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# TISB Mathlympics 2015

1st Round
1. Suppose that

a. Show that

## cannot be written in the form

integers.]
b. Suppose now that

m ,n , M , N
(m ,n)

from

(M , N )

to

p and q

where

are

to

( 2, 3)

( x , y ) and

r , let

to

p
q

N (a , b , r )

a 2+ b=c 3 .

## (a , b) is less than or equal

r .

c. Show that

N ( 0.5,0.5, r )=4 a

## other words show that N(0.5,0.5,r) is a multiple of 4)

d. Let k be any positive integer. Explain why there is a positive
number

such that

N ( 2 , 3 ,r )=k .

## 2. In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (gcd) of two or more

integers, when at least one of them is not zero, is the largest positive
integer that divides the numbers without a remainder. For example, the
GCD of 8 and 12 is 4.
The least common multiple (lcm) is the smallest value which is a
multiple of both integers. For example, the LCM of 8 and 12 is 24.

Let

a,b

## 3. A circular table is partitioned into equal sectors where each sector is

labeled 0, 1, 2 1 inclockwise order. The case = 8 is shown
below:

## Starting with a penny at the sector labeled 0 and moving clockwise

around the table, a secondpenny is placed one sector from the first
penny (in sector 1), a third penny is placed two sectorsfrom the second
penny (in sector 3), and so forth until pennies occupy the table.
a. If is an odd number, find all such that the above procedure
results in each sectorbeing occupied by exactly one penny. Prove
that you have found all such .
k
b. If n=2 for some non-negative integer find all such that the
above procedure results in each sector being occupied by a
penny. Prove that you have found all such .
4. Prove that there is always an irrational number between two irrational
numbers (i.e., prove the density of irrational numbers).
5. Lets agree to say that a positive integer is prime like if it is not divisible
by 2, 3 or 5. How many prime like positive integers are there:

## a. Less than 100?

b. Less than 1000?
A very prime like integer is one where it is not divisible by any prime
less than 15. How many such integers are there less than 90000?
6. If there are integers such that
a

or

such that

## there exists integers

c=k 2+ l2

a,b,c

for

k >l>0

and

and gcd of

such that
(k , l)

a2 +b 2=c 2 , one of

a=k 2 l 2 ,

= 1.

b=2 kl ,