide du navire est normalement
indiqu sur les tables de dplacement du
navire et reprsente la diffrence (pour un
enfoncement donn) entre les chelles de
dplacement et de "poids lourd".

lubricants/
lubrifiants

Huiles pour lubrifier le moteur principal, les


moteurs auxiliaires et autres quipements
mobiles du navire.

mean aft draft/


enfoncement arrire moyen

Moyenne des enfoncements arrire, babord et


tribord.

mean forward draft/


enfoncement avant moyen

Moyenne des enfoncements avant, babord et


tribord.

mean midships draft/


enfoncement moyen au
milieu du navire

Moyenne des enfoncements babord et tribord


mesurs au milieu du navire.

14

Section 2: Glossary - French


midships/
milieu du navire

Centre longitudinal du navire indiqu sur la


coque par les marques d't babord et tribord.

moment/
moment

Le moment d'une force est la mesure de l'effet


de rotation de cette force autour d'un point
donn. Cet effet dpend de la grandeur de la
force et de la longueur du levier sur lequel la
force s'exerce, c'est--dire la distance
perpendiculaire entre la ligne d'action de la
force et le point autour duquel le moment
s'exerce.

moment to change trim 1 cm/


moment pour changer l'assiette de 1 cm.

Force en tonnes mtriques multiplie par la


distance en mtres ncessaire pour changer
l'assiette du navire de 1 cm.

MTC

Moment to change trim 1 cm.

Plimsoll line/ligne Plimsoll

Autre nom pour la ligne d't.

port side/
babord

Partie gauche du navire pour un observateur


plac sur le navire et regardant l'avant.

rudder post/axe du gouvernail

Axe vertical autour duquel pivote le gouvernail.

sagging/
flexion

Dformation du fond d'un navire telle que


l'enfoncement au milieu du navire est plus
grand que la moyenne des enfoncements
avant et arrire.

scale drawing/
plan chelle

Plan du navire prpar de telle sorte que toute


dimension en cm sur le plan corresponde
une dimension connue sur le navire. Par
exemple, une chelle de 1/100 signifie que 1
cm sur le plan correspond 1 m sur le navire
lui-mme.

sounding/
hauteur de liquide

Hauteur entre le fond d'un rservoir et la


surface du liquide qu'il contient.

sounding pipe/
tuyau de sonde

Tuyau fixe au travers duquel on mesure la


hauteur de liquide dans un rservoir.

sounding tables/
tables de sonde

Voir calibrations tables.

15

Section 2: Glossary - French


specific gravity/
poids spcifique

Rapport entre le poids dans l'air d'un volume


donn de liquide et le poids du mme volume
d'eau distille. Les tempratures du liquide et
de l'eau doivent tre dfinies. Il y a donc
plusieurs formes de poids spcifiques, ce qui
peut entraner d'importantes confusions. Pour
cette raison, on prfre utiliser le terme
"densit apparente" qui correspond des
poids obtenus par pesage sur pont bascule.

starboard side/
tribord

Partie droite d'un navire pour un observateur


plac sur le navire et regardant vers l'avant.

stem correction/
correction avant

Correction applique l'enfoncement moyen


avant lorsque les chelles d'enfoncement
avant babord et tribord ne sont pas situes sur
la perpendiculaire avant.

stern correction/
correction arrire

Correction applique l'enfoncement moyen


arrire lorsque les chelles d'enfoncement
arrire babord et tribord ne sont pas situes
sur la perpendiculaire arrire.

summer load line or


summer line/
ligne d't

Ligne imaginaire, parallle la quille, passant


par le bord suprieur de la marque d't, qui
correspond l'enfoncement maximum autoris
dans la zone "t" en eau de mer.

summer mark/
marque d't

Ligne entoure d'un cercle, marque de faon


permanente par poinonnage ou soudure, sur
les cts babord et tribord au milieu du navire,
conformment aux prescriptions du "Loadline
Certificate" du navire.

t per cm(TPC)/
t par cm

Nombre de tonnes mtrique ncessaires pour


changer l'enfoncement moyen du navire d'un
centimtre.

trim/
assiette longitudinale

Diffrence entre les enfoncements moyens


avant et arrire, aprs corrections avant et
arrire ventuelles.

trim corrections/
corrections d'assiette

Corrections appliques au dplacement


lorsque le bateau n'a pas sa quille horizontale.

ullage/
hauteur libre

Hauteur entre la surface du liquide et le haut


du rservoir ou du tuyau de sonde
correspondant.

16

Section 3: Glossary - German


SECTION 3
GLOSSARY OF TERMS - GERMAN

Term or abbreviation

Definition and explanation

aft

Hinten oder in Richtung des hinteren Teiles des Schiffes.

aft draft

Tiefgang, gemessen bzw, abgelesen am Hinterschiff.

aft perpendicular

Eine imaginre Linie, die im rechten Winkel zum Kiel durch


die Mitte order entland des hinteren Endes des
Ruderpfostens verluft.

AP

Hinteres Lot.

after peak

Eine Abteilung im hinteren Ende des Schiffes, welche


meistens zur Aufnahme von Ballastwasser oder auch
Frischwasser benutzt wird.

ballast

Wasser, Hafen-/Fluss- oder Seewasser, welches in das


Schiff eingelassen oder ausgepumpt wird, um den
Tiefgang oder den Trimm des Schiffes zu verndern.

ballast tanks

Tanks speziell dafr ausgelegt, um Ballastwasser


aufzunehmen oder im Falle von Tankschiffen und
Ladungstanks, die auch zur Augnahme von Ballastwasser
dienen.

breadth

Grsste Breite des Schiffes.

breadth moulded

Breite des Schiffes auf Spanten, also die Breite ohne


Aussenhaut.

boiler feed water tanks

Tanks an Bord des Schiffes vorgesehen fr die Aufnahme


von Wasser fr die Damferzeugung.

17

Section 3: Glossary - German


bilges

Abteilungen am Boden des Maschinenraumes oder


Pumpraumes, in denen sich Wasser und/oder l sammeln
kann; da die Bilgen allgemein auch Schmutzl beinhalten,
drfen sie nicht innerhalb der Hafengrenzen ausgepumpt
werden;
fr
Draft
Survey-Zwecke
sollte
die
Flssigkeitsmenge vor und nach Beladung oder
Entleerung des Schiffes kontrolliert werden, so dass jede
nderung der Menge festgestellt werden kann.

bunker tanks

Tanks, die entweder l fr die Dampferzeugung oder den


Antrieb der Hauptmaschinen und Hilfsmaschinen
aufnehmen.

calibration tables

Siehe Tank-Peil-Tafeln: tank sounding tables.

centre of flotation

Der Auftriebzentrum ist der Schwerpunkt vom


unbeladenen Schiff und wird auch Kippmoment gennannt.

cofferdams fwd and aft

Diese Bezeichnungen beziehen sich im besonderen auf


Tankschiffe, Kstentanker und Tankleichter; es sind
Leerrume, die dazu dienen, hinten-Ladungstanks vom
Maschinenraum und vorne-Vorpiek und andere Teile zu
trennen; Kofferdmme enthalten manchmal Wasser,
beabsichtigt oder unbeabsichtigt, und sollten deshalb
immer gepeilt werden bei Anfangs- und Endeiche.

constant

Ist die Differenz zwischen dem Leerschiffgewicht gemss


Schiffsunterlagen und der bereinigten/Netto-Verdrngung
laut Schiffseiche nach Abzung aller feststellbaren
Gewichte.

deadweight

Ist die Differenz zwischen dem Gewicht des leeren


Schiffes (Leerschiffe-Gewicht) und dem Gewicht des
Schiffes im abgeladenen Zustand; die Tragfhigkeit
beinhaltet das Gewicht der Ladung, des Treibstoffes, des
Wassers und der Ausrstung.

deck line

Ein Strich deutlich markiert an der Backbord und


Steuerbordseite in der Mitte des Schiffes gemss
"International Loadline Regulations".

deep tanks

Tanks, welche sich in der Nhe des Schiffbodens


befinden.

density (true)

Die Masse einer Volumeeinheit einer Flssigkeit; sie kann


in Bezeichnungen von Gramm per Milliliter, Kilogram per
Kubikmeter, engl. pounds per Kubifuss, etc. ausgedrckt
werden.

18

Section 3: Glossary - German


density (apparent)

Dichte, wie oben definiert, jedoch ausgedrckt in der


Bezeichnung "Masse in Luft", d.h. ohne Bercksichtigung
des Luftauftriebes; die scheinbare Dichte des Seewassers,
Frischwassers, Ballastwassers, usw. wird durch des SGS
Draft Survey Hydrometer gemessen und gibt das Gewicht
des Wassers an, welches vergleichbar ist mit dem
Gewicht, was man erhlt, wenn man einen volumenmssig
sorgfltig vermessenen gefllten Behlter auf einer
genauen Waage wiegt, so wie man handelsbliche
Gewichte feststellt.

diesel oil

Brennstoff zum Antrieb von Dieselmotoren; es gibt


verschiedene Sorten von Diesell; einschliesslich leichtem
Diesell fr die Hilfsdiesel und schwerem Diesell fr die
Hauptmaschinen.

displacement

Das Gewicht des Wassers, welches durch das Gewicht


des Schiffes verdrngt wird; die Verdrngung beinhaltet
das Gewicht des leeren Schiffes (leerschiffgewicht) plus
aller anderen Gewichte an Bord, einschliesslich Ladung,
Ballast, Bunker, usw.

displacement table

Eine Tabelle speziell fr jedes Schiffe erstellt, woraus die


jeweilige Verdrngung zu dem entsprechenden Tiefgang
zu entnehmen ist.

double bottom tanks

Tanks, welche sich im Doppleboden des Schiffes befinden


und fr die Aufnahmen von Ballastwasser oder Brennstoff
bestimmet sind.

draft (draught)

Tiefe des Wassers von der Wasseroberflche hinunter bis


zum boden des Kieles.

draft marks

Eine Zahlenreihe auf dem Schiffsrumpf, aufgemalt oder


aufgeschweisst, normalerweise vorne, mittschiffes und
hinten auf beiden Seiten des Schiffes; sie gibt jeweils den
Tiefgang des Schiffes dort an, wo sich diese Marken
befinden.

draft survey

Eine Methode der Ladungs-Gewichts-Bestimmung,


basierend auf der Ermittlung des Schiffstief-ganges vor
und nach des Be- oder Entladung under Bercksichtigung
aller
Gewichtsvernderungen,
die
whrend
der
Ladungsarbeiten stattgefunden haben knnen, ausser den
Vernderungen der Ladung, d.h. Gewichtsvernderungen
beim Ballast-wasser, Brennstoff, Ausrstung, usw.

drinkable water

Frischwasser fr den menschlichen Verbrauch.

