You are on page 1of 49

1

CONTENTS
Chapter No

Description

1.

Over view of Viskhapatnam Steel Plant

2.

About Electrical Repair Shop

3.

Briefing about Sectional functioning of ERS

4.

Introduction of Electrical Equipment

5.

Causes for failure of Windings.

6.

Testing procedures.

7.

Measuring Instruments available in ERS

Conclusion

Page No

CHAPTER-1
Over view of Viskhapatnam Steel Plant
Visakhapatnam Steel Plant, a prestigious integrated steel plant located in
Visakhapatnam on seashore of Bay of Bengal. As the name indicates it produces a
world class steel with internal coordination between core departments like RMHP,
COCCP, SP, BF, SMS & MILLS also service departments like CRMP, ES&F,
INSTN, ERS, CME, QATD&ETL etc.
VSP is certified to all the three international standards of quality. ISO- 9001
for Quality management, ISO-14001 for Environmental Management system and
OHSAS-18001 for Occupational health and safety. The certificates covers quality
systems of all operational maintenance service units besides purchase systems,
training and marketing functions spreading over four regional marketing offices &22
stock yards located all over country
Visakhapatnam steel plant is operated by so many machinery like conveyors,
rolling stands, dust extract system, casting machines, tilting devices, blowers,
compressors, circulating fans, draught fans, cranes, induction furnaces, heating ovens,
transfer trolleys etc.
Such equipment is driven by electric motors with appropriate protective systems.
Those electric motors are of different types depending on their application and
characteristics like 3phase A.C LT/HT motors (squirrel cage and slip ring type),
Synchronous motors, Turbo generators, D.C motors (shunt, series, compound type)
and AC single phase motors of different types etc.
Besides these rotary machines there are so many stationary machines like power
transformers, inductor coils, control transformers, hot and cold magnets etc.
These motors, though they are protected by suitable protective devices when
subjected to voltage surges or over loads may get damaged badly which leads to
partial or complete rewinding of that equipment.
That defected electrical equipment will send to Electrical Repair Shop (ERS), which
undertakes repair, rewinding and testing of the same.

CHAPTER-2

ABOUT ELECTRICAL REPAIR SHOP

ERS is popularly known as Electrical Repair Shop, it is under services department,


which undertakes repair, rewinding and testing of all types of electrical
equipment.
It consists of different sections to perform different activities namely:

1. Planning
2. Assembling& Dismantling
3. Pre rewinding activities
4. Rewinding (AC LT/HT, DC)
5. Testing
6. Varnishing and Impregnation
7. Maintenance
8. Machine section
9. Small motor division

CHAPTER-3
Briefing about Sectional functioning of ERS
Planning Section:
The functions of planning section are
(a)Receiving: Receives the electrical equipment for repair,oveahauling and testing
along with duly filled Work Order & failure report from the customer departments.
Then allot unique ID for that equipment. The work order copy consists of 4 sets
viz.White:for planning Section Office, Yellow: SMD /Planning, Pink: Shift in Charge
room,Blue:Concerned department. The work order copy consists of Name plate
details of the machine, status of the job, repair required, reference w/o no and details
accessories and its condition. According to that spares requirement record will be
prepared.
(b)Scheduling: After giving the work order number, allot the job to the concerned
section for the necessary work to be carried out. As per the received jobs quantity,
monthly schedule will be prepared. According to the customer department urgency,
allot the job on priority. They will conduct MOU meetings to the internal customers.
(c)Failure Analysis: Along with the work order copy customer department submits
failure report. According to that motor failure analysis will be generated and
communicate to the customer department
(d)Dispatch: After completion of all respects of the job, the job will be declared
RFD(Ready for dispatch).The owner department will collect the same along with
final test report.
(e)Generating Reports: In addition to the above functions generating report for
spares,Preperation of Daily,Weekly,Monthly,and Annual reports. Performance report
also generated with highlights of the current year. Keeping all those records for
future reference purpose.

Assembling and Dismantling Section:


Dismantling: After allotment of the job to the A&D section, Inspect the job physical
condition and note the status. Whatever the repair, First dismantle the job and prepare
the FDR(First dismantle report).After check the physical condition of the job,
cleaning will take-up with suitable cleaning agent and compressed air. And shift the

5
job to the testing or if any Physical winding problem observed send the job to
PRA(Pre rewinding activities).
Assembling: After completion of all respects of the repair work of stator or rotor,
assembling of the same will be taken up. And completion of assembling the job will
keep in testing for final test.
Pre Rewinding Activities:
This section receives jobs from either A&D section directly or from the
testing section after Preliminary Test. In this section, before strip out the winding
Data collection of the stator/Rotor winding will take up and prepare the Data sheet.
After collection of the data, thoroughly clean the stator/rotor or both and apply
insulation coating on the overhang side of the both ends. Along with Data sheet the
job will be shift to respective rewinding section.
Testing Section:
In the testing section, Three types of tests will be performed.
Preliminary Test:
In this test, after receiving the job first note down the name plate details of the
job. Check the I.R (Insulation Resistance) value w.r.t windings to body and measure
winding resistance also. If both are ok then pass the rated current and check the spot
heat of the winding and field rotation. In addition to that pole formation test,HV test
and surge test will be performed. If the job ok in all respects the job will be declared
ok and advise to apply protective insulation coating. All test reports will be enter in
to the testing record for further reference.
Intermediate Test:
In this test, after repair or re winding the above mentioned tests will be
carried out and noted the same in testing record.
Final Test:
After assembling of the motor, final test will be carried out. Final test is
namely No load running test. In this test rated voltage will be applied and run the
motor as per the duty cycle. And observe the bearing condition, noise
level,vibration,temperature of the motor body etc.If it is a DC motor observe the
5

