Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

Management Quarterly

Part 6

FINANCE

January 2000

SHAREHOLDER VALUE
Clare Minchington and Graham Francis,
Open University Business School
The creation of shareholder value is seen as an important objective for
companies. This article reviews the theoretical basis for shareholder value
calculations, and analyses common measures such as EVA. It concludes
with details of recent research conducted by the authors that examines the
extent of the adoption of value-based measures.

What is shareholder value ?


For many years, companies have measured their performances in terms of profit or earnings per
share. However, growing dissatisfaction with these measures has led to a whole new array of
metrics being developed and promoted under the banner of shareholder value. Shareholder
value measures have diverted the focus away from profits and towards cash flows. These
measures also recognise that capital invested in an organisation is not free, and they make a
charge for the use of the capital employed by an organisation in its operations.
Shareholder value is created by generating future returns for equity investors which exceed the
returns that those investors could expect to earn elsewhere. The belief is that these excess
returns will be reflected within the share price of the company. The returns are measured in
terms of cash flow, and the cost of capital is used to charge for the use of the capital invested. In
essence, the idea is that if you manage your business to add to your shareholder value, then you
also improve the value of your shareholders investment, and this is consistent with the
organisational objective of maximising shareholders wealth.

How do you create shareholder value ?

Rappaport (1986) suggested seven drivers within a business that can be managed to
create value :

a growth in sales;

an increase in the operating profit margin;

a reduction in the cash tax rate;

a reduction in the working capital investment;

a reduction in the fixed asset investment;

a reduction in the weighted average cost of capital;

an increase in the competitive advantage period.

The theory is that improvements in these value drivers lead to an increase in shareholder value.

2000 Clare Minchington and Graham Francis

23

Part 6

January 2000

Multiple
value
drivers

Figure 1

Management Quarterly

Single
value-based
measure

Shareholder
value

The role of value-based measures in the creation of shareholder value

A common theme of value-based measures is that they take these drivers and summarise them
into a single measure, be it Economic Value Added (EVA is a Stern Stewart registered trademark),
shareholder value analysis (SVA), or any of the other value-based measures that have been
developed (see Figure 1).
This idea is echoed in the words of Ehrbar (1998), a senior vice-president of Stern Stewart, who
wrote the following :
The mandate under an EVA management system is to increase EVA as much as possible in order
to maximize shareholder wealth. (p 134)

How do value drivers generate shareholder value ?


This section illustrates the calculation of shareholder value. However, remember that, in
practice, it is not sufficient simply to calculate shareholder value. Action needs to be taken to
manage and improve the value drivers. An understanding of the calculation is essential, though,
for the effect of changes in operational performance on shareholder value to be predicted, and
to focus attention on key value-generating activities.
Using forecasts for Rappaports value drivers, the future cash flows can be forecast within the
competitive advantage period (this is also known as the value growth potential period). This
competitive advantage period for an organisation depends on for how far into the future the
company expects to be able to add value above its weighted average cost of capital (WACC). In
practice, this is often estimated to be 310 years.
Let us consider an imaginary company, Angel plc, which operates in a retail environment, and
expects a reasonable level of growth for four years into the future and no major improvements
in its operating profit margin. The company could have the set of forecast value drivers shown
in Table 1.
These value drivers are used to forecast future cash flows generated by the company within the
competitive advantage period, as shown in Analysis 1. Let us assume that Angel has a WACC of
9% and debt with a market value of 500 million, and that its sales were 3000 million in 1999.
The free cash flows can then be discounted using the WACC to give the present value of the
company. However, this calculation only takes into consideration the period of competitive
advantage, which in this case has been taken as four years. To find the value of the enterprise, we
must also calculate a terminal value for the organisation at the end of the competitive advantage
period. Common methods are as follows :

24

The cash flow from the end of the competitive advantage period is treated as a perpetuity
and discounted back to the present value. The perpetuity can be assumed to be constant or
growing.

