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ISSN (Online): 2395-4892

Volume 01, Number 02, July September 2015

OJMR
-----------------------------------------------

Online Journal of
Multidisciplinary
Research
Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, International Indexed Journal

Published By: Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

www.ojmr.in

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Volume 01, Number 02, July September 2015

Online Journal of
Multidisciplinary
Research
(OJMR)
Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, International Indexed Journal

Published By: Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

www.ojmr.in

Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Research


Members

EDITORIAL BOARD
Prof. Hemadri K. Sao Professor and Head, Dept. of Psychology, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar, India
Dr. Santosh K. Vishwakarma Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychology, Dev Sanskriti Univ., Haridwar, India
Dr. Abhishek K. Bhardwaj Scientist, Dept. of Yoga Research, Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, India
Dr. Gaurav Agrawal Assistant Professor, Dept. of Psychology, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar, India

REVIEW BOARD
Dr. Ratna Mookherjee - Professor and Head, P.G. Dept. of Psychology, T. M. B. Univ., Bhagalpur, India
Dr. Naresh Chandel Principal, K.L.P. College, Rewari, Haryana, India
Dr. S.K. Siya Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India
Dr. P.K. Khatri Associate Professor, National P.G. College, Lucknow, India
Dr. Parul Saxena Scientist, Patanjali Herbal Research Department, Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, India
Dr. Carolina Baptista Menezes- Assistant Professor, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Brazil
Dr. Vedpriya Arya - Scientist E, Patanjali Herbal Research Department, PYP, Haridwar, India

ADVISORY BOARD
Prof. S. P. Mishra - Ex Vice Chancellor, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar. India.
Prof. N.K. Verma Ex Vice Chancellor, T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, India
Prof. B.D. Joshi Head of Research Committee, Dev Sanskriti University, Haridwar, India
Prof. M.S. Khan - Dept. of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Prof. B.S. Sandhu - Head, Dept. of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India
Prof. C.P. Khokhar - Head, Dept. of Psychology, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar, India
Prof. Ishwar Bhardwaj Head, Dept. of Human Consciousness and Yogic Science, Haridwar, India
Dr. Naval Kishore Kumar - Professor and Head, Dept. of Botany, B. N. College, Bhagalpur, India
Prof. Suraj Bhan Yadav - Head, Dept. of Psychology, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
Prof. G N R Tripathi - Emeritus Faculty, University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame, Indiana 46556. USA
Prof. N.K. Agrawal Dept. of Zoology, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Garhwal, India
Dr. Kalyani Raghavan, MD - Asstt. Medical Director, Division of Pain, Sedation and Palliative Care, Hartford,
Connecticut, USA

Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Research


Vol. 01, No. 02; July - September 2015

CONTENTS

1. Psychology in India: A Career with Uncertain Opportunities.


Agrawal, G.

1-7

2. An Analysis of Spiritual Thinking.


Tanushree

8-13

3. Self-Adjustment in School Going Adolescents Following Three


Months of Comprehensive Yoga Program.
Bhardwaj, P. R., Mookherjee, R., and Bhardwaj, A. K.

14-21

Instructions for Authors

22-23

1
Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (OJMR)
July 2015, 1(2), 1-7
REVIEW ARTICLE

OPEN ACCESS

Psychology in India: A Career with Uncertain


Opportunities
Dr. Gaurav Agrawal
Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Article History:
--------------------------Received: 15-06-2015
Revised: 24-06-2015
Accepted: 10-07-2015
Published: 17-07-2015

Summary
India is on the verge of an explosion of mental
illnesses. In the coming few years India as a nation
would need a number of psychologists and mental

Keywords:
--------------------------Career in psychology, Mental health,
Opportunities in psychology

health professionals to help people deal with

Article code: OJMR121

professionals and challenges they would face in

Access online at: www.ojmr.in

their careers. It was noted that a number of people

Source of support: Nil

these problems. A probe was made to explore the


opportunities

for

future

mental

health

were suffering with mental problems and there


was a serious lack of mental health professionals

Conflict of interest: None declared


Indexed in: Open J-Gate EVIEW ARTICLE

in India. Hospitals and schools were the places


AC
where mental health professionals could OPEN
look for

various opportunities. Some challenges like poor


Corresponding Author:
Dr. Gaurav Agrawal
Matashree International Service
Near Taxi Stand, Laxman Jhula
Rishikesh, 249302
E-mail: ipigaurav@gmail.com
Contact no.: +91-9358549482

salary and absence of any licensing authorities are


the biggest challenges for upcoming psychologists
in their career in India.

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 1-7


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

2
Agrawal, G. / Psychology in India: A Career with Uncertain Opportunities

Background

In

a big country like India with a


population of 1.2 billion, you would expect
that as many as millions of psychologists can
find decent jobs. But unfortunately the
picture is quite opposite. Its very rare that
you find a psychologist in a city hospital or
even in the whole city. Despite various big
claims, finding a proper psychologist in
decent hospitals is also very uncommon. In
reality most of the psychiatric facilities are
accessible to the citizens of big cities only.
Finding a qualified counsellor in the schools
is a bit too much to ask, despite few
exceptions. Every year thousands of the
psychology graduates join the ever growing
list of educated unemployed in India. They
include graduates, post graduates and even
holding PhDs. For those who study the
psychology as a subject of specialization and
are looking for some serious career are still in
a considerable number. A systematic probe is
required to understand the relevance of
psychologists/counsellors in modern India
and at the same time it could be interesting to
find how the psychologists, already in the
practice, are doing in their careers.
Epidemiographic
View
of
Mental
Disorders
Systematic studies for collecting the
epidemiographic data about the mental
disease are limited and there is enough
discrepancy among them. Such a study should
collect the data about distribution of disease,
frequency of disease, population at risk and
various methods to address the issue.(1) It
was recently reported that in previous
epidemiological researches conducted from
1960 to 2009, the prevalence rates for
psychiatric disorders varying from 9.5 to
370/1000 population in India.(2) In the same
study the authors suspect that despite huge
variations, as many as 20% of Indian
population might be suffering from
psychological troubles.(2) In a recent survey

by National Sample Survey Organization it


was reported that 1.49% of total population
was suffering from various mental health
issues. There was a small difference in favor
of rural population which was at 1.7% as
compared to their urban counterparts.(3)
Problem with various epidemiological studies
is that the most of the times they are selective
in their choice of mental disorders. Anxiety
disorders and some variants of depression
generally are excluded. Further, various
lesser known mental disorders are not
reported as the population suffering from
that and their care takers are not comfortable
to call these problems as mental diseases. In a
Meta analysis study authors tried to report
the
prevalence
rates
for
different
psychological disorders in India on the basis
of ten prevalence studies. They reported that
prevalence for all mental disorders together
was
6.54%.
Prevalence
rates
for
schizophrenia were found to be 2.3 per 1000
while for affective disorders (depression) it
was 31.2 per 1000. These numbers seem too
big and scary. Further prevalence for anxiety
neurosis, hysteria and mental retardation
were 18.5, 4.1 and 4.2 per 1000 population
respectively.(4) Here also the prevalence rate
was reported higher in rural population as
compared to urban. This is understandable as
in rural India the facilities of psychological
care are quite poor. All the mental hospitals
are situated in cities and rural people are left
alone on the mercy of family members. These
data suggest that in a country with a
population of 1.2 billion, as many as 65
million are suffering from mental diseases.
This is a real big number of mental patients
and a very big need of mental health
professionals in India in every part of
country. This data does not include
individuals needing counseling and help for
issues other than mental diseases.

