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Infinite Dimensional Lie Algebras

Ben West
September 27, 2015

Gradations

Let M be an abelian group, and V be a vector space. An M -gradation of V is a decomposition V =


A subspace U V is said to be graded if
M
U=
(U V ).

V .

The elements of V in V are said to be homogeneous of degree .


Proposition 1.1. Let h be a commutative Lie algebra, and V a diagonalizable h-module, that is,
M
V =
V
h

where V = {v V : h v = (h)v, h h}. Then any h-submodule U of V is graded.


Proof. Let u U . Thus we may write u = v1 + + vm for vi Vi , with the i all distinct. Now h is a
vector space over the infinite field C, so there exists h h such that i (h) is distinct for each i = 1, . . . , m.
To see this, let Sij be the subspace
S of h where i and j agree, for i 6= j. Since the i are all distinct, the
Sij are proper subspaces. Then ij Sij is a union of proper subspaces, hence not equal to allSof h since a
vector space over an infinite field is not a finite union of proper subspaces. So there exists h
/ i6=j Sij , and
this is a suitable h.
Then for each k = 0, . . . , m 1, we have an equation
hk u = hk v1 + hk vm = 1 (h)k v1 + + m (h)k vm
where the last equality follows since vi Vi . This gives a system of m linearQequations in v1 , . . . , vm . The
coefficient matrix of the vi is a Vandermonde matrix, hence has determinant 1i<jm (j (h) i (h)) 6= 0.
Thus the vi can be solved in terms of the hk u U , so each vi U Vi , and thus U is graded.
L
We can define the formal
topology on V = M V on a graded vector space as follows. For a finite
L
subset F M , let V F = M \F V . We set these to be a neighborhood base of 0 in V . So a neighborhood
X of 0 is a set X such that there exists F such that V F X. So in general, a set X is open if for any
x X, there exists V F such that x + V F X.
Since we have a neighborhood base of 0, we can define Cauchy sequences (xk ) in V . We say a sequence
(xk ) is Cauchy if for any V F , there exists N such that if m, n > N , then xm xn V F , that is, they agree
onQ
the finite number of components indexed by F . It follows that the completion of V in the formalQtopology
is M V . To see this, suppose for simplicity that M is countable. Then if (xi ) is an element of M V ,
we can define a Cauchy sequence by y1 = (x1 , 0, . . . ), y2 = (x1 , x2 , 0, . . . ), etc. This converges to (xi ), and is
a Cauchy sequence, since for any finite F , F must have a greatest element under this ordering, so if we take
N > |F |, all the elements indexed above N agree on the components indexed by F by construction. If C is
a subset of this completed topology, its closure is called the formal completion of C.

An M -gradation of a Lie algebra g is its gradation as a vector


L space, with the extra requirement that
[g , g ] g+ . So the usual root space decomposition g(A) = Q g is a Q-gradation of g(A). This is
a consequence of the Jacobi identity. Let x g , y g . By Jacobi, for h h,
[h, [x, y]] + [x, [y, h]] + [y, [h, x]] = 0
This implies
[h, [x, y]] = [x, [y, h]] [y, [h, x]]
= [x, [h, y]] + [[h, x], y]
= [x, (h)y] + [(h)x, y]
= ( + )(h)[x, y]
so that [x, y] g+ .
Now let s = (s1 , . . . , sn ) Zn . Setting deg ei = si = deg fi and deg h = 0 for h h defines a
Z-gradation
M
g(A) =
gj (s).
jZ

L
P
the Z-gradation
of type s. Explicitly, we have
g where thePsum is taken over =
ki i Q
P
P gj (s) =
such that
ki si =Lj. Note that for any =
ki i in the root lattice,
ki si = j for some j, so g gj (s),
so indeed g(A) =
gj (s).
P
P
To see P
it is a gradation,
ki i with
ki si = j, and
P take x g gj (s) for =
P y g gk (s)
with

=
`

with
`
s
=
k.
Then
as
seen
before,
[x,
y]

g
,
but

=
(ki + `i )i , and
i
i
i
i
+
P
so (ki + `i )si = j + k, so g+ gj+k (s), so this is a valid Z-gradation. Also, gi = Cei gsi (s), so
deg(ei ) = si as desired.
P
Moreover,Pif si > 0 for all i, then note
ki si = 0 implies ki = 0 for all i, so g0 (s) = g0 = h. Also, then
since |ki |
ki si , the root spaces in gj (s) are finite, since their coefficients are bounded, and it follows
dim gj (s) < , since gj (s) is a direct sum of finitely many finite dimensional spaces.