Management Quarterly

Part 6

January 2000

Table 1 Forecast value drivers

Actual
1999

Competitive advantage period


2000

2001

2002

Future

2003

2004
onwards

Sales growth, %

Operating profit margin, %

12

12

12

12

12

12

Sales/NBV of fixed assets

2.8

2.8

2.8

2.8

2.8

2.8

Working capital investment/sales, %

15

15

15

15

15

15

Cash tax rate, %

30

30

30

30

30

30

Depreciation/NBV of fixed assets, %

Analysis 1 Calculation of free cash flows

Actual
1999

Competitive advantage period


2000

2001

2002

2003

Future
2004
onwards

M
Sales

3000.0 3240.0 3434.4

Operating profit

3606.1 3714.3

3714.3

388.8

412.1

432.7

445.7

445.7

81.0

85.9

90.2

92.9

92.9

Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation


and amortisation (EBITDA)

469.8

498.0

522.9

538.6

538.6

Tax

116.6

123.6

129.8

133.7

133.7

Expenditure on fixed assets

166.7

155.3

151.5

131.5

92.9

Increase in working capital

36.0

29.2

25.8

16.2

0.0

150.5

189.9

215.8

257.2

312.0

Depreciation

Free cash flow

Analysis 2

Calculation of terminal value at end of competitive advantage period


Competitive advantage period
2000

2001

2002

2003

Future
2004
onwards

Free cash flow, M

150.5

189.9

215.8

257.2

312.0

Discount factor, 9%

0.917

0.842

0.772

0.708

7.871

Discounted cash flow, M

138.0

159.9

166.6

182.1 2455.8

A multiple such as enterprise value (the market value of equity plus the market value of
debt) (EV) to earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA), known
as EV/EBITDA, is used.

In this example, we assume a simple perpetuity with no growth from the year 2004 onwards, as
shown in Analysis 2. The discount factor used should be the WACC of the company.

25

Part 6

January 2000

Management Quarterly

Analysis 3

Calculation of shareholder value


M

Competitive advantage period value

646.6

Terminal value

2455.8

Enterprise value

3102.4

Market value of debt

500.0

Shareholder value

2602.4

We then calculate the shareholder value as shown in Analysis 3. The calculation first results in an
enterprise value for the organisation as a whole. The market value of the debt must then be
subtracted to obtain the shareholder value.
Alternatively, the shareholder value of a company can be calculated using the present value of
the economic profits of the company into the future, rather than the free cash flows. This
calculation is included as an appendix to this article for those who are interested. Note that it
gives an answer that is identical to that calculated using the free cash flows.

What value-based measures exist ?


Various measures have been developed from Rappaports original ideas on value drivers creating
shareholder value. One reason for the variety of methods is that a number of management
consultants are promoting them. Each measure can be seen as being analogous to a traditional
measure, as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Value-based measures
Traditional measure

Shareholder value equivalent

Discounted cash flow

Shareholder value analysis (SVA)


Market value added (MVA)

Residual income

Economic Value Added (EVA)


Economic profit

Internal rate of return

Cash flow return on investment (CFROI)

Shareholder value analysis


In shareholder value analysis, the future free cash flows are discounted to a present value at the
companys cost of capital, less company debt. This is very similar to Rappaports original calculations as illustrated above. SVA calculates a value for the company that is based on projected
future cash flows.

Economic Value Added


EVA can be defined as the net operating profit after tax (NOPAT) created during the year in
excess of the cost of invested capital :
EVA 5 NOPAT 2 WACC 3 opening invested capital

26

Management Quarterly

Part 6

January 2000

This is essentially a residual income (RI) calculation. RI is very similar in principle to EVA,
although it lacks some of its detailed refinements. RI has long been advocated by academics as a
measure that is theoretically superior to return on capital employed. This type of measure is also
known as economic profit. Rather than considering all future cash flows, the EVA model looks
annually at the value created by the company. This approach can more easily be linked to a
performance-related pay scheme for management, but it also opens up the old problem of encouraging short-termism by focusing on annual targets.
EVA offers a refinement over RI in that the problems of using historic accounting data are
addressed through adjustments being made to the raw profit and asset values. Common adjustments are the following :

converting accruals records to a cash basis;

removing non-recurring events such as restructuring costs;

capitalising intangible investment activities such as marketing.