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 1-7


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

3
Challenges for Teenagers and Children
Researches in last few years have
reported the prevalence of mental problems
in teenagers is frightening in India. It was
reported that three to nine per cent of
teenagers in schools, studying in 9th standard
or above and overtly healthy, meet the
criteria for depression at any one time.(5) As
many as 20% of teenagers in India reported a
lifetime prevalence of depression. Further,
more frustrating part is that 30-50% of cases
were
gone
unnoticed
by
general
physicians.(5) One can imagine that many
more teenagers would not seek even primary
medical care. The reason behind these
numbers is an open secret. Indian children
and adolescents are subjected to great
distress by the ever growing expectations of
parents and growing burden of books. The
complex relationships with parents are the
main source of stress instead of providing
some coping skills.(6) The teenagers are
anxious and insecure for their future. 5.3% of
adolescents start using tobacco use as a
coping method.(7) Another important issue in
Indian teenagers is the taboo nature of sex
education which is seldom provided. Normal
attraction for opposite gender, if not guided
properly leads to various unwanted events
that create big stress in the lives of many
people. It is the duty of parents to provide
right information and control the sexual
behavior of their children at the appropriate
time. But lack of appropriate parental
supervision and control and adolescent
sexual activity has been shown in different
studies.(8) Psychologists and counselor in
their schools and locality can be a source of
great help. They not only can listen but also
provide some interventions to develop their
potentials and provide safeguards against
future psychological problems.
Opportunities
for
Mental
Health
Professionals
The prevalence data and challenges
for Indian teenagers discussed above are just
the very small piece of the whole jigsaw
puzzle. These sufferings of the people indicate
that the field of mental health is going to have

a boom very soon. There are immense


opportunities for trained mental health
professionals in all fields. Indian schools in
coming few years will be forced to employ a
counsellor for their children and teachers
both. The students are not only victims of
stress and burden but they also dont have a
clue where this endless race of ill defined
success is going to take them. Teachers are
also following the same age old
methodologies for teaching which does not
seem to help in changing world. Teachers will
be benefitted if they regularly get inputs from
someone who understands the personality of
children. One who understands how their
cognitive development can be manipulated,
bad habits can be replaced with good ones,
what it takes to develop an environment
without forcing the teaching and how to use
the knowledge of memory, intelligence,
reinforcement and punishment to maximize
the students potentials. Here a counsellor in
school is going to be of great help for both
teachers and students. The researches have
shown that presence of a counsellor have
developed the students capacities helped
them deal with their social, personal,
educational
and
emotional
issues
effectively.(9) In India, Central Board of
Secondary Education guidelines expect one
school counselor will be appointed for every
affiliated school, but this is less than 3% of all
Indian students attending public schools.(10)
And reality is that not all CBSE schools have a
qualified counselor. Usually the job of
counseling is trusted to some young teacher
and this fellow sees this as an extra burden.
Any way this tells that in coming years there
will be a big requirement of qualified school
counselors in all schools of India.
Further more in coming few years all
hospitals would be hiring psychologists. At
this day the most of the hospitals dont have
any psychiatry and psychology departments.
And where they have even there psychiatrists
are doing the jobs of counselors and
psychologists. Slowly but surely in the big
cities the hospitals have started to have a
counselor. Today good hospital chains have
some psychologists and they are constantly

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 1-7


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

4
looking for some skilled and trained
psychology professionals which are a rare
commodity in India. Besides the hospital
settings, what India is missing dearly is some
psychologists running their own private
counseling centers and clinics. This is the one
area where the most of the psychologists are
employed in the whole world. According to
the APA's Center for Workforce Studies, there
were 106,500 licensed psychologists in the
United States in 2014, based on APA's 2012
state licensing board list.(11) There is no
such data available about India but one can
easily guess that such a number would be far
smaller than this and as compared to
population of India it would be very modest.
India seriously needs a number of trained
professionals with skills and courage both to
come forward and act as the torchbearers.
The opportunities for them would be amazing
and it can ensure a bright future despite some
struggle.
Psychologists in India are usually
absorbed in NGOs and rehabilitation centers.
Good thing is that here also possibilities are
immense. The government of India and
various state governments are always
running some public welfare projects for
orphan, widows, tribes, poor and disabled,
criminals and drug addicts etc. There also,
good psychology professionals can find
decent jobs. But here also the problem is that
there is always a disparity between job
demand and qualification sought. So a
psychology graduate can be in competition
with one trained in literature. This doesnt
encourage the psychology graduates.
Challenges
While it seems that there are immense
opportunities for psychologists in India, one
cant help admitting the various challenges
that young graduates have to come across.
These challenges mostly discourage the
young guys to pursue the career in
psychology especially if they can look
elsewhere. In reality the majority of the
students enrolling in psychology courses are
those who didnt find options in other courses
or in stern words were not simply good

enough to get admission in those fields that


are more promising. Of course there are
exceptions but those who look at the
psychology as the first choice of career; they
also get to face discouraging and confusing
circumstances. They are listed here:
Poor Salaries and Not Enough Jobs
The psychologists in India receive
dismal salary as compared to that prevailing
in other countries. In the western countries
psychologists are one of the highest paid
professionals in the healthcare. But compared
to that Indian psychologists get very
mediocre salaries. According to a report
published on an online source in the U.K., the
wages for clinical psychologists range from
28,313 to 37,326 per year. Senior clinical
psychologists can expect to earn between
36,112 and 43,335. In the U.S., in 2009,
clinical, counseling and school psychologists
earned an average salary of $66,040 per year
while industrial psychologists earned
$83,260.(12) Psychologists who have
specialized and those working in the private
sector earn considerably more. In India, a
psychologist earns between Rs. 60,000 to Rs.
1,200,000 depending on specialty, location
and popularity. In a private hospital, a fresh
clinical psychologist with an MPhil degree can
draw about Rs. 30,000 a month.(12)
This doesnt seem very attractive and
inspiring. One can note that there is a big
disparity between the lowest to highest
salaries in India ranging from Rs 60,000 to Rs
1,200,000 per year. The reason behind this is
not just the experience and skills rather it
depends largely on the sector in which one is
employed. The higher end salaries are drawn
by the psychologists employed in government
mental hospitals, teaching in government
universities and military services. But then
they are only handful. Others employed in
private settings, small hospitals, research
projects or in schools account for mid range
salaries. The psychologists and professional
working in NGOs or small rehabilitation
centers are in the biggest numbers but they
are at the bottom of the salary pyramid. A

