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Preface

This text started out as a lab-based text, is put together expose the
reader to the basic principles of computer hardware. In this book the
information and chapters have been presented to take account of the
needs of the curriculum for Computer hardware and to give ths
student a broader understanding of the basic concepts of computer
hardware.
To aid the student's systematic understanding of the subject matter
as presented in this five chapter book, the book have been prepared
to consider; the basics of Principles of Systematic Fault Diagnosis as
presented in chapter one, chapter two considers Computer Modules
and Modems, chapter three exposes the reader to the basics of
computer Hardware Installation and Assembly, Peripherals and
Periphery Equipment is treated in chapter four and chapter five
introduces the reader to the Hardware Measurement Basics.
Upon completing this book, the student is expected to understand
and appreciate the basics of Computer Hardware. Hence, preparing
the reader for the advanced courses in computer hardware
installation, maintenance and repairs.
A.U Affiah
2013

Chapter 1
Overview of computers
1.0 Introduction
Recent developments in computers, particularly with regard to the possibility of
developing artificial intelligence, have made a precise definition of computer a
difficult task. However, for our purpose we shall consider it as a device for
performing logical operations at a very high speed or as a machine which
processes given data to derive the required and useful information. During the
processing the computer has to perform various functions like
(i) Accepting Instructions & data from the user.
(ii) Performing various arithmetic and Logical operations as per Instructions
given.
(iii) Presenting the Information or Output to the user.
The earliest computers were as large as a room. But thanks to continuous
technological advances over the last 60 years has made it possible to hold
some computers in the palm of our hand. Computers are found in businesses
and establishments, such as stores, restaurants, banks, airports, and homes,
where they are used to perform a large variety of functions. They are available
in a wide range of sizes, shapes, types, and speeds to meet user needs.
With regards to today’s computers, the “machine” part of the computer is called
the hardware, while the “programmable” part is called the software. Software
can be broken down into 3 main categories:
System Software: is designed to operate the computer’s hardware and to
provide and maintain a platform for running applications. (e.g., Windows,
MacOS, Linux, Unix, etc..)
Middleware: is a set of services that allows multiple processes running on one
or more machines to interact. Most often used to support and simplify complex
distributed applications. It can also allow data contained in one database to be
accessed through another. Middleware is sometimes called plumbing because
it connects two applications and passes data between them. (e.g., web servers,
application servers).
Application Software: is designed to help the user perform one or more
related specific tasks. Depending on the work for which it was designed, an
application can manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these
elements. (e.g., office suites, web browsers, video games, media players,
etc…)

1.1 Measuring Computing Power
For physical machines, we can compare the power of different machines by
measuring the amount of mechanical work they can perform within a given
amount of time. This power can be captured with units like horsepower and watt.
Physical power is not a very useful measure of computing power, though, since
the amount of computing achieved for the same amount of energy varies
greatly. Energy is consumed when a computer operates, but consuming energy
is not the purpose of using a computer. Two properties that measure the power
of a computing machine are: How much information it can process and how fast
can it process the information.
Information: To understand information quantitatively, as something we can
measure, we need a more precise way to think about information. The
measurement of information is based on how what is known changes as a
result of obtaining the information. The primary unit of information is a bit . One
bit of information halves the amount of uncertainty. It is equivalent to answering
a “yes” or “no” question, where either answer is equally likely beforehand.
Before learning the answer, there were two possibilities; after learning the
answer, there is one. We call a question with two possible answers a binary
question. Since a bit can have two possible values, we often represent the
values as 0 and 1. For example, suppose we perform a fair coin toss but do not
reveal the result. Half of the time, the coin will land “heads”, and the other half of
the time the coin will land “tails”. Without knowing any more information, our
chances of guessing the correct answer are 1/2 . One bit of information would
be enough to convey either “heads” or “tails”; we can use 0 to represent “heads”
and 1 to represent “tails”. So, the amount of information in a coin toss is one bit.

Units of Information: One byte is defined as eight bits. Hence, one byte of
information corresponds to eight binary questions, and can distinguish among
8
2 (256) different values. For larger amounts of information, we use metric
10
prefixes, but instead of scaling by factors of 1000 they scale by factors of 2
20
(1024). Hence, one kilobyte is 1024 bytes; one megabyte is 2 (approximately
30
one million) bytes; one gigabyte is 2 (approximately one billion) bytes; and one
40
terabyte is 2 (approximately one trillion) bytes.
Representing Data: We can use sequences of bits to represent many kinds of
data. All we need to do is think of the right binary questions for which the bits give
answers that allow us to represent each possible value.

ranging from ATM machines to electronic cash registers to multimedia games. they are a popular choice for performing many tasks. Computers also work at very high speeds and rarely make mistakes. but it is reliable only when the data. If it all there are errors. Unlike humans. which have capacity to store huge amounts of data and help the retrieval of data an easy task. the computers accuracy is consistently high enough which avoids any errors. .The computer performance is consistent even to all extent of more than 10 million calculations. 2) Accuracy :. they are due to errors in instructions given by the programmer.The computer perform three basic operations 1) It is capable to access and accept information through various input-output devices from the user.Once the instructions fed into computer it works automatically without any human intervention until the completion of execution of program until meets logical instructions to terminate the job.1 Characteristics of a computer The Characteristics which make computer indispensable are.The computer is able to process the date and give the output in fractions of seconds such that required information is given to the user on time enabling the user to take right decisions on right time.1.2. computers can fail or produce faulty results if the instructions are incorrect or incomplete. 2) It performs basic Arithmetic and Logic operations on data as desired. 3) Reliable :. the monotony of repetitive work does not affect computers. However. 5) Versatile :. which gives instructions are correct and reliable. 1) Speed :. 6) Automation :. therefore. 1. characteristics and Limitations of a Computer Computers can store.The output generated by the computer is very reliable. 3) It is capable to generate the desired output in the desired form. which is passing as input to the computer and the program. For these reasons. and retrieve large amounts of information. 7) Diligent :. 4) Storage Capacity :.2 Benefits.In spite of its high speed of processing. it does each and every calculation with same speed and accuracy. A powerful computer is capable of executing about 3 million calculations per second. the use of computers is spreading to a large number of spheres. analyze.The computer has a provision to store large volumes of data in the small storage devices.

4) Computers. There are totally five generations of computers till today. they consume less power. 1) Computer does not work on itself. it requires set of instructions to be provided. 1. Digital Data Corporation's PDP 1/5/8 Honeywell 400) With the development of Transistors and there use in circuits. generated less heat and faster and reliable. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. 2) Computer are not intelligent. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors.2 Limitation of Computer The limitations of a computer is summarized as follows. I Generation : 1945 – 55 II Generation : 1955 – 65 III Generation : 1965 – 75 IV Generation : 1975 – 89 V Generation : 1989 to present First Generation (ENIAC .2. Second Generation (Manufacturers – IBM 7030. one has to program the computer to take an action if some conditional prevail.1.3 The Computer Generations The development of computers has followed different steps in the terminology used and these steps of technological differences are called as GENERATIONS in computer terminology. the vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors to arrive at 2nd generation of computers. they have to be instructed about each and every step which they have to perform 3) Computers cannot take decisions on its own. magnetic core for memory storage. The size of transistors is much smaller when compared to vaccum tubes. else computer (Hardware) is waste. memories and I/O units. unlike humans cannot learn by experience.Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701) The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. .

expert systems. in the place of transistors. Origin 2000. Personal computing era. Motorola's 68000. 2) The size & cost of computers come down drastically Fifth Generation (IBM notebooks.4 Evolution of computers Computer technology has advanced to a point where you can connect your computer to a network of computers without even using a cable. government agencies. Apple II. 68040. these computers have very processing speeds and are more reliable. and scientific and military establishments.Advantages (1) Size of Computer has come down as well as power consumption. the third generation of computers came into existence. 1. low maintenance. 68030. These computers are used Integrated Circuits (IC's) of silicon chips. Pentium PCs-Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core. This era was characterized by a few large and expensive computers that were used to meet the data processing requirements of large organizations. This era was characterized by small and inexpensive microcomputers (commonly known as personal computers (PCs)) .. speed and reliability increased as compared to previous generation. PARAM 10000...80486 . Advantages 1) These computers have high processing powers.. Advantage : The size of computers. Third Generation (System 360 Mainframe from IBM. Each of these IC's consist of large number of chips in very small packages. high reliability and very low power consumption. CRAY I/2/X/MP etc) The Computers belonging to these generations used Integrated circuits with Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). PDP-8 Mini Computer from Digital Equipment Corporation) The development of silicon chips. cost. The evolution of computers can be broadly classified as follows: Institutional computing era. Fourth Generation (Intel's 8088. SUN work stations. Robotics etc. (2) The Cost of Computer reduced.80286. heat generation and power consumption decreased to great extent. IBM SP/2) These computers use optic fibre technology to handle Artificial Intelligence. These machines used IC's with large scale Integration (LSI).80386.

and homes use for communication and data storage and manipulation. insurance companies. schools. Mainframes have large data storage capacity and can process bulk data. and manufacturers. This era is also be called the Internet era because it’s characterized by the development of Internet technology.that were used by individuals in small organizations. and homes.4. schools. This era is characterized by networks of interconnected computers that organizations.1 with the brief exploitations as follows: Figure 1. banks. which has revolutionized the way people work and communicate. various types of computers have evolved. They are used to perform tasks such as scientific calculations and data processing for large businesses. 1.1 Mainframe: A large and expensive multi-user computer on which hundreds of users can work simultaneously on the same data. They can be classified as shown in figure 1.1 Types of computers Various types of computers that have evolved over the last few decades. With the progression of computer technology. . Interpersonal computing era.

Applications · Used to process large amount of data at very high speed such as in the case of Banks/ Insurance Companies/ Hospitals/ Railways…which need online processing of large number of transactions and requires massive data storage and processing capabilities · Used as controlling nodes in WANs (Wide Area Networks) · Used to mange large centralized databases 1.to simulate airflow around an aircraft at different speeds and altitude. and processing tasks with complex requirements such as weather forecasting. and aircraft design.CRAY Research : CRAY-1 & CRAY-2. E. Eg. reliability and cost effectiveness.2 Supercomputer: A very fast computer that can process billions of instructions per second.4. PACE Series by DRDO Applications: · In petroleum industry .to analyze volumes of seismic data which are gathered during oil seeking explorations to identify areas where there is possibility of getting petroleum products inside the earth · In Aerospace industry . This helps in producing an effective aerodynamic design for superior performance · In Automobile industry – to do crash simulation of the design of an automobile before it is released for manufacturing – for better automobile design · In structural mechanics – to solve complex structural engineering problems to ensure safety.:. Hitachi (S820). · Meteorological centers use super computers for weather forecasting · In Biomedical research – atomic nuclear and plasma analysis – to study the structure of viruses such as that causing AIDS . biomedical applications. Designer of a large bridge has to ensure that the bridge must be proper in various atmospheric conditions and pressures from wind. velocity etc and under load conditions. Supercomputers are used to perform tasks that involve processing large amounts of data. NEC (SX20). Anupam by BARC. PARAM 10000 by C-DAC.g. Fujitsu (VP2000).

Got all the facilities of a personal computer (HDD.It has a processor and memory and a wireless modem .4 Micro Computers: Microcomputers are tiny computers that can vary in size from a single chip to the size of a desktop model and uses a microprocessor as its central Processing Unit. statistical analysis.Digital Equipments PDP 11/45 and VAX 11) Applications · These computers are used when the volume of processing is large for e. E. ranging from maintaining household finances to managing the finances of a large company.4.g.Smaller model of the microcomputer. Wrist PC:.1. accounting. E. Data processing for a medium sized organization · Used to control and monitor production processes · To analyze results of experiments in laboratories · Used as servers in LANs (Local Area Networks) 1. project management.It has a processor and memory and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data.3 Minicomputer: A multi-user computer that can support 4 to 200 users simultaneously. Cars and Note book/Personal computers. The common examples of microcomputers are chips used in washing machines. entertainment etc.IBM PC. PS/2 and Apple Macintosh Applications · Used in the field of desktop publishing. Minicomputers are used to perform tasks such as hospital administration and manufacturing processes.g.g.:. N/W card. They are designed to be used by only one person at a time. Note book or Lap Top:. investment analysis. single-user computer that you can use to perform a variety of tasks.Very small in terms of size – can be folded and carried around – Monitor is made up of LCD and the keyboard and system units are contained in a single box. graphic designing. Palm Top:.4. The different models of microcomputers are given below:Personal computer (PC): A small. Sound card. Modem etc) and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data.size is similar to that of a calculator – pocket size.Smallest type of microcomputer – can be worn on our wrist like a watch. CDD.:. TVs. teaching.

can run on batteries.2 Portable Pcs Laptop: A portable computer with the same computing power as a desktop. Figure 1. on the other hand. Tablet PC: A computer that looks like a notebook. Figure 1. are among the smallest of all the portables. such as Palm-Pilots. and are easy to carry. You can use palmtops only for limited. the name). a date book. Portable PCs. a task list. desktops are too large and cumbersome to carry while traveling. but weighs much less and has a built-in video screen. and a simple calculator. a memo pad. PCs are classified in two categories. However. desktops can be placed conveniently on a desk (hence. usually the size of a pocket calculator. desktops and portables. Notebook: A computing device with the same processing power as a laptop but is much smaller. are small in size. an address book. PCs were developed in the early 1980s. Unlike the earliest computers that occupied a lot of space. built-in applications.2 shows some of the portable PCs available today with description as follows.Personal computers The most popular type of computer in use today is the PC. . Palmtops. Today’s PCs are faster and smaller than those sold two decades ago. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA): A handheld device originally designed as a personal organizer. It includes a clock. Palmtop: A device that you can hold in the palm of your hand. It has a screen on which a user can write with a special purpose pen.

schedules. This device is being developed and designed to act as an intelligent assistant. speed and applications of the major classes of computer is illustrated below. The cost. PCs are used to perform a diverse range of tasks. Servers can also be used as multi-user computers. and reports • Maintaining large volumes of data • Managing numbers and performing calculations • Creating and manipulating graphics • Using multimedia and playing games • Representing data in the form of charts and graphs • Communicating through e-mail and instant messengers • Buying and selling items by using the Internet • Learning or researching various subjects and technologies by using the Internet and interactive CD-ROMss multi-user computers. Server A computer that makes programs and data available to a network of computers.Wearable computer: A small personal computer that users can wear while operating. It also handles communication between interconnected computers. such as letters. for example: • Writing and editing documents. .

There are various types of computers for various purposes. External hard disk 16.3. Printer Even though the size. A block diagram of the basic computer organization specifying different functional units is shown in figure 1. Power supply 6. Desktop. Secondary storage (Hard disk) 8. Laptop. The internal architecture of computers differs from one system model to another. Primary storage (RAM) 4.4. The most commonly used computer nowadays is the Personal Computer. Optical disc drive 7. By size three types of Personal Computers are now available. Mouse 15. and Palmtop or Notepad. System software 12. The way present day motorcar differs from its original version. Monitor 11. supercomputers for high level multitasking precision jobs. By configuration all three are more or less same. performance. Speakers 10. CPU (Microprocessor) 3. Figure 1.1. the computer we use today is totally different from its first make. Keyboard 14. . they differ only in size and capacity as well as the addon features. etc.) 5. See figure 1.3 An exploded view of a modern desktop personal computer and peripherals 1.5 Comp o n e n t s o f Pe r s o n a l Comp u t e r Computer technology has undergone profound changes since the first generation computer. e. the basic logical structure proposed by Von Neumann has not change. Here the solid lines indicate the flow of instruction and data and the dotted lines represent the control exercised by the control unit. Application software 13. We shall restrict our discussion to the Personal Computer. Expansion cards (graphics. Scanner 2.g. Motherboard 9. reliability and cost of computers have been changing over the years. shape.

There are two classes of memory devices :. mouse (pointing devices). The keyboard is wired so that whenever a key is pressed. Data and programs must be in the primary memory for execution.4 Block diagram of computer organization Input Unit: Input unit accepts coded information from human operators through electro mechanical devices such as the keyboard or from other computers over digital communication lines. Primary memory (Main memory) Contains a large number of semiconductor cells each capable of storing one bit of information. This memory is fast and expensive. E g. Finally the result is sent back to the outside through the output unit. Other kinds of input devices: Joy stick. The time required to access one word is called Memory Access Time . This time is fixed and independent of the location. The number of bits in each word is called the word length and it may vary from 16 to 64 bits. These cells are processed in group of fixed size called words containing 'n' bits.Primary memory and Secondary memory.Figure 1. The information received is either stored in the memory for later reference or immediately used by the Arithmetic and Logic circuitry to perform the desired operation. scanner etc. Memory Unit: The memory unit stores program and data. Random Access Memory (RAM) . the corresponding letter or digit is automatically translated into its corresponding code and sent directly to either the memory or the processor. The main memory is organized such that the contents of one word can be stored or retrieved in one basic operation. a distinct address is associated with each word location. track ball. For accessing data.10nS to 100nS.

Hard Disk. Floppy Disk. graphic displays etc. E.Secondary storage They are used when large amount of data have to be stored (also when frequent access is not necessary) E. The timing signal that governs the I/O transfers is generated by the Control Unit. magnetic taped. By selecting. Synchronization signals are also generated by the Control Unit. Control Unit The operations of all the units are coordinated by the control unity (act as the nerve centre that sends control signal to other units). Video terminals (provides both input & output functions). The control unit and ALU's are usually many times faster than other devices connected to a computer system. Access times to registers are 5 to 10 times faster than access time to memory. which may be used for temporary storage of frequently used operands. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Most computer operations (Arithmetical and logical) are executed in ALU of the processor. Output devices accept binary data from the computer . This enabled a single processor to control a number of external devices such as video terminals.g. These operands are brought into arithmetic unit – actual addition is carried. displays and mechanical controllers which are much slower than the processor. Each register can store one word of data. disk memories. Magnetic Tapes etc. It consists of Arithmetic and Logic Unit and Control Unit. Processor Unit This is the heart of the computer system is the Processor unit. . The result is then stored in the memory or retained in the processor itself for immediate use. Output Unit This is the counter part of input unit. sensors. Processor contains a number of high speed storage elements called Registers.g. Note that all operands may not reside in the main memory. Compact Disk. Printer. interpreting and executing the program instructions the program instructions the control unit is able to maintain order and direct the operation of the entire system. For example: Suppose two numbers (operands) located in the main memory are to be added.decodes it into original form and supplies this result to the outside world.

e. During the execution of an instruction. PC points to the next instruction that is to be fetched from the memory.5 Internal circuitry of the processor . the contents of the program counter are updated to hold the address of the next instruction to be executed. Program Counter (PC): It contains the address of the instruction currently being executed. Figure 1. Most modern computers have 8 to 32 general purpose registers. Access to data in these registers is much faster than to data stored in memory locations because the registers are inside the processor.5 Instruction Register (IR): Holds the instruction that is currently being executed and its output is available to the control circuits which generate the timing signals that control the various processing elements involved in executing the instruction. n General Purpose Registers (R0 to Rn-1): Facilitates communication with the main memory. i. Memory Address Register (MAR): holds the address of the location to or from which data are to be transferred Memory Data Register (MDR): contains the data to be written into or read out of the address location.Internal Organization of Processor Processor contains a number of registers used for temporary storage of data other than ALU and Control circuitry illustrated in figure 1.

This is done by sending its address to the MAR and initiating a Read cycle. the addressed word (in this case the first instruction) is read out of the memory and is loaded into the MDR 5.5. which are mainly of the following types: . At some point during the execution of the current instruction. The address of the location where the result is to be stored is sent to the MAR and a Write cycle is initiated. 8. 9. An interrupt is a request from an I/O device for service by the processor. When the interrupt-service routine is completed. Program is stored in the main memory 2. 11. the computer accepts data from input devices and sends data to output devices. If the instruction involves an operation to be performed by the ALU. Contents of the PC are transferred to the MAR and a Read Control signal sent to the memory 4. Operands are read from the memory into the MDR and are transferred from MDR to the ALU. 6. Here the device raises an interrupt signal. the state of the processor is restored so that the normal program may be continued. 7. The internal state of the processor at such moments (like the contents of the PC. Now the processor provides the requested service by executing an appropriate interrupt-service routine. and some control information) are saved in memory locations. If the result is to be stored in the memory. the contents of the PC are incremented so that the PC now points to the next instruction to be executed. 1. 10. As soon as the execution of the current instruction is completed. then it is sent to the MDR. a new instruction fetch may be started. the required operands are to be fetched from the memory (or CPU registers). Contents of the MDR are transferred to the IR. Now the instruction is ready to be decoded and executed. 12. ALU will perform the desired operation.1 Hardware Means the physical parts of the computer. In addition to transferring data between the memory and the processor. After the access time. a sensing device in a computer controlled industrial process may detect a dangerous condition. For example. the general registers. PC is set to point to the first instruction of the program 3.The steps involved during the processor operation is as follows: 1.

The basic of all these is the Operating System Software. as shown in figure 1. The Motherboard and the CPU – Processor Memory Chip 2. When you switch on the system unit.6 Starting a computer Your computer must have an operating system installed before it can perform any task. Before you switch on a computer. Other Accessories (optional) Looking at any personal computer system we usually see three things – the Computer inside a cabinet. But before that we must note the basic physical configuration of a personal computer system. and output of the results or processed information. 1. you switch on the monitor and any other attached devices such as a printer. you must ensure that all the cables are connected to the appropriate sockets (referring to the manual is recommended). which may be classified as follows: 1. Modem. Application Software 4. Projector. Software These are the structured information and commands. Information Storage Device (and their Control Cards) 4. a Key Board. Light pen. Desktop components After you switch on the computer. the operating system automatically begins a process known as booting. usually through the internal Hard Disk or External disks.6. Next. input of information. or speakers. Language Software 3. which starts the computer. which consists of three stages of operations. a scanner. which can be fed into the computer. Speaker. We shall make a brief description of these components. Camera. Utility Software It should be noted that these software are to be made according to the functions we desire the computer to perform. Just as a physical desktop . etc. Many other accessories may be fitted to the computer Joysticks. processing of information. There are various types of software. and even Sound Recorder. in Multi -media systems. Disk Operating System Software 2. Input output Device (and their Control Cards) 3. a Video Monitor. a mouse. the operating system (Windows XP for this course) displays a desktop.1. and sometimes a Printer.

launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet).6 Sample of the windows XP desktop . get help. and shut down your computer Quick Launch toolbar: Used to display the desktop. the Windows XP desktop contains programs (also called applications) that you use to perform tasks such as creating and editing documents. the Quick Launch toolbar. or launch Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media) Notification area: Contains a clock and displays the status of specific programs and controls. It contains the Start button.contains the tools that you use to work. working with storage devices. configure the computer. and the notification area. and printing documents. The Windows XP desktop contains icons and a taskbar. The taskbar is located at the bottom of the screen. Figure 1. Icons are pictorial representations of the programs included in Windows XP. You click an icon to start the application associated with it. The following describes these components. Start button: Used to start applications.

4 Observe the icons .(In the lower-right corner of the screen on the taskbar.The Windows XP desktop appears.(On the taskbar. display the desktop.You use icons to quickly start their associated applications. Click OK . Observe the Start button .6. It contains the Start button. 3 Observe the desktop .) It contains a clock that displays the time. or run Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media).) Follow your instructor's directions. and set up (configure) and turn off your computer.(On the notification area. Observe the arrow on the desktop . You use it for various activities such as selecting an icon on the desktop or starting an application. the Quick Launch toolbar.) You click the icons on this toolbar to launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet).) A message.(On the taskbar.(At the bottom of the screen.This arrow is referred to as the mouse pointer or simply. . 5 Observe the taskbar . get help.(A sample desktop is shown in figure 1. 6 Point to the clock .Activity: Identifying the desktop components 1 Follow your instructor's directions to switch on your computer 2 Log on to Windows XP . Observe the notification area .(If necessary.) You use it to navigate within Windows XP. the pointer. called a ScreenTip. appears showing the current weekday and date. Observe the Quick Launch toolbar .) It contains icons of some commonly used Windows XP programs and a taskbar.) You can use this button to start applications. and the notification area.

