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Chapter(46:(((Sensory(Receptors,(

Neuronal(Circuits(for(Processing(
Information(
Guyton'and'Hall,'Textbook'of'Medical'Physiology,'12th'edition'

Types&of&Sensory&Receptors&and&Their&S3muli&
!!!Mechanoreceptors-!detect'mechanical'compression'
'or'stretching'
!!!Thermoreceptors-!detect'changes'in'temperature'
!!!Nociceptors-!pain'receptors'(damage'to'tissues)'
!!!Electromagnetic!receptors-!detect'light'on'the'retina'
!!!Chemoreceptors-!detect'taste,'smell,'oxygen'level,'
'osmolality,'etc.'
'
(See'Table'46.1'in'the'text)'

Types&of&Sensory&Receptors&and&Their&S3muli&
!!!Dierential!Sensitivity!of!Receptors!
a. Each'receptor'type'is'highly'sensitive'to'one'type'
'of'stimulus'for'which'it'is'designed'
'
b. NonIresponsiveness'to'other'types'of'sensory'
'stimuli'
'
c. Pain'receptors'do'not'respond'to'usual'touch'or''
'pressure'but'will'become'active'when'the'stimuli'
'become'severe'enough'to'damage'the'tissues''

Types&of&Sensory&Receptors&and&Their&S3muli&
!!!Modality!of!Sensation-!The!Labeled!Line!Principle-!
!the'specicity'of'nerve'bers'for'transmitting'only'one'
!modality'of'sensation'
a. Each'receptor'type'is'highly'sensitive'to'one'type'
'of'stimulus'for'which'it'is'designed'
'
b. NonIresponsiveness'to'other'types'of'sensory'
'stimuli'
'
c. Pain'receptors'do'not'respond'to'usual'touch'or''
'pressure'but'will'become'active'when'the'stimuli'
'become'severe'enough'to'damage'the'tissues''

Fig.'46.1'''Several'types'of'somatic'sensory'nerve'endings'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Local!Electrical!Currents!at!Nerve!Endings!
!Receptor!Potentials!
!
a. Mechanisms'of'receptor'potentials'
1. Mechanical'deformation'of'the'receptor'which'
'stretches'the'membrane'and'opens'channels'
2. Application'of'a'chemical'to'the'membrane'
3. Change'of'the'temperature'of'the'membrane'
4. Eects'of'electromagnetic'radiation'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Local!Electrical!Currents!at!Nerve!Endings!
!Receptor!Potentials!
!
b. 'Maximum'receptor'potential'amplitude'(100'mV)'
c. Relation'of'the'receptor'potential'to'APs'the'more'
'the'receptor'potential'rises'above'the'threshold''
'level,'the'greater'becomes'the'AP'frequency'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&

Fig.'46.2''Typical'relation'between'receptor'potential'and'action'potentials'when'the'
'''''''''''''''''receptor'potential'rises'above'threshold'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Receptor!Potential!of!the!Pacinian!Corpuscle!

Fig.'46.3'''Excitation'of'a'sensory'nerve'ber'by'a'receptor'potential''
''''''''''''''''''produced'in'a'Pacinian'corpuscle'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Relation!Between!Stimulus!Intensity!and!the!
!Receptor!Potential!

Fig.'46.4'''Relation'of'amplitude'of'receptor'potential'to'strength'
''''''''''''''''''of'a'mechanical'stimulus'applied'to'a'Pacinian'corpuscle'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Adaptation!of!Receptors!

Fig.'46.5'''Adaptation'of'dierent'types'of'receptors,'showing'rapid'
''''''''''''''''''adaptation'of'some'receptors'and'slow'adaptation'of'others'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Mechanism!of!Receptor!Adaptation-!dierent'for''
'each'type'of'receptor'
'
a. In'the'mechanoreceptor'the'initial'compression'
'causes'the'receptor'potential'which'disappears''
'within'a'fraction'of'a'second'even'though'the''
'compression'continues'
'
b. AccommodationI'slower'adaptation'and'occurs'in'
'the'nerve'ber'itself;'the'tip'of'the'nerve'gradually'
'becomes'accommodated'to'the'stimulus''