6
sparking level. In all respects the motor is ok,then finally prepare Test report and the
job will be declared RFD (ready for dispatch).
Varnishing and Impregnation Section:
Varnishes and impregnating compounds are important insulating materials
for electrical machines. They are employed for the dual purpose of moisture proofing
and increasing the dielectric strength of fibrous insulating materials.
After preliminary testing or intermediate test the job will be shifted to
Varnishing and impregnation testing for varnishing and applying finishing on the
winding outer surfaces.
This section performs IR improvement, Varnishing of the rewound stator or
rotor, applying finishing varnish coatings. After completion of the varnishing the job
will be shifted to A&D section for assembling.
Maintenance:
To carry out the work smoothly, ERS is having coil winding machines,EOT
(Electrically

Operated

over

head

trolley

cranes),testing

equipment,oh

lighting,Ovens,winding coil puller, welding machines and other allied equipment.


For maintenance of the above for trouble free performance, this section is operating.
Machine Section:
This section will carry all mechanical works like welding, shaft repairs,
turning of mechanical parts, Over hang Insulation banding ,Magnets preparation etc.
Small Motors division:
Some of the motors like below 11kw (1-,3- motors,fans,blower motors
etc will be given outside party for repair. For maintaining the records and allotment
of jobs to different contract agencies, this section is operating.

CHAPTER-4
Introduction of Electrical Equipment
Types of Electrical Machines:
Electrical machines are two types.
1.Dynamic devices Motors/Generators(Motional emf)
2.Static devices-Transformers(Statically induced emf)
The basic structure of an electro magnetic rotating electrical machine consists of the
following parts.
(a)Magnetic circuit: It provides the path for the magnetic flux and consists of air
gap, stator and rotor teeth, and stator and rotor cores(Yokes).
(b)Electric circuit: It consists stator and rotor windings. The winding of a
transformer or a rotating machine conveys electrical energy or from working region
and is concerned with production of emf and development electromagnetic force.
(c)Dielectric circuit: The dielectric circuit consists of insulation required to isolate
one conductor to another and also winding from the core.
(d)Thermal circuit: The thermal circuit is concerned with mode and media for
dissipation of heat produced inside the machine on account of losses.
(e)Mechanical parts: The important mechanical parts of a machine are its frame,
bearings and shaft.
Classification of AC Motors:
With the almost universal adoption of A.C system of distribution of electrical
energy for light and power, the field of application of A.C motors has widened
considerably.
As regards their principle of operation
7

8
Synchronous:
(i)Synchronous motors (ii) Synchronous Generators
Asynchronous:
(a) Induction Motors- (i)Squirrel cage-Single Cage/Double Cage
(ii)Slip-Ring(External Resistance)/Wound rotor motor.
Principle of operation of Asynchronous/Induction motor:
In an induction motor, there is no electrical connection to the rotor, but
currents are induced in the rotor circuit and therefore the rotor conductors carry the
current in the stator magnetic field and thereby have a force exerted up on them
tending to move them at right angles to the field. When the stator or primary winding
of a 3 phase induction motor is connected to a 3 phaseAC supply, a rotating magnetic
field is established which rotates at synchronous speed.
STATOR: Stator is made up of number of stampings, which are slotted to
receive the winding. The stator carries a 3-phase winding and is fed from a 3-phase
supply. It is wound for a definite number of poles .The exact numbers of poles is
determined by the requirement of the speed. Greater the number of poles, lesser is the
speed and vice versa. The stator winding when supplied with 3 phase currents,
produce a magnetic flux, which is of constant magnitude but revolves at a
synchronous speed and induces an emf in the rotor by mutual induction
The synchronous speed is given by
NS = (120f)/p
N= synchronous speed
f=supply frequency
p=number of poles
ROTOR: a) Squirrel cage rotor: About 90% of the motors have squirrel cage type of
construction because rotor is simplest and both rugged construction imaginable and
almost indestructible The rotor consists of cylindrical laminated core with parallel
slots for carrying rotor conductors .The rotor bars are brushed or electrically welded
or bolted to two heavy and stout short circuiting end rings. Here rotor bars are

9
permanently short circuited on them selves. Hence, it is not possible to add any
external resistance in series with rotor for starting purpose.
The rotor slots are lightly skew as
It makes the motor run quietly by reducing magnetic hum. It helps in reducing
locking tendency of the rotor. That is the tendency of the rotor teeth to remain
under stator teeth due to the direct magnetic attraction between the two.
Another construction of rotor consists of a solid cylinder of steel
without any conductor or slot at all .The motor operation depends up on the
production of eddy currents in the steel rotor
b) Phase wound rotor: This type of winding is provided with 3 phase double
layer distributed winding consisting of coils similar to stator winding .The three
windings are brought out and connected to the three insulated slip ring mounted on
the shaft with brushes resting on them. These brushes are further internally connected
to a 3 phase star connected rheostat. This makes possible the introduction of
additional resistance in rotor circuit during starting conditions. When running the slip
rings are automatically short circuited by means of metallic collar which is perished
on the shaft and connected to the rings.
Starting torque TST =

