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ISROMAC 2012,

2012 Hawaii

Turbomachinery Blade Vibrations


Meeting the Challenge

Damian Vogt, KTH


2012 02 27
2012-02-27
1

12 B litres
2

1 M cycles
3

A Steam Turbine
The workhorse of power generation
Designed to operate for years

Part-load operation lead to failure of


blades due to torsional vibrations in

7 seconds

(Mazur et al., 2004)

An Aircraft Engine
The workhorse of air travel
Powerful, light, reliable

failure

3rd stage LP blade due


t vibration
to
ib ti

(Warwick, 2008)

Lessons Learnt

Turbomachinery blade vibrations can be

harmful

Failure is usually occurring within

short time

Let us define a
turbomachinery
turbomachinery ideal
ideal?
?

A Turbomachinery Ideal
D
Durable
bl
Available
Reliable
Fuel-flexible
Lightweight

Silent
Eco-friendly

Low-maintenance
Powerful

Efficient
Affordable

Is there anything that


prevents us from reaching
thi ideal?
this
id l?

Reaching or Not-Reaching
Not Reaching the Ideal
D
Durable
bl
Available
Reliable
Turbomachinery
blade vibrations are the
Fuel-flexible
show-stopper No 1 that
prevent us
Lightweight
Silent from reaching this ideal
Eco-friendly

Efficient

and
d

Low-maintenance

expensive

it is
i
Powerful

Affordable
10

90% off HCF problems


bl
are covered
d during
d i
engine
i
development but the remaining part stands for
[[engine
g
development]
p
] costs

30% of

(El-Aini et al., 1997)

11

During the next 40 min


I want you to learn

What is the problem?


What is the challenge?
What can we do about it?

12

Vibrations in Turbomachines

13

Vibrations in Turbomachines
Induced by unsteady loads
Structural
Aerodynamical (fluid-structure interaction)

Potentially leading to failure of components


Types

Damped
p
p
preferred
14

Vibrations in Turbomachines
Induced by unsteady loads
Structural
Aerodynamical (fluid-structure interaction)

Potentially leading to failure of components


Types

Unstable self-excited
Damped
p
p
preferred
Failure due to overload
15

Vibrations in Turbomachines
Induced by unsteady loads
Structural
Aerodynamical (fluid-structure interaction)

Potentially leading to failure of components


Types
108 cycles

~100Mio
cycles

Failure due to High Cycle Fatigue (HCF)


Unstable self-excited
Limit Cycle
y
Oscillations (LCO)
(
)
Damped
p
p
preferred
Failure due to overload
HCF Haigh Diagram
16

Vibrations in Turbomachines
Induced by unsteady loads
Structural
Aerodynamical (fluid-structure interaction)

Potentially leading to failure of components


Types
108 cycles

Failure due to High Cycle Fatigue (HCF)

~100Mio
cycles

unsafe

safe
Unstable self-excited
Limit Cycle
y
Oscillations (LCO)
(
)
Damped
p
p
preferred
Failure due to overload
HCF Haigh Diagram
17

Typical Flow
Flow-Induced
Induced Vibration
A windy day
An open landscape
Structures exposed to flow

Nevada, US, May 2005

18

Cantilevered Beam Vibration


Flow-induced vibration
Unsteady load
Vibration mode
Vibration frequency

Why does it vibrate?


How does it vibrate?

19

Why Does it Vibrate?


Exposed to

flow

Flow creates an unsteady load

St
Structure
t

Unsteady aerodynamic load


Aero load

Structure (elastic)
20

How Does it Vibrate?


Equation of motion

mx kx F (t )
Structural part

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode

Excitation here
aerodynamic forces

x: deformation coordinate
modal coordinate

: natural frequency
q
y of
structure

Aero load
ffrequency
q
y

N t
Natural
l mode
d

k
m

(
(eigenmode)
d )
21

How does Flow translate into Load?