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Unix. and managing files. This is the first layer of software loaded into memory when a system boots or starts up. memory management. scheduling. software tools for managing the system and simplifying the use of hardware appeared very quickly afterwards. task scheduling.1 Introduction An operating system (OS) is a software program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. 2. controlling input and output devices. as well as mobile computers such as PDAs and mobile phones. They are also often distributed with application software that does not relate directly to the operating system's core function. These services include. However. and Linux. have an operating system to run other programs.2 Concept of an operating system An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs. . An operating system is often distributed with tools for programs to display and manage a graphical user interface (although Windows and the Macintosh have these tools built into the operating system). commercial computer vendors were supplying quite extensive tools for streamlining the development. Examples of operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows. The lowest level of any operating system is its kernel. and execution of jobs on batch processing systems. but which the operating system distributor finds advantageous to supply with the operating system. Modern general-purpose computers. The OS performs basic tasks. such as controlling and allocating memory. such as application software. Commercially-supplied operating systems are present on virtually all modern devices described as computers. The first computers did not have operating systems. but are not limited to: disk access. Mac OS (and Darwin). facilitating networking. By the early 1960s. and gradually expanded in scope. and access to other hardware devices. The kernel provides access to various common core services to all other system and application programs.Chapter 2 Concept of The Operating System 2. prioritizing the processing of instructions. as well as utility programs for tasks such as managing files and configuring the operating system. including personal computers and mainframes. Examples were produced by UNIVAC and Control Data Corporation. from personal computers to mainframes.

Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU. Operating System does the following activities for memory management. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address.1 Block Diagram of the Operating System Some of important functions of an operating system is listed below. Ÿ Keeps tracks of primary memory i. So for a program to be executed. processors. Ÿ Memory Management Ÿ Processor Management Ÿ Device Management Ÿ File Management Ÿ Security Ÿ Control over system performance Ÿ Job accounting Ÿ Error detecting aids Ÿ Coordination between other software and users Memory Management Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently. In technical terms. . An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory.e. it is software which manages hardware. it must in the main memory. what part of it are in use by whom. Figure 2. devices and information. Figure 2. what part are not in use.1 shows the block diagram of an operating system.is an intermediary between users and computer hardware.

These directories may contain files and other directions. Ÿ File Management A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. Ÿ Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. This function is called process scheduling. location. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. Ÿ Keeps tracks of all devices. The collective facilities are often known as file system. status etc. Operating System does the following activities for device management. Ÿ Allocates the device in the efficient way. Security By means of password and similar other techniques. Ÿ Allocates the resources. Ÿ Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so. Ÿ De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required. .Ÿ In multiprogramming. uses. Ÿ Decides who gets the resources. OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. Device Management OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. Ÿ Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. Ÿ De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated. Ÿ Keeps track of information. Ÿ De-allocates the resources. Ÿ Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process. OS decides which process will get memory when and how much. Ÿ De-allocates devices. Operating System does the following activities for file management. preventing unauthorized access to programs and data. Processor Management In multiprogramming environment. Operating System does the following activities for processor management.

Error detecting aids Production of dumps. 2. Job accounting Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users. assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems. The development of the IBM System/360 2. interpreters. traces. One notable early operating system was CP/M. error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids.3 Generations of Operating System Through the 1960s.produced a family of mainframe computers available in widely differing capacities and price points. was an inspiration to a number of operating systems developed in the 1970s. the Multics timesharing system was the most famous of a number of new operating systems developed to take advantage of the concept. driving the development of operating systems. Multics. Another key development was the concept of time-sharing: the idea of sharing the resources of expensive computers amongst multiple computer users interacting in real time with the system. applications written for the OS/360 can still be run on modern machines. minimalistic operating systems were developed. particularly. This concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line was crucial for the success of System/360 and. The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis. which was supported on many early microcomputers and was largely cloned in creating MS-DOS. for which a single operating system OS/360 was planned (rather than developing ad-hoc programs for every individual model). IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system. notably Unix. OS/360 also contained another important advance: the development of the hard disk permanent storage device (which IBM called DASD). in fact. Another commercially-popular minicomputer operating system was VMS. which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's v . several major concepts were developed. Coordination between other software and users Coordination and assignment of compilers. Time sharing allowed all of the users to have the illusion of having exclusive access to the machine.Control over system performance Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system.

ersion of it was called IBM-DOS or PC-DOS). the microcomputer had evolved to the point where. but typically more similar to Unix than Windows. By the 1990s. Modern OS's use a mouse for input with a graphical user interface (GUI) sometimes implemented as a shell. Microsoft's response to this change was the development of Windows NT. 2. Apple rebuilt their operating system on top of a Unix core as Mac OS X. an operating system vendor must pay a licensing fee and annual trademark royalties to The Open Group. Windows NT has been ported to other CPUs. with only Linux and BSD running on almost any CPU. IRIX (SGI). development environment. enabling its portability across multiple computer platforms. which served as the basis for Microsoft's entire operating system line starting in 1999. utilities. These key factors led to widespread use and further development in commercial settings. and HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard). but not many. specifically the CPU. as well as extensive GUI facilities. and helped Unix and its variants become an important teaching and learning tool used in academic settings.3. Unix was developed using a high-level programming language (C) instead of platform-specific assembly language. Command line interface (or CLI) operating systems can operate using only the keyboard for input.1 . most notably the Alpha.1-2008 or IEEE Std 1003. To use the Unix trademark.1 Unix Unix (officially UNIX) is a registered trademark of The Open Group that refers to a family of computer operating systems and tools conforming to The Open Group Base Specification. AIX (IBM). of which Linux and Mac OS X are becoming the major choices. Unix-like OS is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems . Officially licensed Unix operating systems (and their vendors) include OS X (Apple). Since the early 1990s the choice for personal computers has been largely limited to the Microsoft Windows family and the Unix-like family. Unix also was developed as a self-contained software system. The appropriate OS may depend on the hardware architecture. released in 2001. and modifiable source code. Solaris (Oracle). its successors making Microsoft one of the world's most profitable companies.2008). Mainframe computers and embedded systems use a variety of different operating systems. comprising the operating system. tied intimately to the Apple Macintosh computer. Today. documentation. many with no direct connection to Windows or Unix. Issue 7 (also known as POSIX. The major alternative throughout the 1980s in the microcomputer market was Mac OS. the robustness and flexibility of operating systems of larger computers became increasingly desirable.

2 Disk operating system Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically). Over the past several years. Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks). most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform).which resemble the original Unix. These include a wide variety of Linux distributions (e. HP-UX.g. In 1993. smartphones.. AT&T sold the rights to the Unix operating system to Novell. AIX. Otherwise. 2. This component was only loaded if it was needed. disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sectorlevel. FreeBSD. so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. and are commonly used on web servers. In the 1970s and 1980s.. For instance. and Microsoft's Xenix.3. They are used heavily as server systems in business.. AT&T licensed Unix to thirdparty vendors. the disk operating system component (or even the .g. scientific modeling and computer animation were once the province of SGI's IRIX. and CentOS) and several descendents of the Berkeley Software Distribution operating system (e. Inc. refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e. OpenBSD. Red Hat Enterprise Linux. memory space was often limited. Ubuntu. are commonly known as Unix-like systems. In the early days of microcomputing. leading to the development of several Unix variants.. including Berkeley Unix. file systems for organizing files of all sorts). The original Unix operating system was developed at AT&T's Bell Labs research center in 1969. Operating systems that behave like Unix systems and provide similar utilities. Today. mainframes. which a few years later sold the Unix trademark to the consortium that eventually became The Open Group. and personal computers running versions or variants of Unix have become increasingly popular. tablets. and supercomputers. they are dominated by Linux-based or Plan 9 clusters. In recent years. free Unix systems have supplanted proprietary ones in most instances. Unix systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures. as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments.g. In some cases. but do not conform to Unix specification or are not licensed by The Open Group. Unix operating systems (and Unix-like variants) run on a wide variety of digital architectures. and NetBSD).

The benefit of this change is to speed . The most notable external change is that NT 4. another Microsoft operating system (the follow-on to Windows 3. Microsoft released NT 4. Some programs provide their own command processor. which runs in kernel mode.g. and there are times when the command processor will be overwritten in memory by a program and have to be reloaded when the program stops executing. the desired default drive followed by a colon at the prompt. and PowerPC architectures (some work was done to port it to the SPARC architecture). it usually resides there. However. While part of DOS.0). DIR and COPY). To change to drive C type C: as shown here: A:\>C: to get C:\> 2. a command processor and several utilities.0 provides the same user interface as Windows 95.x.x. with the same GUI as Windows 3. MIPS.0. The first version of Windows NT (3. an entire family of operating systems was called DOS. Sometimes these utilities are called external commands (as opposed to internal commands which are included as part of the file COMMAND. is an example of a DOS utility. NT 4. Sometimes.0 has essentially the same internal architecture as 3. An example is DOS/360.COM and remain resident in memory at all times. DOS consists of an input/output system.1. The command processor is also a file you see on the disk. the program that formats blank disks. The utilities are individual program files found on your DOS disk. although earlier versions also ran on the DEC Alpha.1) was released in 1993. these files are not needed often enough to make it necessary or practical to keep them in the computer's RAM all the time. a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. NT 3.COM.x have been moved into the Windows NT Executive. On the PC compatible platform. FORMAT. but once read into the computer's memory. Windows runs on 32-bit and 64-bit Intel and AMD computers.3 Microsoft Windows Operating System The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems originated as a graphical layer on top of the older MS-DOS environment for the IBM PC.. After several versions of NT 3.operating system) was known as DOS. e. The major architectural change is that several graphics components that ran in user mode as part of the Win32 subsystem in 3.3.1 was a new 32-bit operating system with the ability to support older DOS and Windows applications as well as provide OS/2 support. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT core that first took shape in OS/2 and borrowed from OpenVMS.

In essence. Advantages and Disadvantages of Windows Windows series are excellent products of Microsoft. Microsoft has spent significant marketing and R&D money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application. In 2003. Although some technology of Windows is not as good as UNIX. another desktop version of Windows was released. a 64-bit version of XP was introduced. If such situation happened on Linux. both 32-bit and 64 bit versions are available. but new features have been added. it would not be as . The Windows 7 and 8 OS provides many new tools and features that focus on improved productivity through improved usability. As of 2004. they are still of the best operating systems running on PCs. The potential drawback is that these graphics functions now have access to low-level system services. Microsoft developed its operating system on a too large scale. Microsoft introduced a new server version. In 2001. known as Windows Server 2003. the underlying Executive and kernel architecture is fundamentally the same as in NT 4. but they are not supported by so many kinds of software as Windows series are. Microsoft introduced the next major upgrade. In 2000. The 64-bit versions of XP and Server 2003 are designed specifically for the 64-bit Intel Itanium hardware. Windows series are large. Again. Products of Linux are cheap. The emphasis in Windows 2000 is the addition of services and functions to support distributed processing. known as Windows XP. but Server includes some services required to use as a network server. The central element of Windows 2000's new features is Active Directory. Also in 2001. Windows held a near-monopoly of around 90% of the worldwide desktop market share. Both home PC and business workstation versions of XP are offered. and are getting larger and larger. called Windows 2000.up the operation of these important functions. the kernel and executive architecture and services remain the same. which is a distributed directory service able to map names of arbitrary objects to any kind of information about those objects. although this is thought to be dwindling due to the increase of interest focused on open source operating systems. windows 7 and windows 8 as new entrant into the market with excellent capabilities.0. One final general point to make about Windows 2000 is the distinction between Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 desktop. which could impact the reliability of the operating system. This new OS has been constructed to be more intuitive and less distracting (no more annoying and unnecessary pop-ups notifying the user that there is a notification for the user). Recently we have seen the vista. In recent years.

Ÿ Windows series are buggy. Ÿ Windows series are supported by most popular softwares. They are only debugged by Microsoft itself. but more expensive than Linux. and they will be debugged by a much larger number of people. owned by Microsoft. Ÿ Source codes of Windows are closed. Figure 2. windows menu and tools.bad as such situation happening on Microsoft. Ÿ Windows NT series after 2004 are stabler and securer. Ÿ Windows series are big. Ÿ Windows series are not very expensive (only for home users on mature products). Ÿ Windows series are usually not strong enough for high security. This is because the source code of Linux is open. The structure of this window is very similar to the others.2. Ÿ Windows series are wide spread. Ÿ Windows ME and earlier 9x versions are unstable and insecure.2 The Windows Structure . The window is the one that opens when you click on My Computer. All the windows have the same structure shown in figure 2. Microsoft Windows series are not open-source.

the different operations that can be performed with files are displayed.. To open a menu with the keyboard. In the top right corner we can find the minimize. The close button closes the window. press Alt key.) it means that the option needs more i . The minimize button shrinks the window it turns it into a button located in the WindowsXP task bar. The maximize button amplifies the size of the window to the whole screen The restore button restores the window to its original state. If on a menu an option appears with a small arrow pointing to the right it means that that option contains other options.All the windows are formed by the sections explained as follows. you need to press the Alt key plus the underlined letter of the menu you want to open.3. If you want to open the menu related to that option.. All the operations that the program allows us to do are located within the different menus of this bar. The title bar contains the name of the program you are working with (Notepad) and in some cases the name of the opened document (aulaclic) also appears. maximize/restore. (for example Sharing and Security. In no letter is underlined. you only need to maintain the option highlighted for a few seconds and the menu will appear. If on a menu you find an option that contains three dots. For example. when we click on File as shown in figure 2. The menu bar has the program functions organized in menus. For example Alt+F opens the menu File. and close buttons.

etc. Learn more about the Recycle Bin in a later lesson.4 contains: Ÿ Start button: one of the most important tools you will use while working with Windows XP. On this example Copy is lighter colored than Paste. The Start button allows you to open menus and start applications. On the bottom left corner there is the Start button. In our case it will be the Windows XP desktop. Next we have the area for shortcuts. By default Windows XP provides you with one desktop icon. The Desktop is the on-screen work area on which windows appear. and lastly the notification area. It as a workspace where you can access everything you need to operate your computer. and other parts of the operating system. Figure 2. Ÿ Taskbar: primarily used to switch between open windows and applications. The desktop shown in figure 2. applications. normally a dialog box will open in which you can place that information. it' s the first screen that appears when the operating system has initialized. then the programs running. the Internet. If you find an option that is grey or lighter colored it means that it is not possible to select it at that moment. the Recycle Bin. .4 The Desk Top Task Bar The taskbar is the small blue bar you see at the bottom of your desktop. Ÿ Icons (or graphical pictures): represent applications.nformation to be executed. Learn more about using the Taskbar in a later lesson. such as system components. files.

The left side of the Start menu lists programs. and view the various cascading menus. 3. Search. Click (or roll your mouse pointer over) All Programs.5. To explore the Start menu: 1.The Start Button is the button through which we can access the entire breadth of options that Windows XP offers us. If a cascading menu is available. the Start menu appears. and the right side allows access to common Windows folders (My Documents. It also provides access to Help and Support. 2. a menu similar to the one below will be displayed in figure 2. Figure 2.5 The Start Menu If you select All Programs. and Run. a pop-up menu appears. Click the Start button. . If we browse it. When you click the Start button. for example). a small black triangle appears next to the name of the application or function. Move the mouse pointer to each option. Pop-up menus like this are called cascading menus. The Start menu is your gateway to the applications that are on your computer.

3. For example.6 The Log off pop up To log off/switch users: 1. . documents. Switch User allows someone else to log on to the computer. 5. Figure 2. your applications will continue to run in the background while the new user logs on. 4. Turn Off and Restart the Computer When you've finished using Windows XP. To turn off the computer: 1. Click the Start menu. and email accounts. In any case. your applications will close. Click the Start menu and click Log Off. Move the mouse pointer to the right and view other cascading menus. click outside the menu area or press Esc on your keyboard. A dialog box appears asking you if you want to Switch User or Log Off. If you choose to Switch User. The XP Log off pop up is shown in figure 2. 5. Log off and Switch Users More than one person may use your computer. many family members may use the same computer at home while several coworkers may be able to access your computer on a computer network.4. A computer accounts tracks each person's unique settings. you're taken to a Windows XP logon screen where you're prompted to enter your username and password. If you choose Log Off. be sure to turn off (or shut down) the computer correctly. 2. Windows XP even enables you to log off the computer so someone else can log on without having to restart the computer. Windows XP allows everyone who uses your computer to have separate computer accounts.6. To exit the menus.

Click Turn Off Computer.8. One type of icon is an object icon.7 Turning off the computer. Click Restart. Icons The small pictures on the desktop are called icons. Click the Start menu. Desktop shortcuts are . It is generally safest tor turn off or restart your computer using the methods above.7. you can simply restart your computer. 3. Click Turn Off Computer.2. To restart the computer: 1. A dialog box opens. These icons allow you to open files and programs on your computer. Figure 2. A dialog box opens. 3. Recycle Bin. and Internet Explorer See figure 2. Click Turn Off. 2. If you're experiencing computer problems or have installed something new.8 Computer Icons (a) My desktop and (b) microsoft word short cut Shortcut icons allow you to open an application quickly. These icons appear on your desktop and with little arrow in the left corner. Examples of object icons are My Computer. The process described above is illustrated in figure 2. (a) (b) Figure 2.

but we will see how to do that later on. Select the first element and continue to select the desired elements while keeping the Ctrl key presse Creating and Deleting Folders To CREATE a folder we need to place the pointer where we want the folder to be.. drag it. Then. This can also be done with the mouse. In the event that it finds another folder with that same name. Text appears identifying its name or contents. To select consecutive elements. 2. click on the left of the first element (but not on it) and. then let go of the left mouse button. select the option New and then select the option Folder. double-click the icon. it will subsequently name the new folders New Folder(1). etc. without letting go. Selecting Files To select a single file or folder you simply need to click on it. The name of the folder can be changed. This way any operation you perform will only apply to the selected file or folder. New Folder(2). Place your mouse over the icon. To open the folders that we have by clicking on the + located to the left of the folders.. Now we can view on the bottom right window a new folder that has the name New Folder. To do this. Click on the first element and then click on the last element while keeping Shift key pressed. This is the name that Windows gives new folders by default. Continue dragging until all the desired elements are within the frame.links to files and programs. or hide the content of the folder selected. . To select several elements that are not consecutive. To realize an operation on several files or folders. You can add or delete shortcuts without affecting the programs on your computer. Windows Explorer will allow you to select several elements at the same time. this will take care of retracting the folders displayed.. 3. Open the menu File. A frame should appear that shows the area that the frame encompasses. To open a program using an icon: 1. If we click on the plus sign of a particular folder it will display and show all of the folders contained in it and the plus sign will become a minus sign -. Once we have the folder that we want open we will select it by clicking on the appropriate folder.

The folder that is highlighted is the new folder that has just been created within the folder (a) (b) Figure 2. by default Windows will move it to the Recycle Bin. In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to copy to. When we delete a folder or file. If we click on the + that appears on the left. If we do not have this button on the tool bar. See the . Search for the folder to which we will copy the selected element. but instead of selecting a folder select the file you wish to delete.9a is the image that Windows explorer shows before creating a new folder and figure 2. Once the folder has been selected go to the Standard bar and click on or you can use Delete.If you look at the two images below.9b is the image that it shows after a new folder has been created. we can go to the Edit menu and select Copy to Folder but select the item to copy First of all. Figure 2. click on Copy. The Recycle Bin is nothing more than a space reserved on the hard disk so that in case of having deleted any element it would be possible for us to retrieve it. click Make new folder. To delete a file we follow the same steps to delete a folder. The settings can be changed so that it deletes it completely.9 Creating a folder To Delete a folder. Once the folder has been selected. It works like Windows explorer. Copying Files or Folders Select the element to be copied and Click on Copy and it will open a dialog box titled Copy Items. first place the pointer on it. you can clearly see how Windows explorer changes when a new folder is created. the contents of the folder will be displayed. write the name of the new folder and Click OK.

. Ÿ Click Enter or click outside the file or folder so that the changes take place. Ÿ Search for the folder where the element are to be moved to. then the name of the file or folder will be highlighted and with the pointer blinking inside the name box. or Edit --> Move to Folder which will open a new window titled Move Items. Ÿ Select the file or folder you want to move. Once the folder is selected.10 below.illustration in figure 2. Changing a File or Folder Name Ÿ Select the file or folder that you want to change the name of. When moving or copying an item. Write the name of the new folder and click OK. Ÿ With the right mouse button click on it. Ÿ In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to move the information to. click Move. simply click Make New Folder. its entire content is also moved or copied. Ÿ Click on. In this case Windows will ask if we want to substitute the existing file or folder by the new one. its name can coincide with the name of a file or folder that is in the destination folder. The following steps are very similar . Figure 2. When folder is moved or copied. Ÿ Write the new name. Ÿ Select Rename from the shortcut menu. You can also do this with Remane option from File menu.9 Coping files or folder Moving Files or Folder Ÿ Moving a file or folder means copying the element to the desired location and then deleting its original location.

10. For more information about installing network printers. For more information. The dialog box you see might look different from the one shown here. If you have a USB printer. and then clicking PRINT. This option is useful if you want to print something later. Figure 2.prn file. Allows you to save a document as a . You can also choose to print something like a fax or a Microsoft XPS file. (See XPS documents: frequently asked questions. .Printing a Document Printing in Windows is often as simple as clicking the File menu found in most programs. but it doesn't always work with modern USB printers. This opens the Print dialog box where you can change basic settings such as what printer to use or how many copies to print as shown in figure 2. depending on your software and printer. you might prefer to print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer. see Install a printer.) Helps locate network printers.10 Printing Dialog The following explains the actions you can take and the results within printing Action Select Printer Find Printer Print to File Result Shows the available printers on your computer. This option is useful in office settings or for home networks. see Print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer.

For example. Click Selection to print only highlighted text or graphics. and what to include on the printed pages' header and footer. To print part of a document.11 for information on what settings can be changed. adjust settings for what you are about to print. And create an electronic copy of your file that you can save to disk. you can type 1. Select the Collate check box to print all pages in a document in order before printing additional copies. If so. Ÿ In the standard Print window that opens. Instead of a physical printer. . or picture. Printing to PDF Just select Print to create a PDF. and 8. click on the Firefox button (File menu in Windows XP) and select Print. Print multiple copies of a document. Tells Windows what to print. for example. at the top of the Firefox window. 8 to print only pages 1. type 5–7 to print only pages 5 through 7. 4.. click on the Firefox button. Ÿ At the top of the Firefox window. 4. file. and select Page Setup. The Page Setup window will appear. you can select Adobe PDF in almost any Windows OS application. See Print window settings in figure 2. Ÿ Click OK to start printing.Action Preferences Page Range Number of copies Result Opens the Printing Preferences dialog box. page margins. Printing a Website We shall discuss printing web pages in Firefox. go over to the Print menu (File menu in Windows XP). Changing the page setup To change the orientation of the page that prints. From this point you can manipulate the printing process as discussed in the document printing section. click Pages and then enter the page numbers separated by hyphens. Click Current Page to print only what you see. if necessary.. change whether background colors and images are printed. where you can choose options such as paper size and layout.. Some programs let you choose non-sequential pages too. Hit Print.

click on the Firefox button. The Print Preview window allows you to change some of the options detailed above. Access the Print window by clicking Print.11Margins and Header/ Footer . menu (File menu in Windows XP). and select Print Preview.Figure 2. or the Page Setup window by clicking Page Setup. The double arrows take you to the first or last page. go over to the Print.10 Print window settings Print Preview To see how the web page you want to print will look when printed. at the top of the Firefox window. Figure 2. Click on the arrows next to the Page: field to flip through the pages of the document. You can also adjust the scaling and orientation as shown in figure 2.11. and the single arrows go to the next or previous page.

and right sides of the page separately. This can be used to show a company or organization name at the top or bottom of every printed page.Margins: You can enter the width of the page margins for the top. Ÿ Title: Print the title of the page. left. and so on. Ÿ URL: Print the web address of the page. Ÿ Page #: Print the page number. Ÿ Page # of #: Print the page number and the total number of pages. Choose from: Ÿ Blank: Nothing will be printed. Headers & Footers: Use the dropdown menus to select what appears on the printed page. Ÿ Custom: Enter your own header or footer text. bottom. Ÿ Date/ Time: Print the date and time when the page was printed. . Click OK to finish making changes and close the Page Setup window. the top-center dropdown box's value appears at the top-center portion of the page. The top-left dropdown box's value appears at the top-left corner of the page.