19

Section 3: Glossary - German


engine water

Wasser zu Khlungszwecken der Dieselmotoren.

even keel

Wenn die Tiefgnge vorn und hinten identisch sind, sagt


man, das Schiff ist auf ebenen Kiel.

fore (forward)

Am oder in Richtung des vorderen Endes des Schiffes.

forward draft

Tiefgang
am
vorderen
gemessen/abgelesen.

forepeak tank

Eine Abteilung im usseren vorderen Ende des Schiffes,


meistens benutzt zur Aufnahme von Frischwasser oder
Ballastwasser.

forward perpendicular

Eine gedachte senkrechte Linie im rechten Winkel zum


Kiel, die durch den Punkt fhrt, wo die SommerSeewasser-Tiefgangslinie den Vorsteven schneidet.

FP

Forward perpendicular - vorderes Lot.

freeboard

Distanz zwischen der Oberkante des Deckstriches und der


Wasseroberflche.

Teil

des

Schiffes

freeboard (assigned or staturory) Die Distanz zwischen der Oberkante des Deckstriches und
der Sommer-Seewasser-Ladelinie ist der "assigned" oder
angegebene Freibord, welcher fr dieses Schiff im
Freibordzeugnis festgelegt ist.
fresh water

Fr den Zweck des Draft Survey kann Frischwasser bei


den deductable liquids als Gesamtmenge bestehend aus
Trinkwasser und Waschwasser angesetzt werden.

fuel oil (heavy)

Schwer l, benutzt entweder als Brennstoff fr Kessel


oder Hauptmaschinen mit entsprechender Aufbereitung fr
diesen Zweck.

hogging

Die Verformung eines Schiffes, welches in der Weise


beladen wrde, dass der Tiefgang mittschiffs geringer ist
als das Mittel aus dem vorderen plus hinteren Tiefgngen.

hydrostatic curves

Ein Dokument (Formkurvenblatt) fr jedes Schiff erstellt, in


dem sich u.a. eine Kurve befindet, von der das centre of
flotation oder tipping centre (Wasserlinienschwerpunkt,
Auftriebzentrum)
mittels
entsprechendem
Tiefgang
herausgenommen werden kann.

keel

Teil des Schiffes, der sich am Schiffsboden vom Vor- zum


Hintersteven erstreckt.

20

Section 3: Glossary - German


LCF

Lnge zwischen Auftriebzentrum und Mittschiff.

length between perpendicular


(LBP)

Abstand zwischen vorderem und hinterem Lot parallel zum


Kiel gemessen.

list

Neigung des Schiffes gegenber der aufrechten Position


gemessen an der Lngsschiffs-Mittel-achse; sie wird
gewhnlich mittels eines Inklinometers (Neigungsmesser)
gemessen, welches die Winkelgrade anzeigt; die
Schlagseite kann auch aus der Tiefgangsdifferenz der
Backbord- un Steuerbord-Mittschiffstiefgnge errechnet
werden.

light ship weight

Das Gewicht des Schiffes nach Fertigstellung, aber ohne


Brennstoffe, Ausrstung, usw.; das Leer-Schiff-Gewicht
wird gewhnlich in der Verdrngungskala angegeben und
ist die Gewichts-differenz aus den Angaben der
Verdrngungskala und Tragfhigkeitskala.

lubricants

Oele zur Schmierung der Hauptmaschine, Hilfsmaschinen


oder anderer beweglicher Teile an Bord des Schiffes.

mean aft draft

Das Mittel aus den Tiefgngen gemessen bzw. abgelesen


auf Backbord- und Steuerbordseite des Hinterschiffes.

mean forward draft

Das Mittel aus den Tiefgngen gemessen bzw. abgelesen


auf Backbord- und Steuerbordseite des Vorschiffes.

mean midships draft

Das Mittel aus den Tiefgngen gemessen bzw. abgelesen


auf Backbord- und Steuerbordseite mittschiffs.

midships

Mitte der Lngsschiffachse; wird am Schiff angezeigt durch


die Backbord- und Steuerbord- lademarken.

moment

Das Moment einer Kraft ist das Mass fr die Drehwirkung


der Kraft um einen gegebenen Punkt; die Drehkraft hangt
ab von der Grsse der Kraft und der Lnge des
Hebelarmes, auf den die Kraft einwirkt, d.h. die senkrechte
oder waagerechte Entfernung zwischen dem Angriffspunkt
der Kraft und dem Punkt, an dem sich das Moment
auswirkt.

moment to change trim 1 cm

Die Kraft in metrischen Tonnen multipliziert mit der


Entfernung in Metern, die bentigt wird, um den Trim des
Schiffes um 1 cm zu ndern.

MTC

Trimmoment
fr
1
Einheitstrimmoment - ETM.

21

cm

Trimmnderung.

Section 3: Glossary - German


Plimsoll line

Andere Bezeichnung fr Seewasser-Sommer-Marke.

port side

Linke Seite des Schiffes bei Blickrichtung zum Vorderteil


des Schiffes.

rudder post

Die vertikale Achse, um die sich das Ruder dreht.

sagging

Die Verformung eines Schiffes, welches in der Weise


beladen wurde, dass der Mittschiffs-Tiefgang grsser ist
als das Mittel aus vorderem plus hinteren Tiefgang.

scale drawings

Schiffsplne derart gezeichnet, dass jeder Zentimeter des


Masstabes einer bestimmten Entfernung auf dem Schiff
entspricht, z.B. ein Massstab 1/100 heisst 1 cm im Plan
bedeutet 1 m auf dem Schiff.

sounding

Entfernung zwischen dem Boden des Tanks und der


Oberflche der Flssigkeit, die sich im Tank befindet.

sounding pipe

Ein festinstalliertes Rohr,


vorgenommen werden.

sounding tables

Masstabellen, die die Volumen der entsprechenden


Flssigkeitshhen der einzelnen Tanks angeben.

specific gravity

Verhltnis zwischen der Masse oder dem Gewicht in Luft


eines gegebenen Volumens einer Flssigkeit und der
Masse oder dem Gewicht in Luft desselben Volumens
destillierten Wassers; beide Temperaturen fr Flssigkeit
und destilliertes Wasser mssen dazu angegeben werden;
es gibt deswegen die verschiedensten Angaben von
"specific gravities", welche zu erheblichen Verwirrungen
fhren knnen; aus diesem Grunde wird die Bezeichnung
"apparent density" vorgezogen, weil nur durch sie
Gewichte ermittelt werden, die man auch bei der
Gewichtsermittlung auf einer Waage erhlt.

starboard side

Die rechte Siete des Schiffes bei Blickrichtung zum


Vorderteil des Schiffes.

stem correction

Berichtigung des gemittelten vorderen Tiefganges, wenn


die vorderen Tiefgnge (Backbord und Steuerbord) sich
nicht am vorderen Lot befinden.

stern correction

Berichtigung des gemittelten hinteren Tiefganges, wenn


die hinteren Tiefgnge (Backbord und Steuerbord) sich
nicht am hinteren Lot befinden.

22

durch

das

Peilungen

Section 3: Glossary - German


summer load line

Eine angenommene Linie parallel zum Keil, welche durch


die Oberkante der Sommer-Marke verlaft und welche
dem Maximum-Tiefgang in Seewasser innerhalb der
Sommerzone entspricht.

summer mark

Die Linie, die mit einem Kreis eingefasst ist und mittels
Krnung oder Schweissnaht dauerhaft fixiert ist auf der
halben Schiffslnge an Backbord- und Steuerbordseite des
Schiffes, wie im Freibord-Zeugnis vorgeschrieben.

t per cm (TPC)

Die Anzahl der metrischen Tonnen, die die Vernderung


des Mitteltiefganges um einen Zentimeter hervorruft.

trim

Differenz zwischen gemitteltem vorderen gemitteltem


hinteren Tiefgang, nachdem, wenn notwendig, beide
Tiefgnge auf die Lote korrigiert wurden.

trim corrections

Berichtigungen zur Verdrngung des Schiffes, wenn das


Schiffe nicht auf ebenem Kiel schwimmt.

ullage

Entfernung zwischen Oberflche des Flssigkeit in einem


Tank und der Oberkante des Tanks bzw. des Peilrohres.

23

Section 4: Glossary - Spanish


SECTION 4
GLOSSARY OF TERMS - SPANISH

Trmino ingls/espaol

Definicin y explicacin

aft/
popa

En o hacia la parte posterior del barco.

aft draft/
calado de popa

Calado, medido en la parte de popa del barco.

aft perpendicular/
perpendicular de popa

Una lnea vertical imaginaria, en ngulo recto a la quilla


pasando por el centro o lado de popa del poste del timn
del barco.

AP/
PP

Perpendicular de popa.

after peak tank/


tanque "peak" de popa

Un compartimento situado en el extremo posterior del


barco utilizado frecuentemente para contener agua
potable o agua de lastre.

ballast/
lastre

Agua, agua de rio o de mar, bombeada dentro o fuera del


barco para ajustar el asiento o calado del barco.

ballast tanks/
tanques de lastre

Tanques diseados especialmente en la parte interior del


barco para recibir agua de lastre o, en el caso de los
tanques del barco, tanques de carga utilizados para
contener lastre.
Anchura mxima del barco.

breadth / manga
boiler feed water tanks/
tanque de alimentacin
de calderas

Tanques de abordo para contener agua utilizada para


producir vapor.

bilges/
sentinas

Espacios en el fondo de la sala de mquinas o de


bombas donde se puede acumular el agua. Dado que las
sentinas normalmente tambin contienen aceites de
desecho, no pueden ser descargadas dentro de los
lmites del puerto. A efectos de control por calados, la
cantidad de lquido de las sentinas debe ser controlada
antes y despus de la carga o descarga para que no se
produzca ningn cambio en la cantidad.

