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Rosecela Semedo

AP Euro. P5


I. Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian Renaissance (pg 314)

Renaissance = rebirth of Greco- Roman civilization (antiquity)

o Recovery from the Black Death, political disorder & economic recession
o Great emphasis on individuality & well-roundedness

Characteristics applied to the upper class, but their accomplishments

impacted the ordinary people

Middle ages = time period between the end of the Roman Empire to the 15th century/
lack of culture = dark times

Jacob Burckhardt created the framework of modern interpretation of the Renaissance

o Published The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860) portrayed &
exaggerated the individuality and secularism (rejection of religion) of the period

Italy = urban society: independent cities that dominated country distracts, city-states
became the centers of Italian pol., soc. & eco. Life

Commercial growth & political evolution yearn for increase of wealth rise
of secularism

II. The Making of Renaissance Society (pg 314)

in trade & manufacturing =


A. Economic Recovery
1. Expansion of Trade
o Hansa/Hanseatic League = commercial/ military assoc. by N. German coastal
Held monopoly on N. European trade in timber, fish, grain, metals, honey,
o Flanders (Bruges port city) = meeting place between the League and Flanders
Fleet of Venice
o 15th c: silting port Bruges , competition w/ large territorial states
o Italians & Venetians maintained a wealthy commercial empire until 16th century
due to competition
2. Industries Old and New

Devastated woolen industries of Flanders & N. Italian cities in the 14th c

recovering woolen industry in the 15th c
Italian cities luxury production (silk, glassware), new industries: print, mining,
Financiers developed mining operations to produce copper, iron & silver, expanding
iron production more effective firearms

3.Banking and the Medici

House of Medici = greatest bank in Europe & #1 bank for the papacy - branches
in Venice, Milan, Rome, London, Lyons, Avignon & Bruges
Control over wool, silk & alum mining (textile dye) industries
End of the 15th c. the Medici bank due to leadership and loans

B. Social Changes in the Renaissance


The Nobility

By 1500, aristocratic nobles held great status as military officers & political advisors;
they were expected to follow certain principles:
o Fundamental good traits (character, grace, talents, etc)
o Hold achievements in military, education & arts
o Good conduct (modest, kind, etc)


Peasants and Townspeople

Peasants = 3rd estate 85% of the pop.

Money economy = servile labor dues rents paid in money, in serfdom

Town/city people (high low)

o Patricians gained wealth from trade, industry, and banking
o Burghers shopkeepers, artisans, guild members
o Workers propertyless w/ v low wages
o Unemployed miserable lives


30 - 40 %

Slavery in the Renaissance

14th c : slaves were reintroduced due to shortage caused by Black Death

o Used as skilled workers for their masters or house hold workers; girls =
nursemaids, boys = playmates
o Slaves were primarily from the Mediterranean & Black Sea region, Africa &
Muslims from Spain

15th c: slavery
o Due to less sources, in prices & concern of the dangers of slaves

C. The Family in Renaissance Italy



Arranged marriages marriage contracts are made by the parents early on, dowry
determined if you were to marry a man of high/ low social class

Center of the family is the father-husband : responsible for all legal matters & in absolute
control over children till death or formally freeing them through emancipation before a



Wives managed household & bear children upper class women had the advantage of
handing their children to wet nurses

In the Renaissance 10% of mothers died in childbirth, children had short life spans w/
high mortality rate so upper class families had amasp to increase chances of a living male


Sexual Norms

Arranged marriages w/ great age difference (young women & old men) = lack of love
affairs permitted only for men

Men get married until their thirties so while theyre young they participate in extramarital
sex & prostitution (regulated)

III. The Italian States in the Renaissance (pg 320)

Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papal States & Naples = 5 major powers dominated the
Italian peninsula

A. The Five Major States


Republic of Florence


Florence dominated Tuscany & governed by a small merchant oligarchy Cosmio of the
Medici family took control & ran the government lowkey through lavishness & courting
political alliances
Papal States

Papal states mainly in central Italy & used to be under great control under the popes but
soon independent cities became independent from papal rule