For example an office suite incorporating word processing. while something like the word count would be considered a “tool”. 3. atlases and geographic tools to solve student assignments. This contrasts with custom software. spreadsheet. data. Lotus SmartSuite and MS Office will be be explained in this chapter. interactive activities.0 Introduction A Software Package is a collection of modules. the information was complemented by numerous photos and illustrations. Also called packaged software. database. The MS Encarta. allowing an . and communications programs. The structure of software packages may be different for different kinds of packages. maps. In 2008.000. The difference between software tools & software packages should not be confused. package or prepackaged software. It is a combination of application programs which are tailored to a given type of work. extended by a purely declarative description of all elements. The product of a software package is a library of compiled code objects. In addition to the encyclopedia entries. a runnable program.1 MS Encarta Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009 (in Spanish since the '97 version).Chapter 3 The Concept of Software Packages 3. but there must be enough unique elements to be able to identify a certain kind of package.000 items while its Spanish version. or all of the above. Many programs can be enhanced a later times by adding specific software tools. The entire program is the “package”. the complete edition of Encarta Premium English containing over 62. presentation. The encyclopedia was available on DVD-ROM or multiple CD-ROMs and also had limited availability (with ads) to their online content on the World Wide Web. audio clips and videos. A tool is a single component of a software package that adds to the overall functionality of a program. including about 43. An application program which is sold to the general public with all that should be necessary for it to work properly. and which function especially well together. formatted documentation. Consider a word processor which most people use fairly regularly. which is designed to meet specific needs or circumstances. timelines. For example a word processor could later be enhanced by installing a tool that allows you to manipulate pictures more efficiently within the program. and directories.

Encarta's popularity suffered because of the convenience of userupdated websites such as Wikipedia. The Japanese site closed down definitively on 31 December 2009.msn. In March 2009. search for synonyms in a thesaurus and learn different translations for words. Dutch. Encarta Premium Microsoft Student with Encarta Premium 16. the Encarta brand exists only in Microsoft's online dictionary. The Encarta Online Dictionary (dictionary. . Microsoft edited and published editions of Encarta in different languages. 2009. German. which was that there were differences between them. Microsoft continues to provide product support for Encarta users until 2012 or three years from the purchase of the 2009 edition of the encyclopedia. Due to declining sales.annual subscription to access more. French.com) continues to be operated by Microsoft. The dictionary is one of many available on the Internet and carries the name "Encarta. giving users the ability to send updates and other suggestions for Encarta articles to its editors. Web sites for all localized versions of MSN Encarta were closed (except Japan) on October 31. the explosion of the Internet and encyclopedia sites such as Wikipedia gave users a free alternative to encyclopedias such as Encarta. including English. the Dutch edition of the free content owned regional Winkler Prins in the Netherlands. Microsoft changed its approach in 2005 to be more in line with Wiki-based sites. Microsoft announced the discontinuation of all existing stocks Encarta (CD and online version). rather than submit them and hope they were made. but only in their English and French. as consumers preferred to be able to make instant changes and updates to articles. For example. Portuguese and Japanese. In 2011. is denominated Encarta Winkler Prins Encyclopedie. and the Encarta website was available online only until the end of that year. Localized versions contain material licensed from local or national. Encarta Premium combines the resources of its award-winning encyclopedia with a variety of research and learning tools to deliver a complete reference resource for home or school use. Italian. Encarta was a strong seller throughout the decade but its sales began to wane in the 2000s." Users can look up word definitions. Despite discontinuing the software. It can help you with your math homework and your foreign language studies.0 (2008 & 2009) includes a wide range of tools and resources for students. however. This idea did not succeed. the last edition of Encarta was released in 2009. At that time. Microsoft stopped selling its Encarta software in June of 2009. Spanish.

1 Encarta GUI . The GUI for Encarta is shown in figure 3. (a) (b) Figure 3.1. There are collection of videos from Discovery Channel and a new Visual Browser providing users with a rich and dynamic way to make learning fun. It includes templates and tutorials to help you do your homework in Microsoft Office.Comprehensive homework tools integrate homework project and research starters with the Dictionary & Thesaurus.

Encarta's uncluttered layout makes it a snap to explore a variety of subjects. and virtual tours of landmarks. such as Arts & Literature.500 audio files let you hear music from around the world. or you can zero in on a particular topic through the search field as shown in figure 3. along with time lines. and excerpts from Beethoven's 9th Symphony. to quirky stuff such as "machine-shaped kaiser rolls. natural wonders. You can double-click a word to quickly find the definition in the dictionary." Encarta's 2. such as the first moon landing. The Home page lists subjects. Encarta Dictionaries Encarta Dictionaries help you find definitions of words. The definition appears on the Dictionary tab. and the like. The function icons are sparse. As with a Web browser. and a search field. classical sitar melodies. including some from the Discovery Channel. The Explore features encourage you to check out hundreds of videos. preventing clutter. Figure 3. back and forward arrow buttons and the keyboard let you navigate. .2 Encarta Layout Encarta's bright interface offers more blank space and pictures than Britannica's. such as that of Grandmaster Flash. Videos include encyclopedic staples.2.

Map Customizer: Customize your view of a map by selecting the geographic features that you want to view.4. See figure 3.Additional dictionary tools include: Thesaurus: Use to find synonyms and antonyms of words. Globe View is an orthographic projection of the world.3 for an illustration. Next to the encyclopedia the World Atlas.3 Encrata world Atlas scren Some features of the atlas are: Map Legend: Explains the map symbols and colors. Colors and symbols vary according to the map style. Translations: Use to translate a word or phrase into another language. night. Maps (World Atlas) Encarta consists of the Encarta Encyclopedia as the flagship product. Geographic features vary according to the map style. topography. Flat Map View is a flat Miller . Encarta's Atlas pages include a Map Trek feature that walks you through basic facts about regions of the world. statistics. Verb Conjugation: Use to conjugate verbs from foreign languages. You can explore the World Atlas to find maps of many places. which you can display by day. and more shown in figure 3. Map Customizer also lets you change the way maps are projected. Figure 3.

Encarta Kids Encarta Kids helps young students with homework and encourages them to learn in a fun and engaging way. This is just a separate interface for Kids with filtered contents and more stylishly designed front end. and working on everyday homework assignments. It helps you get the most out of Microsoft Office in the least amount of time by providing Office templates with customized toolbars and project assistance to help you with your studies. Parental controls are available for encarta dictionary to block inappropriate words. click a map style to the right. Many types of maps are available.Figure 3. multimedia. A statistical map is also available in the list of map styles. making presentations. Encarta Kids offers articles. Learning Essentials Learning Essentials for Microsoft Office provides tutorials specifically created for student tasks such as writing reports. .4 Encarta's Map Trek feature cylindrical projection of the world. To view a different type of map. such as a map of climates. and interactive games specifically for ages 7 and up.

chemistry. Encarta Kids is intuitive. geometry. the picture of a dune links nowhere. Formulas and Equations: Find many widely used formulas. physics. You can use it for basic math. the grown-up tools within Encarta Premium still emphasize text search and images. Microsoft Math includes the following features: Calculator pad and Worksheet tab: Evaluate expressions and perform numeric calculations. Triangle Solver: Calculate sides. photographs. Click an equation to plot it or solve it for a particular variable. 3. algebra. and more. For older children and adults who may not need such descriptive narrative. and a timeline complete with political controversy and environmental damage Microsoft Math. trigonometry. chemistry. such as the Ecosystem menu's Sahara Desert. This latest version helps easily convert files from earlier versions of Lotus SmartSuite and other business applications including Microsoft Office Filters that exchange documents seamlessly to and . shows 28 pictures from Acid Rain to the Water Cycle. including algebra. geometry. Lotus FastSite. calculus. when you zero in on a topic. and other information about triangles from known information that you provide. Lotus Approach. statistics. and equations from a variety of mathematical and scientific disciplines.Microsoft Encarta Kids 2007's big. constants. Jr. functions. Unit Conversion Tool: Convert measurements in one system to a different system. as the gateway to articles. for instance. Graphing tab: Plot equations. Lotus Freelance Graphics. The search field may eerily anticipate your query: Encarta knew by the time we typed "I H" that we were looking up the "I Have a Dream" speech by Dr.2 Lotus SmartSuite Lotus SmartSuite is an office productivity suite that includes Lotus 1-2-3. without an alphabetical list of subjects. inequalities. The Read Article button in the corner just sent us back to a write-up about ecosystems in general. and Lotus Word Pro. and physics. bright images invite you to wander. if you up Hurricane Katrina you will find an impressive collection of articles. angles. The science section's Environment page. and other expressions. This is a new software included with is Microsoft Math is a collection of tools to help you solve simple or complex math and science problems. Lotus Organizer. Lotus SmartCenter. Equation Solver: Solve a single equation or system of equations. Martin Luther King.

The tasks that can be performed with it range from preparing a simple invoice to creating elaborate 3-D charts. You can also bring in tables or graphs from the other programs in SmartSuite to the document you are writing to give a visual of information. A worksheet consists of rows and columns that intersect to form cells. spreadsheets are called worksheets or simply sheets. and analyze data. and any writing that you need done. and what directory to install them to.ibm. analyzed. Combined with Lotus Notes and the Internet. However. which consists of one or more worksheets.com/software/support/ for questions or troubleshooting problems. sorted. They also have information on transferring files to and from other word processing and database programs. Use the tools at on the menus to sort any way you want your data sorted. The Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window has several components through which you interact with the program. Install the software following the onscreen directions for installation and read the prompts carefully so you can decide what programs. Review the online support for these programs at http://www-306. Figure 3. The SmartSuite library can be downloaded for extra information and tutorials that you may need if you are new to the SmartSuite programs. features. By default. You can open an existing workbook or create a new workbook by using this dialog box. or creating an accounting ledger for a company. A 1-2-3 file is called a workbook. the first thing you need to know is how to start Lotus 1-2-3. Word Pro and Microsoft Word. and organizing. or Freelance Graphics and PowerPoint. To Use Lotus' SmartSuite check your computer for hardware requirements against what is needed for SmartSuite.5 shows some of the common spreadsheet components. In Lotus 1-2-3. Spreadsheet Application The electronic spreadsheet application that is a part of Lotus SmartSuite that is used to organize. .from Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel. for sorting. Users can also create tables. a workbook comprises only one worksheet. you will see the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box within the Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window. graphs and write short code to run data and information and export that into Word Pro to make up to date documents. makes Lotus SmartSuite the industry's most complete suite for addressing the needs of both enterprise and individual users. You can format your projects and documents using templates. calculate. tracking. Cells contain various kinds of data that can be formatted. for letters. and made into charts. the spreadsheet program. or your own formatting by using the options on Word Pro menus. Launch Word Pro. the word processor. When you start Lotus 1-2-3. You can use Lotus 1-2-3.

Lotus 1-2-3.6 Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box The 1-2-3 window has many components through which you can interact with or get information about the worksheet you are working on.7 shows some of these components.6. click the Start button on the Windows desktop and then choose Programs. Lotus SmartSuite.Column Cell Row Figure 3. figure 3. You will see the Lotus SmartSuite 12-3 window showing the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box as shown in figure 3. Figure 3. .5 General spreadsheet components To start 1-2-3.

This line consists of three parts. The SmartIcons are alternatives to the commands available in the menus. . Title bar . The last part is the contents box. Status bar . It shows information about the ongoing activities. Each menu consists of a set of related commands.7 Components of the 1-2-3 window The following gives the components in figure 3.” Menu bar .Title bar Menu bar Edit line Smart Icon bar Worksheet tab Scroll box Cell Scroll bars Status bar Figure 3.The title bar displays the name of the workbook. Edit line . which is A by default.The rectangular outline of the current cell.7 and the description of each. It shows the name of the current worksheet. Cell pointer . The first part is the selection indicator that displays the name of the current worksheet and the current cell.The vertical and horizontal scroll bars are also used to move through the worksheet.The status bar appears at the bottom of the worksheet.The SmartIcons bar contains buttons (called SmartIcons) for frequently used actions.The worksheet tab appears above the worksheet.The menu bar displays all the menus available in Lotus 1-2-3. Scroll box . SmartIcons bar .The scroll box can be used to move through the worksheet vertically and horizontally. The default name of a workbook is “Untitled. the Edit menu contains all the commands needed to edit a workbook. The second part consists of the navigator and the function selector. Scroll bars . For example. Worksheet tab . It also contains various buttons to perform common tasks such as changing font style. such as opening or saving a file. which displays the content of the current cell.

8. whereas others move only your view of the worksheet (without moving the cell pointer).When you click a menu name.8 A sample Open dialog box There are many techniques for moving around in a worksheet. 2 From the Look in box. Opening and navigating a workbook To open a workbook in 1-2-3 use the menu commands or by click them Open SmartIcon. Figure 3. The current cell is where data you enter will appear. 3 From the list of files. will appear next to the icon. A short description. . Some navigation techniques move the cell pointer. called bubble help. To use a SmartIcon. select the folder that contains the workbook you want to open. To open an existing workbook: 1 Choose File. The cell in which the cell pointer appears is the current cell. Keyboard shortcuts are shown next to the command names in the menu. You can find out the function of a SmartIcon by pointing to it and waiting a moment. The address of the current cell appears in the selection indicator on the edit line. a list of related commands appears below the menu. select the workbook you want to open and click Open (or double-click the workbook name). Open (or click the Open SmartIcon) to display the Open dialog box shown in figure 3. You can then choose a command by clicking its name. you simply click it.

procedures.Moves the view of the worksheet one screen up. The 1-2-3 Help provides assistance on topics related to 1-2-3. Each tab provides a different interface for getting assistance. the left arrow moves the cell pointer to the left. Quick Demos are demonstrations on specific help topics. Click Help Topics to open the Help Topics: 1-2-3 Help dialog box. depending on which side of the scroll bar you click.END + ↓ .Moves the cell pointer one column to the right. When you choose Help. This dialog box contains three tabs: Contents. Press .Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the left. Press . and Find.Moves the cell pointer up one row. Getting Help The three ways to access Help when working with 1-2-3 includes choosing Help from the menu bar.→ . the down arrow moves the cell pointer down one row. pressing F1 or clicking the Ask the Expert button on the status bar. Help contains overviews.TAB .Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the right. Similarly. Click scroll arrow .8. Press.Moves the view of the worksheet one row or one column. Click cell . Index.Moves the cell pointer to cell A1.Makes the cell active. Press . Help Topics from the menu bar. Does not move the cell pointer. . Press .↑ . Closing a workbook There are various ways to close a workbook in 1-2-3 and these includes the following. the Help Topics dialog box appears by default. and Quick Demos. examples. Similarly.SHIFT+TAB .The following describes various techniques to navigate a worksheet and the corresponding effect.Moves the cell pointer to the last row that contains data and precedes a blank cell.END + → . Press . Click scroll bar .Moves the view of worksheet quickly without moving the cell pointer. or right. Press . Drag scroll box . left.Moves the cell pointer to the rightmost cell that contains data and precedes a blank cell. They teach you about using 1-2-3. down. For example the help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 is illustrated in figure 3. technical details. Does not move the cell pointer.HOME .

Ÿ Press Enter to confirm the entry. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the menu bar. Exit 1-2-3. Ÿ Type the label or number. In 1-2-3. • Click the Control menu icon on the title bar and choose Close. • Click the Close button on the title bar. . you can simply exit by using any of the following methods: • Choose File. Close. When you close a workbook. • Click the Control menu icon on the menu bar to open the Control menu and choose Close.8 Help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 • Choose File. On the work sheet if you do not want to continue working with 1-2-3. Labels can contain text and numbers. • Click the Close button on the extreme right of the menu bar. Entering and editing data To enter labels or numbers: Ÿ Click the cell where you want to enter the label or number. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the title bar.Figure 3. you will be prompted to save changes. the data that begins with a letter or an apostrophe (’) is called label.

When the contents box is activated. you first select the cell where you want the result to appear. Entering and editing formulas An integral part of formulas are operators.operator is used to subtract them. • Press Delete to remove the contents of the current cell and then type the correct label or number. type the appropriate data. and press Enter. 1-2-3 treats it as a number and does not append an apostrophe at the beginning. a cell address. type the appropriate data. If you make an error while entering data in a cell. All 1-2-3 formulas begin with the equal to sign (=) or plus sign (+). Operators indicate the type of operation that a formula will perform.When you begin an entry with a letter. you will see the Confirm button and the Cancel button on the edit line as shown in figure 3. For example. To enter a formula. . and you want to add them and show the result in A4.10. • Click the contents box. if there are numbers in A2 and A3. you can: • Double-click the cell. or range names. you can easily correct it at any point. Figure 3. Functions are built-in formulas that perform simple to complex calculations automatically. the + operator is used to add numbers and the . You can cancel an entry either by clicking the Cancel button or by pressing Esc to leave the entry in its original state. To make corrections.10 The edit line showing the Cancel and Confirm buttons Confirm an entry either by clicking the Confirm button or by pressing Enter to update the data in the cell. Then you type the formula in the selected cell. For example. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. A formula can refer to a value. When you begin an entry with a digit. another formula. You can also use special formulas called functions to perform calculations such as determining the sum or average for a range of cells. and press Enter. 1-2-3 automatically appends an apostrophe at the beginning. you would: Type = A2+A3 in A4 and Press Enter. You can use numbers in calculations.

2 From the Save in list. 2 Type + (to begin the formula). 4 Click the Confirm button. select the folder in which you want to save the workbook. 3 In the File name box. and then enter the edited formula. Save As to open the Save As dialog box. 1 Choose File.11. edit the formula. See figure 3. To edit a formula. 1 Select the cell that you want to edit. The shape of the pointer changes to a range selector. 2 Click the contents box.12. If the cell is active. 6 Press Enter. 5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have created the formula you want. 4 Type the operator you want.11 Sample formula To enter a cell reference.The result will appear in A4. enter the name of the workbook. Figure 3. as shown in figure 3. 3 Select the cell for which you want to enter a reference. . 4 Click Save. You can edit formulas as you would edit any other data. 1 Select the cell in which you want to enter the formula. Figure 3. Select the cell. 3 Edit the formula.12 Editing Formula Saving and updating a workbook To save a workbook for the first time after creating it do the following. click the contents box. the formula will appear in the contents box.

giving you formatting options from which you can choose. For example. A pop-up list appears when you click any of these buttons. By default. you will lose all the changes that you have made. It changes every time you perform another action. The status bar also contains several buttons used to format texts and numbers in a workbook. if you click the Point size button.14. Use the Save As option to save a new workbook or to save an existing workbook with a different name. . the mode indicator shows “Ready” as shown in figure 3.13. It displays the styles of the current selection and also shows the status of 1-2-3. you can change the size of the selected cells. A simple Save As dial box is shown in figure 3. By selecting a different size from the list.13 Save As dial box Formatting worksheets The status bar is located at the bottom of the 1-2-3 window and contains different buttons used for formatting. You use the Save option to update changes to a workbook under the same name and in the same location.If you close a workbook without saving it. The rightmost part of the status bar contains the mode indicator. Figure 3. a list of point sizes appears. or to save it to a different location.

and click the Basic properties tab. Under Column. such as color. You can also click the Range Properties SmartIcon. you might want to apply the same formatting to cells A1. and color. For example. and specify the size in the Width spinner control. 2 Choose Range. The InfoBox consists of several tabs. Column widths and row heights Row heights will change automatically to accommodate the size of the data in a row. 5 Close the InfoBox. select the column. select Width. • Set a specific column size in characters. The Text Format tab shows the characteristics of the selected data. As you drag. 4 Select the desired font. • Double-click the column border. A noncontiguous range is a range in which all the cells are not adjacent.Figure 3. The changes you make are reflected instantly. font. the pointer takes the shape of a two-headed arrow. size. 3 Click the Text Format tab. B4. . Each tab contains a different category of properties.. To change column widths: • Drag the column border.14 The Status bar To format text by using the InfoBox: 1 Select the cell or range you want to format. Range Properties to open the InfoBox. 2 While holding down the Ctrl key. You can then drag the border to the left or right to decrease or increase the size of the column. and the range C6. column widths will adjust automatically. an indicator appears showing the column width in characters. In some cases. To do this. This automatically sizes the column to fit the widest data it contains. To select a noncontiguous range: 1 Select the first cell or range. attributes. display the InfoBox. select any other nonadjacent cells or ranges you want to add to the selection.D7. which are known as its properties. When you point to the border between two column headings. point size. but in most cases you will need to adjust column widths manually to make the columns fit the data you put in them. and alignment.

the data you type could appear to the left. You can set alignments either by using the Alignment tab in the InfoBox or by using the Alignment button in the status bar.14 shows the alignment dial box. select the number. right. The Align across columns checkbox in the properties for InfoBox is used to center data over a range of cells (rather than within a single cell). time. Figure 3. and scientific notation as shown in figure 3. Figure 3. currency. and then from the list select a format.14 InfoBox showing the Alignment tab Formatting numbers The Number format button on the status bar shows General by default. including dates. Alignment Alignment refers to the place where data is positioned in a cell.15 InfoBox showing the Number Format tab . For example. click the Number format button.15. The Wrap text in cell checkbox folds the text that extends across columns.The same methods work for changing row height. or center in a cell. within a single cell. To format a number. You can also use the Number Format tab in the InfoBox to apply a wide variety of number formats. Figure 3.

Choose the printer to which you want to send the page. Print. or a selected range. The data should include all the values you want included in the chart. and the number of copies needed. the current sheet. Printing When you either click the Print SmartIcon or choose File. .16 The Print dial box Creating a chart To create a chart. You can also access the Preview window by using the Preview & Page Setup button.Instead of repeating the same formatting you can simply copy the styles from one range of cells to another. as well as any labels that identify those values. 1-2-3 displays the Print dialog box shown in figure 3. including number formats without copying the data in the cells. To use the Fast Format SmartIcon: 1 Select the cell or range from which you want to copy the formatting. Figure 3. 1 Select the data you want to include in the chart. You can also specify printing the entire workbook. You can use the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of cells. 3 Select the cell or range to which you want to copy the formatting. specify the range of pages to print.16. 2 Click the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of the selection.

17 shows a chart with labeled elements. • Choose a command from the Chart menu (the name of the command will vary depending on which element you selected). Lotus1-2-3 plots the data in the selected range as a bar chart by default. Figure 3. Figure 3. and click the Chart properties SmartIcon. For other elements. The maximum number of series you canhave in a chart is 26. • Double-click the element. • Select the element. you can format only the color of the fill and the line around it. but it is helpful to know some basic terms as you work with charts. It makes working with charts intuitive. The pointer changes to a small bar chart. you have various formatting choices. . Create. For some elements.17 Main elements of a chart Change chart elements There are three methods for formatting a chart element namely. 3 Click the worksheet where you want the top left corner of the chart to appear. You can select a range that contains all the elements you need to create a basic chart. Each row and column of data plotted on a chart represents a series.2 Choose Chart.