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 1-7


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

5
more recent report provides somewhat
skewed picture.(13)
Psychologists
Experience:*

Salaries

in

India

by

Category

Experience Median salary (INR)


Rs 220,598
Psychiatrists 1-4 years
Rs 1,174,457
5-9 years 360,000 - Rs 840,000
Less than a
Counselors
Rs 270,000
year
1-4 years Rs 145,628
5-9 years Rs 300,000
10-19 years Rs 426,000
Clinical
Less than a Rs 70,750
Psychologists year
Rs 183,126
Rs 61,277
1-4 years
Rs 993,293
Rs 72,985
5-9 years
Rs 2,624,319
* By curtsey of http://www.naukrihub.com/

Further it is reported that the number of


female professionals in the field of
psychology has outdone that of their male
counterparts in India. While 87% of the
clinical psychologists are women, they
account for around 57% of the counseling
jobs. In fact women can earn from around INR
180,000 up to around INR 443,700 in this
field based on experience, job skills and other
factors.(13)
While if higher end of the salaries
look attractive, one should notice that these
are quite rare and the big disparity is quite
discouraging. But the more challenging part
of the story is that in India there are not many
jobs for psychologists and counselors. Very
few schools have a designated post for the
counselor. There also they make use of a
counselor
by
assigning
him
the
responsibilities of a sports teacher, music
teacher or a go to man in case some other
specialized teacher is absent. Since there are
not many options, a trained counselor is
made to do everything except counseling.
Same is the case with hospitals. Rarely any
hospital is going to hire a psychologist and
then they would expect him to take care of at
least 20-30 patients a day. Reason is simple.

They compare him with a usual physician


who is going to attend at least 50-60 patients
a day. In the research field or teaching also
there are limited options. So at the end of the
day the psychologists and counselors are left
to compromise with a job in NGOs or in some
rehabilitation centers with minimal pay.
Lack of Licensing
Another challenging issue is that
there are no licensing measures for
psychologists. The Rehabilitation Council of
India (RCI) is entrusted with the job of
providing
the
licensing
of
clinical
psychologists
and
rehabilitation
psychologists only. The Rehabilitation Council
of India (RCI) was set up as a registered
society in 1986. On September, 1992 the RCI
Act was enacted by Parliament and it became
a Statutory Body on 22 June 1993. The Act
was amended by Parliament in 2000 to make
it more broad based. The mandate given to
RCI is to regulate and monitor services given
to persons with disability, to standardize
syllabi and to maintain a Central
Rehabilitation Register of all qualified
professionals and personnel working in the
field
of
Rehabilitation
and
Special
Education.(14)
The
idea
was
that
psychologists who are working with disabled
and needing rehabilitation need to be
registered with RCI. For this an MPhil in
Clinical Psychology is the only option
rendering other degrees and certificates
meaningless. So since the advent of the RCI
the confusion has increased even more. The
psychologists working in other fields than
rehabilitation dont know if they need to get
registered with RCI or not. RCI has not helped
reduce this confusion by providing
ambiguous information to the psychologists
asking for clarifications. There have been
voices of protest everywhere but to no
avail.(15) Many psychologists in fear of these
false rumors of punitive actions (if RCI
certificate is not availed) began the search of
some RCI certificate by taking some
meaningless certificate course, totally
unconnected to their actual practice. Finally
in response to an RTI application RCI stated

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 1-7


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

6
that it has no authority to register anyone
who is not claiming to be a clinical
psychologist or working in the field of
rehabilitation.(16) Since there is no licensing
or even accepted guidelines for practicing, the
employers are not sure whom they should
hire. People of different skills can apply for
the same job and it is quite possible that a
wrong person with not desirable skills might
be working there. This has resulted in a sense
of confusion all around.
Lack of Awareness and Accessibility
Despite development of education
and growing awareness of psychological
issues, the age old superstitions and
reservations against psychological problems
and patients are still strong. Religion and
spiritual beliefs may work both as medicines
and poison for mental illness. Many Indian
people develop various guilt feelings as their
lives are not according to the religious
norms.(17) Further there is a tendency to
simply ignore the mental illness or not to
stick to the treatment for long enough as the
psychotherapeutic treatment doesnt seem as
a traditional medical treatment. In a recent
study it was found that Desire to handle the
problem on ones own was the most common
barrier among respondents with a disorder
who perceived a need for treatment
(63.8%).(18) Perceived ineffectiveness of
treatment was the most commonly reported
reason for treatment dropout (39.3%)
followed by negative experiences with
treatment providers (26.9% of respondents
with severe disorders). However Women and
younger people with disorders were more
likely to recognize a need for treatment.(18)
If you look at the school settings, teachers in
schools are not aware of even the existence of
various learning problems.(19) In such a
situation how would anyone expect that these
problems would be brought to the attention
of psychologists. On the other hand this
outlines the need of employing a school
counsellor in each school.

Conclusion
On the basis of above argument we
can conclude that psychologists and
counsellors have no doubt a bright future in
India but theyll have to build the road to
success by themselves. There are various
challenges for them to overcome but a big
population and not many people in the field
provide mouth watering opportunities. In
next few years of grinding hard the field of
psychology and mental health professional
will find a prosperous and respectful place in
Indian society.
References
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Essentials of epidemiology in public
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2. Suresh,
Bada
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Srinivasaraju (2010). Indian J
Psychiatry; 52 (1): 95103.
3. Lakhan, R; Eknday, OT (2015).
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4. Madhav,
Murali
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(2001).
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(2009). Study of prevalence of
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6. Mates D, Allison KR (1992). Sources of
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OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 1-7


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

7
8. Kirby D (2002). Antecedents of
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(2009). Counseling and family
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eport-mumbai-psychologists-pitchfor-licenses-to-weed-out-quacks2019737 retrieved on 10th June 2015.
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1&theater retrieved on 10th June
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Behere, A. P. (2013). Religion and
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Z., Wells, J. E., Al-Hamzawi, A., Borges,
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How to cite this article:


Agrawal, G. (2015). Psychology in India: A Career with Uncertain Opportunities. Online Journal
of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(2): 1-7.