15th c popes worked to regain authority over papal states


Kingdom of Naples

French & Argonese fought over it (most of S. Italy & Sicily) mostly very poor
peasants ruled by unqualified nobles = little Renaissance glories

B. Independent City-States



a well known cultural & intellectual center due to its great leader Federigo da
Montefeltro scholar and military skills, admirable traits: reliable, honest, benevolent
The Role of Women

Women were respected for governing the state in the absence of their husband ex.
Battista Sforza (Federigos wife)

Isabella dEste was known for her intelligence & political wisdom ruled Mantua &
was a clever negotiator

C. Warfare in Italy

Alliance system (Milan, Florence & Naples) was created after a contract of peace was

declared Peace of Lodi (ended century of war)

Italy became the battle field for the French and Spanish in a quarrel over power to
dominate Italy part of a struggle for power between the Valois & Habsburg
Italians became nationalistic & loyal to their states

D. The Birth of Modern Diplomacy

Italian renaissance modern diplomatic system; concept of ambassador went from

servant of all Christendom resident diplomatic agents due to their important use in
the Italian wars
These new ambassador could use any methods to benefit his own states political interest

E. Machiavelli and the New Statecraft

Machiavelli enjoyed political stature when the Medici family was in power but after the
invasion of Italy he was forced into exile, in exile he reflected on politics & wrote books
1. The Prince
o Machiavelli wrote this book in hopes that rulers will restore & maintain order in
his time w/ an unethical approach of doing whatever it takes to maintain a
powerful state
o He believed that a Prince should be familiar w/ human nature = self centered

IV. The Intellectual Renaissance in Italy (pg 324)

Humanism = imp. literary movement driven by the product of a wealthy, urban lay

A. Italian Renaissance Humanism

Humanism was based in the study of classical literary works of Greece & Rome, liberal
Occupations of humanists were mainly secular (laymen rather than clergy): humanities
teacher, professors, secretaries

1. The Emergence of Humanism

Petrarch was the father of Italian Renaissance humanism the 1st to characterize
mid-ages = period of darkness; he went in search of old Latin manuscripts through
monastic libraries t/o Europe
Emphasis on the use of pure classical Latin

2. Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy

Civic humanisms (15th c) - humanist movement & Florentine civic spirit & pride;
Roman Cicero (statesman & intellectual) became their model
Leonardo Bruni wrote a biography on Cicero called The New Cicero fusion of
political action & literary action (study & participation of state affairs)
Began taking interest in classical Greece & pursued Platos & others work all had
examined theological questions
Lorenzo Valla wrote The Elegances of the Latin Language to purify medieval Latin &
restore Latin he identified different stages of the language & accepted only the last c
of the Roman Republic & 1st c of the empire

3. Humanism and Philosophy

Great interest of Plato rose esp in the Florentine Platonic Academy Cosimo de
Medici became the patron & commissioned a translation of Platos dialogues
Marsilio Ficino dedicated his life to the Neo-Platonism translation of Platos work
o Synthesized Christianity & Platonism into a single system; Neo-Platonism
was based on the Neoplatonic hierchahy of substances (3.plants, 2.humans,
1.God) & theory of spiritual love (ppl & universe bounded together by love)

4. Renaissance Hermeticism

Cosimo de Medici requested Ficino to translate Corpus Hermeticum from Greek into
Latin the manuscript contained one writing that stressed sciences and the other,
theology & philosophy
o Some writing involved pantheism divinity embodied in all aspects of nature,
humans, earthly objects

Hermetic revival brought the idea that humans were divine being w/ the free choice of
entering the material world

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man : unlimited
human potential