3 E22 R2
2NS (R22+X22)

NS = Synchronous Speed
R2 = Rotor Resistance
E2 = Rotor Voltage
X2 = Rotor Reactance
The supply voltage is constant.
The starting torque is proportional to external resistance and inversely
proportional to impedance but resistance effect dominates. Here after speed is
gathered, the external resistance is cut out.
R=X id the value of resistance improved to attain starting torque.

10

Introduction of Additional Resistance in the rotor circuit

The three phase winding is displaced in space by 120


degrees and are fed by three phase current, displaced in time by 120 degrees. They
produce resulting magnetic flux, which rotate in space as if actual magnetic poles are
being rotated mechanically. 1,2and 3 are the fluxes due to three phases and m is
the maximum value of flux. The resultant flux is sum of 1,2and 3.
R =1.5m
The resultant flux is a constant value (1.5m) that is 1.5 times
maximum value of flux due to any phase.
The resultant flux rotates around the stator at synchronous speed
given by N=120f/p.

Graph of Rotating flux

10

11

As seen the positions of the resultant phases have been


shown at an interval of 60 degrees only. The resultant flux produces a field rotating in
clockwise direction.

Principal of rotation of induction motor:


When a three phase stator winding is fed by a three phases
supply then maximum flux of constant value but rotating at synchronous speed set up
the flux passes through the air gap, sweeps past the rotor surface and so cut the rotor
conductors which as yet are stationary .Due to the relative speed between the rotor
flux and the stator conductors, an EMF is induced in the latter part without any
change in frequency. This is according to faradays laws of electromagnetic induction.
Since rotor bars form closed path, rotor current is produced, whose direction is given
by Lenz law is such as to oppose the very cause of producing it .In this case the cause
which produces the rotor current is the relative velocity between the rotating flux of
11

12
the stator and the stationary conductors. Hence to reduce relative speed, rotor starts in
the same direction as that of the flux and tries to catch up with the rotating flux.
In practical the rotor never succeed up catching with the stator field if
it really did so then there will be no relative speed between the two. Hence no rotor
current and rotor torque is induced .The difference between synchronous speed and
speed of the rotor is known as slip.
%Slip = ( Ns-N ) *100
Ns

.Introduction of synchronous motor:


A synchronous motor has the same relationship to an alternator as a dc motor
has to a dc generator i.e. if an alternator is supplied ac power it is capable of rotating
as a motor and doing mechanical work. If the mechanical power supplied to a
rotating alternator is removed while dc field remains energized, and an ac supply is
then connected across the armature terminals, torque will be developed and the
alternator will continue to rotate at a speed determined by the ac supply frequency
and the number of poles on the synchronous machine. Changes in mechanical load
with in the machines rating will not cause change in speed.

D.C Motor principle:


If a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field,
mechanical force is experienced on the conductor, the direction of which is given by
Flemings left hand rule and hence the conductor moves in the direction of force.
When the motor armature rotates, the conductors also rotate and hence
cut the flux. In accordance with the law of electromagnetic induction, e.m.f is
induced in them whose direction, as found by Flemings right hand rule, is in
opposition to the applied voltage, because of its opposing direction; it is referred to as
counter emf/back emf Eb.
Transformer Principle:
12

13
A transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which electric power
in one circuit is transformed in to electric power of the same frequency in another
circuit. It can raise or lower the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding decrease
or increase in current. The physical basis of a transformer is a mutual induction
between two circuits linked by a common magnetic flux. A transformer is a device
that transfers electric power from one circuit to another. It does so without change of
frequency. It accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction and where two electric
circuits are in mutual inductive influence of each other.
Electro Magnets:
Electro magnets are used for the purpose of pulling, lifting and holding. The
general principle of

operation and design are the same for all types of

electromagnets irrespective of their application.


(a) Core material: Soft materials are used for construction of core of the
electromagnets. Most of these materials contains the Ferro magnetic
materials like iron, nickel and cobalt in various combinations.
(b) Electromagnet coils: Coils are used in electromagnets as an exciting source
for production of magnetic field. A coil usually, consists of wire wound like a
helical thread to form a layer. The usual material for the conductor is copper.
In some cases aluminum is used. The cross section of coil is generally
rectangular and the cross section of the conductor is round except in coils
made of heavy wire where a square, or a rectangular section with round
corners is used.

CHAPTER-5
CAUSES FOR WINDING FAILURES
A single phased winding failure is the result of an open in one of the
phases that supply power to the motor. The open is usually caused by a bad fuse, bad
connection, a open contactor or a broken power line.

13

14

These six photos show insulation failure typically due to vibration,


voltage surge, abrasives, contamination by hostile environments

.
Thermal deterioration of insulation in one phase of the winding can
result from unequal voltage between phases. Unequal voltages usually are caused by
unbalanced loads on the power source, a poor connection at the motor terminal, or a
high resistance contact. NOTE: A one-percent voltage unbalance can result in a six to
ten percent current unbalance.