Using the figures for Angel from the above example, and assuming a capital employed of 1000
million (see also the appendix), the EVA or economic profit for the year 2000 can be calculated
as shown in Analysis 4.

Analysis 4

Calculation of economic profit for year 2000


2000
M

Net operating profit

388.8

Tax

116.6

Net operating profit after tax (NOPAT)

272.2

Interest charge (1000M 9%)


Economic profit

90.0
182.2

Market value added


Market value added (MVA) is the additional value that is added to a company by its management
over the years above the actual value of the funds invested by the shareholders. It could also be
viewed as the present value of the amount by which investors expect future profits to exceed the
cost of capital. It is related to EVA, as, in theory, it should represent the present value of expected
future EVAs.

Cash flow return on investment


Cash flow return on investment (CFROI) is essentially the discount rate at which the net present
value of the inflation-adjusted cash flows available to capital holders equals the current value of
the asset base. It is an estimate of the real rate of return earned by the company on all its assets.
Its assets are treated as a portfolio of projects, with some old projects finishing each year, and
new projects being added.

27

Part 6

January 2000

Management Quarterly

What is going on at the moment ?


The results of a survey of UK accountants recently conducted by the authors showed that the
level of adoption of these metrics was relatively low, with EVA, for example, being used by 10%
of large UK companies as a divisional performance measure. However, the survey revealed that,
although relatively few firms were currently using value-based metrics, many more were considering their introduction. Figure 2 shows those value-based measures that had been introduced
into organisations within the previous three years, or were currently being considered.

Economic Value
Added (EVA)

Value drivers

Shareholder value
analysis (SVA)

Economic profit
Recently introduced
Cash flow return on
investment (CFROI)

Under consideration
0

10

15

20

25

Respondents, %
Figure 2 Value-based performance measures recently introduced or under consideration

When asked why the new value-based measures had been introduced, organisations
appeared to be mainly driven by external or group level pressures :

external pressure :

company takeover;

response to city analyst;

group pressure :

reflection of group objectives;

concentration on the whole business.

Several respondents talked about the need to focus on shareholder value, and measures
being implemented as a result of a company takeover.

A number of barriers to the implementation of the new value-based performance measures were
identified by this study. Over 20% of the respondents, who were qualified accountants, were not
aware of the EVA performance measure. Apart from a lack of awareness of the new measures,
many of those who were familiar with the new metrics viewed them as being too complicated

28

Management Quarterly

Part 6

January 2000

to apply, and felt that non-financial managers could not easily understand them. A number of
respondents saw the measures as yet another management fad. This is typified in the comments
of one respondent, who described EVA as being the flavour of the month, but is basically an
existing tool given a marketing boost and high profile. Those who were supportive tended to
focus on the whole organisation. For example one respondent wrote EVA is well worth using to
emphasise the whole company. The study identified a number of companies that used valuebased measures at head office level, but retained traditional profit measures in their divisions.
KPMG, in a 1995 survey of value-based management, described this type of company as light
users, who report overall results in value-based terms, but retain traditional measures within
their performance measurement systems.

What are the problems in implementing these measures ?


Value-based measures can be reasonably straightforward for an organisation to calculate. However, incorporating them within the performance measurement system is a much greater
challenge, particularly at the divisional level within an organisation. The technical barriers to
implementation include the need to establish the cost of capital and value the capital employed.
At the divisional level, there is also the added difficulty of dealing fairly with the synergies
between divisions. The measures require some fairly detailed adjustments to profit and capital
employed figures to move them away from historical profit towards economic value. These
adjustments, whilst introducing greater theoretical vigour into the measures, also place an
increasing burden on the accountants who have to calculate them, and the line managers who
have to interpret them.

The authors have found three types of difficulty which are associated with the
implementation of these new measures in practice :

Awareness difficulties : Firstly, there is a possible lack of awareness of new measures,


despite very active promotion by the management consultants.

Technical difficulties : Once a measure has been selected, the barriers to implementation include technical difficulties, such as the establishment of the cost of capital
and the capital asset base.

Organisational difficulties : There can also be organisational barriers, such as time,


and resistance to change. Organisations may encounter cultural and political difficulties in trying to gain acceptance and ownership of the new measures.