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 1-7


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

8
Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (OJMR)
July 2015, 1(2), 8-13
REVIEW ARTICLE

OPEN ACCESS

An Analysis of Spiritual Thinking


Tanushree
Research scholar, Department of Yoga and Health, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidhalaya, Shantikunj
Haridwar, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Article History:
--------------------------Received: 24-06-2015
Revised: 11-07-2015
Accepted: 11-07-2015
Published: 17-07-2015
Keywords:
--------------------------Self realization, Thought power,
Bhagwad Gita
Article code: OJMR122
Access online at: www.ojmr.in
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None declared
Indexed in: Open J-Gate E
VIEW ARTICLE
Corresponding Author:
Tanushree
Research scholar,
Department of Yoga and Health,
Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidhalaya,
Shantikunj Haridwar, India
E-mail: tanushree732@gmail.com
Contact no.: +91-08439883484

Summary
The world today is characterized by rapid change,
accelerating
technological
development
and
unprecedented international competition. The causes
of all diseases lie in a human wrong behavior, in a
wrong way of thinking and living. This requires more
of us in all aspects of life - a greater capacity and
creativity,
self
development,
and
personal
responsibility. Life is a voyage of self discovery which
means going within and tapping the inner power that
already knows what is best for us. Throughout time,
philosophers have affirmed
that by stepping
beyond the limitations of the egocentric an
individual can experience self realization or inner
power. As mentioned in Bhagwad Gita inner power is
in our positive thoughts. With this realization comes a
deep understanding of the worth of a human
being.
OPEN
AC
Self realization is a process of evaluating & analyzing
oneself & removing false ego. Self realization is
knowledge of the true self beyond delusion & false
identification. If we are willing to turn our lives over to
this greater thought power within us, the power that
loves and sustains us, we can create more loving and
prosperous lives.

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9
Tanushree/ An Analysis of Spiritual Thinking

Background

Thought

is a form and thinking is a way


to obtain, from the boundless ocean of
formless mind in its unexpressed and already
existing condition. And we give it, in a certain
way form. We formulate it, and we bring it
as a noetic image or mental picture within
our inner world. But we also project it as an
elemental into the environment around us.
Until now, man has learned to create these
images completely mechanically. And these
images are the product of his aims, his
wishes, and his desires that are found in life
and in his environment.
According to Sharma (2008), thoughts
are electro-biomagnetic waves perpetually
arising in the mind. Thoughts are produced
by the bioelectricity generated in the
powerhouse of the inner self. (If you rub your
hands together than the warmth generated is
because of the presence of bio electricity in
the body). In the event of death, on the
departure of the soul from the body, the
individual ceases to think.
A thought is not merely a word given
to signify an abstraction, concept or feeling.
Thoughts have dimensions with specific
properties detectable by instruments. (One
such example of this kind of instrument is the
polygraph- the lie detector, which detects and
presents graphics of thoughts in different
states of mind).
The currents of these thought waves
have wavelengths and frequencies like those
produced in waves of water. However there is
a difference in their magnitude and process of
propagation. The waves produced in a pond
of water on earth fan and die out at the
periphery of the pond due to the resistance of
the earth. On the other hand, the thought
waves which are perennially in propagation
in the infinitude of space (Aakash) are never
lost. Thoughts do not die. For that reason
when someone says something to hurt us,
that hurt remains with us for a long time.
Each thought has its own specific
characteristic, and instead of being

amalgamated into an undifferentiated mass;


the thought retains forever its independent
identity and existence. Within this structure,
similar thoughts or ideas tend to be attracted
from far and wide in space and form intense
clusters of thoughts. The phenomenon is like
water vapour evaporating from different
reservoirs collecting to form clouds. (For e.g.
the atmosphere in a jail, a courtroom,
hospitals, a place of worship, a rock concert
are all different).
When a thought arises, its frequency
in the mind of the thinker interacts with those
of the masses of similar thoughts (collective
Ideospheres) in the space. The individual
thought (the small magnet of the Ideosphere
of an individual) enters the field of the large
magnet (the mass of Ideospheres). In this
way, through extra sensory perception
(commonly understood as intuition), one
comes to know many new aspects of a subject
being deliberated upon. The information
comes from pre existence in the collective
mass of the Ideosphere of knowledge; i.e.
ideas, thoughts and experiences of people,
who had studied, pondered over and
elaborated upon the subject in the past.
While thinking about activities of
philanthropy and welfare, one has a feeling of
great peace and contentment. This
satisfaction is derived from the collective
experience of people who had performed
similar deeds in the past; similarly one can
experience pain and tension in places where
collectively people congregate for treatment
of a terminal disease, burial of a loved one
etc." (For example one experiences peace,
calm and happiness at places of worship,
whereas one can experience a feeling of
tension and sorrow near an abattoir, a cancer
hospital or a burial ground/ cemetery).
Nainam cchindanti shastraani nainam dahati paavakah;
Na chainam kledayantyaapo na shoshayati maarutah.
(2/23) Gita

According to Yogananda (2006),


Rama (2004), Aurobindo (1998), Sanyal
(1999), Prem (1982), Mitchell (2000),

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10
Ranganathananda
(2001)
Abhedananda
(1969), Patel (1984); weapons cut it not, fire
burns it not, water wets it not, and wind dries
it not. The Self is partless. It is infinite and
extremely subtle. So the sword cannot cut it,
fire cannot burn it, wind cannot dry it.
Acchedyoyam adaahyoyam akledyoshoshya eva cha;
Nityah sarvagatah sthaanur achaloyam sanaatanah.
(2/24) Gita

According to Yogananda (2006),


Rama (2004), Aurobindo (1998), Sanyal
(1999), Prem (1982), Mitchell (2000),
Ranganathananda (2001); this Self cannot be
cut, burnt, wetted nor dried up. It is eternal,
all-pervading, stable, Ancient and immovable.
Everything is energy
The whole cosmos is based on
vibration, on energy. Everything is energy,
whether it is matter, light, sound, thought or
sensation. Many scientists confirm this
through research, which shows that not only
external influences trigger physical changes
in our body, but that above all thoughts and in
a wider sense, sensations influence the
biochemical processes in our organism.
Accordingly, thoughts are energies, which
have an influence on the well-being of our
body. Negative thoughts make man ill,
positive ones restore him to health or keep
him healthy.
Positive and Negative Thoughts
Positive thoughts are constructive
thoughts, they are thoughts which are vivified
by the sensations of selfless love; thoughts
that have the goal of the well-being of our
neighbour,
without
expecting
praise,
appreciation or reward; they are loving, kind,
gentle thoughts, thoughts of trust and
benevolence, thoughts of serving, which help
our neighbour to make the next step in his
respective situation; they are thoughts of
peace and unity, thoughts of joy and of inner
happiness also, for example, about the
beauty of nature which gives itself as energy
and life in countless shapes and colours; they
are thoughts of gratitude stemming from the
feelings of the recipient of a gift ... Here
energy flows selflessly from us to others and
returns abundantly to us, because we give,