Thermal deterioration of the insulation in all phases of the stator


winding typically is caused by load demands exceeding the rating of the motor.

.
14

15
Severe thermal deterioration of the insulation in all phases of the
motor normally is caused by very high currents in the stator winding due to a locked
rotor condition. It may also occur as a result of excessive starts and reversals.

Insulation failures like this usually are caused by voltage surges.


Voltage surges are often the result of switching power circuits, lightning strikes,
capacitor discharges and solid-state power devices.

6.1 Good Stator Winding


Unfavorable

operating

conditions

electrical,

mechanical

or

environmentalcan dramatically shorten the life of a three-phase stator winding. The


winding failures illustrated below typify what can happen in such circumstances.
They are shown here to help you identify the causes of failure, so that, where
possible, you may take preventive measures.

15

16
Compare the new stator winding (above) with the failed windings pictured below.

16

17
2.2 Winding Single-Phased
(Wye(Y)-Connected)
A single-phased winding failure is the result of an open in one phase of
the power supply to the motor. The open is usually caused by a blown fuse, an open
contactor, a broken power line or bad connections

6.2 Winding Single-Phased


(Delta-Connected)
A single-phased winding failure is the result of an open in
one phase of the power supply to the motor. The open is usually caused by
a blown fuse, an open contactor, a broken power line or bad connections.

6.3 Winding Phase-to-Phase Shorted


This type of insulation failure is typically caused by contaminants, abrasion,
vibration or voltage surge.

17

18

2.5 Winding Shorted Turn-to-Turn


This type of insulation failure is typically caused by contaminants,
abrasion, vibration or voltage surge.

2.6 Winding With Shorted Coil


This type of insulation failure is typically caused by contaminants,
abrasion, vibration or voltage surge.

2.7 Winding Grounded at Edge of Slot (a)


This type of insulation failure is typically caused by contaminants,
abrasion, vibration or voltage surge.
18

19

2.8 Winding Grounded at edge of Slot (b)


This type of insulation failure is typically caused by contaminants,
abrasion, vibration or voltage surge.

2.9 Winding Grounded in the Slot


This type of insulation failure is typically caused by contaminants,
abrasion, vibration or voltage surge.

2.10 Shorted Connection


This type of insulation failure is typically caused by contaminants,
abrasion, vibration or voltage surge.

2.11Phase Damage Due to Unbalanced Voltage


19

20
Thermal deterioration of insulation in one phase of the stator winding
can result from unequal voltage between phases. Unequal voltages usually are caused
by unbalanced loads on the power source, a loose connection at the motor terminal,
or a high resistance contact.
Note: A one-percent voltage unbalance may result in a six- to ten-percent current
unbalance.

2.12 Winding Damaged Due to Overload


Thermal deterioration of the insulation in all phases of the stator
winding typically is caused by load demands exceeding the rating of the motor.
Note: Under-voltage and over-voltage will result in the same type of insulation
deterioration.

2.13 Damage Caused by Locked Rotor


Severe thermal deterioration of the insulation in all phases of the
motor normally is caused by very high currents in the stator winding due to a locked
rotor condition. It may also occur as a result of excessive starts or reversals.

20

21

2.14 Winding Damaged by Voltage Surge


Insulation failures like this usually are caused by voltage surges.
Voltage surges are often the result of switching power circuits, lightning strikes,
capacitor discharges and solid-state power devices.

2.15 Motor Rewinding


The life of a three-phase stator winding can be shortened dramatically
when the motor is exposed to unfavorable operating
conditions - electrical, mechanical or environmental. The
winding failures illustrated below are typical of what can
happen in such circumstances. They are shown here to help
in identifying the causes of failure so that, whenever possible,
preventive measures may be taken. A new stator winding is
pictured at right for purposes of comparison. Descriptions of the causes of failure. are
provided below.

A single-phased winding failure is the result of an open in one phase


of the power supply to the motor. A blown fuse, an open contractor, a broken power
line or bad connections usually cause the open circuit.

21

22

These photos illustrate insulation failures that typically are caused by


contaminants, abrasion, vibration or voltage surge.

Insulation failures like this usually are caused by voltage surges.


Voltage surges are often the result of switching power circuits, lighting, strikes,
capacitor discharges and solid-state power devices.

Faults Occurring in DC Machines: The probable failure reasons in the dc motors


are identified separately in the field and armature circuit.
Faults in Field winding:
The faults in the field winding may be
22

23
(i)

an open circuit

(ii)

an earth fault or shorting of a coil either completely or some of its


turns.