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0 Ÿ MS Office 4. The Versions are. tables. This type of facility is often referred to as Object Linking and Embedding. · Communicator – IM. manage large quantities of information. MS Powerpoint. Dev Ÿ MS Office 2000 Ÿ MS Office XP Ÿ MS Office 2003 Ÿ MS Office 2007 Ÿ MS Office 2010 Ÿ MS Office 2013 The most of GUI and and Control features are common to all the applications of Microsoft Office.4 MS Office Concept The word MS stands for MicroSoft (an American multinational software corporation who is the developer of Office). · Groove – software for group working. graphs. Ÿ MS Office 1. making Presentation etc. · Excel – create spreadsheets. typing letters. These applications are intimately connected to each other meaning information can be shared among multiple applications. For example. charts. MS Publisher etc. MS Excel. or you can use data from Outlook schedule to build a Power Point presentation. you can insert part of an Excel spreadsheet in a word document.6 Ÿ MS Office 3. In simple words its a virtual representation of all the tools you use in your Office. drawing graphs. MS Office is a suite of productivity tools consisting of word processing. Pro. and voice chat. It comes as a combination of MS Word. spreadsheet. allows file sharing and collaborative work spaces. . video. creating tables. create reports.2 Ÿ MS Office 4. and otherwise organize and present lists or other raw data. database. · Accounting – bookkeeping and accounting software for small businesses.3. Some of the important application programs of MS Office suits include are : · Access – create databases.0 Ÿ MS Office 4.3 Ÿ MS Office95 Ÿ MS Office97 Std. In simple words we can say that MS Office is a computer Programme/Software which is use to perform various office related tasks making files. presentation and personal information.

and audio with pretty backgrounds! · Project – project management software that allows you to control workflows. When selecting some Groups. and to do list.The Ribbon replaces the previous system of layered menus. images. toolbars. The Office Button . and models with pictures. · OneNote – note-taking software that allows you to save text.18 Microsoft office work space The set-up of the ribbon differs greatly from the earlier editions of Word. used to create text documents like papers. video. located in the upper left hand corner contains such options as: . flowcharts. the Design Tab).18 Figure 3. Navigating the Workspace The Ribbon . Page Layout. and format your work for better visual appeal. and newsletters. · Word – word processing software. contact manager. audio. brochures. within each Ribbon are Groups. budgets. Tabs will differ depending on which Office program you are using. etc) are called Tabs..· InfoPath – create and manage electronic forms for gathering information. · PowerPoint – create slide show presentations with text. See figure 3. and task panes with a simpler system of interfaces optimized for efficiency and discoverability. posters. a unique Tab will appear (for example.19. and requires its own vocabulary. · Visio – visualize information by creating diagrams. and other planning needs.The Office Button shown in figure 3. · Outlook – email client that includes a calendar. · Publisher – create visual print materials such as fliers. schedules. Each of the words across the top (Home. Tabs open a Ribbon. outlines. and bibliographies. and images in one place with full search capabilities. Insert. text and arrows. video.

right-click any frequently used action (such as Paste) and choose “Add to Quick Access Toolbar”. See figure 3.19 The office button Customizing the Toolbar: The toolbar can be customized to include your favorite actions using the Quick Access Toolbar.20.20 Customizing the toolbar . To do this. Figure 3.· Save · Save As · Print · New · Open · etc. Figure 3.

Some Basic Actions
Figure 3.21a Inserting break page

Figure 3.21b inserting pictures and graphics

Figure 3.21c inserting headers
and footers

Figure 3.21d track changing
(useful for group projects)

Figure 3.21e Spelling and
grammar check or word count
Figure 3.21 Basic actions
Figure 3.21 shows some basic actions using the ms word platform.

Some Basic Actions of the Microsoft PowerPoint is shown in figure 3.22
below.

(a) Use the Home tab to change the slide
layout with the Layout button

(b) Use the Design tab to
change the colors and
background of your slides

( c) Custom Slide Show: choose which
slides to include in your presentation

(d) Practice your presentation and
automatically time how long to spend
on each slide using rehearse timings.

Microsoft Excel Basic Actions
An Excel file is called a workbook. A workbook can be made up of any number of
worksheets (up to a point, but the limit is very large). The worksheets are
organized into tabs at the bottom of the document as shown in figure 3.23a.

(a) Worksheets
(b) Cell
3.23 Excel worksheets and cells
These worksheets are composed of cells in which you can enter data.
You can use Functions to calculate information from your data (functions can be
found in the Formulas tab).

Figure 3.24 Calculating data information.
To insert charts into your worksheet use the insert tab. First highlight the data
you want to use, then choose the chart type from the Ribbon, shown in figure
3.25.

Figure 3.25 Inserting a chart

When the chart is highlighted, use the Chart Tools tabs to change the design,
layout, or format of the chart as shown in figure 3.26.

Figure 3.26The chart tool

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the typewriter evolved into a word processing system. and entire papers.org. Alternatively. and page numbers to each page. By using the mouse. This is shown in figure 4. AppleWorks (Mac only). the most significant improvement over the typewriter is the word processor's ability to make changes to a document after it has been written. word processing programs have make revising text documents a much more efficient process. “Start menu” >> “All Programs” >> “Microsoft Office” >> “Microsoft Office Word 20XX. change the page formatting. The term "text editor" can also be used to refer to a word processing program. the term "word processing" basically means creating a text document and using a computer and word processing software such as Word. however. Some examples of word processing programs include Microsoft Word. Since reprinting a paper is much easier than retyping it. and OpenOffice. The first word processors were basically computerized typewriters. you can open up the program by double-clicking it. .Chapter 4 Word-processing Introduction In the 1970s. footers. Modern word processing programs. However. you can click anywhere within the text of a document and add or remove content. it is more commonly used to describe basic word processing programs with limited features Starting Microsoft Word To run Word on your computer click on. if there is an icon of Microsoft Word available on your desktop (shaped like a square with a "W" in the middle). Some may also include a "Word Count" option. A word processor. It also processes paragraphs.1. which could then be printed by a printer. does exactly what the name implies. While all these features can be useful and fun to play with. which did little more than place characters on a screen. It processes words. include features to customize the style of the text. Today. which counts the words and characters within a document.” The following is the screen that will be displayed after selecting the previous sequence of menu commands. pages. and may be able to add headers. WordPerfect (Windows only). which could be as simple as an electric typewriter with a small screen display. or an old fashioned green screen computer. or word processing program.

1 Microsoft Word default window . word 2010. Although window elements are fully explained in our Windows course.(a) Word 2003 (b) Word 2010 Figure 4. or default window. When Word is launched. a new blank document. word 2003 and (b). (a) (b) Figure 4. opens in Print Layout view.1 Steps for starting word Shown in figure 4.2 is the Microsoft Word default window for (a). here is a brief explanation of the Word window.

Draft view: This formats text as it appears on the printed page with a few exceptions. View Buttons: The group of five buttons located to the left of the Zoom control. Insert. Zoom Control: Zoom control lets you zoom in for a closer look at your text. Title bar shows the program and document titles. Page Layout are example of ribbon tabs. Print Layout view: This displays pages exactly as they will appear when printed. such as Internet Explorer. which is the place to come when you need to open or save files. near the bottom of the screen. Most people prefer this mode. Help: The Help Icon can be used to get word related help anytime you like. ile Tab: The File tab replaces the Office button from Word 2007. . each group name appears below the group on the Ribbon. The vertical ruler appears on the left edge of the Word window and is used to gauge the vertical position of elements on the page. This provides nice tutorial on various subjects related to word. Commands: Commands appear within each group as mentioned above. Quick Access Toolbar: This you will find just above the File tab and its purpose is to provide a convenient resting place for the Word most frequently used commands. Groups: They organize related commands. The horizontal ruler appears just beneath the Ribbon and is used to set margins and tab stops. For example. You can customize this toolbar based on your comfort. The zoom control consists of a slider that you can slide left or right to zoom in or out.The following Descriptions holds for the MS-Word screen elements shown in figure 4. headers and footers aren't shown. For example group of commands related to fonts or or group of commands related to alignment etc. Ribbon: Word Ribbon contains commands organized in three components Tabs: They appear across the top of the Ribbon and contain groups of related commands. lets you switch among Word's various document views. . and + buttons you can click to increase or decrease the zoom factor. You can click it to check Backstage view. Home. Full Screen Reading view: This gives a full screen look of the document. Outline view: This lets you work with outlines established using Word. Web Layout view: This shows how a document appears when viewed by a Web browser. print a document. and do other file-related operations.2. create new documents.s standard heading styles. Rulers: Word has two rulers .a horizontal ruler and a vertical ruler. Title bar: This lies in the middle and at the top or the window.

Used to view parts of the document. Task Pane .3 below.Links to the Microsoft Office Help feature 4. language etc. Formatting Toolbar .Contains a list of options to manage and customize documents. From left to right. go to File>New shown in figure 4. buttons and tools.Document Area: The area where you type. Clicking this button opens a dialog box or task pane that provides more options about the group.2 Creating a New Document To create a new document. End-of-Document Marker . Insertion Point . Office Assistant . Status Bar: This displays document information as well as the insertion point location. Figure 4.Indicates the end of the document.Provides easy access to commonly used menus. this bar contains the total number of pages and words in the document.3 Creating a New Document . Menu Bar . Scroll bars . Standard Toolbar .The location where the next character appears.Contains shortcut buttons for the most popular commands. Dialog Box Launcher: This appears as very small arrow in the lower-right corner of many groups on the Ribbon. You can configure the status bar by right-clicking anywhere on it and by selecting or deselecting options from the provided list. The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type.Contains buttons used for formatting.

To change the text . The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type. you are ready to start typing. or the location of a block of text on the page can also be changed.2 Formatting Text The text can be formatted before it is typed into the document or edit existing text. The icon will appear on the toolbar until you uncheck New. The text appears to the left of the insertion point as it is typed.4 show two word "Hello Word" text. The font style or size. Figure 4. The document area is the area where you type your text. Click on the New document icon on the Quick Access toolbar and a new blank document will automatically open. To open an existing file. Click on the Quick Access Toolbar list arrow and click New. Keep the mouse cursor at the text insertion point and start typing whatever text you would like to type.4 Entering a text into the document area 4. the orientation of the text on the page. go to File>Open. and click Open.Another option to open a new document is to customize your Quick Access Toolbar to display the New document icon New Document Icon. Find the folder where your existing file is. highlight it. After you create document. Figure 4. The dialog box will look similar to the dialog box for saving.

size and color of text. If you want the changes to apply to all text in your document. you may also go to Edit>Select All.5a below. It offers a nice preview window which shows you exactly how your text will look before you apply the changes. Once you have selected the text you would like to format. you must first select(or highlight) the text you wish to change. Before changing font. Word processing applications come with a set of fonts. Click and drag the mouse over the text. style. The following diagrams reveal how to perform font changes from the home tab and the Font dialog box in Word. Microsoft Windows provides the Font dialog box. From the home tab of word 2010.formatting first you must highlight or select the block of text you wish to format. we have figure 4. In microsoft Word 2010 choose the Home tab and click the Select button from the Editing group or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl A . most attributes to text can be made by opening the Format>Font dialog box. style. To assist you user with selecting a font for an application. To select the text of the whole document. apply the required formatting options that Microsoft Word provides. Changing font.5 Opening the font dial box . size and color of text. In MS Word. The Edit>Undo feature can take you back a step if you are not comfortable with a change made. (a) From home tab (b) From the dial box launcher Figure 4.

. Click the Format menu. 3.5b.6. In Word 2010. click the dialog box launcher button located on the bottom right-hand corner of the Font group. change the default properties you wish. 5.6 the font dial box For the older Versions of Microsoft Word 1. In Word 2007. Confirm.Once the font dialog opens. 2. See figure 4. The Font dialog box will appear and you can edit your font settings. Click the Default button. Click OK. Select the font. Open Word. 4. Figure 4.From the Font Dialog Box shown in figure 4. and color you wish you use by default. this button text has been changed to Set as Default. press the Default button when you are done. style. 6.

Select any of the colors available by simply clicking over it. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Left button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + L keys.Change Font Colors: By default any typed text comes in black color. Try to move your mouse pointer over different colors and you will see text color will change automatically. use the More Colors option to display color pallet box which allows the select of any color from range of millions of colors. and justified shown in figure 4. This is very simple to change text color by following two simple steps: 1. See figure 4. then already selected color will be applied to the text. so you would have to click over small triangle to display a list of colors. Text Alignment There are four types of paragraph alignment are available in Microsoft Word left-aligned. Figure 4. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. centered.7.8. 2.7 Changing font colors If the color of your choice is not displayed. . Align left: A paragraph's text will be said left aligned if it is aligned with left margin. but the font color can be changed to any of the color which one can imagine. Select the text that you want to change to a bold font. If you click at the left portion of the Font Color button. right-aligned. Click the Font Color button triangle to display a list of colors.

Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Justify button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + J keys. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text justify aligned. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text right aligned.Align center: A paragraph's text will be said center aligned if it is in the center of the left and right margins. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text center aligned. (a) Align left \ (b) Align center ( c) Align right (d) Justify align Figure 4. Justify Aligned Text: A paragraph's text will be said justify aligned if it is aligned with both left and right margins.8 Text alignment and justification . Align Right: A paragraph's text will be said right aligned if it is aligned with right margin. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Center button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + E keys. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Right button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + R keys.

Difference between these options is that low justify creates little space between two words. justify. You can select any of the bullet style available by simply clicking over it. 2. Following are the simple steps to create either bulleted list or numbered list.9. Click the Bullet Button triangle to display a list of bullets you want to assign to the list. 3.9 The bullet buttons 1. To create a list with numbers. Select a list of text to which you want to assign bullets or numbers. You need to select only justify option. Creating a List This is very simple to convert a list of lines into a bulleted or numbered list. Any of the numbering style available can be selected by simply clicking over it. medium creates a bit more space and high creates maximum space between two words to justify the text. click the Numbering Button triangle instead of bullet button to display a list of numbers to assign to the list. justify low. justify high and justify medium. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. Figure 4. . See figure 4.Clicking the Justify button displays four options.

Click the Line and Paragraph Spacing Button triangle to display a list of options to adjust space between the lines.10 Figure 4.Lines and Spacing Following are the simple steps to adjust spacing between two lines of the document. Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing and click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher available on Home tab. Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing. This action is shown in figure 4. See figure 4. 2. Similar way click After spinner to increase or decrease the space after the selected paragraph. The distance between two paragraphs can be set using the following simple steps. 1. You can use any of the text selection method to select the paragraph(s). Click Before spinner to increase or decrease the space before the selected paragraph. 2.10 Adjusting spacing between document lines 1.11. . Finally click OK button to apply the changes. You can select any of the option available by simply clicking over it.

To cut. you must first select some text. leaving the original text in it's original place Paste: This deposits the text you have Cut or Copied wherever your cursor is situated. right hand mouse click and Drag `n' Drop. copy. the Edit Menu. There are several ways to Cut.Figure 4. Copy. and paste text. Cut: Use this when you want to move a bit of text from one place to another in your document. copy. Text can be moved around in a document by using the Cut. and Paste commands. quick keys. and paste text.11 Spacing between Paragraphs Cut. You can use the toolbar buttons. It will delete the original text when you have completed the action by Pasting Copy: This will copy the selected text. If you do not select the text first. your . Click and drag your mouse over the text you wish to cut or copy. Copy and Paste.

Ÿ Using Ribbon Copy Button: After selecting a text. just click this option to copy the selected content in clipboard. Copy. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. See figure 4. just press Ctrl + c keys to copy the selected content in clipboard. 2. you can use copy button available at the ribbon to copy the selected content in clipboard. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. Copy & Paste Operation: Copy operation will just copy the content from its original place and create a duplicate copy of the content at the desired location without deleting the text from it's the original location.12 Copy and paste operation Step (3): Finally click at the place where you want to copy selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the copied content at the desired location. The various options available to copy the selected text is as follows. Paste features will be grayed out and unusable in your Edit menu as shown below. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods. it will display copy option. .12. Figure 4. Ÿ Using Ctrl + c Keys: After selecting a text. The following is the procedure to copy the content in word: 1.Cut.

. it will be applied to the document in editable mode and the text in the document domain will appear dimmed. 2. See figure 4. just press Ctrl + x keys to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard.13a. See figure 4. Clicking on the Header button will display a list of built-in Headers from where any can be chosen from. Click the Insert tab. Following is the procedure to move the content in word: 1. the document title. 1. Formatting Pages Headers and Footers: Headers (appears at the top of every page) and footers (footer appears at the bottom of every page) are parts of a document that contain special information such as page numbers and the total number of pages. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods. There are various options available to cut the selected text and put it in clipboard. just click this option to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. any photo etc. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to add first. it will display cut option. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. Ÿ Using Ctrl + x Keys: After selecting a text.Cut & Paste Operation: Cut operation will cut the content from its original place and move the content from its original location to a new desired location. To add header and footer in a word document. you can use cut button available at the ribbon to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Refer to figure 4. These are. Once any of the headers is selected. 3.13b. To copy and paste or cut and paste content form one document to another document just copy or cut the desired content from one document and go into another document where you want to paste the content and use mentioned step to paste the content. company logo. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. 2. Header and Footer buttons appear on the Ribbon and a Close Header and Footer button will also appear at the top-right corner. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. Ÿ Using Ribbon Cut Button: After selecting a text. Finally click at the place where you want to move the selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the content at the new location.12.

Consequently. These things can be inserted through the Header/Footer dialog box. . The fundamental idea behing the header and footer is that you only have to enter the information one time.(a) (b) Figure 4. click Close Header and Footer to come out of header edit mode. Headers and footers allow you to add uniform content to the very top and very bottom of each page of your document. or the time into your document. and it will apply it to all your pages automatically.13 Header and footer illustration 3. time. this feature is intended to be used as a tool for a multi-page document. a date. 1. Click the Insert tab. Page numbers. To edit an existing Header and Footer of a document do the following. & time In various circumstances. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to edit. you might need to insert page numbers. Edit the document header and once done. Click on it and word will display editable header 3. This will vary depending on the word processing application. and page number may not appear as you might think until printing or unless you are in the Print Preview mode. One way to check to see your resulting header and/or footer attributes is by going to Print Preview. Note that the date. Clicking the Header button will display a list of options including Edit Header option. date. 2. Type the information required in the document header and click Close Header and Footer to come out of header insertion mode.

This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. 3. Finally select of the page number styles which is desired.13 Adding page numbers To remove page numbers. Change Page Orientation Page Orientation is useful when you print your pages. bottom. By default Microsoft Word shows a page in portrait orientation and in this case page width is less than page height and page will be 8.5 inches x 11 inches. bottom. This will display a list of options to display page number at the top.5 inches. (a) (b) Figure 4. After this step enter in Page Footer modification mode and click Close Header and Footer button to come out of footer edit mode. current position etc. See figure 4. You can change page orientation from portrait to landscape orientation in which case page width will be more than page height and page will be 11 inches x 8. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. Moving the mouse pointer over the available options displays further styles of page numbers to be displayed as shown in figure 4.14b. Click the Insert tab. 2. . click the Insert tab.The following are the simple steps to add page numbers in a word document. Just click this option and it will delete your all the page numbers set in your document. current position etc and at the bottom you will have Remove Page Numbers option.14a. The following are the simple steps to change the page orientation of a word document. 1.

Click any of the options you want to set to orientation. and click Orientation button available in the Page Setup group. This will display a simple grid shown below.1. You can make your table having desired number of rows and columns as per figure 4. Open a word document for which you want to change the orientation. Click the Page Layout tab.14. Tables A table is a structure of vertical columns and horizontal rows with a cell at every intersection. which will . When you move your mouse over the grid cells. it makes a table in the table which appears in the document. Click the Insert tab.14 Layout tab showing page orientation options 4. Click the square representing the lower-right corner of your table. Usually top row in the table is kept as a table header and can be used to put some informative instruction. Create a Table: 1. and click Table button. and you can format the table in any way you want. Figure 4. 2. By default. To create a table apply the following procedures. Each cell can contain text or graphics. This will display an Option Menu having both the options (Portrait & Landscape) to be selected as shown in figure 4.15a. orientation will be Portrait Orientation 2.

Word formulas use a reference system to refer to individual table cells. There is a long list of formulas from which. Thus. The following are the simple steps to add formula in a table cell available in word document. the third cell in the fourth row is C4. Click OK to apply the formula. You can repeat the procedure to have sum of other two rows as well. which is =SUM(LEFT) in our case. or find the largest or smallest number in table cells you specify.16 Adding Formula to a document. starting with A for the first column. B for the second column. 3. Click the Layout tab and then click Formula button which will display a Formula Dialog Box which will suggest a default formula. and so on.16. Each column is identified by a letter.Microsoft Word allows the use of mathematical formula in table cells which can be used to add numbers. and so on. You can select a number format using Number Format List Box to display the result or you can change the formula using Formula List Box. find average of numbers. 1. 2. See figure 4. The cell . Figure 4. The following are useful points in constructing word cell formula. Word cell formula can bee constructed. Click in a cell that should contain the sum of a rows. the first cell in the first row is A1. After the letter comes the row number. a formula can be used based on the requirement.

and click Delete Table option under the Delete Table Button to delete complete table from the document along with its content. Click the Layout tab. 2. To select any of the styles. When you move your mouse over any of the styles. use Cut button or simply press Ctrl + X keys to cut the table from its original location. To Move a Table with-in the same word document.15b. Click over the small Cross Icon which will select the whole table. 2. 3. just click over the built-in table style and you will see that selected style has been applied on your table. Bring your insertion point at the location where you want to move the table and use Paste button or simply press Ctrl + C keys to paste the table at the new location.create a actual table in the document and goes in table design mode giving lots of options to work with table as per figure 4. To Delete a Table from a word document.15 Creating the table 3. Once table is selected. Click anywhere in the table you want to delete. Bring the mouse pointer over the table which you want to move. a small Cross Icon will appear at the top-left corner of the table. 1. . As soon as you bring your mouse pointer inside the table. Click Table Styles button to display a gallery of table styles. 1. (a) (b) Figure 4. If you want to have fancy table. it shows real time preview of your actual table.

Clip art libraries that come with your software package need no citation. and merge the documents. CDROM's. such as B3+B5*10 by using simple mathematical operators +. Inserting images can be one way to use integrative applications. Inline means that it is fixed between the text where it appears with very limited modification. *. referring to all cells in the row to the right of the current cell You can also construct simple math expressions. such as B3 or F7 A range of cells.C5 ABOVE. There should be a feature within your menus called Insert or Insert Image. Be sure to follow copyright law and work within the Fair Use Guidelines if you use an image you did not create. attach it to a data source. BELOW. referring to all cells in the column above the current cell. You may have to browse through folders or directories until you find it. Once you find it and choose it. Integration: Mail Merge A mail merge is when you create a word processing document that has. and insert an image. If you create or find images through other applications and save them to a folder on your harddrive. specific fields or pieces of information from a database. It will either be inline or floating. If you want to insert clip art.references and description is as follows. You should also wrap text around the image. The following procedure describes how to create a form letter. there might be a separate menu item Insert Clip Art which will automatically take you to the folder filled with the application's library of art. LEFT. In order to create a mailmerge document.B4. The place where you begin creating a mailmerge can appear in various menus. Most images from the Internet. Integration: Inserting images. such as A4:A9 or C5:C13 A series of individual cells. it will appear in your word processing document. A window will pop up that will allow you to find the folder with your collected images. %. /. referring to all cells in the row to the left of the current cell RIGHT. Often times it will be located under File>Insert. -. This is a critical difference. Find your Insert feature. such as A3. you need to designate which database you want to merge with. and directly from other artists will require some type of citation depending on how you plan to use it. format it. you can insert them into your own word processor. . Look for the copyright statements before using images. often as a selected image. Floating means it can be modified and relocated more easily. within it. referring to all cells in the column below the current cell. A single cell reference.

On the Mailings tab. and then click Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard. Figure 4.17 Mailmerge steps . click Start Mail Merge.1.17a (a) (b) ( c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 4.