because we love. Selfless loving thoughts are


divine energy, because God is love and the
one who loves is within God and God is within
him.
Negative thoughts are ruinous,
destructive thoughts, they are egoistic
thoughts: thoughts of envy, jealousy, hatred,
anger, fury, aggression towards our
neighbour; they are depressive thoughts,
thoughts of putting yourself above others and
of putting others down; they are expectations,
thoughts of mistrust and ill-will; they are
brooding thoughts about what is past, that is,
thinking about things when its too late,
thoughts of clinging to the past and also to the
future. They are thoughts of anxiety
anxiety about ones whole existence, fear of
illness, suffering, misery or death, of not to be
able to satisfy the demands of daily life, fear
of losing ones wealth, of losing ones partner
or friends; they are thoughts of self-pity and
of false sympathy for ones neighbour which
will not help him at all; they are thoughts of
destruction, of exploitation, of torment and
murder, above all, concerning nature, plants
and animals; they are thoughts of wanting to
possess, to be and to have, thoughts of greed
for power and domination; they are selfwilled, self-centered thoughts, ruthless
thoughts that circle only around ones own
interest and advantages. Here the energy
does not flow to others; there are no giving,
but taking, powers at work; the person who
thinks negatively does not give, but tries to
take energy to satisfy his personal egoistic
needs and wishes, or to reduce his own lack
of energy, by robbing energy from others.
Hay (2008) mentioned that whatever
we think about ourselves becomes the truth
for us. Every thought we think is creating our
future. Each one of us creates our experiences
by our thought and our feeling. The thoughts
we think and the words we speak creates our
experiences.
We create the situation, and then give
our power away by blaming the other person
for our frustration. No person, no place and
nothing have any power over us, for we are
the only thinkers in our mind. When we

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11
create peace and harmony and balance in our
minds, we will find it in our lives.
Udharedatmanannatmanamvasadyet
Atmaevhayatmanobadhuratmaivripuratman.
(6/5) Gita

In this sixth chapter of the Bhagavad


Gita, Lord Krishna is describing the system of
meditational yoga to His friend Arjuna. Here,
in this verse, Krishna is establishing that the
mind is the central point of yoga practice. The
purpose of the yoga system is to control the
mind and draw it away from attachment to
sense objects.
According to Yogananda (2006),
Rama (2004), Aurobindo (1998), Sanyal
(1999), Prem (1982), Mitchell (2000),
Ranganathananda (2001) a man must elevate
himself by his own mind, not degrade himself.
The mind is the friend of the conditioned soul,
and his enemy as well.
According to Prabhupada (2009), the
mind has to be trained in such a way that it
can deliver the conditioned soul from the
darkness of the material world and bring him
into the light of Krishna consciousness.
Material life means being subjected to the
influence of the mind and the senses, in fact
the pure soul is entangled in the material
world only because of the minds ego which
desires to lord it over material nature.
Therefore the mind should be trained so it is
not attracted to the glitter of material nature
and in this way the conditioned soul may be
saved.
One should not degrade oneself by
attraction to the things that will satisfy ones
senses. The more one is attracted by sense
objects, the more one becomes entangled in
material existence. The best way to
disentangle oneself is to always engage the
mind in Krishna consciousness. In this verse
it is emphasized that one must do this. In this
way the mind will elevate one and not
degrade him.
Bandhuatmaatmanatasyayen atmaeav atmna jite
Anatmnastushatrutrave vartetatmev shatruvat.
(6/6) Gita

According to Yogananda (2006),


Rama (2004), Aurobindo (1998), Sanyal

(1999), Prem (1982), Mitchell (2000),


Ranganathananda (2001) for him who has
conquered the mind, the mind is the best of
friends; but for one who has failed to do so;
his very mind will be the greatest enemy.
The Divine and the Undivine Forces
According to Krishnananda (1993),
there are two powers working in us Daiva
and Asura, as the Bhagavad Gita mentions.
The weakness which tells us that it is not
possible for us to face the world of objects
arises on account of the undivine forces
(asura) also operating in us, which tell us that
we are puny little individuals, that we are
nowhere before this large world. The
astronomical universe terrifies us. We are one
speck, atomic in size, like a particle on this
small planet called earth, which is floating
unrecognized in space in the midst of large
galaxies, unthinkable in vast space and time
complex. We are flabbergasted at the might of
this universe. We feel defeated, humiliated by
the very size of the world.
But another thing, the divine nature
(daiva) in us, tells us that we can overcome
the whole universe; we can reach the stars
and make them our own. We can probe into
the mysteries of nature, conquer it and
harness it, utilize it for our purposes. The
daiva, the divinity in us, tells us: "You are not
a weakling. Get up and show your strength!
Don't be a coward." The other one says, "You
are a coward, a weakling, you cannot do
anything."
The facing of the world, confronting
the Kaurava forces, meeting the requirements
of the large humanity, calls for a development
of our personality in a new direction
altogether. We require a strengthening
inwardly, gradually, in the needed measure to
face the world, and it is necessary to face the
world. We cannot run away from it. We are in
it, steeped in it. What is the use of making
complaints?
As threads are involved in the fabric
of a cloth and one thread cannot say that it
will run away from the cloth, none of us can
say that he will run away from the world.
Even Arjuna's complaint that he can flee and

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12
eat a beggar's meal in the forest is an
unintelligent foolish person's attitude. Such a
thing is not practicable in a world where we
are inextricably involved in all things.
The duty, therefore, is not to run away
from what we are confronting, but to develop
enough energy in us to confront it. If we have
to face the ocean, we have also to become an
ocean. One ocean can meet another ocean, but
the drop that we are cannot do that. We may
feel that we are a drop in the midst of the sea
of Kaurava forces, but we are also an ocean
inside, of which the drop is a vital part.
Towards that realization, move forward. Act
now! Bring forth to the surface of your
awareness the power that is in you called
understanding.
We are not outside the world and the
world is not outside us. The Kaurava and the
Pandava forces are two sides of the same
coin. They come from the same Vyasa
Bhagavan. They are descendants of one
person only. They are like two arms of a
single individual. They are cousin brothers,
belonging to one family. The Pandavas also
are called Kurus sometimes, and the Kauravas
also are called by the same name. Remember
that they are descendants of Vyasa, who is the
original progenitor of both sides. So also is
there an origin of this world and also of our
own selves, who look like individuals. We
have a common parentage and a uniform
heritage. This, on the one hand, is the light
that will emanate from us by exercising our
understanding, that the stuff of the world is
also the stuff of our personality.
Spiritual life begins when we can
control our minds. Ordinarily the mind of a
conditioned soul in the material world is
completely out of control. For most people,
rather than their mind being controlled their
minds become servants of their senses. In the
same way all the senses of the body are
demanding the mind to supply their
particular objects of gratification so the
person is actually out of control. He simply
becomes a servant of his senses, trying to
satisfy their every whim, but the cruel nature
of the material world is that no matter what
he supplies in an attempt to satisfy his senses

they will never be satisfied. They will always


demand more, more, more
Jitatmna prashantasya parmatma samahita
Shitoshadsukhdukheshu tatha manapmanyo.
(6/7) Gita