Summary
Shareholder value has become the mantra in almost every boardroom in the UK. However, as is
the case with many new management ideas, the concept of shareholder value has been around
for many years. In terms of organisational objectives, it is consistent with maximising shareholders wealth. It differs from traditional approaches to measuring performance in the way in
which it calculates and reports that wealth. It has been suggested that merely adopting the
terminology may lead to an increase in a companys share value, owing to an improvement in
the Citys perceptions of the company. However, if companies are to continue to reap real

29

Part 6

January 2000

Management Quarterly

intrinsic benefits from these measures, it cannot be enough simply to calculate and report these
measures. For an ongoing and sustainable increase in shareholder value to be achieved, organisational changes must be undertaken to shift the focus of the management away from profit
and towards value drivers.

Appendix
To estimate the future economic profits of a company, we must first forecast the future
capital employed. Assuming an opening capital of 1000 million for Angel, and using
the same changes in capital expenditure as in our free cash flow forecast (see Analysis 1),
we obtain the capital values shown in Analysis 5.
These capital values can then be used to calculate the present values of the future
economic profits generated by the organisation, as shown in Analysis 6.
Finally, the shareholder value of the company can be calculated as shown in Analysis 7.
The discounted cash flows approach used in the main article and the economic profits
approach shown in this appendix give identical results for the shareholder value, as
mathematically they are identical calculations that are carried out in a different manner.

Analysis 5 Calculation of capital values

Opening capital

2001

2002

2003

2004

1000.0 1121.7 1220.3 1307.4 1362.2

Increase in working capital


Increase in fixed assets
Less Depreciation
Closing capital
Analysis 6

2000

36.0

29.2

25.8

16.2

0.0

166.7

155.3

151.5

131.5

92.9

81.0

85.9

90.2

92.9

92.9

1121.7 1220.3 1307.4 1362.2 1362.2

Calculation of present values of future economic profits

Actual
1999

Competitive advantage period


2000

2001

2002

2003

Future
2004
onwards

M
Sales

30

3000.0 3240.0 3434.4

3606.1 3714.3

3714.3

Net operating profit

388.8

412.1

432.7

445.7

445.7

Tax

116.6

123.6

129.8

133.7

133.7

Net operating profit less adjusted taxes

272.2

288.5

302.9

312.0

312.0

Interest charge

90.0

101.0

109.9

117.7

122.6

Economic profit

182.2

187.5

193.0

194.3

189.4

Discount factor, 9%

0.917

0.842

0.772

0.708

7.871

Present value of economic profit

167.1

157.9

149.0

137.6

1490.8

Management Quarterly

Analysis 7

Part 6

January 2000

Calculation of shareholder value


M

Cumulative present value of economic profits


in competitive advantage period

611.6

Terminal value

1490.8

Opening capital

1000.0

Enterprise value

3102.4

Market value of debt


Shareholder value

500.0
2602.4

References

EVA : The Real Key to Creating Wealth


Ehrbar, A (1998) John Wiley
Perhaps one of the best sources on EVA, along with the book by B Stewart in the further reading list.

Creating Shareholder Value


Rappaport, A (1986) Free Press
The classic text in which Rappaport introduces his value drivers.

Further reading

In Search of Shareholder Value


Black, A, Wright, P and Bachman, J E (1998) Pitman Publishing
A good introduction to the concept of shareholder value and the range of metrics available for measuring
it.

CFROI Valuation : A Total System Approach to Valuing the Firm


Madden, B J (1999) ButterworthHeinemann
The definitive but highly technical book which explains how to carry out CFROI calculations.

The Quest for Value : A Guide for Senior Managers


Stewart, B (1991) HarperCollins
Perhaps one of the best sources on EVA, along with the book by A Ehrbar referenced above.

Value based management


Good Practice Guideline, Issue 22 (1997) Faculty of Finance and Management, Institute of
Chartered Accountants in England & Wales
An overview of how value-based measures fit within a value-based management system.

Editors bibliography

Creating value in unquoted businesses


Tranter, J, Case Study, Issue 6 (1999) Faculty of Finance and Management, Institute of
Chartered Accountants in England & Wales

31