Location of open circuit fault in field winding:


An open circuit fault in the field winding of dc shunt motor will either cause
in an interruption of supply to the motor owing to operation of over current
protection or tremendous increase in speed if it is running light. Such a fault in dc
series motor will cause the motor to stop. In a dc compound motor the effect will be
depend on whether the break is an series or shunt field winding.
Location of earth fault in field winding :
An earth fault in the field winding of a motor with effective earth leakage
protection will cause the disconnection of supply to the motor. The presence of earth
fault can be verified by test between end terminal to the motor frame with an
insulation tester. Under these circumstances an earth fault will be indicated by zero
reading.
Location of shorted coil in field winding:
The normal supply is connected to the motor through potentiometer in order
to keep test current through the coils there will be a voltage drop across each coil and
it is measured with the voltmeter.
Faults in armature windings: The possible faults that can be developed in the
armature windings are illustrated below.
6.3.1 Short circuited coil
6.3.2 Open circuited coil
6.3.3 Earthed coil
Location of faults in armature windings: Armature faults can be located by using
special test device known as GROWLER or by applying DROP VOLTAGE test.
Troubles in DC motors: Several troubles may arise in a dc motor and are described
below.
Sparking at brushes: It may be due to troubles in brushes,commutator or armature
or excessive load.
Over heating: It may be due to excessive loading, sparking at brushes, short
circuited field or armature coils, poor ventilation, incorrect voltages or too frequent
starts and reversals.
23

24

CHAPTER-6
TESTING PROCEDURES
Testing of Induction Motor:
Various tests, which are performed on a poly phase induction motor, for
determination of healthiness and its operating characteristics.
Insulation resistance test:
For LT motors(<415Volts) the winding insulation resistance to be
measured with 500 Volts Megger.The winding insulation resistance should be More
than 5M with respect to body. And the same is measured between the each phase. If
the megger reads below the mentioned value, the winding should be thoroughly
cleaned and dried. The stator and slip ring rotor of the induction motor has a threephase winding wound on core. Each phase has a starting and ending. Each phase of
the winding is insulated from the other and form the core .To check the perfect ness
of the insulation the insulation resistance is measured .The megger is a piece of
instrument used to measure the insulation resistance .It works on the principle of
dynamo. A liver connected rotor is rotated rotor is rotated in the magnetic field and
current is passed to the testing terminals.

24

25

Insulation resistance between core and winding


B1

B2
core

insulation
1

winding
A1

A2

The testing terminals of the megger is connected to A1and B1


Initially the megger is under the open circuit condition indicating infinite
resistance between open terminals. After connecting liver is rotated and observed
weather the needle moves to zero then we can assume that there is insulation failure.
Similarly it is tested for windings of different phases.

Insulation Resistance between phases


1

A1

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

Testing terminals of megger are connected.

For HT motors(>415Volts i.e. 3.3kv,6.6kvand 11kv) winding insulation


resistance to be measured with >500Volts megger i.e. 1000kv,2.5kv and 5kv.The
winding insulation resistance should be

>100M.In addition to that, P. I

Value(Polarization Index) for HT motors to be measured. This test indicates


healthiness of the Insulation.
P.I Value (K)= IR 60Seconds/IR 15 Seconds= >1.3

25

26

DC cold resistance( Winding Resistance) @ at ambient temperature:


The stator and slip ring motor has three phase winding wound on it.
Each phase has starting and ending terminals. This test is meant for measuring the
resistance of the three phases .The standard values of the resistances differs with the
rating of the motor. If the three values of the resistances are equal then test is
conformed.
R=V/I
R=resistance measured
I=amount of current passed through the testing terminals
V=amount of voltage applied
Phase to phase, Winding resistance to be measured with Ohm meter or micro
ohm meter. According to the capacity of the motor, type of connection (either star or
delta) the resistance may vary. For LT motors the winding resistance in ohms, where
as in HT motors the resistance will be in milli ohms.
Inductance test:
Rated AC voltage is applied to each and every phase of winding and
amount of current flowing is measured with the help of clamp meter
Z=V/I
V=sinusoidal voltage applied between phase and neutral
I= current flowing through the winding
XL = (Z22-R22)
XL=2 f L
L = XL / (2 f)

High Voltage Test:


This test will be performed, to know the dielectric strength of the insulation.
The insulation will be withstand sudden voltage surges and at the time of starting
(high voltages will be induced at the time of starting).
Amount of HV applied is V=2U+1 (Where U is rated voltage of the
machine)
Surge Test:
26

27
This test will be performed to know the earth fault,inter turn short, reverse
coil connection and phase to phase short.
This test is conducted on surge kit. This kit can supply voltage to the phase
windings individually. It consists of a C.R.O display in it, in order to observe the
waveforms of the current passing through the winding. A surge voltage is applied to
the winding terminals .The surge consists of a train of impulses.
V

t
Impulse diagram
Current is passed through the R, Y, and B phases of the winding and corresponding
wave forms are observed on the CRO screen.

Surge kit

27

28

Good winding

28

29

Inter turn short fault

29

30

Short to ground fault

30

31

Open winding

31

32

Reverse coil connection

32

33

Phase to Phase Short

This test is sensitive even in detecting a minute fault and the winding in
which fault has occurred. This test is conducted to the single turn and can detect the
fault turn.

33

34

2
ia/2

ia

2
ia/2

Fig 4.5:- KCL Application in Winding


Current is passed to phase the R phase of the winding. Then current
returns through Y&B phases of the winding.
The waveforms of the currents flowing through Y&B phases are observed in a duel
mode simultaneously. These two waveforms are superimposed on one other. So if the
two waveforms are exactly same, then it appears to be a single waveform.