24

Section 4: Glossary - Spanish


bunker tanks/
tanques de combustibles

Tanques para contener fuel oil, ya sea para la subida del


vapor o para proveer de fuerza a las mquinas
principales y auxiliares.

calibration tables/
tablas de calibracin

Ver tablas de sondeo de tanques.

centre of flotation/
centro de flotacin

El punto sobre el cual un barco se equilibra, a menudo


llamado el "centro de equilibrio".

cofferdams fwd and aft/


ataguias proa y popa

Estos trminos se aplican especialmente a los buquetanques ocenicos, tanques costeros y tanques lancha.
Son espacios vacios para separar los tanques de carga
del lugar de mquinas de popa y del peak de proa y otras
partes del barco. Los ataguias contienen frecuentemente
agua, ya sea intencionada o accidentalmente, y por lo
tanto deben ser siempre sondeados antes y despus de
que la carga est siendo medida por control de calados.

constant/
constante

Diferencia entre el peso del barco en vacio de acuerdo a


los documentos del mismo y el desplazamiento neto en
vacio inspeccionado despus de deducir todos los pesos
medibles.

deadweight/
peso muerto

Diferencia entre el peso del barco en vacio y el barco


cargado. Esto incluye la carga, el fuel, el agua y las
provisiones.

deck line/
lnea de cubierta

Lnea claramente marcada a los lados de babor y estribor


del barco, centrada como requieren las Regulaciones
Internationales de Carga.

deep tanks/
tanques de profundidad

Tanques situados cerca del fondo de las sentias del


barco.

density (true)/
densidad (real)

La masa de unidad de volumen de un liquido. Se puede


expresar en trminos de gramos por milmetro,
kilogramos por metro cbico, libras por pie cbico, etc.

density (apparent)/
densidad (aparente)

Densidad como la arriba definida, pero expresada en


trminos de masa en aire, p.e. sin permitir el efecto de
flotacin de la atmsfera. La densidad aparente del agua
de mar, agua potable, agua de lastre, etc. se mide con el
hidrmetro de control por calados SGS, y d pesos
comparables a aquellos que se obtendran pesando un
contendor cuidadosamente calibrado en una bsculapuente fiable, para obtener pesos comerciales.

25

Section 4: Glossary - Spanish


diesel oil

Fuel oil utilizado para abastecer las mquinas diesel.


Existen varios grados de diesel oil, incluyendo diesel oil
ligero para mquinas auxiliares y diesel oil ms pesado
utilizado para las mquinas principales.

displacement/
desplazamiento

Peso total del agua desplazada por el barco. El


desplazamiento incluye el peso del barco en vacio
adems de los otros pesos a bordo, incluyendo la carga,
lastre, tanques, etc.

displacement table/
tabla de desplazamiento

Una tabla especficamente preparada para cada barco,


que da el desplazamiento correspondiente a varios
calados.

double bottom tanks/


tanques de doble fondo

Tanques situados en el doble fondo del barco y utilizados


tanto para combustible como para agua de lastre.

draft (draught)/
calado

Profundidad del agua desde la superficie de esta hasta el


fondo de la quilla del barco.

draft marks/
marcas de calado

Una serie de signos pintados o soldados en el casco del


barco, normalmente en proa, centro y popa, en los lados
babor y estribor, que indican el calado del barco en los
puntos donde estn situadas las marcas de calado.

draft survey/
supervisin del calado

Sistema de medida de la carga, basado en la medida del


calado del barco antes y despus de la carga o
descarga, teniendo en cuenta cualquier cambio en el
peso a parte de la carga, que pueda haber tenido lugar
durante las operaciones de manipulacin de la carga,
p.e. cambios en el peso del agua de lastre, combustible,
provisiones, etc.

drinkable water/
agua potable

Agua destinada al consumo humano.

engine water/
agua de mquina

Agua utilizada para los sistemas de refrigeracin de las


mquinas diesel.

even keel/
equilibrio de asientos

Cuando los calados de proa y popa de un barco son


idnticos, se dice que el barco est en "equilibrio de
asientos".

fore (forward)/
proa

En o haca la parte frontal del barco.

forward draft/
calado de proa

Calado medido en la parte de proa del barco.

26

Section 4: Glossary - Spanish


forepeak tank/
tanque "peak" de proa

Un compartimento situado en el extremo de la parte de


proa del barco utilizado a menudo para contener agua
potable o agua de lastre.

forward perpendicular/
perpendicular de proa

Una lnea vertical imaginaria, en ngulo recto a la quilla


pasando a travs del punto donde la lnea de carga de
verano intersecciona el mastil del barco.

FP / PF

Perpendicular de proa.

freeboard/
altura borda

Distancia entre la parte superior de la lnea de cubierta y


la superficie del agua.

freeboard
(assigned or statutory)/
altura borda
(asignada o estatutoria)

La distancia desde la parte superior de la lnea de


cubierta a la lnea de carga de verano como "asignada" o
establecida en el Certificado de Altura Borda del barco
concerniente.

fresh water/
agua potable

Para el propsito de control de medida de calado de los


"lquidos deducibles", el agua potable se puede definir
como el total de agua para beber y lavarse que hay a
bordo del barco.

fuel oil (heavy)/


fuel oil (pesado)

Fuel oil de alta densidad utilizado ya sea como


calentador o como fuel para las principales mquinas
diesel, adecuadamente adaptado para el propsito.

hogging/
quebranto

Encorvadura de un barco cargado de tal manera que el


calado de centro es menor que la media de los calados
de popa y proa.

hydrostatic curves/
curvas hidrostticas

Un documento especialmente preparado para cada


barco, indicando, entre otras cosas, el centro de flotacin
o "centro de equilibrio" en varios calados.

keel/
quilla

Parte de un barco a lo largo del fondo desde proa a


popa.

LCF

Distancia entre el centro de flotacin y el centro del


barco.

length between perpendiculars


(LBP)/
longitud entre perpendiculares
(LEP)

Distancia entre las perpendiculares de popa y proa


medidas paralelamente a la quilla.

27

Section 4: Glossary - Spanish


list/
bandeo

Inclinacin del barco desde la posicin vertical medida en


el eje longitudinal del centro. Se mide normalmente por
medio de un inclinmetro que da los resultados en
grados de ngulo. El bandeo se puede tambin calcular,
si es necesario, por la diferencia entre los calados de
centro de babor y estribor.

light ship weight/


peso del barco en vaco

El peso del barco despus de terminada su construccin


pero sin tanques de fuel, despensas, etc. El peso del
barco en vaco se menciona normalmente en las grficas
de desplazamiento y representa la diferencia entre la
grfica de desplazamiento y la grfica de peso muerto.

lubricants/
lubricantes

Aceites para lubricar la mquina principal, mquinas


auxiliares y otros equipos de cintica en el exterior del
barco.

mean aft draft/


calado medio de popa

Promedio de los calados medidos en los lados babor y


estribor de popa del barco.

mean forward draft/


calado medio de proa

Promedio de los calados medidos en los lados babor y


estribor de proa del barco.

mean midships draft/


calado medio de centro

Promedio de los calados medidos en los lados babor y


estribor del centro del barco.

midships/
medio

Centro longitudinal del barco como se indica en el casco


por las marcas de lnea de carga de babor y estribor.

moment/
momento

El momento de una fuerza es la medida del efecto de


rotacin de dicha fuerza en un punto dado. El efecto de
rotacin depender de la magnitud de la fuerza y de la
longitud del brazo sobre el que acta, es decir la
distancia perpendicular entre la lnea de accin de la
fuerza y el punto alrededor del cual se ejerce el
momento.

moment to change trim 1cm/


momento de cambio del
trimado 1 cm

Es la fuerza en toneladas mtricas multiplicada por la


distancia en metros requerida para cambiar el trimado del
barco de 1 cm.

MTC

Momento para cambiar el trimado de 1 cm.

Plimsoll line/
lnea Plimsoll

Otra manera de denominar a la lnea de verano.

port side/
lado babor

Lado izquierdo del barco visto por un observador de cara


a la proa.

28

Section 4: Glossary - Spanish


rudder post/
poste de timn

Eje vertical alrededor del cual gira el timn.

sagging/
arrufo

Encorvadura de un barco cargado de tal manera que los


calados de centro son mayores que la media de los
calados de popa y proa.

scale drawings/
planos

Son los planos del barco preparados de tal manera que


cada centmetro de distancia en la escala corresponde a
una distancia conocida en el barco, p.e. en la escala
marcada como 1/100 significa que 1 cm de plano
corresponde a 1 m de la estructura del barco.

sounding/
sondeo

Distancia entre el fondo de un tanque y la superficie del


lquido que contiene.

sounding pipe/
sonda

Tubo fijo a travs del cual se hace el sondeo.

sounding tables/
tablas de sondeo

Son tablas de calibracin que dan los volumenes


correspondientes a los pesos de los lquidos contenidos.

specific gravity/
gravedad especfica

Es la relacin entre la masa o peso en aire de un


volumen dado de lquido y la masa o peso en aire del
mismo volumen de agua destilada. La temperatura del
lquido y la del agua deben ser definidas. Hay varias
formas de gravedad especfica que pueden conducir a
considerable confusin. Es por esta razn que el trmino
"densidad aparente" es preferible, ya que se corresponde
con el peso obtenido pesando sobre una bscula puente.

starboard side/
lado estribor

El lado derecho del barco tal y como un observador lo


vera de cara a proa.

stem correction/
correccin por stem

Es la correccin aplicada al promedio del calado de proa


cuando los calados delanteros de babor y estribor no
estn situados en la perpendicular correspondiente.

stern correction/
correccin por stern

Es la correccin aplicada al promedio del calado de popa


cuando los calados de popa lados babor y estribor no
estn situados en la perpendicular correspondiente.

summer load line/


lnea de carga de verano

Lnea imaginaria, paralela a la quilla del barco que pasa


por el eje superior de la marca de verano y que
corresponde al calado mximo transportado en una zona
de verano en agua de mar.

29

Section 4: Glossary - Spanish


summer mark/
marca de verano

Lnea rodeada por un crculo prominentemente marcada


en el centro por grabado o soldado a la plancha en los
lados babor y estribor del barco tal y como prescribe el
Certificado de Carga Mxima del barco.

t per cm (TPC)/
toneladas por cm

El nmero de toneladas mtricas requeridas para


cambiar el promedio del calado de un barco en 1 cm.

trim/
trimado

Es la diferencia existente entre el promedio del calado de


proa y el promedio del calado de popa habiendo sido
corregidas ambas medidas a la perpendicular de proa y
popa cuando fuese necesario.

trim correction/
correccin por trimado

Son las correcciones aplicadas al desplazamiento de un


barco cuando este no est flotando con la quilla plana, es
decir, en equilibrio de calados.

ullage/
vacios

Distancia existente entre la superficie del lquido en un


tanque y el tope de ese tanque o la correspondiente
sonda.