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Tonic!Receptors!(Slow!Adapting)'
'
a. Continue'to'transmit'impulses'as'long'as'the'stimulus'
'is'present;'include'the'following:'
'
1. Macula'receptors'in'the'vestibular'apparatus'
2. Pain'receptors'
3. Baroreceptors'of'the'arterial'tree'
4. Chemoreceptors'of'the'carotid'and'aortic'bodies'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Phasic!Receptors!(Rapidly!Adapting)-!also!called!
!rate!receptors,!and!movement!receptors'
'
a. Stimulated'only'when'the'stimulus'strength'changes'
b. React'strongly'while'a'change'is'actually'taking'place'
c. Cannot'be'used'to'transmit'a'continuous'signal'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&
!!!Importance!of!Phasic!Receptors-!have'a'predictive''
'function'
'
!!!General!Classication!of!Nerve!Fibers!
a. Type'AI'large'and'medium'sized'myelinated'bers'
'of'spinal'nerves'(alpha,'beta,'gamma,'delta)'
'
b. Type'CI'small,'unmyelinated'bers'that'conduct'at'
'low'velocities'

Transduc3on&of&Sensory&S3muli&into&Nerve&Impulses&

Fig.'46.6''Physiologic'classication'and'
'''''''''''''''''functions'of'nerve'bers'

Transmission&of&Signals&of&Dierent&Intensity&in&Nerve&Tracts&
!!!Spatial!Summation-!increased'signal'strength'by''
'using'progressively'larger'numbers'of'bers;'
'stronger'signals'spread'to'more'and'more''
'bers'(Fig.'46.7)'
'
!!!Temporal!Summation-!increased'signal'strength'
'by'increasing'the'frequency'of'nerve'impulses'
'in'each'ber'(Fig.'46.8)'

Fig.'46.7''Pattern'of'stimulation'of'pain'bers'in'
'''''''''''''''''a'nerve'leading'from'an'area'of'skin''
'''''''''''''''''pricked'by'a'pin'(spatial'summation)'

Fig.'46.8''Translation'of'signal'strength'into'a'
'''''''''''''''''frequency'modulated'series'of'nerve'
'''''''''''''''''impulses'(temporal'summation)'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Relaying!of!Signals!Through!Neuronal!Pools-!
!organization'of'neurons'for'relaying'signals'
The'neuron'area'
stimulated'by'each'
incoming'nerve'ber'
is'the'stimulatory'
eld'

Fig.'46.9''Basic'organization'of'a'
'''''''''''''''''neuronal'pool'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Threshold!and!Sub-threshold!Stimuli!
a. The'discharge'of'a'single'excitatory'presynaptic'
!terminal'almost'never'causes'an'action ''
'potential'in'a'postsynaptic'neuron'
''
''''''b. 'Instead,'large'numbers''of'input'terminals'must'
'discharge'on'the'same'neuron'either'at'the'same''
'time'or'in'rapid'succession'to'cause'excitation'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Threshold!and!Sub-threshold!Stimuli!
!

Fig.'46.10''Discharge'and'Facilitated'zones'of'a'neuronal'pool'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Inhibition!of!a!Neuronal!Pool!

a. Some'incoming'bers'inhibit'neurons,'rather'than'
'excite'them'
b. This'is'the'opposite'of'facilitation'and'is'called'
'the'inhibitory'zone'
'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Divergence!of!Signals!
a. AmplifyingIan'input'signal'spreads'to'an'
increasing'number'of'neurons'as'it'passes'through'
successive'orders'of'neurons'in'its'path'
b. 'Divergence'in'multiple'tractsI'the'signal'is'
transmitted'into'two'directions'from'the'pool;'
information'transmitted'up'the'dorsal'column'
from'the'spinal'cord'takes'two'courses''(a)'into'
the'cerebellum,'and'(2)'on'through'the'lower'
regions'of'the'brain'to'the'thalamus'and'cerebral'
cortex'
'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Divergence!of!Signals!
!