Current balance test:


Sinusoidal voltage corresponding to the rated current is applied across
the phases of the winding that is RY, YB, BR and currents flowing in phases R, Y, B
are noted .If the values represents approximately the same, then the test is
conformed. If not re winding to be done.

Field rotation:
Three-phase supply is connected to the three phases of the winding and the
formation of the field is tested. A needle made of magnetic material indicating north
and south is mounted on a non magnetic bar .The arrangement is such that it the
needle is pivoted on the non magnetic bar and is free to rotate .when ever this bar
with needle is placed in the synchronous rotating magnetic needle. It rotates as the
rotor rotates in the motor.

Pole formation:
Only two phases are connected to the terminals of the three-phase supply. Then
one winding will be kept unexcited, hence continuous magnetic field will not be
developed, and then the number of poles formed can be measured.
34

35

Spot Heat: The three phase winding of rotor (or) stator is connected to power
supply. The winding will draw rated current at nominal voltage i.e. around 30-40% of
the rated voltage and keep on the supply for 1 minute for identifying the spot heat.
The internal connections of windings are not tightly joined then that spot will
be heated. The temperature on the core is sensed with hand .If any part is having a
high temperature than the winding at that spot is not good. The fault is detected by
surge test kit also.
In this test the winding healthiness is checked. Full load current is passed
through the windings and the temperature at different parts of the stator or rotor
is sensed. If the joints of the winding or not correctly binded, then heat loss
takes place. The difference in temperature indicates the faulty spot. By this test
the exact position of faulty winding is detected.
Lead marking or Phase sequence:
It determines the starting and ending terminals of the winding .The
voltage v is applied to the two windings.

Fig 4.6: Lead Marking


If voltmeter reads V then A2 is ending and A3 is starting. Otherwise if voltmeter
reads zero then both terminals are either starting or ending.
No load running test:
This test is conducted on over hauling motor or completely
assembled motor. In this test the three phase supply is connected to the terminal and
currents in the phases are noted with the help of a clamp meter.
1. Speed is determined with the help of tachometer
2. Temperature of the motor is checked
35

36
3. Bearing conditions checked
4. Vibrations are checked
The no load test is performed with different values of applied voltage below and
above rated voltage, while the motor is running light(without load)
Voltage ratio test:
This test can only performed on a wound rotor motor by exciting the stator
winding at rated voltage and frequency (the rotor circuit being kept open circuited
and stand still).The ratio of rotor to stator voltage can be measured by means of volt
meter. It is to be noted that emf appearing at the slip rings (induced emf in rotor )is of
the supply frequency because the rotor is at the standstill.
Blocked rotor test:
This test is performed to determine the short circuit current Isc with normal
applied voltage to stator. In this test rotor is held firmly (rotor windings are short
circuited at slip rings in case of wound rotor motor )and stator is connected across
supply of variable voltage. This test is just equivalent to SC test on transformer.
Heat Run Test(Temperature rise Test):
The life of the insulation of the electrical equipment depends up on the
temperature attained during operation. The objective of this test is to find out the
actual maximum temperature attained while the machine is operating under certain
load conditions. The temperature is measured both while the motor is operating and
after its shutdown.
The above mentioned test will be performed for slip ring and squirrel cage motors
according to their nature of construction.
Testing of Transformers:
The performance characteristics of a transformer can be determined by
conducting simple tests are called the open circuit test or no load test and short
circuit test or impedance test involving very little power consumption. Other tests to
be conducted on transformers are polarity test and voltage ratio test.
Testing of polarity:
Polarity test is performed to determine the terminals having the same
instantaneous polarity (assuming the terminals are not marked).Polarity test in the
field can be conveniently carried out by using a dc battery, a switch and a dc volt
36

37
meter. The switch on the primary side is closed, the primary current increases, and so
do the flux linkages of both the windings ,inducing emfs in them. The positive
polarity of this induced emf in the primary is at the end to which the battery is
connected (according to Lenzs law).The end of secondary which simultaneously
acquires positive polarity, as determined by the dc voltmeter is the similar polarity
end. The reverse happens on opening of the switch i.e. the similar polarity end is that
end which acquires negative potential.
Voltage Ratio Test:
The true ratio is based on turn-ratio. If the secondary and primary voltages are
measured on no load ,their ratio is very nearly to the true value. Measurement of
primary and secondary currents in short circuit test also gives fairly accurate results
voltage ratio (V2/V1=I2/I1).

Open circuit Test:


There are four main parameters in a transformer. They are
1.

Equivalent resistance

2.

Equivalent leakage reactance

3.

Core loss conductance

4. Magnetizing susceptance
These parameters can be determined by two tests.
1. Open-Circuit test
2. Short circuit test
Open circuit test:
In this test we can find core loss and no load Io One winding of the
transformer (High voltage winding) is left open and other is connected to supply
voltage. A wattmeter W and voltmeter V and an ammeter A are connected low
voltage winding. When the voltage applied normal flux will be setup in the core.
The wattmeter reading shows the iron losses.