F ps n ds

Load

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction

Flow

ps
If ps=ps(t) then F=
F F(t)
22

Flow-Induced
Flow
Induced Vibration
Inertial forces

Aerodynamic forces

mx kx F (t )
Elastic forces

Resonance
phenomenon
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction

Same frequency
q
y

Force in direction
of mode

23

Flow-Induced
Flow
Induced Vibration
Inertial forces

Aerodynamic forces

mx kx F (t )
Elastic forces

Resonance
phenomenon
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction

Same frequency
q
y

Collars triangle
of forces (1946)

Force in direction
of mode

24

Does this give the whole


picture?
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
25

What about Damping?


mx cx kx F (t )
Structural damping
What are damping forces?
Im
p g forces
Damping

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction

Re
Inertial forces

Elastic forces

Damping forces are out-of-phase forces (wrt motion)


26

What about Damping?


mx cx kx F (t )
Structural damping
What are damping forces?
Im
p g forces
Damping

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction

Re
Inertial forces

Elastic forces

Damping forces are out-of-phase forces (wrt motion)


27

What about Aerodynamic Damping?


The fluid around a structure that moves needs time
to react
There is a phase lag between the fluid force and the
motion of the structure
(Structural) damping
forces
Im
Aerodynamic force
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Aerodynamic
damping force
Re
Inertial forces

Aerodynamic
y
stiffness force

Elastic forces

The aerodamping can get negative flutter


28

Bringing it Together
mx cx kx F (t )
Fae (t ) Fdamping (t ) Fdisturbance (t )

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

As the aerodynamic damping depends on the motion of


the structure (i.e. the modal coordinate), it can be
included on the left-hand side

mx (c cae ) x (k k ae ) x Fdisturbance (t )
Multiple degrees of freedom: scalars vectors

M X C Cae X K K ae X Fdisturbance (t )
29

Important Aspects
The ratio of structural to aero forces matters
(Structural) damping
forces
Im
Aerodynamic force
Aerodynamic
damping force
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Re
Inertial forces

Aerodynamic
stiffness force

Elastic forces

The dynamics of the flow matters phase

30

Important Parameters
Mass
M
ratio
i
Ratio between airfoil mass
and mass of surrounding
fluid
4m

0 c 2

great influence of fluid on structure


Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Reduced frequency
Relation between time-offlight of fluid particle
across airfoil during one
oscillation period

t 2fc
k
T
u
k aero damping reduced ( negative)
31

Application to Turbomachines
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

32

Turbomachine Environment

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Blade rows
Stationary
Rotating
33

Vibration of Bladed
Bladed-Disk
Disk Structures
Blades

Travelling Wave Modes


Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Disk

Bladed disk

Vibration characterized by disk and blade behavior

34

Vibration of Bladed
Bladed-Disk
Disk Structures
2ND

3ND

+
-

Blades

Travelling Wave Modes


Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

1E

1F
1T
Disk

Bladed disk

Vibration characterized by disk and blade behavior

35

TWM ND 0
ND 0
=0deg

ND nodal diameter
FT forward traveling
BT backwards traveling

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

36

TWM ND 6 FT
ND 6 FT
=90deg

ND nodal diameter
FT forward traveling
BT backwards traveling

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

37

TWM ND 12 FT
ND 12 FT
=180deg

ND nodal diameter
FT forward traveling
BT backwards traveling

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

38

f [Hz]]

Depicting Natural Frequencies


Modes can approach each other

4.2kHz

1T
2F

3.1kHz

1F

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

1 5kHz
1.5kHz

800Hz

N/2 ND
1F +-4 ND
1F +-1 ND
Frequencies vary with engine speed 1F 0 ND
F
Frequencies
i can vary with
i h nodal
d l diameter
di

6000

[rpm]
39

f [Hz]]

Depicting Natural Frequencies


Modes can approach each other

4.2kHz

1T
2F

3.1kHz

1F

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

1 5kHz
1.5kHz

800Hz

N/2 ND
1F +-4 ND
1F +-1 ND
Frequencies vary with engine speed 1F 0 ND
F
Frequencies
i can vary with
i h nodal
d l diameter
di

6000

[rpm]
40

Schematic Turbine Stage Flow

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

41

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

span
n

Effect of Adjacent Blade Rows

u
42

Effect of Adjacent Blade Rows

t=60/[rpm]/N f=1/t

Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Spatially varying flow quantity

span
n

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping

Fdisturbance
(t) u

Translates into time in rotor frame of reference

43

An Excitation Diagram
f [Hz]]

EO 60
EO : Engine Order
f=[rpm]/60*60

EO 20
f=[rpm]/60*20

f2
2kHz
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

EO 11
f1

f=[rpm]/60*N1 (=11)