30

Section 5: Introduction
SECTION 5
INTRODUCTION TO DRAFT SURVEY

5.1 General principles


The first question we need to answer is What is a draft survey?
Draft survey is an indirect weighing method which assesses the weight of a cargo loaded on
board or discharged from a vessel.
The method is based upon the principle of Archimedes which states the following:
A vessel, freely floating in water, will displace a weight of water equal to its own weight.
and it is exactly the weight of this displaced water which is calculated by draft survey.
In the following sections of this manual, details will be given regarding the procedures to be
followed but before going any further, it is essential that you understand the following three
points:
Point 1:
The weight of water displaced by a vessel does not simply equal cargo weight but consists of:
The weight of the cargo, if any on board.
The weight of the vessel itself, also called the light ship.
The weight of the liquids on board, also called deductible liquids, such as:
o Ballast water required for stability.
o Fresh water such as drinking water and cooling water.
o Bunkers such as heavy fuel, diesel oil and lubricating oil.
The constant which is the total of all unknown weights on board.

Point 2:
Since seawater (density 1025 kg/m) is heavier than fresh water (density 1000 kg/m) the
volume of water displaced by an object floating in salt water is smaller than the volume of water
displaced in fresh water.
Or, when a ship is moved from fresh water into seawater, it will rise slightly out of the water
because of the smaller volume of seawater displaced for the same weight.

Point 3:
The data, represented in the vessels documents and required for draft survey calculation, are
based upon a vessel:
Floating in water of a well defined density, usually 1025 kg/m.
Being on even keel (= without trim) that is with equal drafts forward and aft.
Being upright (= without list) that is with equal drafts on port and starboard side.
Unfortunately, these conditions are rarely encountered in practice and corrections will have to
be applied. These will be explained in the following sections of the manual.

31

Section 5: Introduction
5.2 Introduction to the m/v "MINDIV"
The m/v MINDIV is a hypothetical vessel with clearly specified dimensions as given below. This
vessel will be used in the subsequent sections of the manual to illustrate the various techniques
and calculations involved with a draft survey.
General Particulars:
Type of ship
Dead weight
Light ship
Constant as per Chief Officer
Length overall
Length between perpendiculars
Breadth moulded
Summer freeboard
Summer load draft

: Single deck bulk carrier


: 26000 t
:
5000 t
:
200 t
: 180.000 m
: 170.000 m
: 20.000 m
:
3.000 m
: 10.000 m

The general holds and tanks arrangement of the m/v Mindiv is presented in figure 1.

5.3 Abbreviations and conversion factors


P
S

: portside (left side from steering position)


: starboard side (right side from steering position)

Fwd
Aft
Mid

: forward
: after (abaft)
: midships

Stem : the front side of a vessel (bow)


Stern : the backside of a vessel
1 Foot = 1 = 1 Ft = 12 inches
1 Inch = 1
MT = Metric Tonnes = Tonnes = To = Tn = t (the International Standard abbreviation)
LT = Long Tons = Tons = Ts
1 Ft = 0.3048 m.
1 LT = 1.016047 MT.

32

Section 5: Introduction
FIGURE 1

33

Section 6: Drafts
SECTION 6
READING OR MEASURING THE DRAFT

6.1 Introduction
In this section of the manual, we are going to consider the procedures for reading and
measuring a vessel's draft - that is the depth of its keel in the water. These procedures rely
upon marks which appear on every vessel and which are of known height above the keel.

Draft reading

direct reading of the draft from the draft marks marked on the
hull of the vessel.

Draft measuring :

determining the draft by measuring the distance between a


reference point on the hull of the vessel and the waterline.

During draft reading or measuring it is important to halt all operations on board which can
change the position of the draft marks to the water such as:
- Ballast operations (ballasting, deballasting or transfer of ballast water)
- Bunker operations (bunkering or transfer of fuel, diesel etc.)
- Gear operations (opening or closing of hatch covers; movement of booms, deck cranes etc.)
- Loading or discharging operations of cargo or eventually other essential items.
Note also the position of the anchors.
Whenever possible, draft readings or measurements should be effected jointly with the Chief
Officer or his representative.
6.2 Reading the Draft
Seagoing vessels usually have six scales of draft marks painted or welded on the vessel's hull.
These scales are positioned on port and starboard side of the vessel, forward, midships and aft.
The value of each draft mark in these scales represents the distance from its position to the
underside of the keel plate (extreme drafts - keel included).
The scales can be calibrated either in meters (metric system) or in feet (imperial system).
In some cases, both systems will be used.
Taking a draft reading is simply a matter of noting the water level on the scale. Often this is not
as easy as it sounds. The draft marks can be difficult to read, due to rust or poor painting, or the
sea could be choppy or there could be a swell. Where the vessel is in a state of excessive trim,
the stern or bow scales could even be clear of the water.
To ensure the highest level of accuracy readings should be taken close to the water line, from a
launch, if possible, to reduce the parallax error.
Examples of metric and imperial draft scales are given in the following pages.

34

Section 6: Drafts
METRIC SYSTEM
FIGURE 2

FIGURE 3

35

Section 6: Drafts
METRIC SYSTEM
FIGURE 4

36

Section 6: Drafts
IMPERIAL SYSTEM - ROMAN FIGURES
FIGURE 5

37

Section 6: Drafts
IMPERIAL SYSTEM - ROMAN FIGURES
FIGURE 6

38

Section 6: Drafts
IMPERIAL SYSTEM - ARABIC FIGURES
FIGURE 7

39

Section 6: Drafts
IMPERIAL SYSTEM - ARABIC FIGURES
FIGURE 8

40

Section 6: Drafts
6.3 Measuring the Draft
6.3.1 Principle
When the midships draft scale is not marked or cannot be clearly read, the draft must be
measured indirectly.
This is done by measuring the distance between the surface of the water and any point on the
vessel's hull that is of known height above the keel. The measured distance is then subtracted
from the height of the reference point above the keel.
To illustrate this, let's consider a rectangular box 5.00 meters high (Figure 9). To determine its
draft, the distance between the top of the box and the water is measured and this distance
subtracted from the total height of the box.
FIGURE 9

Total height of the box


Distance between the top of the box and the water line
Draft

5.00 m
- 3.00 m
2.00 m

As you can see, this gives the same result as measuring the distance from the bottom of the
box to the surface of the water.
In the following sections of the manual, we will show that a vessel is merely a more complicated
shape of box and that the same principles apply, provided that corrections are made to account
for the profile of the vessel's hull.
6.3.2 Deck line and Load lines
These compulsory lines (Figure 10) are marked in the midships position on the hull of every
vessel on port and starboard side. Their primary function is to indicate the maximum permissible
loading of the vessel in different zones and water types. However, because the lines are of
known height above the keel, they can also be used to determine the vessel's draft.
The deck line simply indicates the position of the deck.

41

Section 6: Drafts
The summer load line or summer draft indicates the maximum permissible draft in seawater to
which a vessel located in a summer zone can be loaded. This is often referred to as the Plimsoll
line, after Mr. Plimsoll, who became concerned about the large number of vessels being lost
due to overloading.
The distance between the top of the deck line and the top of the summer load line is known as
the summer freeboard. This distance will be specified in the vessel's International Load line
Certificate which must be in the possession of the vessel's master. The summer freeboard
should not be confused with the vessel's freeboard, which is simply the distance between the
deck line and the water line.
FIGURE 10

The other marks on the loading scale indicate the maximum draft to which the vessel can be
loaded in different zones in fresh water (left side) and salt water (right side). The letters denote
the zone and water type. For example, the fresh water line F indicates the level to which the
vessel can be loaded in a summer zone in fresh water (and still be on the salt water line when it
reaches the sea). The WNA or Winter North Atlantic zone is only applicable for vessels up to
100 m length.
The locations of the different zones are presented in figure 11.
And a practical example of a hydrostatic document with the positions of the summer load line
and the deck line of the m/v Emerald is shown in figure 12.

42

Section 6: Drafts
FIGURE 11

43

Section 6: Drafts
FIGURE 12

44

Section 6: Drafts
The load lines can only be certified by certain classification bodies. To ensure their accuracy,
they must be checked at approximately twelve monthly intervals. The date of the last survey will
be indicated on the International Load line Certificate.
COUNTRY
Britain
France
Germany
Norway
Italy
United States
Russia
Japan

CLASSIFICATION BODY
Lloyds Register of Shipping
Bureau Veritas
Germanischer Lloyds
Den Norske Veritas
Registro Italiano Navale
American Bureau of Shipping
Register of Shipping of the USSR
Nippon Kaizi Ngokai

6.3.3 Measuring the draft on the m/v Mindiv


The figure below shows the load line arrangement of the m/v Mindiv.
FIGURE 13

45

ABBREVIATION
LR
BV
GL
NV
RI
ABS
PC
NK

Section 6: Drafts
Because the heights of the marks above the keel are given in the vessel's general particulars,
the midships draft is easily determined. This can be done in two ways.
The first method is to measure the distance between the top of the summer load line and the
surface of the water and to subtract this from the known height of the summer load line above
the keel.
FIGURE 14

Height of the summer load line above the keel


Measured distance between the summer load line and the water
Draft

: 10.00 m
: - 4.00 m
: 6.00 m

Alternatively, the draft could be found by measuring the distance between the top of the deck
line and the surface of the water and subtracting this from the known height of the deck line
above the keel.
FIGURE 15

Height of the deck line above the keel


Measured distance between the deck line and the water
Draft

46

: 13.00 m
: - 7.00 m
: 6.00 m

Section 6: Drafts
As you can see, both methods give the same result. In fact, any mark on a vessel's hull of
known height above the keel can be used to determine the draft.
For example, where draft marks are illegible or corroded or when the vessel is close to the quay
and the marks cannot be read, the draft could be obtained by measuring the distance from a
legible draft mark to the water line.
A practical example of measuring the draft from the top of the deck line is presented below.
FIGURE 16

47

Section 6: Drafts
FIGURE 17

FIGURE 18

48

Section 6: Drafts
6.4 Calculation of the mean drafts fwd, aft and midships
The objective is to calculate out of the six drafts, obtained by reading or measuring, one
representative draft (quarter mean). This will have to be done in different steps.
The first step will be the calculation of the mean drafts fwd, aft and mid.
These mean drafts are simply the means of the port and starboard side drafts on fwd, aft and
midships e.g.:
Observed draft fwd P
Observed draft fwd S
Observed mean draft fwd

: 1.630 m
: 1.630 m
: 1.630 m

Observed draft aft P


Observed draft aft S
Observed mean draft aft

: 4.230 m
: 4.190 m
: 4.210 m

Observed midships P
Observed midships S
Observed mean draft mid

: 2.740 m
: 3.010 m
: 2.875 m

The next step will be the correction of these three mean drafts to the perpendiculars (see next
section).