A
V1

V
V2
37

38

W=V1Io cos o
I= Io sino, Iw= Io cos o
Xo = V1/ I and Ro=V1/Iw

Short circuit test:


In this test we can find
1. Equivalent impedance (Zo1 or Zo2) leakage reactance (Xo1 or Xo2) and total
resistance.
2. Copper loss at full load
In this test one winding usually low voltage winding is short-circuited. A low
voltage (5 to 10 % of primary voltage) at rated frequency is applied to the
primary and is increased till full load current flows in the primary and
secondary.
2

Copper loss W=I1 Ro1


2

Ro1 = W/I 1
Xo1 =(Zo1 Ro1)

A
V1

38

39
DC Motor testing: After repair, testing section will perform healthiness of the field
winding and armature winding separately. After assembling No load test and Load
test for some of the motors also to be performed.
Testing of field winding:
For the field winding, first check the IR values with the 500 volts
megger.Field winding consists of Main poles, inter poles, series winding and
compensatory winding. With the help of megger,IR value to be checked all the
windings wrt frame, and between windings also. If the IR value is <0.75M@75C
the windings should be cleaned and dried properly.
Apply the rated field voltage and check the field current how much the
windings drawn. And also check the polarity. Keep the power for 2-3 minutes and
measure the temperature of the field windings.

Testing Armature winding:


Armature is having commutator and its winding. Before going to rewinding
of the armature, Commutator healthiness to be checked by Lamp test method. In this
test commutator segment short if any will be noticed. In addition to that wrt body IR
value to be checked. And HV test also conducted @1kv dc for 1 minute time.
After completion of the armature rewinding, Passing 25-30% of rated dc
current will be given for drop voltage test to check the healthiness of the armature.
In all respects the winding is ok then declared for varnishing.
After assembling the field and armature, no load test will be performed.
MNA position test:
The position of magnetic neutral axis is found by using brush rocker setter or
MNA meter. If the position of the magnetic neutral axis is deviated, then by adjusting
the position of the slip rings, MNA is brought to the correct position.
a) Field supply because flux is inversely proportional to speed.
b) The armature voltage is gradually raised to its rated value and checked for
any damage in resistance.
c) Sparking level
d) The speed in RPM
e) Bearing noise.
f) Vibration
39

40

HOPKINSONS TEST (BACK TO- BACK TEST)


By this method, full-load test can be carried out on two identical
shunt machines. There are two machines are mechanically coupled and are so
adjusted electrically that one of them runes as motor and other as generator the motor
drives the generator and the electrical out put of the generator is feed to the input of
the motor
If there were no losses in the machines they would have run
without any electrical power supply but due to the losses, generator output is not
sufficient to drive the motor. The loss are supplied either by an extra motor which is
belt connected to the M G Set or electrically from the supply mains.

A2

I2

I1

I1

(I1+I2)
A4

V1

A1

A3

I4

R2

R
M

Machine Mis started up from the supply mains with the help of a starter. Switch S
is kept open . its speed ;is adjusted to normal value by means of field regulator the
motor drives the machine G as generator and its ;voltage is read on V1. The
voltage of G is adjusted by its field regulator until V1 reads zero their by showing
that its voltage is same, in polarity and magnitude with respective to the; main supply
40

41

Then S is closed to parallel to the machines . By adjusting the respective field


regulators any load can now be thrown on to the machines . Generator current I1
can be adjusted to any desired value by increasing the excitation of G or by
reducing the excitation of M and the corresponding values of different ammeters
read.The electrical out put of a generator plus the small power taken from the supply,
is taken by the motor and is given out as mechanical power after supplying the motor
losses.
Motor in put

=V (I1+I2)

Generator output =VI1


Assuming that both machine have the same efficiency
Output of motor

= x input = V (I1+I2) = Generator input

Out put of the generator = x input = x V (I1+I2)

TESTING OF LT &HT MOTORS


Procedure: - planning section receives the electric motors in ERS, for medium
repairs and delivers in to testing section for preliminary test
1) Testing section carries out the external inspection checking of presence of
all components and tight ness of connections etc
2) Testing section also carry out checking for reliability and tightening of all
threaded connections lead terminal conditions, presence of protective
covers, casing and packing etc.
3) In case of slip ring motors slip ring condition is checked for fitting,
varnishing, paints etc.if the condition is not ok then it is recommends for
slip ring turning.
4) Condition of brushes and brush holder is checked, width of the brush
should not exceed the width of slip ring
5) Before starting of machine, small voltage for short time is given for
checking balance current in lines and proper direction of rotation.
Subsequently supply is raised to nominal voltage
6) Bearing condition and temperature raise of bearings are checked. By
rotating the shaft of the motor physically free rotation of machine is
checked. Noise of bearings, brushes etc if any are observed
41

42
7) Line currents, voltages, speed and other measurements are recorded on
test record
8) Any defects raised during or indicated in daily report testing
9) Measurement of insulation resistance value between windings and with
reference to body are measured .For stator winding insulation resistance
values between phase windings, phase to earth are measured with
megger .In case of slip ring rotors winding IR value with respect to stator
windings, earth, slipring insulation with respect to body and between
rings are measured. Continuity of winding is also measured
10)