B. Education in the Renaissance

Schools became established on humanism w/ the core of liberal studies a famous
secondary school (1423) was founded by Vittorino da Feltre
Pietro Paolo Vergerio wrote Concerning Character to stress the imp. of liberal arts as key
for individuals to reach full potential
Females were largely absent in school but those who were, went off & established literary
careers: Isotta Nogarola wrote letters & treaties, Cassandra Venice public recitations
of orations, Laura Cereta defended women scholarly pursuit
B. Humanism and History
When humanists approach the writing of history they see the past as just the past to
their age, setting up a new periodization
Humanists were also responsible for secularizing the writing of history & eliminated
the role of miracle in historical interpretations
1. Guicciardini
Modern historiography was achieved by Francesco Guicciardini; his works
History of Florence and History of Italy show modern analyzation developed
skills that allowed him to analyze political situations precisely & critically
D. The Impact of Printing

New printing w/ moveable metal type Johannes Gutenbergs Bible was the first
book made through the new printer

Printing spread throughout Europe Venice was the center

Printing encouraged development of scholarly research & desire to attain

knowledge expanded a lay reading public & facilitated religious ideas

V. The Artistic Renaissance


Imitation of nature = primary goal, realism in their images & a focus on human beings

A. Art in the Early Renaissance

Giotto began the imitation of nature in the 14th century

Masaccios cycle of frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel = 1st masterpiece of Early
Renaissance art; started huge 3D human figures - motivated l8r gen of Florentine artists
Two experimental trends
o Mathematical: laws on perspective, org of space & light by geom. & perspective
(work of Paolo Uccello)
o Movement & anatomical structure: human body under stress/emotions (The
Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian by Antonio Pollaiuolo)
Lorenzo the Magnificent lead the circle of artists in Florence, prominent member =
Sandro Botticelli famous work: Primavera
Donato di Donatello mastered making statues of antiquity; his greatest work is a statue
of David (freestanding, bronze, nude) w/ the head of the giant Goliath underneath
Filippo Brunelleschi went to Rome w/ Donatello & drew inspiration from Roman
antiquity built a dome for the Cathedral of Florence & built the Church of San Lorenzo
w/ classical columns, rounded arches & coffered ceilings
Many works revealed their patrons & their inner qualities Piero della Francesca made
portraits of the duke & duchess
B. The Artistic High Renaissance

Final stage of Renaissance art = 1480 1520, Roman culture became increasing
important w/ artists Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael & Michelangelo
o Vinci: Stressed the need to advance from realism to idealism gestures,
movements & nature; painted the Last Supper depicts a persons character
o Raphael: known for his madonnas of which achieved an ideal of beauty
surpassing human standards
o Michelangelo: painter, architect, sculptor influenced by Neo-Platonism: beauty
of humans = divine beauty & looked more God like; he decorated the ceiling of a
chapel through Pope Julius II & creation of Adam (well-proportioned Adam
figure) ; also regarded as II Divino
Created ideal beauty in David 14 ft. high, marble
Donato Bramante designed Tempietto (little temple), held columns, dome & sanctuary;
he was commissioned to design a new basilica for Rome = mag. Saint Peters

C. The Artist and Social Status

Early renaissance artists began as apprentices to masters in craft guilds, the depended on
patrons for commission for projects wealthy determined the content & purpose
By the end of the 15th c artists became less ass artisans and more like geniuses & heroes
(praised for their creativity)
They rose on the social scale & were welcomed into the circles of the upper classes &
mingled w/ the political & intellectual elite of their society

D. The Northern Artistic Renaissance


Italy: human form = vehicle of expression w/ realism, north (Low Countries) = emphasis
on illuminated manuscripts & wooden panel painting for alter pieces becus no space =
more attention to details
Influential northern school of art in Flanders, Jan van Eyck was 1st to use oil paint great
detailing is found in his Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride; detail > laws of pers. & prop.
Emphasis on emotional intensity of religious feeling & created wrks of devotional art
Albrecht Durer from Nuremberg integrated the ideas of Italian art and Northern art
together; in his Adoration of the Magi he wrote on the laws of perspective, proportion &
minute details

E. Music in the Renaissance

Cultural center was in the court of the dukes of Burgundy in N. Europe; Guillaume Dufay
= imp composer of his time changed the composition of the mass: Gregorian chants to
secular tunes
In Italy & France main secular music = madrigal: poem set to music, 12 lines,
emotional/erotic theme
Text painting: music tried to portray the literal meaning of the txt (ex. in melody =
heaven, wavelike motion = water)