17e. For example. 7. The information that you want to merge into your documents will be stored in the data source. click Letters. 4. Ÿ In the Mail Merge task pane. Connect to the data source. Ÿ Start from a template: Select one of the ready-to-use mail merge templates.17c. Select the starting document Click one of the following options: Ÿ Use the current document: Use the currently open document as your main document. See figure 4. making sure that there are no mistakes. If you have not yet created this information. After previewing the merged information. 8. you are telling Word to use a specific set of variable information for your merge. To preview. exclude a recipient or edit the entire recipient list. Add fields to your document. you can scroll through each merged document.2. select Type a New List to begin creating. click Next: Select recipients. In the Mail Merge task pane. Select recipients When you open or create a data source by using the Mail Merge Wizard. 6. You could also choose More Items. This will allow you to send letters to a group of people and personalize the results of the letter that each person receives. Ÿ Click Next: Starting document. and can be found in your Outlook contacts or in an existing file as shown in figure 4. Think of a “field” as that information that is unique to each letter. Method 1: Use an existing data source Method 2: Use names from a Microsoft Outlook Contacts List Method 3: Create a database of names and addresses 5. This will allow you to add any specific information that you had included in your data file.17b. Use one of the following methods to attach the main document to the data source shown in figure 4.17d. Ÿ Start from existing document: Open an existing document to use as your mail merge main document. it might be the address of each recipient. 3. . Choose a document type. Preview and complete the merge. Indicate the records you want to include by checking or un-checking the subsequent box as shown in figure 4. You can also search for a specific recipient.

click next and your merge will be complete. . transmit. save all or save just a portion of the document you created. You can print.

logos. To add special effects to a vector image in CorelDRAW. CorelDRAW is ideal for creating drawings.1Features of the soft wares CorelDRAW differentiates itself from its competitors in a number of ways: The first is its positioning as a graphics suite. on any platform. position. such as shape.8. Images are displayed on the computer screen as pixels. color and size of each pixel. A pixel is the smallest unit of composition in an image. This graphics application is used to design advertisements.0 Introduction CorelDRAW is a vector illustration program. the information contained in each pixel is stored separately. A vector program defines a line of pixels and treats them as a single object. it becomes a raster image.14. A bitmap file defines the position. When you want sharp images. their edges appear rough and jagged. CorelDRAW is one of the most powerful and versatile illustration programs on the market today. Each object in a drawing stores its own attributes. Raster images are bitmapped images composed of pixels. vector images. You can modify an object without affecting the image quality. curve. which increases the file size. 15 and 16.Chapter 5 Corel Draw 5. There are different versions of Corel draw like versions 5. cards. This process of conversion is called rasterizing. in which objects are created and modified again and again while designing. Each component created in a drawing such as a line. you need to create them as vector images. text.11. symbol or image is referred to as an object.12. When you save raster images. you convert the image into a bitmap. An artwork developed in CorelDRAW is referred to as a drawing. and color. such as logos with smooth and precise edges. 5. How the program treats the pixels is determined by whether the image is defined as a vector or a bitmap. for print or for the Web. When you enlarge raster images.9. newsletters and so on. You can alter the size of vector images without making their edges rough or jagged. The CorelDRAW application is a part of CorelDRAW Graphics Suite.10. The images you create by using CorelDRAW are by default. size. rather than just a vector graphics . brochures.13. The bitmap becomes a distorted image with jagged edges. After a vector image is converted to a bitmap. Vector images are ideal for Web pages because they download faster than the raster images. These images consist of lines and curves that are defined by mathematical objects called vectors.6.7.

Drawing page. you can apply commands to the active drawing window only. The CorelDRAW interface contains various components. You can also press Ctrl + O to open the Open Drawing dialog box. . The CorelDraw Window provides a work area where you can create and modify a job. A full range of editing tools allow the user to adjust contrast. It also allows a laser to cut out any drawings. Some Element Present in CorelDraw Environment are described as follows. etc. It gives information about the program which you are working on and also the name used in saving the document. add special effects such as vignettes and special borders to bitmaps. Multipage documents are easy to create and edit One of the useful features for single and multi-page documents is the ability to create linked text boxes across documents that can be resized and moved while the text itself resets and flows through the boxes. Brochures. Open.program. and toolbox. select the required file format. From the Files of type list. such as a Drawing window.1 shows a sample CorelDRAW window with the various components identified.Corel DRAW is capable of handling multiple pages along with multiple master layers. When you open a drawing in CorelDRAW. Although more than one drawing window can be opened. To Launch CorelDraw. 3 Select the file. to open the Open Drawing dialog box. change the format from RGB to CMYK. a new window called Drawing window opens. toolbars. Point on All Programs 3. Booklets. This window contains a Drawing page in which you create or modify your drawings. Useful for creating and editing multi-article Newsletters. 4 Click Open. When you launch CorelDRAW. Click on Corel Graphic suites (sub-menu list appears) 4. create your drawing. 1. Click on CorelDraw Icon (wait for some seconds for program to launch) To open an existing drawing: 1 Choose File. The rectangle in the center of the drawing window is the drawing page where you. 2 From the Look in list. color balance. select a folder that contains the files. Title Bar: It is the first bar in the screen of any opened application. Figure 5. 1. Click on Start Button 2. the application window opens containing a drawing window. The Tools present enable you to carry out series of designs.

Edit. 7. The Rule: The rule (horizontal and vertical rule) enables us to measure.Figure 5. 8. Control Menu Box: It is located at the title bar. down. 4. Effect. zoom etc. Tools Window and Help menu. Arrange. and right. restore. they include. sub-menu list appears. Layout.1 The Screen (Window) of CorelDraw 2. the orientation Portrait or Landscape etc 6. the opened programs automatically goes to the task bar. Printable page: The Printable Page Area is the rectangular shape located at the center of the drawing window. and orientation of a page and also the width/height of an object. Close: To exit a particular window Maximize/Restore: To increase and decrease a window (opened program) Minimize: When you minimize. Standard bar: Tools present in the standard bar enables us to save. minimize. it contains command like: close. 5. maximize. undo/redo. paper size. Scroll bar: The scroll bar (horizontal and vertical scroll) enables to view unseen object by scrolling up. Texts. When clicked on. And also with the help of the property bar we can also set our paper size. 3. Menu bar: CorelDraw as a program has Eleven (11) menus. Bitmap. Each menu has its own function. File. This area represents the portion of your drawing that will print. View. Property Bar: It gives us information about the Width/Height. Any design done in the drawing window should be . left.

Also through the start button. you can fill or outline an object. Task bar: The task bar is located in line with the Start button. Colour Palette: With the help of the colour palette. a program can be launched.2 Tools and Flyouts The Toolbox is located in the left portion of the window and contains all the drawing and editing tools necessary to create objects for an illustration. Tools containing a small triangle in the corner produce a Flyout. drawing/designing in CorelDraw will be difficult. 14. Any drawing or designed processed in the drawing window must be brought to the printable page. Drawing Window: The drawing window is the large white area of the screen where you find the Printable page. it houses any opened programmed/minimize window. Pick tool etc. 11. Status bar: The Status bar is located immediately after the task bar (at the top of the task bar) it gives you information about the currently highlighted object and also guideline on how to carryout some processes. 5. Flyouts contain additional tools. 9. 10. Flyouts are described following the Tool Overview. Tools Bar: The tools bar of CorelDraw enables us to carryout certain designs and also helps us to beautify our work. 12. Start Button: The start button enables us to view programs. Example of the tools bar is the Text tool.placed in the printable page. . Without the tools present in CorelDraw. 13. or tool options and are explained below in the order they appear on the default screen.

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The table below is not meant to be a comprehensive look at each tool Flyout. but rather a reference. . Flyouts are used by CorelDRAW to display additional tools. They are activated by holding down the tool button with the mouse.Flyouts Tool buttons containing a small triangle in the lower right corner display Flyouts.

so it can be easily moved around. click the X button at the top comer. See figure 5. and list boxes. You can also collapse dockers to save screen space. to collapse or expand a docker.2 Flyouts Dockers Dockers display the same types of controls as a dialog box. click the arrow button . Below is the Interactive Tool Flyout in floating mode and in Flyout mode. To close a docker.Toolbars and Flyouts can be made to float. and drag to position the pointer on the edge of the drawing window. click the docker's title bar. Unlocking a docker detaches it from other parts of the workspace. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the bar out to the main window of the program. . (a) Floating mode (b) Flyout mode Figure 5. Dockers can be either docked or floating. Once floating. To dock a floating docker. double click on the title bar of the floating Flyout. Docking a docker attaches it to the edge of the application window.3. To return the Flyout to its original location. To dock the Flyout or return the toolbar to its original location. you can dock them to any part of the window. place your cursor over the area at the end of the bar that resembles two ribbed bumps or gray lines. All tools on the Flyout will be displayed so you can easily access them. click on the closing X in the upper right-hand corner. To float a Toolbar or a Flyout. options.Dockers are placed into the interface or “docked” as are Tool Bars or the Property Bar. Dockers can also float or be closed so only the tabs show. They are accessed by clicking on the tabs at the right of the working window. such as command buttons.

To access the Dockers. The table following explains the different dockers and their functions. .Floating dockers Examples of other dockers Figure 5.3 Dockers at the top comer. go to the Windows menu →Dockers..

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The palette can be floated or parked.Color Palettes The colorful row of boxes on the right of the screen is the Color Palette. The type of palette can be changed with the Windows menu.3 Color palette The Zoom Property Bar This help to get a closer detail or make small adjustments. . When the Zoom Tool on the Toolbox is selected. Figure 5. a box with shades of that color displays.3. When you hold down a chip on the color palette. By dragging to one of the shades of the first color. Shown in figure 5. you can choose a shade of a color quickly and apply it to a line or fill an object . You may have several palettes open at once. the Property Bar displays the following options. DRAW gives you several options for zooming into your object or out as shown in the table below. or the Color Palette Browser Docker. DRAW comes with 18 color systems and gives you the ability to create your own palette.

.Zooming 1. This shortcut zooms out to the previous view each time you press it. Release the mouse. Press the F3 key on your keyboard. Click and drag diagonally to create a zoom marquee. 2. The mouse cursor changes to the magnifying glass with the plus sign. Go to the Standard Toolbar and select the Zoom Levels list (the box showing the % of magnifications). This will change the display to show you the whole page. 6. 3. Place the tool icon to the upper right of the Bluebonnet. The Property Bar also displays the tools described above. Select To Page (Shift + F4). 4. Click in an area. You have just gotten closer to the drawing. By dragging the Zoom Tool around an area. 7. 5. Values for the magnification settings can be selected from the list. or typed in as needed. You can also zoom in by dragging the Zoom Tool around a specific area. Go to the Toolbox and select the Zoom Tool (F2). you can enhance the magnification and be more precise by zooming to a specific area. 8.

Illustration of tool function Take a look at the screenshots below to get an overview of some of the basic tools. We will use a CD with 120mm diameter to show our illustration. (a) Tool screen 1 .

(b) Tool screen 2 .

( c) Tool screen 3 .

4 Default Plate / Document Size When you first open CorelDraw there may be one or more dialog boxes which you probably want to just close.5).Creating Drawings When you first open up CorelDraw you are presented with a default screen that gives you a number of options. There is a rectangle on the screen with a drop shadow behind it. To create a new document you can do file>new or ctrl-N or you can click on the icon in the extreme upper left corner of the window. This will cause a dialog box (see figure 5. . To save a document you can use file->save as. The "Always shows the Welcome screen at launch" will pop up. At the upper left side there is a drop down that might say “letter” or “broadsheet” or “custom”. If you want to save a different file type you would use file->save as and use the “save as type” pull down to select what type of file you want. You should also “zero” your rulers by clicking on the corner where the 2 rulers meet and dragging it to the corner of the page (see figure 5.5).5). Pull it down and select “custom” (see figure 5. Typically we want a new document to come up. (1) Leave the "Make this the default Windows screen page" checked so a new document will always by default come up. In this dialog box you can set the name of the document and various other things but for now just say “OK”. This is the document. This means that all the locations on the page have a negative Y value. Keep in mind that the horizontal ruler increases to the right but the vertical ruler increases in the up direction. Next to that pull-down there are 2 boxes with horizontal and vertical dimensions of the page. Once you've specified the file name you can use ctrl-S or click on the disk icon at the top of the page or use file>save. Figure 5. just below the “file” menu.

When you create drawings in CorelDRAW. To create a blank drawing. A blank page appears with default settings. New From Template. When you use a template. to open the New From Template dialog box. You can also press Ctrl + N or click the New button on the standard toolbar to open a new drawing. a Drawing page with pre-designed elements and placeholders appears.Figure 5. You can see the preview on the right of the dialog box. . 3 Click OK. The first file will be named Graphic 1. a blank page. To create a drawing from a template: 1 Choose File. 2 Select any template from the given list of templates. New. orientation. each file has a default name.5 Dialog box and rulers In CorelDRAW drawings are created by using an existing drawing. layout. and background. and so on. After creating a drawing. you can set or modify the Drawing page using the options such as size. a blank Drawing page appears. When you create a drawing. the second file will be named Graphic 2. choose File. or a template.

Skewing: Skewing simple means to slant or twist an object from it definite shape to be at an angle. . Drawing Straight Lines Step 1 Click on the freehand tool to activate it Click on a specified area and drag to draw a line Step 2 Click on Freehand tool Hold your Ctrl Key on the keyboard Click and drag at the same time Click to end Step 3 Click on Pen Tool Point your mouse to the area in the window Click and drag then Double click to end Drawing a Rectangle. Adding A Text In CorelDraw. Square.g. The Artistic Text: The artistic text is use for special effect while designing. are example of the Artistic text. toast etc.Drawing Lines The Freehand tool and the Pen tool are used frequently while drawing line(s). texts are required for decoration and also for information. Below is a rotated object. Decoration text in CorelDraw is known as Artistic test. Rotating: Rotating simply means revolving/turning an object from on angle to another. Sphere and Circle Click on your Rectangular Tool (F6) Hold your Ctrl key. E. Drag to draw a perfect square Drawing a Rectangle Click on your rectangle tool (F6) Hold your Shift Key. Drag to draw from the center Drawing a Circle/Sphere using the Ellipse tool Step 1 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Ctrl Key Drag to draw a perfect circle Step 2 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Shift key Drag to draw a sphere Skewing and Rotating An Object You may decide to rotate an object or distort its perspective by skewing it. CorelDraw. while Information text called Paragraph text The difference between the two is the amount of text that will be entered. constitutions. Theme etc. Address. It is added in a frame because of its length. The Paragraphing Text: The paragraphing text is used when creating a large amount of text. Features.

Selecting An Object The selection tool is the very first tool in the tool bar on the left (see figure 5. To access the various options for each tool. The polygon tool will let you do spirals or stars. Figure 5. Or the freehand tool (F5 and the 6th tool).6 shows a complex star created.Making Shapes (Box/Circle/Freehand/Polygon) To create some kind of object.6 shows a complex star created Figure 5. use the box tool (F6 and the 7th tool on the left hand tool bar). Or the ellipse tool (F7 and the 8th tool). click on the lower right hand corner of the tool button (where there is a little black triangle) and select the option you want. Figure 5.7). Or the polygon tools (F8 and the 9th tool).6 shows the selection tool .

it looks like a bucket) to set the fill and outline parameters(see figure 5. In those cases you can use the “Object Manager” (tool->object manager) to get the exact object you want.8). there are different options for objects and text and bitmaps and nothing selected. When you select something. it looks like a pen nib. You can now use the fill and outline tools (the “outline pen” is the 15th tool on the left. Figure 5. For example. all the menus change based on what is selected. It helps if you click on an edge.8 The fill and outline tool drop box . the fill tool is the 16th. Fill and Outline Select the object you created. if you select two things together the "trace" options in the bitmap menu will not be available.It has a rectangular picker and a freehand picker but most of the time you will simply click on an object. One caveat: if there are multiple objects and some are in front of some others the program will select the object that's in front.

especially if you change their size. An object is a collection of curves that are defined in such a way that they can scale well. You can apply various filters and other effects to a bitmap which you can not do to an object. If you set it to “no fill” it will be transparent.The fill tool allows you to set the fill pattern and color of your object. Figure 5. In CorelDraw all those are converted to a bitmap.8 Converting Objects to Bitmaps . If you set it to “uniform fill” it will just be one color. Objects will generally look better even if you generated the object from a bitmap. On your computer it may be a “jpeg” or a “tiff” or a “png” or a “gif” or any of a whole collection of other types. But bitmaps always look kind of funky. You can also fill with a pattern or a texture or use “postscript fill” which allows for parametrized patterns. Bitmaps and Objects A bitmap is a collection of pixels in a rectangular shape. The outline tool allows you to set the outline width and color or to remove the outline altogether. If you use “fountain fill” you can make a gradient of colors.

CorelDRAW format. you need to update your drawing. To do so. After saving or printing the drawing. it can be closed. Close Print Preview. to open the Save Drawing dialog box. 3 In the File name box. After saving a drawing for the first time. To return to the drawing. Save As. you’ll use the CDR . You can also press Ctrl + S to update a drawing. To print a drawing. • Click the Close Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar. The Print dialog box appears.8). you might need to make some changes in it. specify the name of the file. choose File. After previewing. you can click Yes to save and close the . Preview and print drawings: To print an already saved drawing. To close a drawing. Here. If you are working on an existing file. choose File. Close or click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the Drawing window. To save a drawing: 1 Choose File. Print. which displays the preview of the Drawing page. To preview a drawing. When you close a drawing after making changes to it. Print Preview. you are prompted to save the file. it is a good idea to preview it first. and Close Drawings Drawings can be saved for reuse. Saving drawings: When you create designs and drawings.There are a wide variety of things you can do to objects that are quite distinct from what you can do to bitmaps. 4 From the Save as type list. Save. It can also be printed. Save. choose File. select the required format. select the folder in which you want to save the file. you want to save them for further use. Click Print to print with the default settings. 5 Click Save.cdr. • Click the Close button in the upper right corner of the print preview window. you can print the drawing. Be sure to have everything you want converted selected when you do that. you can: • Choose File. you’ll need to close it. A window opens. Close drawings and CorelDRAW: When you complete a drawing. choose File. The default extension for files created in CorelDRAW is . You can also press Ctrl + Shift + S to open the Save Drawing dialog box. 2 From the Save in list. To save the changes. Print. If you have an object (perhaps some text or a complex set of shapes you have created) you can convert it to a bit map by selecting it and then the Bitmap->Convert to bitmap menu option (see figure 4.

choose File Close All. This will display dialog box for the CorelDRAW Visual Basic for Applications Macros. and specify calendar o r i e n t a t i o n . * Select CalendarWizard and click Run. date. You can also press Alt + F4 or click the Close button on the CorelDRAW window. d i m e n s i o n s . Creating a Calender CorelDRAW enables you to create calendars easily and quickly. To close CorelDRAW. choose File. Applications 1. Go to Tools -> Visual Basic. If you are working on a new file. you need to save the file by using the options in the Save Drawing dialog box. the Calendar Wizard by default generates a calendar in the active project. * Click Generate . If you want to customize your page size disable the Create Calendar in. and choose from 20 different style layout and create single or multiple page calendars automatically. You can personalize and customize your calendar dates and specify calendar elements. * Choose a language In the Calendar language area. You can also close multiple drawings simultaneously. a n d m a r g i n s . * Select a year from the Year list box In the Calendar date area. * Based on the project's orientation and page size. Click on Holidays if you want to add special dates and events. * Select a layout style from the Layout box. To do so.file. and the n a m e o f t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t i n t h e . You can use the Calendar Wizard. To create a calendar the following steps should be applied. Then specify the month. a n d c l i c k A d d / M o d i f y.> Play. and click All to include all months of the year or enable the check boxes for corresponding months to create calendars for one or more months. Exit.

6. * Click on your Arrange menu while object is highlighted * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list) click on Scale to activate scale and mirror tab * Click on Mirror boxes H & V to activate * Click on Apply to Duplicate * Use your arrow key to create gap between each half * Close the Transformation dialog box * Fill the first half with Blue and the second with Red. * Delete nodes 4. 3. Creating a Zenith Bank Logo * Click on the Text tool * Type Z in Capital Letter while the caps lock is on * Increase the font size to 150 and font type Arial Black * Still Highlighted click on Arrange Menu * Click on convert to curve (Ctrl Q) * Click on your shape tool to activate the node. Designing The NNPC Logo * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle * Draw a rectangle vertically across the circle * Highlight the Rectangle * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list appears) * Click on Rotate to activate the rotate tab type 25 on the angle tab * Click on Apply to Duplicate until rectangle fills the circle * Close the transformation box * Highlight the angles and the circle (Ctrl A) * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on shaping (sub-menu list appears) then click on "Weld to" and click on the centre of Object to weld . 8. 7.2. 9 we now have half of the logo remaining. Notice 10 nodes * Delete node by double clicking on the node or click once and press delete on the keyboard.

apply green colour to it * Create another circle and place inside the first circle and colour with red * Place the both circle in the weld object by using the Align and Distribution * Click on Arrange menu while objects is highlighted * Click on Align and Distribute (align & Distribute dialog box appears) * Click center horizontal and vertical * click on Apply 4.* Apply yellow color to the object * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle. Designing a Lipton Label * Click on the Ellipse tool * Hold your Shift key to draw a sphere * Click on the rectangle tool and draw a rectangle horizontally across the sphere * Highlight the both and click on your Arrange Menu * Click on Align and Distribute (Align and Distribute dialog box appears) * Click on Center Horizontal and Vertical * Click on Apply * Click on Arrange Menu again * Click on Shaping (sub-menu list surfaces) click on "Weld to" * Make a duplicate from the original object * Click on your text tool and type LIPTON TEA and colour with deep yellow .

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Excel is a tool that allows you to enter quantitative data into an electronic spreadsheet to apply one or many mathematical computations. (f) Breakeven analysis. (d) creating forms and consolidating results. organizing and manipulating data. click Create. 4. A spreadsheet is a computer program or a document produced by such a program that we can use for arithmetic computations. This will start the Excel application. This will open the list of Microsoft Office applications. which is very similar to the Windows Vista operating system. Click the Microsoft Office folder on the Start menu. Go to Start > All Programs > Applications > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Excel (see figure 5. When opened a new spreadsheet will pop up on the screen. 1.Chapter 6 Excel Introduction MS Excel stands for MicroSoft's spreadsheet programme that is used for storing.1 Opening Microsoft Excel To begin Microsoft Excel 2007. Some of the functions for which Excel is widely used includes.1b "Start Menu" relate to the Windows 7 operating system. Excel is used for a large number of functions. A spreadsheet offers major advantages over the use of a hand calculator just as a word processing program offers many advantages over typewriting. Click the Microsoft Excel 2010 option. 2. 5. These computations ultimately convert that quantitative data into information. Once a template is chosen. (a) Managing data records like name list (b) Analysis through pivot tables. . From here a dialog box with various different templates will appear on the screen that you can choose from. (c) corporate budgeting. Click the Start button on the lower left corner of your computer screen. Note that these steps along with Figure 5. 3. if this does not happen click on the Office Icon > New. The information produced in Excel can be used to make decisions in both professional and personal contexts. Click the All Programs arrow at the bottom left of the Start menu. To begin Excel 2010 application the following steps will be applied. (e) inventory management .1a).

such as . text. the analysis and presentation features. Linking of worksheets.1 Starting Excel Excel incorporates all the user-friendly features of Windows. • Permits the user to add. Presentation Features • Individual cells and chart text can be formatted to any font and font size supported by Windows. • Worksheets can be printed horizontally or vertically. a blank workbook will open on your screen. edit. pattern. Excel will assign a file name to the workbook. Once Excel is started. • Full featured graphing and charting facilities. dialog boxes and mouse support. • Supports on screen databases with querying. delete and find database records. style and alignment control can be determined. • The user can add legends. • Repetitive tasks can be automated with MS-Excel. scaling and symbols to charts. Like most of the Windows application in Excel you can minimize or maximize worksheets.(a) Starting Excel 2007 (b) Starting Excel 2010 Figure 5. There are two main features of MS-Excel . A workbook is an Excel file that contains one or more worksheets (sometimes referred to as spreadsheets). • Variations in font size. pull down menus. extracting and sorting functions. Analysis Features • The windows interface includes windows. Easy to use macros and user defined functions.