For LT motors measuring IR value with 500v megger .IR value

should be more than 1 mega ohm .If IR value is less then 1 mega ohm, it is
indicated in daily report testing and recommended for IR improvement .Job
is shifted to concerned section for IR improvement.
Stator and rotor winding resistance measurement is done with bridge or
micrometer during the above testing process, any defects or non conformity of any
device is observed, then the job is declared as not ok or ok and it is indicated in daily
report testing. Concern section will rectify the defect and keep the job for testing.
In case of HT motors partially repair, after removal of faulty coil, rest of
the coils are subjected to high voltage. The group of pitch coil lifted to remove faulty
coils will be tested after placing separately. In case of full winding repair to
placement of coils on the stator or rotor few coils at random are to be subjected to
high voltage. During complete repair process, HV is conducted in batches of 4 to 6
coils after placing all other coils, which are not under test, are earthed. After
placement of all coils and rewinding, HV test is conducted.
For conducting high voltage test IR value of the coil should not be less
then 50-mega ohm. This is measured with 2.5kv megger. If IR values less then 50mega ohm the coil or winding is heated. High voltage should be as per following
norms adopted for the 6.6volts.After the completion of the rewinding of job the
following tests are conducted.
a) IR value between phases and phase to earth are measured .It should not
be less then 50 mega ohm
42

43
b) Winding resistance of each phase is measured with micro oh m meter
c) Uniform magnetic field is obtained three phases AC supply is given to
the winding. This is checked with a magnetic compass or needle. This
needle rotates uniformly, close to around the core
d) Surge test
e) Current balancing, high voltage test etc.

CHAPTER-7

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

The various measuring instruments are using in ERS are:


1. Tong tester (clamp meter): This meter works on the principle of induction.
This meter can measure AC and DC voltage, AC and DC current, resistance
of order ohms, continuity, and temperature.
2. Milli ohmmeter: This is use to measure the resistance of conducting
materials.
3. Megger: It has an in-built dynamo, which produces high voltages of 500 V,
1KV, 2.5KV; 5KV.This is used to measure high resistances (insulators).
4. LCR meter: This is use to measure inductance, capacitance as well as
resistance.
5. Digital tachometer: This is use to measure the speed of the rotor in RPM.
43

44
6. Temperature measuring instruments: Various temperature-measuring
instruments like thermocouple, laser thermometer are used to measure the
temperature.
7. SPA meter: Vibration level or baring analysis is carried out using SPA (shock
pulse analyzer) meter. Data regarding speed, bearing type is fed into this
meter and the condition of bearing is checked.
8. Magnetic needle/compass: This is used to check pole formation, rotating
field.
9. Polarity tester: This is used for terminal identification.
10. Surge kit: this kit is used to carry out surge test.
11. HV kit: This kit is used to carry out Hi-potential test.

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
The various measuring instruments used for repairing DC machine are:
1. Tong tester (clamp meter): this meter works on the principle of induction. This
meter can measure AC and DC voltages, AC and DC current, resistance of order
ohms, continuity, and temperature.

2. Milli ohmmeter: this is use to measure the resistance of conducting materials.


44

45
3. Megger: It has an in built dynamo, which produces high voltages of 500V, 1KV,
2.5KV, and 5KV. This is used to measure high resistances (insulators).

4.LCR meter: This is used to measure inductance, capacitance as well as


resistance.
5.Capacitance meters: Capacitance is measured using these capacitor meters.
6.Multi meter (AVO meter): this is use to measure resistance, voltage,
current and also other parameters like diode current.
7.Digital Tachometer: this is used to measure the speed of the rotor in RPM.
8.Temperature measuring instruments: Various temperature-measuring
instruments like thermocouple, laser, and thermometer are used to measure the
temperature.

45

46
LASERGUN

9.SPA meter: vibration level of baring analysis is carried out using SPA
(shock pulse analyzer) meter. Data regarding speed, bearing type is fed into
this meter and the condition of bearing is checked.
10.Brush rocket setter: the position of magnetic neutral axis is found using
brush rocket setter.

46

47

11.Magnetic needle/ Compass: this is used to check the pole formation, rotating
field.

12.Growler tester: this kit is used to carry out rotor open circuit test and also for
polarity test.
13.Polarity tester: this is used for terminal identification.
14.Surge kit: this kit is used to carry out surge test.
15.HV kit: this kit is used to carry out Hi-potential test.
16.Gauss meter: this instrument is used to measure the magnetic strength.

47

48

CONCLUSION
This report deals about the To study the testing procedures of
various electrical equipment We are in the modern world. The utility of
electricity and electrical equipment is much more increased. To know the
usage and performance of the electrical machines, studying the theory of
operation and procedures of electrical machines are not enough.
In addition to the theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge is
also needed to know the operating procedure, characteristics of the different
machines to deal and use the equipment in optimum level in any industry or
organization.
In this regard, I physically observed the different parts of the
machine (in dismantled condition of the various AC/DC motors) repair
procedures, trouble shooting, maintenance, testing of various electrical
equipments in ERS department of VSP.
By putting utmost observation of testing of electrical machines to
know the different types of tests performed in the every event of certain repair
like preliminary test for fault identification, intermediate test conducted after
re winding of stator/rotor, field or armature. Final test for total completion of
the repair of the motor and generating the test reports of various tests.
I conclude that, rather then class room study, in this project we
learn and gain the practical knowledge about the different electrical machines.

48

49

49