6.5 Exercise m/v Mindiv


Observed draft fwd P
Observed draft fwd S

:
:

7.620 m
7.660 m

Observed draft aft P


Observed draft aft S

:
:

10.260 m
10.380 m

Observed midships P
Observed midships S

:
:

8.860 m
9.140 m

Calculate the mean drafts fwd, aft and mid.

49

Section 7: Perpendiculars
SECTION 7
PERPENDICULAR CORRECTION

7.1 Introduction
Perpendiculars are imaginary vertical lines, dividing the length of the vessel into two equal parts,
in order to simplify various calculations such as trim, stability, etc.
Ships documents are always based on draft readings at the perpendiculars. When a draft mark
is not situated at its perpendicular then the observed draft reading needs to be corrected to the
perpendicular.
FIGURE 19

FP or fwd perpendicular

: An imaginary vertical line at right angle to the keel


situated at the point where the summer load line
intersects the vessel's stem.

AP or aft perpendicular

: An imaginary vertical line at right angle to the keel


passing through the first frame (zero frame) and
therefore located on or nearby the ship's
rudderpost.

MP or midships perpendicular

: An imaginary vertical line at right angle to the keel


situated midway between the FP and the AP

LBP or Length Between Perpendiculars : Distance between the FP and the AP.
Observed draft

: Draft read on the vessel

Corrected draft

: Draft corrected to its perpendicular

50

Section 7: Perpendiculars
Observed Trim
Corrected Trim

: Difference between the observed mean drafts fwd and aft.


: Difference between the corrected mean drafts fwd and aft.

Trim F
Trim A

: Trim Fwd / by the head / by bow / by the stem / draft aft < draft fwd
: Trim Aft / by the stern / draft aft > draft fwd

It is useful to know that the numbering of the frames usually starts from aft and that the AP is at
the position of the first frame usually marked 0 (zero) on the plans, although on USA built
vessels and some other ones frame numbering starts from fwd.

7.2 Position of the draft marks


The following figure illustrates how draft marks can be situated on or away from their
perpendiculars.
FIGURE 20

The fwd draft mark scale is situated 2.0 m aft of the FP.
The midships draft mark scale is located 0.5 m aft of the MP.
The aft draft mark scale consists of two sections. The section from 8 m up to 12 m is located on
the AP, the section below 8 m is located 7.0 m fwd of the AP.
When correcting a draft reading to its perpendicular, the first step is to find the distance between
the observed draft mark and the perpendicular.
This distance is sometimes directly presented in the vessel's documents.
If not, it may be estimated by aligning the position of the observed draft mark and its
perpendicular to the quay and then measuring the distance between those markings.
Also a ship's plan, on scale, might help to determine this distance.
The distance between the midships drafts and the MP, which passes through the middle of the
Plimsoll circle, can sometimes be measured directly on the hull.
Be attentive when the fwd draft marks follow the profile of the vessel's hull (Figure 3 & 19). In
this case the distance between the draft marks and the FP will vary depending on the draft of
the vessel.
The following pictures show some practical examples of draft mark positions.

51

Section 7: Perpendiculars
FIGURE 21

FIGURE 22

52

Section 7: Perpendiculars
FIGURE 23

FIGURE 24

53

Section 7: Perpendiculars
FIGURE 25

7.3 Principle of perpendicular correction


7.3.1 Even keel condition
Consider a vessel floating on even keel that is without trim or with equal drafts fwd and aft.
FIGURE 26

O denotes observed draft and C corrected draft.

54

Section 7: Perpendiculars
Both fwd and midships drafts are not observed at their perpendiculars but at a position aft of
them. However, since the vessel is on even keel, these observed draft readings equal the
required readings on their perpendiculars and no correction has to be applied (O=C).
The aft draft is observed on the perpendicular (AP) and requires no correction.
In other words, a perpendicular correction is not required when the vessel is on an even keel or
when the draft mark is situated on the perpendicular.
7.3.2 Trim by the stern

FIGURE 27

Both fwd and midships observed draft readings do not equal anymore the required readings on
their perpendiculars (OC) and corrections will have to be applied.
It is also clear from this figure that readings on the perpendiculars would turn out lower than the
observed draft readings (C<O).
The corrections therefore will have to be subtracted from the observed drafts.
The aft draft is observed on the perpendicular (AP) and requires no correction.

55

Section 7: Perpendiculars
7.3.3 Trim by the head

FIGURE 28

None of the observed draft readings equal the required readings on their perpendiculars (OC)
and corrections will have to be applied.
A reading on the perpendiculars for fwd and midships would turn out higher than the observed
draft readings (C>O).
The corrections will have to be added from the observed drafts.
A reading on the aft perpendicular (AP) would turn out lower than the observed draft reading
(C<O). The correction will have to be subtracted to the observed draft.

7.4 Formula
The perpendicular correction [m] can be calculated by following formula:

Perp. Corr. [m] = Observed Trim [m] x Distance (Observed draft mark - Perpendicular) [m]
LBM [m]

LBM

: Length Between the observed fwd and aft draft Marks.

56

Section 7: Perpendiculars
7.5 Exercise m/v Mindiv
FIGURE 29

Correct the observed mean drafts fwd, aft and mid to their perpendiculars and calculate the
corrected trim.

57

Section 8: Deflection
SECTION 8
CORRECTION FOR HULL DEFLECTION

8.1 Introduction
When a vessel is subjected to an uneven distribution of weight, hull deformation can occur. This
will lead to different draft readings fwd, midships and aft, even when the vessel is upright and on
even keel.
This is at the same time the reason why all of the three mean drafts must be taken into
calculation to obtain one representative draft, called quarter mean or mean of means corrected.

8.2 Types of deformation


8.2.1 Hogging
Hogging is best illustrated by a beam supported at its midpoint and carrying a weight at each
end. The result is that the beam bends in a concave manner.
FIGURE 31

The same deformation occurs when a vessel is loaded either side of midships.
FIGURE 32

58

Section 8: Deflection
8.2.2 Sagging
Sagging can be illustrated by a beam, supported at its ends and carrying a weight at the centre.
The result is that the beam is deformed in a convex manner.

FIGURE 33

The same deformation occurs when a vessel is loaded with a weight at midships.
FIGURE 34

8.3 Factors which can influence the deflection


Deflection is mainly influenced by the cargo whether or not loaded on board and its eventual
distribution over the vessel.
In general, a vessel tends to hog in empty (also called light) condition and to sag when loaded.
Of course, this is not a universal rule and does not apply to all vessels or conditions of loading.
Besides the cargo, deflection can also be influenced by the position of the vessel's castle and
engines, ballast condition, position of the hatch covers, solar bending etc.

59

Section 8: Deflection
8.4 Formula
8.4.1 Quarter mean
Due to the deflection all of the three mean drafts must be taken into calculation.
Considering the shape of a vessel however, being much wider at the midships drafts than at the
fwd and aft drafts (Figure 35), the formula will not be a simple add up and divide by three.
It is obvious that more value must be attached to the midships draft.
In fact, for bulk carriers in general, the best result is obtained by attaching 75% of the value to
the midships draft and 25% to the fwd and aft drafts together (3/4 rule) by following formula:
Quarter mean [m] = 6 Mid + Fwd + Aft
8
The quarter mean, also called mean of means corrected, can be considered as one draft in
which the original six drafts of the vessel are condensed in the right proportions.
This quarter mean will, as next step, be used to enter the hydrostatic documents of the vessel in
order to find the corresponding displacement (see next section).
8.4.2 Deflection
Value [m]
Hogging [m]
Sagging [m]

= Difference between Fwd + Aft and Mid.


2
= Fwd + Aft > Mid
2
= Fwd + Aft < Mid
2
FIGURE 35

8.5 Exercise m/v Mindiv


Calculate the quarter mean and determine the value and type of the deflection.

60

Section 9: Displacement
SECTION 9
CALCULATION OF THE CORRESPONDING DISPLACEMENT

9.1 Introduction
In this section will be explained how the corresponding displacement for the quarter mean can
be obtained.
This is done at hand of specific documents available on board of the vessel, the hydrostatic
particulars.
These hydrostatic particulars present, amongst other data, a list of drafts, the quarter means,
together with a corresponding list of displacements.
These displacements indicate how many tons of water of a well defined density, usually 1.025
kg/l, is displaced by the vessel at a certain draft.
Since draft survey uses the vessel in itself as a balance and the hydrostatic particulars can be
considered as the display of that balance.
The hydrostatic particulars, in metric or imperial system, can be presented as tables, scales or
curves and this in a wide variety of models, depending on the country or shipyard of origin.

9.2 Definitions
Displacement = the total weight of water displaced by a floating vessel.
Deadweight = the displacement minus the light ship weight.
Keel = plate with a thickness of about 2 to 3 cm welded on the underside of the vessel.
Shell = plate welded on the sides of a vessel
Extreme drafts = drafts referring to the underside of the keel (keel included).
Moulded drafts = drafts referring to the upper side of the keel (keel not included).
Extreme displacement = displacement of a vessel with keel, shell and appendages.
Moulded displacement = displacement of a vessel without keel, shell and appendages.
Displacement SW = displacement of the vessel in salt water (density usually 1.025 kg/l).
Displacement FW = displacement of the vessel in fresh water with a density of 1.000 kg/l.

61

Section 9: Displacement
Since the draft marks on the hull of a vessel always refer to the underside of the keel, extreme
drafts and extreme displacements should be used at any time. When the hydrostatic particulars
mention only moulded drafts the keel thickness is to be added in order to obtain the extreme
drafts.
Only displacement and never deadweight should be used in order to avoid an erroneous density
correction later on. If the hydrostatic particulars mention only deadweight the weight of the light
ship is to be added in order to obtain the displacement.
And since the additional listed data in the hydrostatic particulars, required for future corrections,
refer to salt water, displacement SW should be used at any time.