Figure 5. a tool-tip appears. Excel has given your work a name.2 "Blank Workbook" shows a blank workbook after starting Excel. which only has three buttons on it by default – Save. In the top left corner of the screen. Maximize and Close buttons. telling you what that button does. • Click on the Start button. Book2. Book3. Moving right. This name will change when you save your work in a file. which has a series of tabs under which different commands are grouped. All the commands now appear as buttons (pictures) on this Ribbon. • Select Excel icon from the icon list. Use this to Open or Print your files. To its right is the Formula Bar. A blank worksheet labeled Sheet 1 will be displayed and ready for use. which can comprise a set of related data and chart sheets. which shows you what information is stored in a cell. When you point to a button. click on the down arrow on the right and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar. the Office Button appears. at which time you will be asked to supply a real name. depending on how many new workbooks are opened. . Book1. The next section down the screen is called the Ribbon. • Select Program menu. This replaces the menu and toolbar system in previous versions of Excel. and so on. To add extra buttons. Undo and Redo.2 "Blank Workbook" To Get started with worksheet the following steps apply. The area on the left (showing the characters A1) is the Name Box. Below the Ribbon is the command line. To the right of this is the Quick Access Toolbar. Figure 5.Book1. On the far right are the usual Minimize.

Each cell in an Excel worksheet contains an address. appears to the right of the sheet tabs. Any information you type is stored in the active cell. A horizontal scroll bar.3 Activating a Cell Location . which is used for moving up and down your work. as denoted by the sheet tab at the bottom. The worksheet contains several rectangles called cells for entering numeric and nonnumeric data. Each intersection of a row and column is known as a cell and has a unique name. for moving left and right. Down the right of the screen is the scroll bar. This can have several different shapes. The worksheet has numbers down the side. The cell in the top left corner is A1 (the intersection of column A and row 1) and is currently the active cell. This is denoted by a darker border.The main body of the screen contains the worksheet. Within the cells it appears as an outlined cross. You are currently using Sheet1 of Book1. The mouse cursor should also be visible. while the column letter and row number are shown with an orange-brown background. with its identity shown in the Name Box. The following steps explain how to navigate through an Excel worksheet. Navigating Worksheets Data are entered and managed in an Excel worksheet. some of which you will be meeting later in the course. Figure 5. and letters across the top denoting columns. which is defined by a column letter followed by a row number. denoting rows.

Release the left mouse button. as shown in Figure 1. This is referred to as a cell range and is documented as follows: A1:D5. Move the mouse pointer to cell A1.4 Highlighting a Range of Cells 6.5 "Activating a Cell Location". Click the Sheet1 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet to return to the worksheet shown in Figure 1. 2. Click the Sheet3 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet.6 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". and the second cell is the lower right corner of the range. as shown in Figure 5. The first cell is the top left corner of the range. Figure 5. 3. Any two cell locations separated by a colon are known as a cell range.1. Check to make sure column letter D and row number 5 are highlighted in orange. 4.4 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". This is how you open a worksheet within a workbook. 5. You should see several cells highlighted. . 7. Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse pointer back to cell D5. Place your mouse pointer over cell D5 and left click.

font size. which gives you access to settings such as the default font style. Figure 1. click any tab on the Ribbon or click the image of the worksheet on the right side of the window. 5.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" shows the options available in the File tab or Backstage view. To leave the Backstage view and return to the worksheet. You must click the Info button highlighted in green in Figure 5. Figure 5. It contains a variety of features and commands related to the workbook that is currently open. . The File tab is also known as the Backstage view of the workbook.11 "Excel Options Window" shows the Excel Options window. or workbooks stored in other locations on your computer or network.5 File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook Included in the File tab are the default settings for the Excel application that can be accessed and modified by clicking the Options button. and the number of worksheets that appear in new workbooks.The File Tab The Office button in the 2010 version has been replaced with the File tab on the far left side of the Ribbon. new workbooks.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" to see the image of your worksheet on the right side of the window.

Activate the cell by moving the MS-Excel cursor (rectangular box) or by clicking with the left mouse button. Note we may enter more text than a cell. in its current configuration. 2. and dragging to the desired width or height.6 Excel Options Window Data Entry in Worksheet To enter the data in a worksheet. Data may be entered into the cells of a worksheet in many types..g. A formula typically starts with the “=” character and may involve a variety of symbols that may be cell references. holding down the left mouse button. Lock the data by pressing the Enter key. These values are typically used in arithmetic. typically not used in arithmetic. typically used for explanation (e. We can stretch or shrink a column or row by placing the mouse cursor at the right edge of a column margin header or the bottom edge of a row margin header. the following steps are to be followed. row or column headers). · Formulas are used to describe a calculation whose value is to be displayed in the cell. Enter the data from the keyboard. · Numeric constants may be entered as text is entered. 3. including · Text data: typically consisting of words or phrases. can display. operators of . 1. functions.Figure 5.

A simple formula combines constant values with operators. Place the cursor in the cell where you want to write the formula 2. as well as “cell ranges”. and constants (numeric. Example: To get the sum of cell B4 and B5 in cell B15 4. Place the cursor in cell B15 5. As data is entered into a cell location. The following steps provide an example of entering and then editing data that has been entered into a cell location: Figure 5. the formula “=C2-B2” instructs the cell in which it appears to display the result of taking the value in C2 and subtracting the value in B2.arithmetic. The Formula Bar can be used for entering data into cells as well as for editing data that already exists in a cell. Editing Data Data that has been entered in a cell can be changed by double clicking the cell location or using the Formula Bar. Type the formula =B4+B5 then press enter key.7 Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data . etc). Write the formula starting with equal (=) sign and then press enter key. such as plus sign or minus sign or other operators in a cell to produce a new value from existing values. For example. 3. To enter formula in a cell: 1. text. the data typed appears in the Formula Bar.

2. To format or change the format of numbers. 1. This will enter the change into the cell. You will see the pointer turn into a cursor. Activate cell A15 in the Sheet1 worksheet. 6. and thickness • Align text • Merge cells horizontally in selected rows • Wrap text To save time on many of these formatting actions. To turn text wrapping back on. 3. Click the checkmark to the left of the Formula Bar (see Figure 5. To wrap text automatically.1. You can hover over an icon on the toolbar to see a description of what that option can do. date or currency format • Format cell contents • Change font size • Add bold or strikethrough • Change color of the text or a background color • Add borders and adjust border colors. Type the abbreviation Tot and press the ENTER key. 3. 2. Move the mouse pointer up to the Formula Bar. it will wrap onto a second line in the cell. In a worksheet. select the cells that you want to format. 5. On the Home tab. simply click the icon again. If you want to turn this feature off. . and allow the text to get clipped off in a cell if it is too long. Move the cursor to the end of the abbreviation Tot and left click. Type the letters al to complete the word Total. Here are the main formatting options: • Change the number. 2. 4. If text extends past the length of the cell in your spreadsheet. Select the range of cells you'd like to format or modify. Format data in a range of cells Data can be formatted in a variety of ways using the options in the toolbar.7 "Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data"). patterns. follow these steps: 1. click the wrap text icon in the toolbar. Click cell A15. Select the format you'd like to apply to the range of cells Wrap text: Text within a cell is wrapped by default in work sheets. click Wrap Text. in the Alignment group. use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Y to repeat the last action you took in your spreadsheet. Click the number format icon in the toolbar or click the Format menu and hover over “Number”. dates or currencies in a spreadsheet. You can also find a number of these actions in the menus or use shortcuts to apply formatting.

Copy. Cut will actually remove the selection from the original location and allow it to be placed somewhere else. • Go to the Home Tab > Copy (CTRL + C) or Home Tab > Cut (CTRL + X).8). and effects. • Double click the cell and a cursor will appear inside. Paste is used to insert data that has been cut or copied. This allows you to edit certain pieces of information within the cells instead of replacing all of the data. You may change an entry within a cell two different ways: • Click the cell one time and begin typing. Formatting Cells: There are various different options that can be changed to format the spreadsheets cells differently. Cells hold all of the data that is being used to create the spreadsheet or workbook. . Cut. • Click the location where the information should be placed. To Cut or Copy: • Highlight the data or text by selecting the cells that they are held within. To get to the Format Cells dialog box select the cells you wish to change then go toHome Tab > Format > Format Cells. Font: Gives the option to change the size. A box will appear on the screen with six different tab options (see figure 5. Explanations of the basic options in the format dialog box are bulleted below. The text within the cells and the control of the text within the cells can be changed as well. color. Number: Allows you to change the measurement in which your data is used. to move data from other spreadsheets into new spreadsheets. To enter data into a cell simply click once inside of the desired cell. and Paste: The Cut. • Go to Home Tab > Paste (CTRL + V) to be able to paste your information. Copy and Paste features of Excel can be used to change the data within the spreadsheet. Border: Gives the option to change the design of the border around or through the cells. a black border will appear around the cell. style. Copy allows you to leave the original selection where it is and insert a copy elsewhere.Formatting: Working With Cells Cells are an important part of any project being used in Microsoft Excel. When changing the format within cells you must select the cells that you wish to format. and to save the time of re-entering information in a spreadsheet. Alignment: This allows you to change the horizontal and vertical alignment of the text within each cell. This border indicates that it is a selected cell. The new information will replace any information that was previously entered. You may then begin typing in the data for that cell.

8. The cell or cells that are going to be formatted need to be selected before doing this.9.9. you will go to the Home Tab and click Format. then choose which height you are going to use (Figure 9). Formatting Cells To format a row or column go to Home Tab > Row Height (or Column Height). Figure 5. Formatting Rows and Columns Height . When changing the row or column visibility (hidden. unhidden) or autofit. The drop down menu will show these options Figure 5.Figure 5.

Adding Rows and Columns When adding a row or column you are inserting a blank row or column next to the already entered data.) Once the column is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that you chose. The column will automatically be place on the spreadsheet and any data to the right of the new column will be moved more to the right. To insert the row you have to go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Rows (Figure 5.10). Inserting Columns .10.11). Figure 5. Figure 5. Before you can add a Row you have to select the way place the new row (Rows are on the left hand side of the spreadsheet) once the row is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that is chosen.11. The row will automatically be placed on the spreadsheet and any data that was selected in the original row will be moved down below the new row. To insert a column go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Column (Figure 5. Inserting Rows Before you can add a Column select a column on the spreadsheet that is located in the area that you want to enter the new column. (Columns are on the top part of the spreadsheet.

"PRINT OR DO THIS". =AVERAGE(X:X) Display the average amount between cells. this would make any cell besides cell A1 say "BLANK" if a1 had nothing within it. For example. For example. =IF(*) The syntax of the IF statement are =IF(CELL="VALUE" . =MEDIAN(A1:A7) Find the median of the values of cells A1 through A7. So a good example of the syntax would be =IF(A1="". 5."BLANK". you can have instantaneous calculations whenever changing any information in cells the formula is looking at. You could also create a formula that would make one cell equal to more than one value. 3."NOT BLANK"). 2. 6. * The function tells the spreadsheet what kind of formula it's dealing with. and "NOT BLANK" if any information was within it. Formula examples = will create a cell equal to another. become a lot more complicated but can be reduced if following the above structure."ELSE PRINT OR DO THIS"). * Using the colon (:) will allow you to get a range of cells for a formula. * If a function is being performed the math formula or cells being dealt with are surrounded in parentheses. 4. 7. if you had =COUNTIF(A1:A10. if you were to put =A1 in B1 what ever was in A1 would automatically be put in B1."TEST") put in cell A11 then anywhere between A1 through A10 that has the word test would be counted as 1. of course. you could put in cell A2 =A1&" "&B1 which would put cell A1 in with B1 with a space between. so if you had 5 cells that had the word test A11 would say 5. For example.Formulas and Functions Formulas are what helped make spreadsheets so popular. if you have a first name in cell A1 and a last name in cell B1. four is the median for 1. * All spreadsheet formulas begin with = * After the equal symbol either the cell or formula function is entered. The if statement can. if you wanted to get the average for cells A1 to A30. you would type: =AVERAGE(A1:A30) =COUNTIF(X:X. By creating formulas. For example. For example. ."*") Count the cells that have a certain value.

12 and you entered formula =TREND(A1:A6) in a different cell. =SUM(A2-A1) Subtract cell A2 from A1. but had numbers in B1 through B6. A2. . and A5. =VLOOKUP(X."TEST".=MIN/MAX(X:X) Multiples multiple cells together. if cells A1 through A6 had 2.A5) Adds cells A1. =TODAY() Would print out the current date in the cell entered. This value will change to reflect the current date each time you open your spreadsheet. For example =Product(A1:A30) would multiple all cells together.X:X.X) The lookup. So if you put TEST (not case sensitive) in A1. If you want to enter a date that doesn't change hold down CTRL and .8. so A1 * A2 * A3.X. =SUM(A1.B1:B6) which only adds the values B1:B6 if the word "test" was put somewhere in between A1:A6. =TREND(X:X) To find the common value of cell. subtract. you would get the value of 2 because each number is going up by 2. hlookup. or divide values in cells. An example of this would be =SUMIF(A1:A6.6. =SUM(A1:A5) Add cells A1 through A5. =SUM(A1*A2) Multiply cells A1 and A2. etc. to enter the date. Below are some examples. =SUM(A1/A2) Divide cells A1 and A2.4. =SUM(X:X) The most commonly used function to add.10."*"X:X) Perform the SUM function only if there is a specified value in the first selected cells. =SUMIF(X:X. or vlookup formula allows you to search and find related valuesfor returned results. See our lookup definition for a complete definition and full details on this formula. For example. multiple. =SUM(A1+A2) Add the cells A1 and A2. it would only add the value in B1 because TEST is in A1.A2.

etc). Excel functions (more than 200 available). left click in B2. Cell addresses. Excel immediately adds the contents of cells A2 and B2 and displays the result in C2. (a) inserting formula (a) Adding C2 and A2 Figure 5.12 Including functions in a formula. monitoring revenues. tax calculations. Modifying a formula in Excel Demands change over time in every occupation.* / ( ) . then type = . select the required function from those displayed when you click the down arrow ( ▼ ) next to the Functions box.12a marked 1. type these from the keyboard.Creating Formulas Formulas are used to process numerical data in a worksheet (eg: to calculate a bank account balance . left click in the cell. and Operators ( + . left click in A2. See figure 5.). Enter numbers in A2 and B2 (eg: 13 and 6). To create the required formula in C2. * To include numerical values and operators in a formula. type + . then press the <Enter> key. Example: Create a formula in cell C2 to add the contents of cells A2 and B2. * To create a formula in a cell. left click on the required cell or drag across the required cells. * To include cell addresses in a formula. type = . . motor vehicle running costs. * To include functions in a formula. The following elements gan be used to create a formula: Numeric values. and we must similarly adapt Excel formulas to meet these demands (calculating expenses. etc. left click in C2. : etc).

and C3. the highest number. For example. range references. or /. to which the formula applies. 2. and the formula in cell D3 is immediately calculated. Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. press the Enter key and the revised formula is saved. The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1. the lowest number. We click on the field and we can modify it using the familiar text cursor that appears. B2. Filling Cells. and Printing By using functions.C9.10 refers to cells A7. A union reference consists of two or more numbers. and a count of the number of items in a list. or cell addresses separated by a comma. C9 and the number 10.Figure 5. A2. cell D3. *. -. using the mouse. Using Reference Operators To use functions. C2. you can use the SUM function to add.B8:B10. and A3. 3. When using a function. A range reference consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon. C1. Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. B8 to B10. B1.13 Modifying Formula To modify a formula in Excel apply the following steps using figure 5. A range reference: refers to all the cells between and including the reference. This displays the formula in the formula field. The reference A1:C3 includes cells A1.e. The reference A7. There are two types of reference operators: range and union. Understanding Functions Functions are prewritten formulas. A3. you need to understand reference operators. Creating Excel Functions. i. B3. Simply add + 10 to the end of the formula. you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations. such as finding an average. After revising the formula. Click on the cell. such as +.13: 1. A union reference: includes two or more references. . Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators. A2.

Parentheses enclose the arguments. * Specify the function name . * Enclose arguments within parentheses .14.remember the following: * Use an equal sign to begin a formula . Press Enter. 7. Example 2 The SUM function adds argument values shown in figure 5. For example.A1. 9. 6. Commas separate the arguments. Type 27 in cell B2. 3.B2:C7) In this function: The equal sign begins the function. SUM is the name of the function. Here is an example of a function: =SUM(2. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4. Press Enter. The sum of cells B1 to B3. Figure 5. * Use a comma to separate arguments. A1. appears . and B2:C7 are the arguments. Press Enter.13. arguments specify the numbers or cells you want to add. 13. 8. double-click on an item in the Auto-Complete list to completes the entry quickly. 2. Excel will complete the function name and enter the first parenthesis. the Auto-Complete list appears. Open Microsoft Excel. Type 24 in cell B3. Type 12 in cell B1. Arguments are values on which you want to perform the calculation. 2. After typing the first letter of a function name. 1. Press Enter. which is 63. 4. 5.14 SUM function Follow the steps below to apply the sum function.

Figure 5. . The Insert Function dialog box appears. 4. Type the word Sum. 2. 3. To format the worksheet follow the following steps . Click Top and Double Bottom Border.15 as indicated with the encircled numbers. 5. 2. 8. Click OK. Choose the Formulas tab. Click OK. 6. Type 150 in cell C1. 4. 3. 5. 10. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box. Choose the Home tab. Move to cell A4. appears. Click the Insert Function button.Enter the following also. Type 65 in cell C3. 11 Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field.16 illustrates the formatting. 7. 12. Press Enter. The Function Arguments dialog box appears as shown in figure 5. Click Sum in the Select A Function box. 9. 1. if it does not automatically appear. 6. Select cells B4 to C4.15. Click the down arrow next to the Borders button .15 Function dialog Steps 11 and 12 describes figure 5. Figure 5. 1. Type 85 in cell C2. Press Enter. which is 300. The sum of cells C1 to C3.

2. 4. Press Enter. The lowest number in the series. 4. Press Enter. Move to cell A7.Figure 5. 5. 1. The average of cells B1 to B3. which is 12. Move to cell A6. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3). Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7. Figure 5.17. 3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6. appears. which is 21. highest number and number count do the following. Type Min. .17 Calculating average The following steps apply. Type Average. 2. To determine the lowest. Lowest number: 1. Type = MIN(B1:B3). 3.16 Formatting the work sheet To calculating the average use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers as illustrated in figure 5. appears.

5. 5. which is 27. 2. The highest number in the series. 1. 4.Highest Number: Use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers as follows. Click the down arrow next to the AutoSum button The three operations described above is illustrated in figure 5. appears. Type = MAX(B1:B3). 3. 1. use the count function to count the number of numbers in a series as follows.18. Choose the Home tab. 2. To count the numbers in a series of numbers. 4. 3. Max and count operation . Figure 5. Press Enter.18 Min. Type Max. Move to cell A8. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8. Type Count. Move to cell A9.

. Select the insert tab from the top of the excel window In the chart box click on Scatter Choose Scater with Markers Only Figure 5.19.Graphing Data Graphing data is important because it allows us to visualize the relationship between the data and calculated values.21 · In the graph double click on chart title and change it to "Force vs Acceleration” · Double click on the x axis title and change it to "Acceleration (m/s2) Note: To superscript the 2 you need to click on the home tab of the main menu and then expand the Font Box so that you can check the superscript box.20. The following steps and figures explains this. · · · · Select cells D8 through E17 as shown in figure 5. · Chart should appear · In the design tab under chart layout · Choose layout From figure 5.19 Cell selection From figure 5. We are now going to graph Force vs Acceleration to illustrate data graphing.

21 Format trendline .20 Appearance of layout · Double click on the y axis title and change it to "Force (kg m/s2) Note: Again superscript the 2. · Add a trendline by right clicking on one of the data points and choosing "Add Trendline" In the add trandline window Figure 5.Figure 5.

· Select "New Sheet · it "Force vs Acceleration" · Click OK Figure 5. If you are going to print the graph as its own page do the following : · Right click in the lower left hand corner and select "Move Chart.22.23b · Change Major units to fixed · Change the value to 5 · Click close .Copying or placing the chart · Click on the trendline equation text box and move it to the upper right hand corner of the graph window. · Right click on the legend on the right hand side of the graph and select delete. Figure 5.23a · Choose format axis · Under the axis Options in figure 5.22 Placing the chart Formatting the axis · In the new window. · click on one of the x axis values and then select "Add Major Gridlines" · If you wanted to paste this into a word document you could copy and past the graph from here to the word document. right click on the "y-axis" as shown in figure 5.

As you roll your mouse pointer over each option. execute the following steps. After you choose a chart type. and scatter. Excel supplies a brief description of each chart sub-type. line. To create a chart in Excel. the chart will automatically update. such as column. Select a chart type by choosing an option from the Insert tab's Chart group. pie. Then plot that data into a chart by selecting the chart type that you want to use on the Office Fluent Ribbon (Insert tab.23 Formatting the axis Creating Charts Charts are used to display series of numeric data in a graphical format to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationship between different series of data. As the data is changed. To create a line chart. or bar. For example. area. 1. line. choose a chart sub-type.If Excel is already open on your workstation open a new . Launch Excel . start by entering the numeric data for the chart on a worksheet. column. There are further sub-types within each of these categories. you can choose to have your chart represented as a two-dimensional chart. a cylinder chart. bar. after you choose Column Chart . a cone chart.(a) Format axis drop box (b) Axis options Figure 5. The basic procedure for creating a chart is the same no matter what type of chart you choose. On the Insert tab there are a variety of chart types to choose from. a three-dimensional chart. Charts group). or a pyramid chart.

Enter the data to be graphed. only the names of fruit and the numbers.Excel workbook. put your cursor in call A2. That is done by going to the Insert menu and selecting Chart. Highlight data to be graphed. We will use the data in table 1. Select New. Select the Chart Wizard. There are three ways to do that. You can also click on the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Table 2 Highlighted Data 4. Do not include the row with heading titles. · Go to the File menu.24. · Use a keyboard combination: on a Windows computer use Ctrl + N. For this activity. 5. From the Chart Wizard box that opens select Chart type. 2. I selected pie . Click on the New Workbook button. Table 1 Raw Data 3. Highlighted data should look like what we have in table 2. click hold the mouse button down and drag to cell B7. · Go to the Standard toolbar. If your worksheet looks like the one above. See figure 5.

Figure 4.24 Chart wizard After selecting the Chart type. click and hold your mouse pointer down on the Press and Hold button to see what the data looks like in the chart type selected. After selecting the chart type two options will be available: · Select Next and let Chart Wizard show you a series of options to make changes to your chart. · Select Finish and Chart Wizard puts your completed chart on the spreadsheet. Shown in figure 5.25 .25. Figure 5. Another chart type can be selected.

When you are finished. If the data range should be changed. or make changes on the data labels.27 Chart Location . The Data range displayed below is read "all cells from A2 to B7.” Notice where the cursor is located in the dialog box above. This box allows you to add a title to the chart. Figure 5. The dialog box shrinks allowing you to see your entire spreadsheet. Select Next to go to the dialog box in figure 5.The second step taken by Chart Wizard is to verify the range of data being used for this chart. make changes on the legend. It is pointing to the small box at the end of the line where the Data range is displayed.27.26. Figure 5. You can edit the data range in this small window. click the same box at the end to restore the window. click on the box the cursor is pointing to.26 Chart options Select Next to move to the final dialog box which allows you to see the chart as a new sheet or place it on one of the sheets in your workbook as shown in figure 5.