VI. The European State in the Renaissance

Historians labeled France, England & Spain as Renaissance states & new monarchies
Monarchs in the W. Europe succeeded, rulers in central & E. Europe
A. The Growth of the French Monarchy

Hundred Years War ruined Frances farmlands, commerce, and population but
developed strong French national feeling toward a common enemy &
strengthened the kings authority
Charles VII composed army of cavalry and archers, the Estates General gave him
the right to levy the taille (annual direct tax on land/prop.)
King Louis XI developed a French territorial state by making the taille permanent
as a regular source of income took possession of lands of the deceased Charles
the Bold (duke of Burgundy) as well as Anjou, Maine, Bar and Provence

B. England: Civil War and a New Monarchy

War of Roses 1450s ducal house of Lancaster (red rose) vs. ducal house of York
(white rose); Henry Tudor defeated the last Yorkist king Richard III @ Bosworth
Field & established new Tudor dynasty
Henry VII ended the private wars of the nobility by abolishing livery and
maintenance : wealthy aristocrats having private armies; noble activity was
controlled by the Court of Star Chamber (practiced torture)
Henry left England w/ stable & prosperous economy: extracted money from trad.
financial resources of the monarch, didnt go to wars and gained support from the
gentry b/c moderate taxation

C. The Unification of Spain

The marriage of Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragon was a dynastic union

of two rulers but each kingdom maintained its own system; they both
strengthened royal control by stripping aristocrats from the royal council &
putting in mid class lawyers
They reorganized the military = best in Europe 16th c; made the clergy an
instrument of royal power by letting them choose the most impt church officials
in Spain
Jews & Muslims were persecuted in the 14th c, many converted to Christianity
but the rulers prompted an Inquisition guaranteed the orthodoxy of the converts;
conquest of Muslim Granada expelled 150,000 professed Jews from Spain & all
professed Muslims in 1502
Spanish = Catholic

D. The Holy Roman Empire: The Success of the Habsburgs

House of Habsburg = $$$ landowners due to a well executed policy of dynastic

marriages: emperor Frederick III was able to gain parts of France Luxembourg &
the Low Countries by getting his son to marry the daughter of the duke of
Burgundy Charles

Maximillian laid another successful marriage alliance: his son marries the
daughter of Ferdinand, making him the heir to the Habsburg, Burgundian and
Spanish lines

E. The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern Europe

Rulers had problems centralizing because the pop was mostly Slavic but there
were differences between ethnic groups, religious confrontation between Roman
Catholics, Greek Orthodox Christians and pagans
Poland: peasantry serfdom & established the right to vote for kings
Bohemia: distrusted Germans (had close ties to Poles & Slovaks) so they
associated w/ N.E. Slavic people; Hussite wars led to civil war & nobles increased
authority & wealth due to weak monarchy
Hungary: it converted to Roman Catholicism by German missionaries, church =
large & wealthy bishops = powerful indep. political figures; King Matthias
Corvinus broke the power of wealthy lords & created well org. bureaucracy :
patronized humanist culture, Italian scholars & artists, brilliant court
Russia: were under control of he Mongols but that Moscow princes used the
khans to increase their wealth/possessions; Ivan III brought a new Russian sate by
annexing Russian principalities & taking advantage of dissension among the

F. The Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine Empire

Eastern Europe = threat by Ottoman Turks; Byzantine Empire was

weakened by the sack of Constantinople & its occupation by the West
Ottoman Turks started in the N.E. Asia Minor & fast: seized Seljuk Turks
& Byzantine Empire; 1345 - bypassed Constantinople & Balkans
1389 Battle of Kosovo : Ottoman defeats Serbs, 1480: Bosnia, Albania & rest of
Serbia was added to the Ottoman Empire
1453 Ottomans completed the demise of the Byzantine w/ Sultan Mehmet II s
mass & destructive fleet