9.3 Hydrostatic particulars


Examples of a hydrostatic table, scale and curves of the m/v Waterdale are presented on next
pages.

62

Section 9: Displacement
9.3.1 Hydrostatic table
FIGURE 36

The corresponding displacement can be read directly from the table for a listed draft.
For a draft in between an interpolation will be required.
Example.
How much is the corresponding displacement at a quarter mean of 2.185 m?
2.000 m = 533.880 t /1.025
2.500 m = 697.080 t /1.025
0.500 m = 163.200 t /1.025
0.010 m = 3.264 t /1.025
0.185 m = 60.384 t /1.025
2.185 m = 594.264 t /1.025

63

Section 9: Displacement
9.3.2 Hydrostatic scale
FIGURE 37

The corresponding displacement for a listed draft can be obtained from the scale by alignment.
For a draft in between it is suggested to align with a nearby listed draft above and below the
required draft and determine then the corresponding displacement by interpolation.
Example.
How much is the corresponding displacement at a quarter mean of 2.185 m?
2.100 m = 568.000 t /1.025
2.200 m = 599.000 t /1.025
0.100 m = 31.000 t /1.025
0.010 m = 3.100 t /1.025
0.085 m = 26.350 t /1.025
2.185 m = 594.350 t /1.025

64

Section 9: Displacement
9.3.3 Hydrostatic curves
FIGURE 38

The corresponding displacement for a listed draft can be obtained from the curve by alignment.
For a draft in between it is again suggested to align with a nearby listed draft above and below
the required draft and determine then the corresponding displacement by interpolation.
Example.
How much is the corresponding displacement at a quarter mean of 2.185 m?
2.000 m = 10.7 cm x 50 = 535.000 t /1.025
2.500 m = 14.0 cm x 50 = 700.000 t /1.025
0.500 m = 165.000 t /1.025
0.010 m = 3.300 t /1.025
0.185 m = 61.05 t /1.025
2.185 m = 596.050 t /1.025

65

Section 9: Displacement
9.3.4 Conclusions
The table is the most accurate and convenient form to use.
Scales and curves are in general less practical and less accurate because of the estimation
errors which occur inevitable during reading.
Large hydrostatic curves can give accurate readings as long as extreme care is taken in
aligning and reading. Small alignment errors can result in large mistakes!
Scales are sometimes available as part of the general arrangement plan. Often they are small
and difficult to read which reduces, together with possible alignment errors, their accuracy.

9.4 Exercise m/v Mindiv


Draft [m]
8.900
9.000

Hydrostatic Table m/v Mindiv - Sea water 1.025


Displ [t]
Deadw [t]
TPC [m]
LCF [t]
27212
22212
33.73
1.85 A
27550
22550
33.87
1.97 A

Calculate the corresponding displacement.

66

MTC [txm]
367
372

Section 10: Trim and List


SECTION 10
CORRECTING THE DISPLACEMENT FOR TRIM AND LIST

10.1 Introduction
In the previous sections of the manual, we have seen how a vessel's quarter mean is calculated
and how the vessel's documents are used to determine the corresponding displacement.
We have also seen that the hydrostatic data in these documents, including the corresponding
displacement, are only correct for a vessel being on even keel (no trim) and upright (no list).
Such condition however is very rarely met in practice and corrections will have to be applied.
This section of the manual will now explain why and when these corrections will be necessary
and how they are calculated.

10.2 Definitions
Trim : Difference between the corrected mean drafts fwd and aft.
List : Difference between the P and S midships drafts.
Trim denotes corrected trim, draft denotes quarter mean draft.
List is in practice usually measured with an inclinometer, indicating how many degrees the
vessel is inclined.
LCF = Longitudinal Centre of Flotation or tipping centre.
The LCF is a point located somewhere on the vessels' water plane area through which:

The transversal axis passes around which the vessel trims (fwd/aft rotation).
This axis divides at the same time the immersed part of the vessel in two equal fwd and
aft volumes.

The longitudinal axis passes around which the vessel lists (P/S rotation).
This longitudinal axis divides at the same time the immersed part of the vessel in two
equal P and S volumes.

TPC = Tonnes Per Centimetre immersion or the number of metric tonnes required to change
the quarter mean draft of the vessel with 1 cm.

67

Section 10: Trim and List


10.3 Principle of trim correction
Consider a rectangular box, floating on even keel.
FIGURE 39

MP

0 is a point midway the box on the same level as the water surface (water plane area).
The transversal axis, which divides the underwater part of the box into two equal fwd and aft
volumes passes, due to its symmetrical shape, precisely midway the box.
Conclusion: LCF is at the same position as O.

Consider now a simplified model of a vessel featuring a smaller hull structure at the fwd.
FIGURE 40

MP

0 is a point at midships on the same level as the water surface (water plane area).
Here there is, due to the asymmetry, a difference (a) between the immersed fwd and aft
volumes.
The fwd immersed volume is smaller and the transversal axis has moved proportional to the aft
in order to have again two equal under water volumes.
Conclusion: LCF is now located aft of midships.

68

Section 10: Trim and List


Consider next the same vessel, still on even keel but at a higher draft.
FIGURE 41

MP

Increasing the draft increases also the difference (b) between the immersed fwd and aft
volumes and the transversal axis moves more backwards in order to have again two equal
under water volumes.
Conclusion: LCF moves to the aft by increasing draft.

And finally the same vessel in trimmed condition...


FIGURE 42

Since the vessel rotates around the LCF (transversal axis) and not around the midships (O) a
draft (D) below O (the even keel position) is now read.
Therefore a correction, equal to O-D, will have to be applied.
This correction will be needless for a vessel on even keel or when LCF is located at midships.

69

Section 10: Trim and List


10.4 First Trim Correction (FTC)
10.4.1 Formula
We have seen that LCF varies by draft. This will lead to the first trim correction:

FTC [t] = Corrected trim (F or A) [m] x LCF (F or A) [m] x TPC [t/cm) x 100
LBP [m]

LCF [m]

: the position of LCF from midships.

If LCF is presented otherwise e.g. as a distance from the AP, it must be recalculated as a
distance to the midships.
The values of the corresponding LCF and TPC at the quarter mean can be obtained from the
hydrostatic particulars (see figure 36 and 38).
Take care not to confuse LCF with LCB (longitudinal centre of bouncy).
10.4.2 Sign of the correction
Taking a closer look to the hydrostatic table or curves of the m/v Waterdale confirms that the
LCF indeed moves to the aft by increasing drafts but reveals also that LCF can be located
forward of the midships.
It is very important to establish where LCF is located, fwd or aft of midships, as this will
determine the sign of the FTC.
In case of doubt rely on the fact that the LCF moves to the aft by increasing drafts.
If the absolute value of the LCF increases with increasing drafts then LCF is aft of midships. If
the absolute value of the LCF decreases with increasing drafts then LCF is fwd of midships.
In general LCF tends to be fwd of midships at the lowest draft and aft of midships at the highest
draft though for some vessels LCF will remain all the way on the same side of midships.
This sign of the FTC depends on the nature of the trim (F or A) in combination with the position
of the LCF (F or A) against midships at can be determined as follows:
AA or FF (equal letters)

: positive sign +

AF or FA (opposite letters) : negative sign


Example

: trim by the stern or aft (A) with LCF fwd of midships (F) equals an opposite letter
combination (AF) hence a negative sign.

10.4.3 Formula for the imperial system.


FTC [LT] = Corrected trim (F or A) [Ft] x LCF (F or A) [Ft] x TPC [LT/inch) x 100
LBP [Ft]

70

Section 10: Trim and List


10.5 Second Trim Correction (STC)
10.5.1 Introduction
The positions of LCF, as listed in the hydrostatic data, are based on the even keel condition.
Inducing a trim however increases the difference between the immersed fwd and aft volumes
and LCF (the transversal axis) will move towards the increased immersed volume in order to
have again two equal under water volumes.
This means that the position of LCF does not vary only by draft but also by trim.
This additional variation of LCF by trim will lead to the STC.
10.5.2 Formula

STC [t] = Trim [m] x 50 x dm/dz [txm]


LBP [m]
50

: a constant (metric system)

MTC [txm]

: moment to change the trim by 1 cm. The MTC indicates how many tonnes on
board of a vessel must be moved 1 meter fwd or aft from the trimming axis (LCF)
to change the trim of the vessel by 1 cm.
MTC can be obtained from the hydrostatic particulars (figure 36, 37 and 38).
The MTC must be divided by 100 if it represents a change of trim by 1 meter.

dm/dz

: the variation of MTC over a draft interval of 1 meter obtained at the drafts 0.5 m
above and 0.5 m below the quarter mean.
Or, in practice, the difference between the MTC at the draft equal to the quarter
mean + 0.5 m and the MTC at the draft equal to the quarter mean + 0.5 m.
(See figure 35 for a quarter mean of 6.000 m.)
FIGURE 43

71

Section 10: Trim and List


10.5.3 Sign of the correction
Always positive.
10.4.3 Formula for the imperial system.
STC [LT] = Trim [Ft] x 6 x dm/dz [LTxFt]
LBP [Ft]

10.6 Total Trim Correction (TTC)


TTC [t] = FTC [t] + STC [t]
Remark: the position of LCF, indicated in figure 42, is actually a combination of the movement
by draft and the movement by trim. The distance O-D equals therefore the TTC.

10.7 Displacement corrected for trim


Finally, the TTC has to be applied on the corresponding displacement which was calculated in
the previous section, to obtain the displacement corrected for trim.

10.8 List correction


10.8.1Principle
The water plane area of a vessel increases always by list forcing the vessel to lift slightly out of
the water. The correction for list will therefore always be positive or to be added to the
displacement.
FIGURE 44

Apart from the fact that the formula for list correction is only an approximation to begin with, it is
far more important to realize that carrying out a draft survey by list will strongly reduce the
accuracy of the complete survey for many other reasons such as ballast determination.

72

Section 10: Trim and List


A much better solution is to reduce the list of the vessel down to 0.5 or less by altering e.g. the
ballast or eventually by shifting the cargo or turning the deck cranes if available. An eventual list
correction will then become negligible and must not be applied.
10.8.2 Formula
When desired, the list correction can be estimated by following formula:
List correction [t]

: 6 x List [m] x TPC [t]

(metric system)

List correction [LT]

: 0.72 x List [Ft] x TPI [LT]

(imperial system)

List

: difference between the midships drafts

TPC

: difference between the TPC's or TPI's of the midships drafts.