Your worksheet changes to Page Layout view and the Design context tab appears. or center of the printed page. When you click the Header & Footer button. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page of your printed worksheet. the Design context tab appears and Excel changes to Page Layout view. 2. where you place your information determines whether it appears on the left. When you choose a Header or Footer from the Header & Footer Elements group. 7. Choose the Insert tab.23 Figure 5. 5. Excel moves to the footer area. When you print your document. Excel will place your name in the upper-left corner. 6. Click the right side of the header area. You can type in your header or footer or you can use predefined headers and footers. 3. and center. A context tab is a tab that only appears when you need it.23 Inserting Header and Footer 1. right. You use the Go To Header and Go To Footer buttons on the Design tab to move between the header and footer areas of your worksheet. Type your name. Click the left side of the Header area. When you print your document. Click the Header & Footer button in the Text group. Both the header and footer areas are divided into three sections: left. 4. To insert Headers and Footers as shown in figure 5. Click Page Number in the Header & Footer Elements group. right. Excel will place the page number in the upper-right corner. Click the Go To Footer button. Page Layout view structures your worksheet so that you can easily change the format of your document. .Create Headers and Footers A header is text that appears at the top of every page of your printed worksheet.

A menu appears. You can choose to print the entire worksheet or specific pages. the shortest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. Set Print Options There are many print options. you will see margin lines on your document. . Margins define the amount of white space that appears on the top. top. Printing The simplest way to print is to click the Office button. you can set page settings such as centering your data on the page. enter the page numbers in the From and To fields. and then click Quick Print in the Preview and Print the Document pane. If you print in Portrait. Click the path to your document. left. which is the default page size in Excel. Paper. To print specific pages. is longer on one edge than it is on the other. Most business correspondence uses 8 1/2 by 11 paper. The dotted lines indicate the right. Excel will place the path to your document at the bottom of every printed page. The Print dialog box appears when the print button is clicked. and bottom edges of your printed pages. You can click and drag the margin markers to increase or decrease the size of your margins. Portrait is the default option. 7. the longest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. and your document prints. highlight Print on the menu that appears. Among other things. If you click the Page Setup button while in Print Preview mode. If you are not using 8 1/2 by 11 paper.6. If you print in Landscape. If you check the Show Margins check box. To return to Excel. The Margin option on the Page Layout tab provides several standard margin sizes from which you can choose. you can use the Next Page and Previous Page buttons to move forward and backward through your document. You can enter the number of copies you want to print in the Number of Copies field. If your document is several pages long. you can set your margins. When using Print Preview. click the Close Print Preview button. you can see onscreen how your printed document will look when you print it. Dotted lines appear on your screen. You set print options on the Page Layout tab. such as paper sized 8 1/2 by 11. Click the Footer button. you can use the Size option on the Page Layout tab to change the Size setting. and select your paper size. set your page orientation. Paper comes in a variety of sizes. There are two page orientations: portrait and landscape. and right edges of your document. The Print Preview option can be to print. left. bottom.

Chapter 7
Microsoft Access
7.1 Introduction
The value any database can provide is to store related information in one
place, and then let you connect various different things (sometimes called
"entities" in database) together. Microsoft Access is an information
management tool that helps in the storage of information for reference,
reporting, and analysis. Microsoft Access helps in analyzing large amounts of
information, and manage related data more efficiently than Microsoft Excel or
other spreadsheet applications. Microsoft Access works in the same manner
any database does, by storing related information together, and letting you
create connections (commonly called relationships) between different things.
The relationships between two different things in MSAccess can be as simple
as a contact at a customer and the customer itself or complex. Data is stored
in Microsoft Access tables likened to a mini-spreadsheets that store only one
type of thing. A table can have many fields likened to the columns in
spreadsheet. Each field in a table can be set up to allow or prevent users from
entering certain information, for example, you could say one field only accepts
dates, another can only allow a user to enter a numeric value, while another
lets them enter anything they want. Once you have the MS Access tables,
fields, and relationships set up, you can create data entry forms that use those
tables to store your information and later create reports with the data. Some
of the major benefits to using a database are:
Fewer errors and inconsistencies: Maintaining one version of the truth for the
things you need to track minimizes the potential for duplication, errors, and
inconsistent values.
Higher productivity: When working in database you need only change a single
record and all other related things in the database will automatically "see" the
change.
Security and Control: Databases provide a central location to store, secure,
and control your data. Microsoft Access includes the ability to encrypt and
password protect database files.
Better Decisions and Insight: Perhaps most importantly, a single source of
truth in a standardized format means you can gain better insight and make
better decisions by reporting and analyzing your data in a database.
7.2 Features of MS Access
Microsoft Access is a database and, more specifically, a relational database.

Access has an .mdb extension by default, although this has changed in
Access 2007 where the extension is now an accdb extension. Early versions
of Access cannot read accdb extensions but Microsoft Access 2007 can read
and change earlier versions of Access. The Microsoft® Access Database is
made up of 7 major components namely the tables, relationships, queries,
forms, reports, macros and modules.The following gives a quick overview of
each component.
Tables: The tables are the backbone and the storage container of the data
entered into the database. If the tables are not set up correctly, with the correct
relationships, then the database may be slow, gives the wrong results or not
react the way we want it to. Queries, forms, etc. are usually based on a table.
The tables that contain data look a bit like a table in Microsoft® Word or a
Microsoft® Excel Spreadsheet, when opened. They have columns and rows
as does a table in Microsoft® Word and an Excel worksheet. Each of the
columns will have a field name at the top and each of the rows will represent a
record.
Relationships: Relationships are the bonds you build between the tables.
They join tables that have associated elements. To do this there is a field in
each table, which is linked to each other, and have the same values.
Queries: These the means of manipulating the data to display in a form or a
report. Queries can sort, calculate, group, filter, join tables, update data,
delete data, etc. Their power is immense. The Microsoft® Access database
query language is SQL (Structured Query Language). The need to know SQL
is not required in the early stages of learning Access. Microsoft® Access
writes the SQL for you, after you tell it what you want, in the Design view of the
queries window.
Forms: Forms are the primary interface through which the users of the
database enter data. The person who enters the data will interact with forms
regularly. The programmer can set the forms to show only the data required.
By using queries, properties, macros and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications),
the ability to add, edit and delete data can also be set. Forms can be set up and
developed to reflect the use they will be required for.
Reports: Reports are the results of the manipulation of the data you have
entered into the database. Unlike forms, they cannot be edited. Reports are
intended to be used to output data to another device or application, i.e. printer,
fax, Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel.
Macros: Macros are an automatic way for Access to carry out a series of
actions for the database. Access gives you a selection of actions that are

Advanced users of Microsoft® Access tend to use VBA instead of Macros. Modules: Modules are the basis of the programming language that supports Microsoft® Access. FieldName) Student LastName Datatype) Text . the list is almost endless.1Database hierarchy Database File: This is your main file that encompasses the entire database and that is saved to your hard-drive or floppy disk. Tables usually contain multiple fields.mdb Table: A table is a collection of data about a specific topic. There can be multiple tables in a database.3 Microsoft Access Hierarchy Description Microsoft Access is a powerful program to create and manage your databases. Example #1) Students Example #2) Teachers Field: Fields are the different categories within a Table. 7.carried out in the order you enter. change values of a field. run queries. Macros can open forms. The module window is where you can write and store Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Example) StudentDatabase. run other Macros. Example #1) Student LastName Example #2) Student FirstName Datatypes: Datatypes are the properties of each field. Figure 6. A field only has 1 datatype. etc. Figure 6.1 shows the Hierarchy that Microsoft Access uses in breaking down a database.

in the File Name field.2b. However. follow the sequence Start/All Programs/Microsoft Office/Microsoft Access. After opening the Access application.4 Starting MS Access The first step is to start the MS Access DBMS software. the basics remain the same. which is part of the Microsoft Office Professional suite. Under the Blank Database section. type the file name My First Database.7.3 Creating a Database .2a shows Office 2003 labels. Figure 6.2 Starting MS Access Creating a New Database 1. nevertheless. Figure 6. (a) Office 2003 (b) Office 2010 Figure 6. 2. Different version of Windows comes with different version of the Windows Office suite. The screen is likely to differ in detail from the office 2010 in Figure 6. select Blank Database. For example. The sequence is the same for all MS Office versions. you will see slight variations in the labeling of the MS Office components. To start Microsoft Access.

emailing. This new feature of Access 07 is the replacement for the . publishing.4 The work area The Access Interface consists of various tools: Office Button: Located in the top left corner of the office window frame. A list of the most recently viewed documents allows quick access to databases you are currently working on. Access Options assists you in customizing the Access environment.5 Access User Interface access user interface is shown in figure 6. Click on the Create button 7. but can be moved below the ribbon. managing.4. Figure 6. this button displays a set of commands for creating a new database. saving.3. By default. printing. it resides above the ribbon. opening. and closing a database. It remains visible at all times. Quick Access Toolbar: The Quick Access Toolbar can be customized to hold your most frequently used commands. reducing the need to search for the proper command tab. Ribbon: Contains task-specific commands grouped together under command tabs.

The user can assign names to fields and specify a property of each data type accordingly. Caps Lock. or by using the Table Templates option which allows the user to create a table based on predefined designs. The Table Design option provides the most control over the design of the table. Creating a table is always the precursor to other objects such as queries. or Num Lock. . MS Office Window Frame: Located at the bottom of the user interface. Can be customized to display objects by various groupings. 7.4 with Tabs and Ribbons that automatically appear for the area in the Access work area. the frame can be customized to show additional features such as database views. and reports. queries. using the Table option which creates the table and directly displays the blank fields. forms. Enable the full content if you are sure the database is virus-free. A table consists of fields and records. When you click the Create button the Access 2007 screen will change to the image in figure 6. The Window Frame was previously known as the status bar. forms. the Table Design option which creates a table in the design view where the field attributes are displayed.former menus and toolbars. Navigation Pane: Displays database objects such as tables.6 Creating the Tables Tables The basic building block of a database is the table. Regardless of which method is used. The default Objects selection is Tables and that the default table format is Create table in Design view. fields can always be modified after the table is created. Security features cause the message bar to appear below the ribbon when you open a database outside of a trusted location. At the top of figure 6. and reports because each object uses the fields and records from a table as the basis for its output. Dialog Box Launcher: Miniature buttons found on command tabs provides additional commands and tools associated with the group. The intersection of a field and a record is a data cell where information relevant to that particular field for that particular record is entered. Scroll Lock. There are three ways to create a table.4 the Table Tools and Datasheet Tabs appears.

If field names are not assigned. . Field names are usually assigned first and then the field properties are specified in the Field Properties pane.5. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. Figure 6.6). 2. tables created with the Table Design option do not have an "ID" field. Assuming we want to create or design a new Table.4 Tabs and Ribbons The Ribbon below these Tabs is composed of Groups of selections to assist in creating the Table. Unlike a table created using the Table option. When you click the View button the Datasheet and Design View dropbox will appear.Provide a name in the Table Name box and then click the OK button. Click the Table Design button in the Tables group (see Figure 6. A Save As menu screen will appear similar to figure 6. On the left of the Table Tools-Datasheet Tab/Ribbon is the View button.5 Table Name A table created using the Table Design gives the user the most control over the design of a database. Figure 6. our selection will be the Design View selection. To create a table using the Table Design option: 1. Access assigns the default name a field number.

Use the rows and columns to enter field names. data types. Field descriptions are entered by clicking inside the Description text box for a specific field. .6 Table Design View Window The Table Design View window is split into two panes. Other Ways to Add a New Record: If the New record row is in view. After creating a table. editing. To add a record. The default data type is Text. To quickly move between fields in a record. simply click in that row. 2. the Datasheet View can be used to manage information entered into the table. Double click inside the Field Name text box and enter the desired field name. Click the New Record button on the Record Navigation bar. 1. The record selector jumps to the blank row at the end of the table and the blinking insertion point appears in the first column.Figure 6. 3. The top pane is the Design Grid pane. It allows a user to explain or describe the type of information entered in the field. 1. Click a field in the new record and enter data as desired. The Datasheet View window is useful for entering. Press <Tab> or <Shift> + <Tab> keys. Access automatically saves the information as you enter it. As you enter data. The bottom pane is the Field Properties pane. 6. Designate the Data Type for each field by clicking the Data Type drop-down arrow and selecting the type from the drop-down menu. Using the Description column is optional. Press the [enter] key and the Data Type text box will become active. and field descriptions. or deleting records. 2.

and whether a field is displayed when the query is run.7 Queries A query is a request to select specific information from a table(s). display specific information. Click the Query Design button in the Other group (see Figure 6. and serve as the basis for forms or reports. The Design View window opens in the Object Display Area along with the Show Table dialog box (see Figure 6. Other Ways to Delete a Record: Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. To create a simple query using the Query Design window: 1. click the Delete button in the Records group and click the Yes button. More than one table can be selected. To delete records that you no longer need from a table. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. criteria to retrieve the desired information. The bottom pane specifies the fields used in the query. or other queries. Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. 2. The top pane displays the table(s) used in the query. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon. Click the Yes button.To edit a record.8). This section will demonstrate how to create a query using the Design View or the Simple Query Wizard. Queries do not hold any data. 1. Press the <Delete> key. Queries can be used to analyze data. A table must exist before a query or any other database object can be created.7). . 2. The Query Design window consists of top and bottom pane. Creating a query in Design View: gives the user control over the design of the query including adding or deleting criteria to selected records and sorting results in the record set. related tables. A query can be used to specify desired fields and criteria to display information from a table. 7. Click the field you want to edit and make the changes. Queries are different from tables even though the interfaces of tables and queries are very similar to each other. sort parameters in the query (ascending or descending order). they hold or save the criteria used to select the data from the table(s). If the table related to a query is deleted (intentionally or unintentionally) the query will no longer function.

Each column will drop into the query design grid. Figure 6. Type "CA" in the text box for the "State/Province" field.Figure 5.9. This sets the criteria for the query. Figure 6.8 Table dialog box 3. The fields are added to the bottom pane. See figure 6.9 Setting query criteria . Double click the column names to use in the query. 4. For example let us extract all customers in the state of 'CA'.7 'Query Design' Selection Select the table to use in the query and then click the 'Add' button.

Click the YES button to save the query.5. a warning box will open. If the query has not been named. Removing the criteria from the query grid would return all records Figure 6. 'Run' button Figure 6. Click the RUN button in the Results group(see figure 6.10 Run' button on the Ribbon 3 records have been returned for the state of 'CA' (see Figure 6.12) 8. 7.12 Save As dialog box 'Run' butto . The Save As dialog box opens (See figure 6. Only records for classes that meet on CA criteria will be displayed. Figure 6. Close the query by clicking the Close button in the query window of the Object Display Area.11).10). The query will execute according to the criteria entered and the results will be displayed in the Object Display Area .11 Returned Records 6. Enter a name for the query in the QUERY NAME text box.

Figure 6. A new form containing all of the fields from the table will open in the Object Display Area(See figure 6.12). which eliminates the need to scroll to display all the fields in a table. The Form Tool uses all of the fields in the data source and arranges them automatically on a form.12 Form groups Forms created using the Form Tool will contain the Record Navigation Control identical to those found on a table. Figure 6.8 Forms Forms can be used to view and edit data in a record. When creating a form.12). To create a form using the Form Tool: 1. Select the table that will be the basis for the form in the Object Display Area. Forms can be created from either the Form Design window or by using the Form Tool. it is important to remember that a table is the basis for all objects including forms.13 Form created using Form Tool . Creating a form using the form tool: The Form Tool is the quickest way to create a form in Access. forms cannot be created without a pre-existing table. 3. All of the information in a record will be displayed on the form. All fields for one record can be viewed at the same time. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon.7. 2. Click the Form button in the Forms group (see Figure 6. Forms can also be used to present data in a more attractive and efficient format than a datasheet and also to display data from related tables.

9 Reports A report can be created based on either a table or query object(s). (a) Navigation Plane (b) Create Tab Figure 6. 2. The Save As dialog box opens. 1. Reports provide a means to display and summarize the data in tables or queries. 2. . The tabular report looks similar to the format of tables with the field names listed at the top and their values beneath the field names. Figure 51 is an example of a report in tabular format. 3.To save the form: 1. There are two basic formats for reports: columnar and tabular.14 Navigation plane and the Create Tab on the Ribbon 3. Here we click on the 'Customers' table and it becomes highlighted (See figure 6. Click on a table in the navigation pane. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar.14b). The columnar report orients field names to the left and their values to the right as in a column form. Click the OK button. presentation.15 Figure 6. To create a report. order form. Enter a name for the form in the text box. The information from the tables and/or queries can also be arranged so that the report may be utilized as an invoice. At the Ribbon make sure the 'Create' tab is selected (See figure 6. At the reports section click on the item called 'Report Wizard' as shown in figure 6.15 The Report Wizard.14a). or for formatting and printing mailing labels. 7. the Design View or with the Report Wizard. A Report can be created using the Report Tool. Reports can include headers and footers in which subtotals and totals can be calculated and displayed.

Select the table or query to base the report on. Table/Query Fields Figure 6. 5.. which allows the user to view the report in final form before printing. grouping. See figure 6. layout. it is best to preview the report to see how the text appears on each page. The . sorting. Quick Print. Using the Print Preview feature can avoid wasting time and paper by viewing the draft version of the report. which sends the entire report to the printer without opening the Print dialog box. and Print Preview. Access prints the report using the formatting and margin settings. data source.1 Printing Reports The report can be printed after it is created. In the left box double click the field you wish to show on the report.4. Click the 'Finish' button. Click the button to complete the report. The options available in the Print menu of the Office Button include Print which opens the Print dialog box(See figure 6.16 Query to base report Any aspect of the report (i. The Print Preview feature displays the pages as they will appear when printed. or style) can be changed by clicking the button until the appropriate dialog box opens and making the changes. Previewing a report: Before printing.e. The item will move to the box on the right. The report will open in the Object Display Area 7. fields selected.16.17a) and allows the user to change printer settings. Print Preview opens with one page of the document sized to fit in the window. Printing options in Access are accessed by clicking the Office Button and hovering the mouse over the Print button to display the options available. You can also use the arrow keys to move fields between the two boxes.9.

10 Setting the Relationships between Tables A Relationship is how you tell the program that a piece of information means the same thing in more than one table. Click the Office Button. 2.(a) (b) ( c) (d) Figure 6. Open the report to be printed. To exit Print Preview. Contacts should have a relationship to Reservations because they both contain the field ContactID). Setting the relationship up in Access is very important. 7. To use Print Preview: 1. 6. Once a relationship is established you can view information from both tables at the same time by creating a query. Relationships are created using a Primary Key from one table and linking it to a related field in another table (now called a Foreign Key). The Zoom slider control is present only when the report is open. 4. select the Preview tab of the Ribbon. .17c).17 Printing a Report located at the bottom right corner of the interface (see Figure 6. Click the Print Preview option in figure 6.17a. Hover the mouse over the Print button to display the printing options (see Figure 58).17b). 5. Table relationships can be created between two tables as long as they have a common field (in the example database. Click the Close Print Preview button in the Preview group (see Figure 6. 3.

These include: One to One One to Many Many to Many The relationship type you will come across most frequently. Repeat for each table involved in a relationship that you need to set up. Click on CLOSE. and the one created in our bookstore scenario. . is the One to Many relationship. 2. Click on the RELATIONSHIPS button in the datasheets ribbon. To create a relationship between tables the following steps applies. Select one of the desired tables in the relationship and click on ADD. 1. (The show table window appears automatically if no relationships have been defined. Click on the SHOW TABLE button. Make sure that your tables are closed and that you are at the database screen. 3.Access 2007 allows for several different types of relationships.) 4.

Double-click Order Details.5. . The Employees table should appear in the Relationships field: 8. The Customers table should appear in the Relationships field: 7. double-click Employees. Double-click Orders. In the Show Table window. 9.

11. The Relationships field should now look like this: .10. click the Close button. In the Show Tables window. Double-click Products.

Individual files cannot be more than 256 MB though. The line will become bold. Open the Relationships window. Click once on the line connecting the two tables. It can store documents. 3. including all kinds of Office files and binary objects. The new data type attachment however. etc. The OLE data type is still available. 2. 2. memo. Make any changes to the dialog box and click OK.18 Attachment Dialog Box . Figure 6. Double-click on the line connecting the two tables. The hyperlink data type allows for storage of hyperlinks and the field can be a solution for the indirect method discussed previously.To Edit Relationships 1. is the right type for storing images. A field created with this data type can have up to 2 GB storage allocated. numbers. 7. Open the Relationships window. The complete list of data types available to define a field in a table in Access 2007 now include text. To Delete Relationships 1. 3. date/time. Press [DELETE] on the keyboard. and you can use it the old manner. You can have more than one file attached to a record.11 Adding Images to Access Access 2007 introduced a data type called "attachment".

Type a field name. 4. Click ''Datasheet View" on the top toolbar so that you return to your normal view. This brings up a sub-menu." You will see a single table. ICON. Open Access 2007. RLE (Run Length Encoded Bitmap). Select "Insert Object. ICO (Icon). title it "Images. EXIF (Exchangeable File Format). meaning the attachment control renders them without the need for additional software.") 3." .Whenever you need a field that can hold images and other attachments. TIFF. JPEG. 5. Office Access 2007 supports the following graphic file formats natively." That is how you insert a file into Access. TIF (Tagged Image File Format). for the field the image will be in. Click "OK. Viewing attachments also does not need the use of a form." A new window opens with your "Insert Object" options. JPG. The dialog box lets you look through your directory for the file to be attached. If you are starting a new database file. JPE (Joint Photographic Experts Group). Use the drop-down menu in the "Data Type" column to select "OLE Object. titled "Table 1. Instead open the table in the datasheet view. Click "Create From File" and select to "Browse" for your file." 2. DIB (Device Independent Bitmap). BMP (Windows Bitmap). PNG (Portable Network Graphics). go to the right record. The document will open in the associated program. and double click the specific icon of the attachment (as there can be multiple attachments in a attachment field). remember to create a field for the same. Select the image file that you want to add. name it and set the data type as "attachment".18 appears. (For example. To add attachments to a table. 6. you do not need a data entry form. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format). Simply open the table. WMF (Windows Metafile) and EMF (Enhanced Metafile) To attach an image file to an access database appy the following steps. Double click the attachments field and the attachments dialog box in figure 6. Right-click on any empty field on your database. select "New. 1. Change your view to "Design View" by clicking the "Design View" button on the top bar of Access 2007.

For example. or both.org). client. For example. Security is used to introduce the technological and social threats posed by our reliance upon heavily interconnected systems. teleworking and of the team based use of computers to coordinate group activities. you need its Web address. For the purpose of understanding the central message we shall illustrate the social aspects of computing using the internet. to download a Web page. mobile devices and computer supported cooperative work. known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (e. The Internet is a global network of many individual computer networks.g. These additional protocols use their own types of addresses.0 Introduction This chapter is intended to introduce the social implications of computing technology. For instance.com). security and safety. We will introduce some key technologies that will have a profound impact upon the way that we live and emphasize the complex social consequences that these technologies will have upon the way that we live. enabling different types of Internet communications. Computers that offer files for download over the Internet are called servers or hosts. both the sender and recipient need e-mail addresses (e. 8. i. unchanging.1 The Internet and World Wide Web. such that your computer's address changes with each new Internet session. Mobile devices and Computer Supported Cooperative Work are used to introduce the social implications of remote. Safety is used to introduce the consequences of our increased reliance upon fallible programmers and their products. the Internet Protocol (IP). World Wide Web (Web) communications are transmitted via the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and e-mails via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). To exchange e-mails.g. More sophisticated networking protocols may be "layered" on top of the IP protocol. http://www. depending . The Internet is used to introduce the social implications of a world population that is either 'information rich' or 'information poor' ('computer literate' or 'computer illiterate'?). Any computer may be server.e. user@emailprovider.. or may be "dynamically" assigned by your ISP.eff. Every computer connected to the Internet has an IP address.. a unique numeric identifier that can be "static". all speaking the same computer language.Chapter 8 Social Aspects of Computing 8. a computer that offers Web pages for download is called an HTTP server or Web host. apart from IP addresses.