According to Yogananda (2006),


Rama (2004), Aurobindo (1998), Sanyal
(1999), Prem (1982), Mitchell (2000),
Ranganathananda (2001), for one who has
conquered the mind, the Super soul is already
reached, for he has attained tranquility. To
such a man happiness and distress, heat and
cold, honor and dishonor are all the same.
The five senses make their contact
with the external world and its objects, and
send their information-impulses to our brain,
allowing us to experience the polarities of
pleasure and pain, sukha-duhkha in Sanskrit.
These experiences are impermanent and are
to be endured, for what is temporal has no
real existence and is unreal (Asat) in the
sense that it is fluctuation and change
(Bhagavad Gita II.14-16). While the real (Sat)
always exists, as the 14th century Sufi poet
Mahmud Shabistari says, beneath the curtain
of each atom.
It is not that the external world has no
value as some believe. However, its state of
constant change makes it the unreal (Asat) in
the sense that it is impermanent. The external
reality is very real to the five senses, but there
is so much more to our world than what we
can see, hear, touch, etc. Everywhere there is
the imperishable (akshara) that permeates
supports and sustains the temporal illusory
hologram.
Without knowledge of this eternal,
immutable, imperishable Real - we are lost,
floating on a sea of delusion and ignorance
that tosses us around at whim and fools us
into thinking that possessions and pleasure
can give us meaning
Krishna teaches his friend that this
universe is pervaded by that which is
indestructible and Arjuna has no power to kill
that. The body may die, but the soul (Atma)
never dies. It simply transmigrates to a new
body, just as we get new clothes when our old
ones are worn out (II.17-22). When our body

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13
is worn out we move into new forms that
resonate with our thoughts, new datacollecting vehicles to expand our expression
of the God within us all. The realization that
you never die changes your entire attitude
towards living and you have the opportunity
to become less attached to the perils, failures,
and successes of your current identity self.
There comes a time when in wisdom
you will not care if you have been
immortalized by the media. Your search for
meaning will not be based on the approval or
disapproval of others. You will care more
about doing what is right, taking action with
the greatest integrity and knowledge you
have available to you in that moment, and
that knowledge will always be changing as
you continually re-evaluate its worth.
Conclusion
The primary purpose of the
Bhagavad-Gita is to illuminate for all of
humanity the realization of the true nature of
divinity; for the highest spiritual conception
and the greatest material perfection is to
attain love of God. We should not think about
how big or small we can really make things.
All this is materialistic and engages people in
tensions and greedy activities. It makes one
profit oriented. Thinking about yours or mine
also does the same. All the life we make and
collect things for ourselves. This really
doesnt make a difference when we leave this
world. We all are turned into ashes after
death. Those who are prepared to go through
the battles of life, through self-discipline,
stability of mind, detachment, surrendering to
God with full devotion, wisdom, right
discrimination and knowledge, are qualified
to attain liberation and union with the
Supreme. However, we have to train our mind
in the right manner. If we treat it forcefully it
will rebel. The mind has got its own tricks, so
we should control it by becoming friends with

it. All of our saadhanaas, our efforts, should


be done intelligently, slowly and steadily.
Only then does the journey become easy.
References
1. Abhedananda, S. (1969). BhagavadGita the Divine Message, Ramakrishna
Vedanta Math, Calcutta.
2. Acharya, S. S. (2008). Wonders of
Human-bioelectricity, Sri Vedmata
Gayatri Trust, Shantikunj, Hriadwar.
3. Aurobindo, S. (1998), Gita-Vigyan, Sri
Aurobindo Ashram Press, pondichery.
4. Gambhirananda,
S.
(1991).
Bhagavadgita,
Advait
Ashrama,
Calcutta.
5. Hay, L. L. (2008). You Can Heal Your
Life. Hay House, UK.
6. Mitchell, S. (2000). The Bhagavad
Gita, Random House, London.
7. Sanyal,
B.
(1999).
Srimadbhagavadgita,
Gurudham
Manndir Bimar.
8. Patel, P. (1984). Brahma Jnana &
Bhagavad-Gita,
Bhartiya
Vidhya
Bhawan Bombay.
9. Prabhupada,
S.
(2009),
Srimadbhagwadgita, Bhaktivedanta
Book Trust, Hare Krishna Dham, Juhu,
Mumbai.
10. Prem, K. (1982). The Yoga of the
Bhagavat Gita, Navjivan mudranalaya,
Ahmedabad.
11. Rama, S. (2004). Perennial psychology
of the Bhagavad Gita. The Himalaya
institute Press, Honesdale, U.S.A.
12. Ranganathananda,
S.
(2001),
Universal message of the Bhagavad
Gita,
Mayavati
Champawat,
Himalayas, Kolkata.
13. Yogananda, P. (2006), The essence of
the Bhagavad gita, Ananda sangha
publication Gurgaon, Haryana.

How to cite this article:


Tanushree (2015). An Analysis of Spiritual Thinking. Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Research,
1(2): 8-13.

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Online Journal of Multidisciplinary Research (OJMR)


July 2015, 1(2), 14-21
ORIGINAL RESEARCH

OPEN ACCESS

Self-Adjustment in School Going Adolescents


Following Three Months of Comprehensive
Yoga Program
Puja R Bhardwaj1, Ratna Mookherjee2 and Abhishek K Bhardwaj3*
1Ph.D.

Scholar, PG Dept. of Psychology, TM Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, India


and Head, PG Dept. of Psychology, TM Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, India
3*Scientist, Department of Yoga Research, Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2Professor

Article History:
--------------------------Received: 15-06-2015
Revised: 17-07-2015
Accepted: 17-07-2015
Published: 18-07-2015
Keywords:
--------------------------Self-adjustment, Yoga, Adolescence,
Mental health
Article code: OJMR123
Access online at: www.ojmr.in
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None declared
Indexed in: Open J-Gate EVIEW ARTICLE
Corresponding Author:
Dr. Abhishek K. Bhardwaj,
Scientist,
Department of Yoga Research,
Patanjali Yogpeeth,
Haridwar-249405, India.
E-mail: devineinp@gmail.com
Mobile no.: +91 8881494794

Summary
The aims of the present investigation were to study
the level of self-adjustment in school going
adolescents and to see the effect of three months
yoga on them. One hundred students (50 males and
50 females), with ages between 13 and 16 years
(group mean age S.D., 13.58 0.76 years) were
selected as the participants for this study. All of them
were high school students in the north India. For the
assessment
of
self-adjustment,
Adolescents
Adjustment Scale was used. The study was a before
and after group design and there was no control
group. Signed consent was taken from each
participant before the actual data collection. Three
months of yoga intervention was provided to both
groups i.e. boys and girls group. Obtained data
were
OPEN
AC
analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Significant differences were found in self-adjustment
scores in boys (p<0.05) and girls group (p<0.05) as
well. In conclusion, the practice of yoga for three
months was found beneficial to enhance the level of
self-adjustment in adolescent boys and girls as well.