10.9 Exercise m/v Mindiv


Draft [m]
8.300
8.400
8.500
8.600
8.700
8.800
8.900
9.000
9.100
9.200
9.300
9.400
9.500
9.600

Hydrostatic Table m/v Mindiv - Sea water 1.025


Displ [t]
Deadw [t]
TPC [m]
LCF [t]
25215
20215
32.82
1.13 A
25544
20544
32.97
1.27 A
25874
20874
33.12
1.39 A
26206
21206
33.27
1.52 A
26540
24540
33.43
1.62 A
26875
21875
33.58
1.74 A
27212
22212
33.73
1.85 A
27550
22550
33.87
1.97 A
27889
22889
34.01
2.07 A
28230
23230
34.15
2.17 A
28572
23572
34.28
2.26 A
28925
23925
34.40
2.34 A
29260
24260
34.52
2.43 A
29606
24606
34.64
2.50 A

Calculate the displacement corrected for trim and list.

73

MTC [txm]
333
338
347
352
357
362
367
372
376
380
384
389
392
396

Section 11: Density


SECTION 11
CORRECTING THE DISPLACEMENT FOR DENSITY

11.1 Introduction
The displacement corrected for trim as calculated in previous section refers to a vessel floating
in salt water of a well defined density usually 1.025 kg/l (see section 9).
If in practice the vessel floats in water of a different density a correction will have to be applied.

11.2 Definitions
True density [kg/l in vacuum]
True density [kg/l in air] x volume [l] =

Density measured in vacuum


Mass [kg in vacuum] - scientific purposes

Apparent density [kg/l in air]


Apparent density [kg/l in air] x volume [l] =

Density measured in air


Weight [kg in air] - commercial weight

11.3 Sampling of the surrounding water


11.3.1 Sampling method
First of all a representative sample of the surrounding water must be taken.
Care must be taken since the density of the surrounding water may differ for various reasons
from surface down to lower levels. The surface level may have a different density due to e.g.
contamination with cargo spilled during handling or recent abundant rainfall. The water below
may be stratified in different density layers e.g. at tidal locations and estuaries or at locations
nearby e.g. locks or power plants.
Therefore a sample has to be taken with the adequate equipment such as a sampling can
(figure 47) which is heavy enough to sink when empty and closed and not e.g. a bucket which
scratches off only the surface layer of the water.
An average sample can be obtained by lowering down this can at such a rate that it will be full at
time it reaches the underside of the keel (running sample).
The filling time can eventually be adjusted by fitting a plug with a hole on the can.
Next the sampling can is drawn up and the density can be measured.
Taking a sample from a certain level can be done by closing the sampling can first with a plug to
which a rope is attached. When the can is lowered to the required depth the plug can be
removed by jerking the rope allowing the can to fill with water (local sample)
Different local samples, obtained at different depths, can eventually be combined to obtain an
average sample.

74

Section 11: Density


11.3.2 Sampling positions
FIGURE 45
This depends largely on the local circumstances and the draft of the
vessel.
In normal circumstances it is usually sufficient to draw one running
sample at the waterside of the vessel at midships.
For large ships it might be advisable, especially when the density
can be expected to differ from stem to stern, to draw three running
samples, one at the MP, one halfway the AP and MP and one
halfway the AP and MP. The average of the three density
measurements will be used for further calculation.
Instead of the running sample a combination of three local samples
can always be taken, one close to the surface of the water, one
close to the keel and one in between.

11.3.3 Precautions
Take care not to draw samples nearby a local disturbance such as a shore draining pipe or the
water ballast outlet of the vessel, especially when the vessel has recently discharged ballast
water.
Sample the water just before or after reading the draft since density may change in time,
especially in tidal waters.
Always take samples at the water side of the vessel as there could be stagnant water of
different density trapped between ship and quay.
Once the sample has been taken the density must be measured immediately to prevent the
outside conditions (sun, wind, temperature etc.) to alter the temperature hence the density of
the sample.

75

Section 11: Density


11.4 Measuring the density
11.4.1 The hydrometer

The density of the sample can be measured at hand of a hydrometer. This is


a graduated device made of glass from which the density can be directly
when floating.

Since the complete draft survey procedure must render at the end a
commercial weight or weight in air the hydrometer must be graduated
equivalent in apparent density or density in air.

As the instrument is to be used in water or seawater, liquids of medium


surface tension, it has to be graduated likewise. A hydrometer designed for
oil measurements is not suitable for use in water.

FIGURE 46
11.4.2 Reading the hydrometer
The surface tension of the water causes a small quantity of liquid to rise up against the stem of
the hydrometer to form a meniscus (figure 48) . Do not read at the top of the meniscus but read
the hydrometer where the level of the liquid surface, imaginary continued, meets the scale.
Shield against draught or wind during reading. Do not read the hydrometer directly but allow
sufficient time for the hydrometer to adapt to the temperature of the liquid.
11.4.3 Temperature correction
Do not apply!
A hydrometer is usually calibrated and therefore most correct at 15C. If immersed in water at a
temperature higher or lower than 15C the instrument will expand or contract and a small
correction would be applicable. Therefore a temperature correction table is sometimes supplied
with the better hydrometers.
At the same time however, also the ship itself will expand or contract in about the same extend
to that water temperature. The corrections however for the hydrometer and the vessel are of
opposite sign and therefore tend to compensate for each other.
Since temperature corrections are not applied for the vessel equally no temperature corrections
should be applied for the hydrometer.
The temperature of the surrounding water must not be recorded.

76

Section 11: Density


FIGURE 47

FIGURE 48

FIGURE 49

77

Section 11: Density


11.4.4 Testing the hydrometer.
Check first the scale alignment indicator (figure 49).
Take a sample of pure water, measure the temperature and read the density. This reading
should match the apparent density figure mentioned in the table of figure 50 at the recorded
temperature.
FIGURE 50

78

Section 11: Density


11.4.5 Certificate of conformity
The hydrometer should be accompanied with a certificate of conformity at time of purchase. An
example of such a certificate is presented in the figure below.
FIGURE 51

11.5 Displacement corrected for density


The displacement corrected for density can be calculated by following formula:
Displ corr for density [t] = Displ corr for trim [t] x density of the surrounding water [kg/l]
Density indicated in the hydrostatic particulars [kg/l]
This correction is only to be applied on displacement and never on deadweight.
Calculating the density correction on deadweight would be erroneous as the light ship, which is
a part of the total displacement, would not have been taken into account.
If the hydrostatic particulars mention only deadweight the weight of the light ship is to be added
in order to obtain the displacement.
The displacement corrected for density equals the weight of the vessel inclusive everything
there is on board. Or, more specific:
- Deductible liquids
- Light ship
- Constant
- Cargo

79

Section 11: Density


11.6 Exercise m/v Mindiv

F
I
G
U
R
E
5
2
The apparent density was read on the hydrometer as in figure 52
Calculate the displacement corrected for density.

FIGURE 52

80

Section 12: Deductible liquids


SECTION 12
DETERMINATION OF THE DEDUCTABLE LIQUIDS

12.1 Introduction
Since the final draft survey figure will be result of the difference between the survey prior to and
after loading the only unknown variable on board has to be the cargo weight. This means that all
other items on board which can change in weight between the initial and final survey must be
determined so that eventual changes can be taken into account. These items are mainly liquids,
such as ballast water, bunkers and fresh water, also called the deductible liquids.

12.2 Definitions
Sounding : Distance between the bottom of the tank and the liquid surface
Ullage
: Distance between the liquid surface and the top of the tank
Overflow : Pumping a liquid into a tank until it overflows through the air pipe(s)

12.3 Ballast water


A vessel in loaded condition will have ballast on board, mainly for stability reasons. Vessels in
light condition, i.e. without cargo on board, usually have a minimum of ballast on board in order
to carry as much as possible cargo. This means that, during discharging ballast water will be
taken and, in case of loading, ballast will be discharged as much as possible.
Therefore all ballast tanks must be measured at initial and final survey including the tanks which
Even the tanks, considered by the Chief Officer to be empty or full, are not always complete
empty or full and must be measured too.
Since vessels can carry large quantities of ballast all tanks should be carefully measured.
12.3.1 Sounding
Sounding is a common system for measuring ballast tanks. It is done with a metal tape, a
sounding tape, on which water finding paste is applied in the area where the sounding level is
expected. This water finding paste provides accurate readings as it changes colour in contact
with water (figure 53).
The sounding tape should be lowered down carefully in the sounding pipe until the bottom of the
tank is gently touched in order to avoid an inaccurate reading due to tape bending or splashing
of the liquid.
It is advisable to read during sounding at the same time the height of the sounding pipes. By this
blocked pipes can be detected and, in case of discharging, at final survey, tanks can be
measured by ullaging and a sounding pipe extension can be applied.
Some vessels are equipped with remote ballast gauges. Do not rely on these as they may not
be reliable.
A zero sounding most often does not mean that a ballast tank is complete empty. Some water,
called the inpumpables, might be left. This is at the same time the reason why in ballast
calibration tables eventual corresponding volumes to the zero sounding should be taken into
account.