1 1kHz
1.1kHz

6000

[rpm]
44

Effect of Neighbour Blades


The flow around one blade is affected

by the motion of itself AND the


motion of the neighbour blades

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Aerodynamic coupling

45

Aero Damping vs Nodal Diameter


=15deg
ND 1 FT

=180deg
ND 12 FT

ND nodal diameter

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

FT forward traveling
BT backwards traveling

Least stable mode

=-90deg
ND 6 BT

46

Bringing it Together
EO 60
f [Hz]]

Forced response

EO 20
1T
2F
1F
EO 11

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Fl tt
Flutter
6000
OP range

[rpm]
47

Turbomachinery Aeroelasticity

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

(Giles, 1991)
48

Does this give the whole


picture?
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

49

The Complete Picture


f [Hz]]

Flow instability
e.g. vortex
shedding

EO 60
Non-Synchronous Vibrations

EO 20
1T
2F
1F

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

EO 11
Fl tt
Flutter
6000 Forced response
[rpm]
OP range
50

The Reality
Experimental Campbell Diagram
Kielb et al. ASME Turbo Expo,
2003
Acceleration to 95% Speed

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

51

What can we do about this?


Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

52

Facing Vibration Problems


Anticipate problems
Ensure during engine design that vibration problems do
not occur
A id resonant vibrations
Avoid
ib i
and
d flutter
fl
If occurrence cannot be avoided, ensure that the
problems are not harmful
p
Low forcing levels
Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Low negative damping

Remedy problems
Ensure that certain operating points are avoided
Ensure that the problems are made harmless
High
g p
positive damping
p g
HCF tolerant materials

53

Designing for Vibration Safety


Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
d
damping

Structure
St
t
frequency
mode
damping
Aero load
ffrequency
q
y
direction
phase

Aero load
f
frequency
direction
phase
h

Havig in place a design process that


involves aeromechanical analyses

Structural analyses
Static loads, mode shapes,
frequencies, damping
Mutual interaction

Aerodynamical analyses
Unsteady aerodynamic forcing
Aerodynamic damping

HCF fatigue analyses


Stresses and fatigue behaviour of
materials
54

An Example Aeromech Design Process

Mayorca, 2011
55

An Example Aeromech Design Process

Mayorca, 2011
56

An
AnExample
ExampleAeromech
AeromechDesign
DesignProcess
Process
Back to Aero design

Designed for vibrational safety


Mayorca, 2011
57

Aeromech and our Turbomachinery Ideal


D
Durable
bl
Available
Reliable

Silent

Efficiency is king
Fuel-flexible
Lightweight
Eco-friendly

Low-maintenance

But never at the cost of

safety
y

Powerful

Efficient
Affordable

58

Which are state-of-the-art


aeromechanical analyses?

59

An Example Aeromech
DesignStructural
Process
Computational
Dynamics (CSD)

Cyclic symmetric models


(0) 100k DOF per sector
Model size not extremely critical
for modal analysis (other than
y )
stress analysis)
Updated system matrices (e.g.
stiffening effects)
Modeling of material damping,
friction damping, damping
coatings

60

An Example Aeromech
DesignFluid
Process
Computational
Structural
Dynamics (CFD)
(CSD)

Cyclic
symmetric
models
Forced
response
(0)
100k
per sector RANS
Full-size
3DDOF
time-marching
p clearance,, inter-row
Details ((tip
Model cavities)
gaps,
size not extremely
modeled (but
critical
not
for modal analysis (other than
always)
y )nodes p
stress
analysis)
(0)
(
) 100k-1M
per p
passage
g
Usually single or few passages
Updated system matrices (e.g.
stiffening
effects)
Aerodynamic
damping

3D time-marching or linearized
Modeling
of material damping,
viscous approaches
friction
damping,
Mode shapes
fromdamping
FEM (loose
coatings
coupling) or time-marching
CFD/CSD (strong coupling)

61

Example:
p
Aero Damping
p g CFD

62

How well are we doing in


these analyses?

63

When are we doing well?