Fig.'46.11''Divergence'in'neuronal'pathways.''A:''Divergence'within'a'pathway'to'cause'
'''''''''''''''''amplication'of'the'signal,'B:''Divergence'into'multiple'tracts'to'transmit'the'
'''''''''''''''''signal'to'separate'areas.'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Convergence!of!Signals-!signals'from'multiple'
'inputs'uniting'to'excite'a'single'neuron'
a. Convergence'from'a'single'sourceI'multiple'
terminals'from'a'single'incoming'ber'tract'
terminate'on'the'same'neuron'
b. Convergence'from'input'signals'(excitatory'or'
inhibitory)'from'multiple'sources'
'Allows'the'summation'of'information'from'
dierent'sources'
!

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Convergence!of!Signals-!signals'from'multiple'
'inputs'uniting'to'excite'a'single'neuron'
!

Fig.'46.12''Convergence'of'multiple'input'bers'onto'a'single'neuron'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Neuronal!Circuit!with!both!Excitatory!and!
!Inhibitory!Output!Signals'
a. Sometimes'an'incoming'signal'causes'an'
excitatory'signal'going'in'one'direction'and'an'
inhibitory'signal'going'elsewhere'
b. Reciprocal'inhibition'circuit'in'some'reexes'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Neuronal!Circuit!with!both!Excitatory!and!
!Inhibitory!Output!Signals'

Fig.'46.13''Inhibitory'circuit.''Neuron'2'is'an'inhibitory'neuron'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Prolongation!of!a!Signal!by!a!Neuronal!Pool!Afterdischarge!
a. Synaptic'AfterdischargeI'when'excitatory'synapses'
discharge'on'a'dendrite'or'on'the'soma,'a'postsynaptic'
electrical'potential'develops'in'the'neuron'and'lasts'for'
msec'
b. As'long'as'the'potential'lasts,'it'will'continue'to'excite'
the'neuron,'causing'it'to''transmit'a'continuous'train'
or'output'impulses'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Reverberatory!(Oscillatory)!Circuit!
a. Caused'by'positive'feedback'within'the'neuronal'circuit'
that'feeds'back'to'reIexcite'the'input'of'the'same'
circuit'
'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Reverberatory!(Oscillatory)!Circuit!

Fig.'46.14''Reverberatory'circuits'of''
''''''''''''''''''increasing'complexity'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Characteristics!of!Signal!Propagation!from!a!!
!Reverberatory!Circuit!

Fig.'46.15''Typical'pattern'of'the'output'signal'from'a'reverberatory'circuit'
''''''''''''''''''after'a'single'input'stimulus'showing'the'eects'of''
''''''''''''''''''facilitation'and'inhibition'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Continuous!Signal!Output!from!Some!Neuronal!Circuits!
a. Continuous'discharge'caused'by'intrinsic'neuronal'
excitability'
b. Continuous'signals'emitted'from'reverberating'circuits'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Continuous!Signal!Output!from!Some!Neuronal!Circuits!

Fig.'46.16''Continuous'output'from'either'a'reverberating'circuit'or'a'pool'of'
'''''''''''''''''''intrinsic'discharging'neurons.''Also'showing'the'eects'of'excitatory'
'''''''''''''''''''or'inhibitory'input'signals'

Transmission&and&Processing&of&Signals&in&Neuronal&Pools&
!!!Rhythmical!Signal!Output!

Fig.'46.17''Rhythmical'output'of'summated'nerve'impulses'

Instability&and&Stability&of&Neuronal&Circuits&
!!!Inhibitory!Circuits!as!a!Mechanism!for!Stabilizing!
!Nervous!System!Function!
!!!Synaptic!Fatigue!as!a!Means!of!Stabilizing!the!Nervous!
!System!
!!!Automatic!Short-Term!Adjustment!of!Pathway!
!Sensitivity!by!the!Fatigue!Mechanism!
!!!Long-Term!Changes!in!Synaptic!Sensitivity!by!
Automatic!
!Down!Regulation!or!Up!Regulation!of!Synaptic!
!Receptors!

Fig.'46.19''Successive'exor'reexes'showing'fatigue'of'conduction'through'the'reex'pathway'