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Bhardwaj, Mookherjee, and Bhardwaj / Self-Adjustment in Adolescents Following Yoga

Background

Self-adjustment

or adjustment of
oneself is very important to deal with our
day-to-day situations. Self-adjustment is the
degree to which an individual, having
considered his personal characteristics, finds
himself able and willing to live with them
happily. A person with optimum level of selfadjustment recognizes his short-comings
without blaming himself [1]. There are some
conditions that determine how much a
person adjusts to himself are; selfunderstanding, realistic expectations, absence
of environmental obstacles, favorable social
attitudes, absence of severe emotional stress,
identification with well adjusted people, good
childhood training and a stable selfperception. So self-adjustment is necessary
for everyone including adolescents but peergroup adjustment is also important. Socially
adjusted adolescent possesses traits such as
extroversion,
courtesy,
cooperation,
unselfishness, truthfulness, frankness, temper
control, resourcefulness, initiative, and
willingness to confirm to rules and
regulations which are also necessary to live in
the environment [1].
Adjustment is the behavioral process
by which individuals maintain equilibrium
among their different types of needs and the
obstacles of the environment where they live.
If the relationship between the individual and
his/ her environment is in accordance with
the norms then the adjustment is achieved
and the behavior of the person concerned
would be considered as normal. Gross
deviation from the norms demand clinical
investigations and interventions. Such
deviations are defined as maladjustment.
Severe deviations can be classified as
abnormal behavior [2].
In adolescents, adjustment related
problem can be seen easily. It may be related
to either self or with peer group or both. An
adjustment disorder occurs when an
adolescent is unable to adjust or cope with a

particular stressor, like a major life event.


Common characteristics of adjustment
disorder include symptoms of mild
depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress or a
combination of these. According to DSM-IVTR, there are 6 types of adjustment disorders.
There are certain stressors that are more
common in adolescence and childhood [3]
which affect the level of adjustment; family
conflict, parental separation, school problems
or changing schools and death or illness or
trauma in the family. ICD-10 classifies
adjustment disorders under F40-F48 and
under
neurotic,
stress-related
and
somatoform disorders [4].
Adolescence is a transitional stage of
physical
and
psychological
human
development that occurs between the age of
13 and 19 years [5]. It can be a time of both
disorientation as well as discovery. The
transitional period can bring up issues of
independence and self-identity; many
adolescents and their peers face tough
choices regarding schoolwork, drugs, alcohol,
and their social life. Peer groups and external
appearance tend to naturally increase in
importance for some time during a teen's
journey toward adulthood. Apart from the
psycho-physiological changes, they face
different challenges at this stage [6]. Level of
emotional stress and aggression is also high
at the early stage in adolescents but gradually
the intensity decreases [7].
Today adolescent doesnt have a clear
view-point towards the life and he/she is
feeling emotionally alone, impatience and
facing problem in making adjustment in the
life. So there is an imbalance among his/her
emotions, thoughts and behavior [8]. During
this period they acquire certain beliefs, values
and social skills which determine their level
of adjustment [9]. At this stage, there is a big
need to provide them with proper guidance
to overcome the challenges they face.
Techniques in yoga and other psychological
tools can be helpful at this stage.

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Yoga plays a significant role in


enhancing ones mental and physical health.
There are a large number of studies on the
effects of yoga on mental health [10], physical
fitness [11], cognitive performance [12], and
depth perception [13], but there are fewer
studies assessing the effect of yoga on selfadjustment in adolescents particularly. Some
evidence-based related researches are
mentioned below.
A study was done to assess the effect
of 1 month residential yoga training and 1
month follow-up on suicidal tendency and
some of its associated psychological
parameters, among 90 adolescent students
(17 to 23 years) having suicidal tendency
[14]. The subjects were divided into two
groups, experimental and control. Statistical
analysis revealed significant descending
trend in suicidal tendency in the experimental
group as compared to the control. The result
indicated a reduction in frustration and an
improvement in mental health. Significant
improvement was also seen in emotional
stability, sober attitude, expedient behavior,
boldness, trust, placidity, group led approach,
tension and anxiety. Further, improvement
was seen in emotional balance and attitude
towards yoga. In another study the effect of
yoga practices, gender and inhabitance was
seen on adjustment in 80 students of sr.
schools [15]. Sample was equally divided into
two groups; yoga (n=40) and without yoga
practices (n=40). Result revealed that yoga
practices,
inhabitance
and
gender
individually as well as interaction with each
other to determine level of adjustment among
students. In a randomized controlled trial,
two months of Pragyayoga sadhana was
found very beneficial to enhance the level of
overall adjustment including self-adjustment
in adolescent students [6].
With this background, the present
study was designed to see the long term effect
of yoga on adolescents adjustment especially
on their self-adjustment.
Research Methods:
Participants and study design

100 students (50 boys and 50 girls)


with ages between 13 and 16 years [group
mean age S.D., 13.58 0.76 years; mean age
of boys S.D., 13.68 0.77 years; mean age of
girls S.D., 13.48 0.76 years) were selected
as the participants for this study. All of them
were government middle school students in
the north India. Participants of both sex, age
between 13 and 19 years and those who were
willing to follow the study conditions were
included in the study. Participants with
diagnosed illness or on medication and any
experience of yoga practice were excluded
from the study. Personal information
including education, general health, daily
schedule and experience of yoga of all the
participants were collected using personal
data sheet. The study was a before and after
group design and there was no control group.
Signed informed consent was taken from the
participants before starting the actual study.
Assessment
Adolescent Adjustment Scale was
used to assess the level of self-adjustment [1].
This scale is reliable and valid tool to locate
good and poor adjustment to self and to the
peer-group of adolescent boys and girls. Selfadjustment is one of the main area measured
using this scale. The scale have total 80 items
where 40 items indicate self-adjustment and
another 40 items indicate adjustment to the
peer group; each item has two possible
choices Yes and No. Following
instructions, the scale was administered to
the participants. The participants had taken
about 20 minutes to complete the scale. After
completion, the answer sheet was collected
from the participants.
Intervention program
Intervention was given for three
months (90 days) and on each day the
participants practiced yoga for 30 minutes in
the morning between 9:00 and 9:30 AM
except Sunday. Yoga practice involved Pragya
yoga vyayama [16] [a series of 16 asana
(physical postures) propounded by Pt.
Shriram Sharma Acharya, Shantikunj,
Haridwar], Nadisodhana Pranayama (a

