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Aleks Notes SI units

09/02/2014

SI UNITS
length, width, height, depth, thickness, etc. = METER (m)
mass = GRAM (g)
time/duration = SECOND (s)
volume = LITER (L) must be capital
temperature = KELVIN (K)
megameter = Mm = 106 (Million)
micrometer = m = 10-6
nanometer = nm = 10-9
picometer = pm = 10-12
femtometer = f = 10-15
Kittens
Have
Dark babies
Kilo
Hecto
Deca (base)
Km
hm
dam
3
2
10
10
101

Drinking
Deci
dm
10-1

Fahrenheit Celsius
Temp in F = (1.8)(Temp in C) +32

Chocolate
Centi
cm
10-2

Milk
Milli
mm
10-3

Celsius Kelvin
Temp in K= Temp in C +273.15
1 mL = 1cm3
If the decimal is .5 (23.5, 67.5, 24.5 etc) round to the even number
23.5 goes up to 24
24.5 goes down to 24
When adding and subtracting use the decimal place to find sig figs
Lowest number of decimal places = # of sig figs
Ie. 13.6 + 2 + 4.77 = 20.37 but 2 has no decimals so w/ sig figs
answer = 20
1 cubic meter = 1000 L
1 cm3 = 1 mL
formulas
area of circle = r2
circumference of circle = 2r
sphere volume = 4/3r3
cylinder volume = r2h
concentration = mass of dissolved/total volume
cube volume = s3 so s= cubed root of v

writing FORMULAS from STRUCTURES


write elements in order they appear on P. Table
HYDROGEN is exception
o H goes after all elements except those is groups 16 and 17
BUT if a molecule is ONLY H and 1 other element from groups 6A
(16) or 7A (17) then hydrogen goes 1st
if elements are in the same group write the lower element first
Periodic Table
Group 1 = Alkali Metals
Group 2 = alkaline earth metals
Group 16 = chalogens
Group 17 = halogens
Group 18 = Nobel gases/ inert gases
Main Group = everything but the transition metals
Standard State of Elements
All metals are solids (s) is natural state except mercury Hg(l)
liquid
Non-metals written as simple solids (s) except Nobel gases and 7
diatomic nonmetals, phosphorous and sulfur
Diatomic nonmentals mostly gases but Iodine = Solid and Bromine
= liquid
Bromine = Br2 (l)
Phosphorous = P4 (s)
Sulfur = (s)
Diatomic Non-mentals (must be 2 bonded together in natural state
to exist) (form a 7 on a period table)
o Nitrogen
o Oxygen
o Fluorine
o Chlorine
o Bromine
o Iodine
o Hydrogen
Carbon, Boron = solid
Sub Atomic Particles
Name
Symbol
Proton
p^+
Neutron
n^0
electron
e^-

Charge
+1
0
-1

Mass (amu)
1.0
1.0
.0005

Location
Nucleus
nucleus
Orbiting nucleus

Use prefixes for Covalent Bonds Only


Mono- is only used in the second word of the compound never
the first
Di Tri-

Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Decapositive ions(cations)


cations have same names as metal + ion
o ie. Na^+ = sodium ion
if a metal can form different cations (transition metals) a roman
numeral goes after metal
o ie. Fe^2+ = Iron (||)
cations formed from non-metal atoms end in ium
o ie. NH4^+ = ammonium
Negative Ions (anions)
Put ide at end
polyatomic ions ****

an oxoanion is a polyatomic ion made from a central atom bonded


to one or more atoms of oxygen

the names of common oxoanions are formed by replacing all but the
1 syllable of the name with ate
st

most common
oxoanions

Per. Ate MOST OXYGEN (1 More)


Ate
MOST COMMON #
Ite
(1 Less) OXYGEN
Hypo..ite LEAST OXYGEN (2 less)
** sulfate always have 2- charge
Finding atomic mass from isotope mass and natural abundance
Average mass of the atoms in a sample (atoms dont have same
mass b/c isotopes)
Multiply mass (amu) of each isotope by its natural abundance
and then add the results
(mass of isotope 1 x natural abundance of isotope 1) + (mass of
isotope 2 x natural abundance) + ..
binary ionic compounds are made from cations of a metal
elements and anions of a nonmental element
empiral formula: of an ionic compound tells ratio of ions in it
ie. Empiral formula of sodium chlorate is NaCl. Tells you the ratio
of sodium atoms to chlronie atoms is 1:1
net charge must be zero (neutral)
criss cross charges to make sure neutral
ALL TRANSITIONS METALS NEED ROMANS EXCEPT:
Zinc (Zn) +2
Silver (Ag) +1
Cadmium (Cd) +2
charge of transition metal (cation) in bionary ionic bonds
changes based on the charge of the non metal (anion) must cancel
out
metal goes first!!!!!
INORGANIC ACIDS
Acids lose the H+ at the beginning so the rest is aniono Ie. HCl becomes H+ and Clo H2Cl becomes H2+ and Cl2-

binary acids acids with just hydrogen and 1 other elements


o Hydro + anion root (after H is taken off) + ic + acid
Use regular roots (chlor-, brom-, iod-, but sulfur keeps
whole name not sulf- (only for acids)
Oxyacids contains hydrogen oxygen and 1 other element
o Oxoanion root (oxoanion without ate or ic. Keep beginning
hypo or per)
o -Ate becomes ic (I ate so much I felt sick
o ite becomes ous (the nite sky is marvelous)
o oxoanion root + ic/ate + acid
irregular name acids
o if ends in ide name like a binary acid
o if ends in ate (ie acetate) name like oxyacids
Naming acid salts
o Ionic compounds with extra acidic hydrogen
o Follow general ionic compound name (cation name then anion
name)
o Number prefix (di, tri no mono on first tho)
o Number prefix + hydrogen + oxoanion name
o Ex:

o If theres (HCL)2 theres only 1 hydrogen even tho the 2 is on


the outside
limiting reactant: reactant that gets used up first (the one theres
less of)
1.
find initial moles of each
2.
determine limiting reactant by imagining each running out
3.
find final moles (one will be zero)
if you get a number that is more than the number of original moles
then that is the limiting reactant
theoretical yield = mass of whatever product
why is phosphorous P4?
Percent yield: = Actual yield (given or found in lab)
x100
Theoretical yield

Molarity = moles/volume
1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 of something
ex. 1 raindrop is 50.0 mg
o Mass x Avogadros # = MOLAR MASS
o (50mg) x (6.022 x 1023) = 3.0 x 1025 mg
o 3.0 x 1025 = the Molar mass
1 mole of anything is the molar mass of that thing
atomic mass (in amu) on periodic table = 1 mole of that substances
Na atomic mass = 22.99 amu SO 1 mole of Na = 22.99 g
REMEMBER DIATOMIC ATOMS!!!!! 7 on p table. From N - I
If theres fluorine as a gas must account that its F2
Each molecule of Fluorine gas has 2 atoms of F
So each mole of Fluorine gas has 2 moles of fluorine atoms
So find molar mass of F on p. table and multiply by 2 to find molar
mass of the fluorine gas (F2)
if it says hydrogen gas or bromine gas then its diatomic
a molecule of LiH has 1 mole of Li + 1 mole H
o add their atomic masses to get mass of LiH
find mass percent from formula

Solving for reactants using chemical equations


Example: CH3CH2OH + O2 --> H2O + CH3COOH
What mass is produced by 7.55 g O2?
1 Convert g O2 (7.55g) to moles using the molar mass of O2
2 Calculate moles of H2O produced from moles of O2 (mole ratio 1:1)
3 Convert moles of H2O to grams using H2O molar mass