End of 15th century = Turk threatened Hungary, Austria, Bohemia & Poland,
Roman Emperor Charles V became bitter enemy in the 16th c

VIII. Conclusion

A continuation of the economic, political & social trends that begun in the High Middle
Ages however for the intellects, it was a period of new vision & exploration of great
fundamental questions
The artistic realm was a product of and for the elite did not represent the masses
Humanists raised questions about Catholic Church - giving way to religious renaissance;
Europe would never be a unified Christian commonwealth


Renaissance through his work, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, which portrayed and
exaggerated the individuality and secularism of the period.
Leon Battista Alberti - created the framework of modern interpretation of the Renaissance
through his work, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, which portrayed and exaggerated
the individuality and secularism of the period.
Hanseatic League a commercial and military association by northern German coastal towns.
House Of Medici This was the greatest bank in Europe and number one bank for the papacy. It
had branches in Venice, Milan, Rome, London, Lyons, Avignon and Bruges.
Renaissance A rebirth of antiquity; Greek and Roman civilization.
Secularism Excluding religion from state affairs; does not mean the persons involved are not
religious, just want to approach subject matters without the influence of religion.
Jacob Burckhardt created the framework of modern interpretation of the Renaissance through
the publication of The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860). The book portrayed and
exaggerated the individuality and secularism of the period.
Castigliones Book of the Courtier A book written by Baldassare Castiglione that outlined the
three basic attributes of the perfect courtier in 1528.
Condottieri A leader of mercenaries contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy.
Francisco Sforza A condottieri that conquered and became the duke of Milan after the death of
the ruler.
Cosimo dMedci the head of a small merchant oligarchy that governed Florence behind the
scenes through great wealth and political alliances
The Papal States states mainly in central Italy that used to be under control of the popes but
soon the independent cities became independent from papal rule. In the 15th century, popes
worked to regain authority over Papal States.
Isabella dEste - ruled Mantua beside her husband and was known for her intelligence and
political wisdom. She was a clever negotiator.
Peace of Lodi and balance of power These were ways Italian territorial states attempted to
establish peace between them. Peace of Lodi was a signed contract ending war and bringing an
era of peace into Italy. Balance of power was a concept designed to prevent one state from
becoming more powerful than the other.


1527 Sack of Rome An event that brought a temporary end to the Italian wars by the armies of
the Spanish king Charles I and led the domination of Italy by the Spaniards.
Machiavellis The Prince Machiavelli was an exiled political figure that wrote The Prince, in
hopes that rulers will restore and maintain order in his time with an unethical approach of doing
whatever it takes to maintain a powerful state.
Civic humanism The humanist movement associated with Florentine civic spirit and pride; the
fusion of political action and literary creation.
Petrach He was the father of Italian Renaissance humanism and the first to characterize the
middle ages as a period of darkness. He went in search of old Latin manuscripts through
monastic libraries throughout Europe.
Leonardo Brunis The New Cicero this was a biography on Cicero, whom called for a fusion of
political action and literary action, the study and participation of state affairs.
Lorenzo Valla - wrote The Elegances of the Latin Language to purify Medieval Latin and restore
Latin. He identified different stages of the language and accepted only Latin of the last century of
the Roman Republic and first century of the empire.
Marcilio Ficino and neoplatonism- Ficino translated the dialogues of Plato and created the
philosophy Neo-Platonism, Christianity synthesized with Platonism to argue that bonds of
sympathetic love through our souls bound the universe.
Renaissance hermeticism These were the body of ideas set forth in Hermetic writing. These
manuscripts included emphasis on occult sciences, theological and philosophical beliefs and
pantheism, the embodiment of divinity in all aspects of nature.
Pico della Mirandolas Oration a book that explores the background of the greatest
philosophers for common universal truths. He argues that humans have unlimited potential
liberal studies This is the study of history, moral philosophy, rhetoric, grammar, poetry,
mathematics, astronomy and music.
Johannes Gutenberg wrote the Bible, the first true book in the West produced from moveable
type in 1455 or 1456.
Masaccio- created the first masterpiece of Early Renaissance art with his cycles of frescoes in the
Brancacci Chapel. He began making 3D human figures and motivated the later generation of
Florentine artists.
Botticellis Primavera a painting set in the garden of Venus, a garden of eternal spring. His
figures are well defined but are different from the realism of the Early Renaissance.
Donatellos David Donatellos greatest work is a statue of David, a freestanding, bronze and
nude man with the head of the giant Goliath underneath.