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 14-21


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

breathing exercise), Soham Sadhana and


practice of Yognidra. Yoga was taught by a
trained yoga teacher who had 6 years of
experience in yoga teaching and the all
practices were performed in a well ventilated
and cleaned hall provided by the school

administration. Class attendance was


monitored by one of the class teachers. None
of the participants reported any adverse
event to the intervention. Details of yoga
practice are given in Table 1.
Table 1: Details of yoga program

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pragya yoga vyayama (physical postures) - 3 rounds


10 minutes
[Tadaasana, Padahastasana, Vajrasana, Ustrasana, Yogmudra,
Ardhatadasana, Shasankasana, Bhujangasana, Tirykabhujangasana
(left), Tirykabhujangasana (right), Shasankasana, Ardhatadasana,
Utkatasana, Padahastasana, Tadaasana, Balasana]
Nadisodhana pranayama (a breathing exercise) 5 minutes
Soham sadhana 5 minutes
Yoganidra 10 minutes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total time 30 minutes
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pragya yoga vyayama [16] included
16 step asanas mentioned above. Second
practice was Nadhi shodhan pranayama
which is the alternative breathing process
from left and right nostrils with purak
(inhalation), Rechak (exhalation), and
Kumbhak (retention). Third practice was
Soham sadhana. Soham mantra is a natural
mantra because it is already part of our
nature. Sooooo... is the sound of inhalation,
and Hummmm... is the sound of exhalation.
Another practice was yoganidra [17].
Yoganidra is an important method of
relaxation, which was practiced in the flat
lying position known as Shavasana.

Data extraction and analysis:


Total raw score for self-adjustment
was calculated with the help of respective
manual. Pre-post data of boys and girls were
compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA)
[PASW Version 18.0] followed by post-hoc
analyses which was Bonferroni adjusted.
Results:
The group mean values S.D. are
given in Table 2. The ANOVA values for the
Within-Subjects factors (States), BetweenSubjects factor (Groups) and interaction
between the two for the self-adjustment are
given in Table 3.

Table 2: Mean, S.D. and P value of both group before and after the yoga intervention
Variables

Boys (n = 50)
Pre
MeanS.D.

Post
MeanS.D.

Self
23.244.31
25.244.79*
Adjustment
*Significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Girls (n = 50)
Pvalue
.038

Pre
MeanS.D.
23.005.23

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Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

Post
MeanS.D.
24.943.64*

Pvalue
.044

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Table 3: Detailed ANOVA values


Variable

Factors

df
1,98

Huynhfeldt
1

Self
Adjustment

Within subjects
(States)
Between subjects
(Gender)
States Gender

8.591

.004

.198

1,98

.658

.002

1,98

.964

26

25

24
Pr e
23

Post

22

21

20
Boys

Gir ls

Graphical representation of self-adjustment in boys and girls before and after 3 months of
yoga program
Discussion and conclusion:
Result of the present study showed
that following three months of yoga, there
was a significant increase in the level of selfadjustment in boys (p<0.05) and girls
(p<0.05) both.
There have been speculations on the
mechanisms by which yoga practice might
improve self-adjustment. Yoga practice places
emphasis on mental focus [18]. During the
practice of yoga the breath is regulated and
mental focus is directed to it resulting in
physical and psychological benefits [19].
Through different poses (asanas), breathing
technique (pranayama), and meditation
(dhyana), yoga makes the practitioner aware
of his inner self [20]. Gradually this
awareness leads to a person having selfadjustment. Yoga practice includes mental

imagery and internal awareness. Yoga has the


potential of playing a protective or preventive
role in maintaining mental health [21] which
includes a persons emotional stability,
overall adjustment, autonomy, securityinsecurity, self-concept and intelligence [22].
Yoga changes the view point or our
perception towards us. In a study on 190
college going students, yoga was found
effective. After practicing yoga the students
felt better mood states, individual coping
strategies and the level of psychological
adjustment [23]. In an another study on 260
students of both sexes, ages ranged between
17 and 21 years, following one month yoga
program their view towards their life
changed more positively [24].
Yoga allows teenagers to visualize,
relax
and
enter
a
noncompetitive

OJMR 2015 | July - September 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 2 | Pages 14-21


Published online by Association for Indian Psychology, Rishikesh, India

ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

environment [25]. Slow and deep breathing is


known to increase the parasympathetic tone
and is associated with a calm mental state
[26]. This way yoga tries to correct the basic
limitations of the mind by improving selfawareness, self-control, and self-esteem [27].
In a deeper sense, yoga teaches us about selfevaluation. After regular practice of yoga with
systematic and balanced breathing, one can
feel the closeness with his/ herself and feel
the distance from external distracters. This
self-evaluation is important because the
subjects are able to assess what they know,
what they dont know and what they would
like to know. They begin to recognize their
own strengths and weaknesses, and will be
able to set goals that they know they can
attain with the new knowledge they have
about themselves [28].
The components of yoga intervention
used for the present study include not only
asanas but also include pranayama, soham
sadhana and yoganidra which help to move
inwards and to be aware of inner self. This
could be the one reason of the present
finding.
Regular practice of yoga helps to
understand the real self. The more a person
understands himself, the more he will be able
to
understand
other
people.
After
understanding the self, one can adjust and
readjust with their self and then they can
adjust in any situation. Also yoga is the way to
control over self as well as the best technique
for self introspection and with continuous
practice of self-introspection a person feels
very close to his self and this leads to selfadjustment. When a person learns the art of
self-adjustment they can feel a sense of selfsatisfaction and inner happiness [29].
Yoga also helps in developing selfconcept and it is also associated with the selfadjustment. A study indicated that higher
self-concept scores corresponded to better
psychological adjustment, good personal
skills and fewer behavioral problems [30].
Self-concept clarity and self-esteem are also
linked to positive indices of psychological
adjustment [31].

In conclusion, practice of yoga in an


expert supervision is helpful for achieving the
optimum level of self-adjustment in
adolescent students.
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Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

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Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

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How to cite this article:


Bhardwaj, P. R., Mookherjee, R., and Bhardwaj, A. K. (2015). Self-Adjustment in School
Going Adolescents Following Three Months of Comprehensive Yoga Program. Online Journal
of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(2): 14-21.

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ISSN (Online): 2395-4892


Quarterly, Peer-reviewed, Int. Journal

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