81

Section 12: Deductible liquids


FIGURE 53

FIGURE 54

82

Section 12: Deductible liquids


12.3.2 Ullage
Remark: this system may only be applied when the height of the sounding pipes were measured
by tape. Never rely on information of heights of sounding pipes sometimes mentioned in the
vessels' documents!
Ullage is a practical system to measure ballast tanks which are close to full.
Water finding paste is applied on the lower part of the tape. Then the tape is lowered into the
sounding pipe until a small section is immersed in the water and reading is reading is effected at
the upper edge of the sounding pipe. This reading minus the immersed part will then equal the
ullage. Sometimes it is possible to ascertain by eye when the bottom end of the sounding weight
touches the water. Then the ullage can be read directly.
12.3.3 Overflow
Obviously this system can be used for full ballast tanks only. Overflow (figure 54) tends to be
reliable for double bottom and peak tanks but NOT for topside tanks (airlocks)! Topside tanks
should therefore always be checked by sounding or ullaging, and in case of overflowing
sounding pipes, by applying a sounding pipe extension in order to detect and calculate eventual
airlocks.
Airlocks occur when the air pipes are not situated at the highest point of the tank at time of
overflow due to trim or list in combination with their mounted position.
Accepting topside tanks to be full by overflow is a very common error committed in draft survey
which can result in very large errors, especially when long tanks are concerned.
12.3.4 Ballast hold
On most large bulk carriers one of the holds, usually hold 4, might be used as ballast tank.
Because of the large volume of such a hold a small error in measurement can produce a
significant deviation. Therefore it is advisable to ask the Chief Officer, in case of discharging, to
fill the ballast hold after the final survey. In case this is impossible, request to overflow the hold
or, if not allowed, to fill the hold at least above the deck level. Since the hatch coaming has a
much smaller water surface area than the hold the effect of an error in measurement will be
reduced.
The quantity of water in the hold can then be calculated by subtracting the volume of the empty
space above the water level from the total capacity or grain capacity of that hold. The volume of
this empty space can be calculated from the distance(s) measured between the top of the hatch
coaming and the water level. Effects of trim and list can hereby eliminated directly by measuring
these distances at the positions presented in figure 53.
FIGURE 55

It is not advisable to take soundings of the ballast hold through the bilge pipe(s). Dirt is often
accumulated in the bilges which renders an eventual sounding unreliable.

83

Section 12: Deductible liquids


12.3.5 Corresponding volume of ballast
Consider next three conditions of trim.
Even keel
FIGURE 56

Trim by the stern


FIGURE 57

Trim by the head


FIGURE 58

84

Section 12: Deductible liquids


The soundings, obtained by trim, for the same quantity of ballast, will be higher (trim by the
stern) or lower (trim by the head) compared to the sounding at even keel and a correction for
trim will have to be applied.
Dimension and sign of these ballast trim corrections depend on the condition of trim and the
position of the sounding pipe on the tank. The same effect applies also to list.
Most large vessels carry ballast calibration tables, also called sounding tables, for each ballast
tank presenting a list of soundings with a corresponding list of volumes.
These are used to calculate the volume of water in each ballast tank.
These tables may be available for even keel together with different trim conditions.
From the table as presented in figure 57 the corresponding volume to a particular sounding at a
certain trim can be obtained by interpolation.
FIGURE 59

85

Section 12: Deductible liquids


12.3.6 Trim and list corrections
In some cases only sounding tables for even keel are available. Moreover, some vessels,
especially the smaller ones, do not carry sounding tables at all and provide only the maximum
capacities of each tank.
In this case ballast trim corrections, and eventually volume determination, has to be calculated
by formula.
There are two different sounding corrections possible. Which one to be applied depends on the
condition whether (slack condition - figure 58) or not (wedge condition - figure 59) the water
level in the tank reaches the opposite side of the tank.
Imaginary sounding
The sounding at which the water level reaches the opposite corner of the ballast tank (figure 58)
determines which correction will have to be applied and must therefore be calculated first.
FIGURE 60

I [m] = Trim [m] x L [m]


LBP [m]

I [m]

: Imaginary sounding. This is the sounding at which the water level intersects the
corner of the tank at the opposite side of the sounding pipe.

L [m]

: Length of the tank

H [m]

: Height of the tank

A comparison of the obtained sounding (S) with the imaginary sounding (I) will determine which
condition occurs hence which formula will have to be applied.

86

Section 12: Deductible liquids


Slack condition (S > I)
FIGURE 61

Correction C [m] = Trim [m] x Distance (sounding pipe - mid of the tank) [m]
LBP [m]

If the sounding pipe is located completely aft of the tank (common in practice) or completely fwd
then Distance (sounding pipe - mid of the tank) = L /2 and the formula can be simplified into:

Correction C [m] = Trim [m] x L [m]


2 x LBP [m]
and since (Trim x L)/LBP = I

Correction C [m] = I [m]


2
The sign of the correction depends on the location of the sounding pipe in combination with the
nature of the trim. Here the correction will be negative.
In case the sounding pipe would have been located at the fwd end of the ballast tank the
correction would have been positive.
This correction (C) is finally to be applied on the obtained sounding (S) to obtain the sounding
corrected for trim (Sc).

87

Section 12: Deductible liquids


Wedge condition (S < I)
FIGURE 62

Sounding corrected for trim Sc [m] = S [m] x LBP [m]


2 x Trim [m] x L [m]
Reminder: the slack correction is to be applied on the obtained sounding, the wedge correction
equals directly the corrected sounding.
List corrections
The same formulae can be applied to correct the soundings for list by replacing
- Trim by List.
- LBP by the breadth of the vessel.
12.3.6 Corresponding weight of ballast
In order to calculate the weight of ballast on board the apparent density of the ballast water
must be determined. Samples can be drawn e.g. from the eventual overflow, through manholes
or even through sounding pipes. The density of ballast water, taken at the place of survey,
equals of course the density of the surrounding water.
The density must then be measured with the same type of hydrometer as described in section
11 and the result should be compared with the density of the water normally to be expected at
the location of ballasting.
Be aware that ballasting can be effected at different places. Different ballast tanks can therefore
contain different ballast water densities.
Multiplying the ballast volumes by their density will finally result in the ballast weight.

88

Section 12: Deductible liquids


12.3.7 Ballast and accuracy of a draft survey
Ballast determination can generate considerable errors and deviations reducing substantially
the accuracy of a draft survey. Therefore it is advised, as a general rule, to have as less as
possible ballast changes between initial and final survey. No change in ballast is the best of all.
In this case eventual anomalies, generated at the initial survey remain constant and will be
cancelled out at final survey.

12.4 Fresh water


The same procedures apply for determining the fresh water on board as for ballast. However,
direct reading is sometimes effected at hand of transparent plastic gauges.
The difference between the quantity of fresh water on board at initial and final survey can be
counterchecked at hand of the daily consumption together with the quantity of fresh water
eventually received.
For practical purposes the density of fresh is assumed to be 1.000 kg/l.

12.5 Bunkers
Bunkers usually consist of heavy fuel, diesel oil and lubricating oil.
Since the consumption of bunkers in port is relatively very small compared to the cargo weight
and since any further change on board, due to bunkering or delivery on shore, can be controlled
at hand of receipts, a bunker survey is not carried out as part of a draft survey.
Instead of the bunker figures, as presented by the Chief Engineer, are accepted.
At final survey the presented bunker figures can be counterchecked by taking into account the
daily consumption together with eventual deliveries.
Bunker contents are sometimes presented as volumes. The corresponding weights are then to
be found by multiplying these volumes with their respective densities.
These densities can differ considerably. Correct figures should be obtained from the Chief
Engineer. In case of absence, following densities can be used as a guideline:
Heavy fuel : 0.900 kg/l
Diesel oil : 0.850 kg/l
Lub oil
: 0.900 kg/l

12.6 Net displacement


The total weight of ballast, fresh water and bunkers is then subtracted from the displacement
corrected for density resulting in the so-called net loaded displacement.

12.7 Other items


Also all other items, apart from the deductible liquids, which will cause a change in weight
between initial and final survey must be determined. For instance, anchors can be lowered
down or pontoons may be placed on the quay. As it is very often impossible to assess an
accurate weight of these items it is advised to have them in the same position at time of both
surveys.

89

Section 12: Deductible liquids


12.8 Exercise m/v Mindiv
Obtained soundings in ballast tanks:
Topwingtank 4 P
0.970 m
Topwingtank 4 S
0.550 m
Ballast water density

1.025 kg/l

Apply the ballast table of figure 59 to calculate the ballast.


Fresh water
Heavy fuel
Diesel oil
Lub oil

225 m
286.500 t
56.400 t
24500 l

Calculate the net loaded displacement.

90

Section 13: Cargo and Constant


SECTION 13
THE CARGO WEIGHT AND CONSTANT

13.1 The cargo weight


The net loaded displacement, as calculated in previous section, equals the weight of:
- Cargo
- Light ship
- Constant.
Light ship : The weight of a ready to sail vessel, determined at the completion of its
construction without ballast, fresh water, bunkers or stores on board.
Constant :

The total weight of all items which came on board or which were eventually
removed after the determination of the light ship such as spare parts, provisions,
paint, ropes, accumulation of sediments in the ballast tanks, "black" fuel etc.

To calculate the cargo, light ship and constant must be determined.


The light ship is usually presented in the vessels' documents.
The constant however, consisting of a number of unascertainable weights, can not be
calculated directly as such but can be obtained by carrying out a draft survey without the cargo
on board.
This survey, also called the light survey, will result in the net light displacement equal to:
- Light ship
- Constant
The weight of cargo loaded or discharged on board, can now be calculated as follows:
Cargo weight = Net loaded displacement - Net light displacement
Cargo weight = Net loaded displacement - Light ship - Constant
This means that the weight of the cargo can be established without a separate determination of
light ship and constant.

13.2 The constant


13.2.1 Principle
The constant is an important reference point in draft survey. Its value should be evaluated and
compared with the constant usually experienced on the vessel.
Unacceptable values or substantial differences with the declared experience constant require
further investigation. Verify e.g. if the correct light ship's figure is applied, are eventual
bulkheads included in the light ship, are former draft survey reports available which confirm the
declared constant etc.). If no acceptable reason can be found then an error in draft survey
measurement and/or calculation must be considered.

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Section 13: Cargo and Constant


Due to its nature the constant does not remain constant but tends to increase gradually in time
due to e.g. building up layers of paint, gathering an increasing amount of spare parts on board,
accumulation of sediments in the ballast tanks etc. The constant can also sometimes change
abruptly, especially after dry-docking, due to e.g. repairs, cleaning of the ballast tanks, remnants
of previous cargo, water in the hold(s) and/or bilges etc.
This is at the same time the reason why a light survey always has to be carried out even when a
same vessel is surveyed in short intervals.
13.2.2 Negative constant
In some occasions the obtained constant may be very small or even negative. This does not
necessarily mean that the draft survey is erroneous. A negative constant is perfectly acceptable
on condition that an acceptable cause can be provided such as the removal of equipment e.g.
deck cranes or tweendeck without adjustment of the light ship figure in the documents.
Or the light ship figure was already incorrect from the beginning. This can happen when, for
saving costs, the same light ship figure was applied on a number of "identical" sister ships.

13.3 Exercise m/v Mindiv


The final survey after discharging or light survey resulted in a net light displacement of
5191.820 t.
Calculate the cargo weight discharged.
Calculate and evaluate also the constant.

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SGS - DECEMBER 2003