Brunelleschis dome He went to Rome with Donatello and drew inspiration from Roman
antiquity. He built a dome for the Cathedral of Florence when thought it was impossible.
High Renaissance This was the final stage of Renaissance art; from 1480 1520 the Roman
culture became increasingly important.
Leonardo da Vinci - He emphasized the need to advance from realism to idealism. He focused on
gestures, movements and nature in hos works. In his painting, the Last Supper, he depicts a
persons character.
Raphael - known for his madonnas of which achieved an ideal of beauty surpassing human
Michelangelo was painter, architect and sculptor that was influenced by Neo-Platonism; beauty
of humans was similar to divine beauty. He decorated the ceiling of a chapel through Pope Julius
II and a well-proportioned Adam figure.
Sistine Chapels David a 14ft. marble statue that reflected the ideal beauty
Bramante and Saint Peters - designed Tempietto, little temple, which held columns, a dome and
sanctuary. He was commissioned to design a new basilica for Rome and it became the
magnificent Saint Peters.
Vasaris Lives of the Artists A series of brief biographies of Italys greatest artists.
Northern Renaissance As opposed to Italy, they had emphasis on illuminated manuscripts and
wooden panel painting for alter pieces. They paid great attention to detail and emphasized the
emotional intensity of religious feeling by creating works of devotional art.
Jan van Eyck the first artist to use oil paint and dedicated great detailing to his work Giovanni
Arnolfini and His Bride.
Albrecht Durer A man from Nuremberg who integrated the ideas of Italian art and Northern art
together. In his Adoration of the Magi, he wrote on the laws of perspective, proportion and
minute details.
Madigrals the main secular music in Italy & France main secular music. It was a poem set to
music with12 lines and an emotional/erotic theme.
new monarchies The recovered centralized monarchical governments of France, England,
and Spain at the end of the 15th century.
Louis XI the Spider and Henry VII These two kings had the agenda of developing a French
territorial state driven by a nationalistic feeling derived from the war. They were both able to
create a strong monarchy through incoming taxes and increasing land possessions.


Ferdinand and Isabella The marriage of these two brought together a dynastic union They were
able to strengthened royal control by stripping aristocrats from the royal council and putting in
mid class lawyers. They also reorganized the military.
Spanish Inquisition expelling of the professed Jews and Muslims if they were not loyal to their
conversions to Christianity.
The Habsburgs they were wealthy landowners due to a well executed policy of dynastic
marriages: emperor Frederick III was able to gain parts of France, Luxembourg and the Low
Countries by getting his son to marry the daughter of the duke of Burgundy.
Constantinople and 1453 - Due to the Ottoman Turks, the Byzantine Empire was weakened by
the sack of Constantinople. In 1453, Ottomans completed the demise of the Byzantine with
Sultan Mehmet II s massive and destructive fleet .


Text Document Questions:

Background: While many intellectuals of the Renaissance already saw their era as
consciously breaking with the Medieval past to create a new secular humanism, Europe
during the Renaissance was still very tied to the Catholic Church.
Part A Questions
A. Document: A Renaissance Banquet
Who is giving this banquet? What was the purpose of these banquets in Renaissance
Pope Pius V held this banquet and the purpose of the banquet was to show off his power and
wealth. In general, banquets could also serve the purpose to celebrate public and religious
festivals, official visits, anniversaries, and weddings.
B. Illustration: Harbor Scene at Hamburg
What does this image of Hamburg emphasize?
This image emphasizes the flourishing commerce merchants carried out. It shows the popularity
and power of the Hanseatic League of merchants and their monopoly on trade.
C. Document: Marriage Negotiations
What are the pros and cons of Francesco di Messer Tanaglis daughter as a potential
bride? What are the main concerns Alessandra Strozzi has in marrying her son? What
might Alessandra Stozzis motivations be in finding a match for her son?
The pros of the daughter as a bride is that she has a good enough dowry that the family can take,
she comes from a reputable family and shes attractive, educated and talented. The con is that she
is responsible for her large family. Alessandras main concern is that no would want him to marry
their daughter because he is an exile. Stozzis motivation in finding a good man is one that could
probably save her son from exile because the first thing she tells her son is that Francesco has
held office. I believe this is a suggestion that he may be able to help him.
D. Map 12.1: Renaissance Italy
What new institutions are labeled on the map? How is the map of Renaissance Italy
divided? In what ways did this change the concept of diplomacy during the Renaissance?
On the map, the institutions of printing press, library and schools of art is labeled. The map is
divided by the five major states: Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papal States and Naples. This
division changed diplomacy from one person representing a whole to individuals representing
their own states and doing whatever it took to make it more powerful and stable.
E. Document: Petrarch: Mountain Climbing and the Search for Spiritual Contentment
Why did Petrarch climb the mountain? What did he discover once he had reached the
mountains peak? In what way does Petrarchs discovery anticipate later humanist
Petrarch wanted to climb the mountain because even since a child hes seen the mountain and
wanted to experience its great height. Once he reached the mountains peak he discovers that he
had done everything to get to that moment but he had never done anything of comparison to his
own inner soul, as Augustines Confessions points out. Petrarchs discovery anticipated later


humanist philosophy because many had the same revelation: humans have the potential to reach
a high spiritual state and should be explored.
F. Document: Pico della Mirandola and the Dignity of Man
According to Pico della Mirandola, why is man unique among Gods creations? How can
man grow into an angel and the son of God?
Man is unique among Gods creations because he is not constrained but rather is entitled to his
own free will unlike all other beings. A man can grown into an angel and the son of God if he
becomes an intellectual man.
G. Document: The Genius of Leonardo da Vinci
In what ways did Leonardo typify the Renaissance man?
Leonardo typified the Renaissance man in several ways: his artistic skill, architectural skill and
intellect. He created human sculptures, designed prototypes of different mechanics and wrote
diligently his ideas on different subject matters.
I. Map 12.4 Ottoman Empire and Southeastern Europe. What geographical factors could
explain why the West gave little support to the Byzantine Empire in the fifteenth century?
The West gave little support to the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century because they had
diminished to little pieces of land on the other side of Eastern Europe. The Ottoman Empire had
extended and taken over. Its empire was now in between the Byzantine Empire and the Latin
West. Their new geographic location would not allow the west to support the Byzantine Empire.
Part B: Question: Using your responses from the above documents and illustrations, assess the
growing secularism during the Renaissance. To what extent did the Renaissance make a secular
break with the past?
The Renaissance made a secular break with the past to a great extent. This is evident especially
in the above documents and illustrations. One thing I observed in all of these examples is the
absence of any religious ties. The idea of living life for the moment and appreciating lifes
products is even practiced by a pope. The pope holds a banquet, not for any religious reason but
to demonstrate his wealth and power. Secularism is apparent in marriage negotiations as well. In
the past, marriage was about attaining a stable and peaceful family but here its evident that due
to secularism, it became more like a race to riches and prosperity. You also see the rise of
printing press, library and schools of art. These institutions emphasize the growing demand of
knowledge and exploration of worldly art, breaking the tradition of divinity as the explanation
for everything. A great emphasis is placed on man rather than God. This is seen in the ideas of
Leonardo da Vinci, Pico della Mirandola and Petrarch. They all preached the importance of the
individual, their soul and their personal potential. Just in these documents you are able to see
how in the 15th century society was growing to be more secular. There were still some religious
importance but they were overshadowed by the great changes happening at the time.