If we can give a state
state-of-the-art
of the art analysis tool to an
average (trained) engineer and expect that we get
an accurate and reliable result

Proficiency
Accuracy
Reliability

in use

with respect to test data


with respect to repetitivity

Clarity

about objectives

64

Example Steady CFD


Highly detailed 3D RANS simulations are state
state-ofof
the-art and are (if employed correctly) very reliable

L t us do
Let
d a test
t t
65

Test: Prediction Steady Loading


Test case (high
(high-subsonic
subsonic LPT) given to 6 groups of
students (3-4 students per group) trained in using
ANSYS CFX
Input
Geometry
Boundary conditions (inlet profiles
profiles, outlet pressure)

Task
To predict the steady aerodynamic loading

Students performed
Meshing
Simulation setup
Solving
Extraction of loading
Centralized post-processing

66

Let us now do a similar test on


a typical aeromechanical
analysis
l i

67

Test: Prediction of Aero Damping


Test case (transonic compressor) given to specialists
in 5 European turbomachinery industries
Highly renown industrial partners that build state-of-theart gas turbines

Design intent: low ( negative) aero


damping as stall is approached

FUTURE

- Flutter-Free Turbomachinery Blades


68

Test: Prediction of Aero Damping


Test case (transonic compressor) given to specialists
in 5 European turbomachinery industries
Highly renown industrial partners that build state-of-theart gas turbines

Input
Design intent: low ( negative) aero
Geometry
damping as stall is approached

Boundary conditions (inlet profiles, outlet pressure, speed)

Task
To predict the minimum aerodynamic damping vs pressure ratio

Industries performed
CSD analyses ( modes)
Steady CFD ( speedline)
y CFD (
( damping
p g at various OPs))
Unsteady

FUTURE

- Flutter-Free Turbomachinery Blades


Centralized post-processing

69

Test: Prediction of Aero Damping

0.8%

0.2%

-0.3%

Prediction error in the order of


predicted damping

70

Two different viewpoints

71

Managers
Manager
s vs Engineers
Engineer s Views

What is the

probability that this component will fail?

What is the benefit of doing a certain analysis in a


specific
p
way?
y
72

Where are the big challenges?

73

Key Challenges
Aerodynamic forcing
Correct prediction of forcing levels
Taking into account details (tip clearances, cavities, etc)

Aerodynamic damping
Correct prediction of damping levels
Strongly dependent on steady flow phenomena
Transition usually not modeled at all

Non-synchronous vibrations
Extremely difficult to delineate where to search for
Post-diction possible, pre-diction extremely challenging
U
Usually
ll iinvolving
l i
360d
360deg
models,
d l multi
lti row

Damping
Correctt prediction
C
di ti
off friction
f i ti
d
dampers and
d novell damping
d
i
concepts (coatings, air film, piezo, eddy current)
74

Key Challenges
Aerodynamic forcing
Correct prediction of forcing levels
Taking into account details (tip clearances, cavities, etc)

Aerodynamic damping
Correct prediction of damping levels
Strongly dependent on steady flow phenomena
Having
that are trained in
Transition usually not modeled at all

engineers
i
interdisciplinary analyses and problem solving

Non-synchronous vibrations

Extremely difficult to delineate where to search for


Post-diction possible, pre-diction extremely challenging
U
Usually
ll iinvolving
l i
360d
360deg
models,
d l multi
lti row

Damping

THRUST

Turbomachinery
y Training
g
Aeromechanical University

Correctt prediction
C
di ti
off friction
f i ti
d
dampers and
d
novell damping
d
i
www.explorethrust.eu
concepts (coatings, air film, piezo, eddy current)

75

Does this give the whole


picture?

76

Realistic Components
115m
115

+64%
64%

70m

A single value tells us only half of

the story

Mistuned forced response

77

Analyzing Realistic Components


Realistic components are mistuned
We usually simplify analyses (such as to keep
computational costs low)
As a consequence, the such analyses are not good
enough
e
oug to make
a e relevant
e e a t decisions
dec s o s
Even if full-scale full 360deg aeromechanical
y
were possible,
p
, direct analyses
y
of a specific
p
analyses
mistuned setup were only of little value
Level and type of mistuning change a lot over time

Mistuned Analyses paired with


Probabilistic Aspects
p
are the answer
78

Let us bring this to the point

79

Summary
An overview over turbomachinery blade vibrations,
analyses techniques and challenges has been given
Despite the fact that we nowadays have very
sophisticated analysis tools, we are not in a position
to predict turbomachinery blade vibrations down to
single digit accuracies
Still, turbomachines have and will be designed with
these
h
methods
h d while
h l taking
k
into account
conservative safety margins
The future calls for top-of-the-line analyses taking
into account variability of engines and yielding

failure probabilities

80

mahalo
h l

81