Netscape Navigator.2 Mobile Computing and Groupware Mobile computation can take place over larger distances using cellular and satellite telephone links. The client program (known as a browser). The only problems concern the reliability of the system.on the communication. telephone systems were designed to carry the human voice rather than the binary. as well as those available via the http protocol used to transfer hypertext documents. e. These problems are being reduced by the introduction of digital networks. For example. Those areas that are covered. HTTP (Web) is assigned to port 80 and SMTP (e-mail) is assigned to port 25. Communications to and from an Internet-connected computer occur through 65. menus. use several different systems. However. These systems use modems in the same way that many users use a modem to connect up over standard telephone networks. Application or client programs. Telnet or news." Many networking protocols have been assigned to particular port numbers by the Internet Engineering Task Force. called browsers. A variety of client and server software is freely available. however. any port can be used for any application. There are. These can refer to local or remote resources accessible via FTP. many companies from about 1995 realized they could use the same software and protocols on their own private internal TCP/IP networks giving rise to the term "intranet". .g. 8. that is non-digital. many areas of the world that are not covered by these facilities. Gopher. runs on the user's computer and provides two basic navigation operations: to follow a link or to send a query to a server. The amount of data in an Internet communication is measured in bytes. digital signals of computer networks. On the WWW everything (documents. NCSA Mosaic. and these are only conventions The World Wide Web is an Internet client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva. translate user request for information into the communications primitives that are necessary to transfer relevant data from remote servers. Most clients and servers also support "forms" which allow the user to enter arbitrary text as well as selecting options from customizable menus and on/off switches.536 different computer software "ports. Hypertext links refer to other documents by their URLs. indices) is represented to the user as a hypertext object in HTML format. Errors can be introduced because analogue. Switzerland. Following the widespread availability of web browsers and servers.

If the user moves from one cell to another then their 'calls' are passed between transceivers. Another class of systems supports teleworking. This approach exploits the cellular systems that currently support mobile 'phones. It can also include elements of groupware if they have to cooperate with their colleagues over the network. Where communications infrastructure on the Internet supports relatively low quality video conferencing. the intention is to reduce the problems that can arise during telephone conversations. these systems avoid the irritations that can arise when three or more people try to communicate over the same phone line. Groupware covers a vast range of computer applications: · Conferencing systems. In the case of video conferencing systems. These systems range from simple messaging applications where textual messages may appear below the user's name. unintentional electromagnetic interference. Radio-based communication also suffers from: signal fade due to adverse atmospheric conditions. humancomputer interaction. users will continue to suffer the delays. to full-blown video conferencing systems. High frequency signals carry more information but are susceptible to interference and dispersion. interference from other devices using the same channel and variable signal strength due to movement of the device. There are multi-user conferencing systems. delays may interrupt both images and sound. . there are important visual cues about who wants to talk next etc. In particular.Cellular Architectures: Radio technology offers perhaps the most obvious means of connecting mobile devices. Each cell has its own transceiver (transmitter-receiver). There is a trade-off between the volume of information that a radio signal can carry and the distance that the signal will travel. These enable groups of users to remotely log-in to their place of work. In either case. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks provide means of firing multimedia data at high speeds across local and wide are networks. Groupware refers to computer programs that are intended to help several different people work together on a common product. Another term that is commonly used for these applications is CSCW systems (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). the area to be covered is divided into a number of cells. Low frequency signals carry less information but will travel over longer distances. Teleworking can combine elements of mobile computation if the user is moving around the country as they work. group text-editors even `virtual' universities. broken connections and interruptions that frustrate mobile. In this system. They need not be physically present in their office. Until such problems are addressed.

if two different groups have to work on different sections of a joint publication. Job Hunt Online. When you think of the Internet. the various operators must cooperate to preserve the safety of an application. for example. If both groups can access the most recent version that the other group is working on then these problems may be avoided. The following can be done while surfing the net. · Command and control systems. you probably think of ". and frequently transmits unencrypted information. Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate the files. Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses so you can return to them quickly. The World Wide Web as a vast collection of electronic files stored on millions of computers all around the world. they might provide information about the data types that must be used in two different areas of a program. without having to retype them. This is important. Finding Cheaper Textbooks. Each site would then be unsure about whether they had the most recent copy or whether it was `in the post'. Hypertext links these files together. They may also help teams to work out where their colleagues are currently concentrating within a system. depending on how it is designed. Again." In order to locate online data. Confusion would result if one user tried to shut-down a component while another tried to start it up and many more. These applications include computer interfaces to systems on-board aircraft or within power generation systems. the web servers that host the information each have a unique numerical address. Using a web browser causes data to be stored on your computer and logs to be stored on the web servers you visit. This page is referred to as the home page or start page. These are Computer-Aided Software Engineering systems.com. Web Browsers: Web browsers are software on your machine that communicate with servers or hosts on the Internet. enabling you to jump between them by clicking on a link. The battle between the two browsers to . Online Learning etc. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox are by far the most popular. They help groups of programmers to develop code. · CASE tools. Web pages on a site are linked together through a system of hyperlinks. These systems enable groups of users to simultaneously edit the same document. The alternative would be to send and re-send different drafts between the various sites. Online Shopping.· Multi-user text editors. When you launch your web browser a predefined web page appears.3 Surfing the Web A website has one or more related web pages. For example. Although many different browsers are available. 8.

For instance. but also information that might identify you: your IP address. HTTPS encrypts pages. You need to identify the file type to know whether it will work on your computer. the website to record the IP address of the computer you are using. you will undoubtedly encounter many different types of electronic file formats.3. (3) that the page was really sent by the web server listed in the URL bar. HTTPS is a more secure alternative to HTTP. As a result. so downloading may take hours. what that previous site/page was. and attempts to ensure three things: (1) that third parties cannot see the contents of the page.1 Downloading data and Files: Almost everything you do on the Web is some form of downloading. For instance. your account if you are logged in to the site. the browser and operating system you are using. If there is a site you are sending a sensitive information to. 8. can be very large. if you type any information into a form on a web page (such as a search engine).dominate the market has led to continuous improvements to the software. and (3) the URL/location bar is colored. when you access a web page. IP Addresses: Whenever your browser fetches a page. (2) there is a lock icon in the corner of the browser. depending on the . you are actually downloading a text document and all its associated graphics from a web server. whether you followed a link from another web page to get to the page. When downloading content from the Web. do not send sensitive information to it. Cookies: Cookies are pieces of information that a web site can send to your browser Cookies are the most common mechanisms used to record the fact that a particular visitor has logged in to an account on a site. HTTP is susceptible to eavesdropping. it is not possible to block all cookies without losing the ability to log into many sites and perform transactions with others. A web server must be configured to support HTTPS properly before you can use it. image or script from a website. Web servers usually see and retain a large amount of information about what you do when you surf to them. and to track the state of a multi-step transaction such as a reservation or shopping cart purchase. (2) that the page cannot be modified by third parties. especially full length movies. and even to intermediaries that might set out to modify the pages a browser is fetching. the server will record not only what you sent it. HTTPS: Most sites on the web are accessed using the unencrypted HTTP protocol. If a site does not support HTTPS. Check three indicators to ensure that you're at an HTTPS page: (1) the URL begins with https://. Media files. ensure that you are using HTTPS. and cookies that were created when you previously looked at pages on the site.

name it Temp files. encrypt and decrypt email messages. making it a simple matter of clicking a button to sign. 3.If you are really bored. Follow these simple steps for downloading software. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and its free cousin GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG) are the standard tools for doing this. Email usually travels through a number of separate hops between the sender and receiver. although the tools for achieving this kind of end-to-end encryption are getting better and easier to use. Major email clients such as Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla Thunderbird can be configured to work smoothly with encryption software. Close all programs that are running. click on the link to begin the download process. The usual measures apply to managing the copies of emails (both sent and received) that are kept on your own machines. New programs are usually installed in the Program files folder. Encrypt your drives and decide upon and follow an appropriate data deletion policy. 7. After the download is finished. Figure 7. except Windows Explorer. click the Save button. To speed things up. the transmission protocols used for those steps. Find the file you downloaded and double-click it. . 4.If you do not already have one. you can watch the file as it downloads. delete the file in your Temporary files folder to free up space on your hard drive 8. many large files are compressed. games or any other files from the Internet. 1. create a Temporary Files folder by opening Windows Explorer.A series of installation screens directs you through the process.1 illustrates the typical steps messages might travel through.First you will be asked if you want to save the file. and stores data on third party machines. Click the Save button. then locate the Temp file folder on your hard drive and double-click to open it. and the available types of encryption for those steps. 5.speed of your connection. End-to-End Encryption of Specific Emails Encrypting emails all the way from the sender to the receiver has historically been difficult. Next. transmits data over the network.4 Email The act of using email stores data on your machines. verify. Both of these programs can provide protection for your email in transit and also protect your stored data.When the folder appears. 2. 6. highlighting your hard drive (typically the c: drive).Once you locate the software you want to download. you have to install the software. plug-ins.After the software is installed. then selecting File/New/Folder.

In most cases. messages are passed between mail servers without encryption. If your mail server doesn't support the encrypted version of that protocol. Storage by your Service Provider: If you do not run a personal mail server. get your service provider or systems administrator to fix that. Make sure your email software is configured so that it deletes messages off of your ISP's . Data Stored on Second. ensure that you only access it using HTTPS rather than HTTP. employers and webmail hosts of those you correspond with.1 Message route and transmission protocols Server-to-Server Encrypted Transit After you press "send". You can use your mail client to look at the headers of any email you've received to see the chain of servers the message traveled along. or a webmail provider. If you use a webmail service. Copies of messages will also be scattered across computers controlled by the ISPs. emails are typically relayed along a chain of SMTP mail servers before reaching their destination. Client-to-Mail Server Encryption If you use POP or IMAP to fetch your email.Figure 7. But there is a standard called SMTP over TLS which allows encryption when the sending and receiving servers for a given hop of the chain support it. This would commonly be an ISP. then there is a third party who obtains (and may store) copies of all of your emails. an employer.and Third-Party Machines There are two main reasons why your emails will be stored on computers controlled by third parties. make sure it is encrypted POP or IMAP.

If you haven't opened and read an email. Therefore. Keep in mind that with major webmail services. Running your own mail server with an encrypted drive. you can find out what they've written by opening it. those you communicate with could be subject to subpoenas or requests from law enforcement to decrypt your correspondence. this information will appear as bold text in the list. 2: Go to your inbox. Storage by Those You Correspond With: Most people and organizations save all of the email they send and receive. almost every email you send and receive will be stored in at least one other place. Be aware that even if you use PGP. The one towards the left shows who the email is from. just like opening an envelope to read a letter. If you use webmail or IMAP. or using end-to-end encryption for sensitive communications. The content of PGP/GnuPG encrypted emails will not be accessible through these third parties. click on the line that shows the information about that email. delete messages immediately after reading them. 4: Once you've identified an email you wish to open. although the email headers (such as the To: and Subject: lines) will be. arranged in columns. regardless of the practices and procedures you follow. the one in the centre gives the subject of each email.1 Opening and Sending Emails and Attachments When you receive an email from friends or family. are the best ways of mitigating these risks. 8.4. . and you'll find the time and date when each one was received in the right-hand column.mail server after it downloads them by using POP to fetch your mail. 5: You can now read the content of the email and reply if you wish by clicking on the arrow at the top right hand of the email for reply or by clicking Reply underneath the message. 3: The inbox shows a list of emails received. or send them by some means other than email. although other email applications will follow very similar steps. In addition to the personal machine of the person you sent/received the message to/from. it may take months before the message is really deleted. Once you've opened and read the email and then returned to the inbox. This guide explains how to open an email in a Gmail account. non-bold text. For security use PGP to encrypt those messages. Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an email 1: Log into your Gmail account so that you are on the dashboard (main page) of your account. the read email will be displayed in normal. IMAP or webmail leaves copies of messages on the server. copies might be made on their ISP or firm's mail or backup servers.

2: Click Compose from the dashboard options. you may be offered another dialogue box with further options: open the document itself by clicking Open. 'Cc' means 'carbon copy' and 'Bcc' means 'blind carbon copy'. click on the Cc or Bcc. which will open another field. You can also create bullet points and check the spelling of your email. Type in the second address and continue. colour and size using the formatting icons. 6: Email text can be formatted in a similar way to text in a word document. 5: The subject field allows you to give the recipient an idea of the topic of your email. How to open an attachment Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an attachment 1: An email with an attachment will have a paperclip icon next to it to show that there is something attached to the received mail. 3: Another box will pop up asking if you want to 'Open'. Step 8: Click Send. How to send an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to send an email 1: Log in to your Gmail account. Adding an email address to the 'Cc' field means that that person will receive a copy of the email and all the other recipients will see their email address. Once the document has been downloaded. like a heading. to separate this address from the next email address. 5: Click Back to Inbox to go back to your list of received emails. or open the folder to which the document has been saved by clicking Open folder. click Download. in the 'To' address box. 3: A new blank email will open up. . To download. 4: To include someone else in the email to 'keep them in the loop'. 4: Find a place to save your document and download it to your computer. click back to inbox icon to close the email and go back to the list of emails in your inbox. type in the first recipient's email address. To send to multiple recipients. 'Save' or 'Cancel' the download. You can change the font style. Step 7: Type your message in the main body field of your email. Click on the icon 2: The email will open up with the attachment shown at the bottom and you will be offered two options: view the attachment via an internet page or download the attachment to your computer. If an email address is put into the 'Bcc' field. the person will get a copy of the email but no other recipient will see that address. type in the email address of the recipient. In the 'To' box. Then type a comma and make a space.6: When you've finished reading your email. inserting a comma and a space between each subsequent address. Click Save.

the threats posed by malicious and criminal activities are increasing. These range from the increasing interconnection of the world's computers to the increasing technological sophistication of the general population. Then put a title for your email in the 'Subject' box and type your message. In all areas of computer use. then following the same steps. 5:The selected email will be deleted. Finish the email and click Send as normal. you can reply to an email that you've received by double-clicking on it in your list of received emails. you can retrieve it from the 'Drafts' folder by clicking Drafts and then clicking the correct item in the 'Drafts' folder list. 2: Click Compose. Alternatively. This will add the document as an attachment to your email. The increasing interconnection of the world's computer networks is a an issue . 2: Go to your inbox. type your recipient's email address in the 'To' field. A number of reasons can be identified for this rising threat. 3: Once your new email is open. 6: You can tell that your document has been attached to you email by its file name appearing in blue text at the bottom of the compose window. 3: Peruse the inbox for emails to be deleted. 7: To send your email. 8. 5: Browse through your Windows folders until you reach the document you want to attach to your email. How to email a document Follow these step-by-step instructions to email a document 1: Log in to your email account so that you are on the dashboard (front page) of your mail account. click the 'select' box to the far left of the each email so that a tick appears in the box 4: Click the delete icon. You can also delete an email by opening it and then clicking the delete icon. When you decide that you are ready to send it.5 Security and Privacy Security is becoming an increasing concern for computer users. Step 10: Click Save Now at the top of the email to save the unfinished email to your 'Drafts' folder.Step 9: The email you've sent will now be stored in the 'Sent Mail' folder on your Gmail dashboard. 4: Click where it says Attach a file to attach a file. click Send How to delete an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to delete an email 1: Log into your email account. Highlight this by clicking on it and then click Open.

particular when operating system files are deleted. viruses only attack files in the computer. but in reality can attack your hard drives. video drivers to be deleted or the operating system to stop running. causing the computer to become unstable. Macro viruses: Macro viruses tend to attack data files. the legitimate program spawns copies of the virus. it can be transmitted by email. Trojan viruses pretend to be a legitimate piece of software. The basic types of viruses are Worm Viruses: Worm viruses are self-contained programs that remain hidden and propagate via email or duplication. All of this increases the stakes for malicious and criminal users. Trojan viruses: Trojan viruses pretend to be other software. deleting files and re-writing system files.1 Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage or disrupt the normal functions of your computer and its files. Computer viruses can cause very serious damage to the computer's program and data files. modify existing software so that when run. From there. particular those that have been burnt on a computer infected by viruses. Viruses can find their way onto the computer in many different ways. through network connections. usually a program file. or a file in the computer's operating system. Most email viruses are . such as the hard drive. like the monitor. like word documents and spreadsheets. in downloads from the internet.2 E-mail Viruses Email is probably the most common method for spreading viruses. Plain text email messages normally do not spread viruses. While this may cause the monitor to stop working properly. hence their name as in the Trojan Horse. making your operating system run strangely or even corrupt it all together. some viruses will attack the files that operate your computer's hardware. Boot viruses: Boot viruses attack the boot sectors on your hard drive and interfere with your computer's basic operation. They do not attack the computer's hardware. 8. Like biological viruses. causing hard drives to reformat. computer viruses attach themselves to a host.because more and more companies are connecting to the Internet.5. What a particular virus will do to your computer depends on how it was programmed when created. causing you to loose files or cause your word or excel software to not work properly. by floppy disks or by CDs. which is then forwarded on in email or other files. mouse or keyboard. as well as affect the computers hardware. data file. spreading the infection to other files.5. 8. However. it replicates itself.

like hotmail or yahoo. • Scan floppy disks before opening them. These emails. For a virus contained in an email message to attack your computer. • Do not open emails or email attachments that have been sent by a strange person or organization. Purchase and Install anti-virus software.5. To protect yourself against email viruses it is important that you do not open attachments from senders you don't know. • Virus scan any new programs or other files that may contain executable files before you run or open them. The reality is that most of these warnings are designed to cause fear or simple confuse people. it is recommended that: • you do not forward the email. you may receive "Virus Warning" emails. and offers an update service. and back up their claims with references to credible sources. like open an attachment or open a html link embedded in the message. can result in damage to your computer. • Make sure that you regularly up date your anti virus software definitions. it will normally require your computer to executive some code. avoid clients that automatically open attachments Virus Hoaxes: From time to time. or come from a free email source.3 Minimising Exposure to Viruses The best way to minimize the chances of getting a virus infection is to be pro active and follow some basic steps we have outlined below. sent on by well meaning people.spread via attachments to email messages. while seeming to alert you to a real virus treat. 8. Virus hoaxes are typically alerts that are passed on by naive users who think they are helping people out. more often than not are merely hoaxes. If you use an email client to check your email. • you do not follow the instructions contained in the email or forward the email to others. or in email messages containing embedded executable code. • you ignore all such emails unless they are clearly from an authoritative source. Make sure the software you select is compatible with your computer's operating system. if followed. In some cases such messages contain instructions that. • Make sure that you regularly scan your computer for viruses using your antivirus software. If you receive a message warning you about viruses. • Try to use an email client for checking your email which does not automatically execute or opens attachment .

not the actual software. selling. distributing illegal images and video or decrypting stolen passwords and credit card codes. There are different kinds of piracy and risk associated with them. We will attempt to explain them as follows. protects honest workers from losing their jobs to criminals. artists. Despite persistent rumors to the contrary this is in fact illegal. Any discs they burn for you or email attachment sent to you should be treated . and gives customers the genuine software experience they deserve while protecting them from becoming victims. Criminal and Counterfeit: This is where processional criminals sell unsuspecting victims goods that appear genuine but are not. trademarks and patents. When you purchase software. This malware can be used to spy on you to steal identity information and passwords and to secretly use your computer for other criminal activities such sending spam. The exclusive rights and legal protections of IP come in the form of copyrights.4 Software Piracy Piracy is the mislicensing. These protections encourage innovation and creativity. creates job opportunities. Respecting intellectual property rights laws benefits everyone.Intellectual Property. you are pirating. meaning having more licenses installed than you have entitlements for. whether for business or personal use. Piracy & License Compliance Intellectual property (IP) represents original creative works and innovations belonging to inventors. There are fines and penalties for being out of compliance. downloading. stimulates technological progress. Casual Copying: This is where a friend or colleague gives you a copy of an application.5. so it is important to read it. That license is what tells you how many times you can install the software. or installing multiple copies onto personal or work computers. 8. Casual copiers are statistically more likely to have PCs infected with malware. Software piracy is the unauthorized copying or distribution of copyrighted software. have severe ramifications. This can be done by copying. Your unwitting involvement in such activities may also leave you open to threats and blackmail. Obtaining software this way entails all same risks as dealing with criminals for any other reason along with the risk that the software will not be operational and you will not be entitled to any support. sharing. If you make more copies of the software than the license permits. but they can be challenging due to widespread theft associated with counterfeiting and trafficking of pirated goods. unauthorized reproduction and illegal distribution of an item or product. Many criminal software pirates also make extra money by being paid to distribute malware with their products. musicians and authors. you are actually purchasing a license to use it. It strengthens economies. businesses.

with that in mind. As proof of purchase is often required for technical support
you will not be able to benefit from free technical support and critical upgrades.
P2P or Filesharing: This is where pirated applications are uploaded to a
global network where anyone can download a copy of them. Malware
distribution and Identity Theft are major criminal operations and P2P networks
are an ideal way for them to distribute their dangerous software. Very often
files downloaded from such networks will pass all security checks because
they look like normal software.
8.5.5 Software License Compliance
Compliance is either a state of being in accordance with established
guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so.
Software, for example, may be developed in compliance with specifications
created by some standards body, such as the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and may be distributed in compliance with the
vendor's licensing agreement. In the legal system, compliance usually refers
to behavior in accordance with legislation. Licence compliance is operating
within the terms and conditions that apply on the license that is purchased.
Software compliance is being able to demonstrate that you have the correct
number of licenses paid for and accounted for on your systems compared and
matched to what you have installed.
Software license compliance and being compliant means;
* Knowing what software you have installed
* Knowing what software licenses you have purchased
* Knowing that your installations do not exceed your license purchases
* Knowing what software is being used
* Knowing the details of your software license usage rights & restrictions
* Maintaining compliance while significantly reducing overall software costs
8.6 Protection Mechanisms
The increasing range of attacks that can be made against computer systems
must be countered by a relatively small number of protection mechanisms. We
shall consider some of the protection mechanisms in this section.
8.6.1 Encryption
Encryption is a technique that uses math to transform information in a way that
makes it unreadable to anyone except those with special knowledge, usually
referred to as a "key." Encryption provides a very strong technical protection
against many kinds of threats and this protection is often easy to obtain. Users
can protect their data against attack by encrypting it. This involves turning any

message into a coded form that the intruder cannot read. Encryption is
conceptually similar to the "secret codes", the idea is to take a normal humanreadable message (often called the plaintext message) and transform it into
an incomprehensible format that can only become comprehensible again to
someone with secret knowledge:
Plaintext message + Encryption algorithm + Key = Scrambled message
Decryption algorithm + Key + Scrambled message = Plaintext Message
A simple encryption system would be to change each letter in your message to
a set number of letters later in the alphabet. The specific number of spaces
you move down the alphabet for each letter is the secret key. If the key is two, A
becomes C, B becomes D, C becomes E, etc. Using that encryption system,
the plaintext message "INSECURE" would become "KPUGEWTG.” There
are various different approaches to encryption;
· secret key encryption: In this approach, you have an algorithm which hides
the message. in order to decode any file, you need a key to extract the original
message. For example, if you take the position of any character in the
alphabet and add two positions to it you can get a coded message. A -> C, B ->
D, C -> E, D -> F and so on. In order to decode this message you need to know
the system that was used and you also need to know the key, that is that you
must more the characters two places to the left to get the original message. If
you moved the characters four places or five places the whole thing would fail.
· public key encryption: Basically, you have two keys. One is used to
encrypt the message. anyone can have this as a means of sending you a
secret. You also devise an algorithm which means that nobody else can
decode the message without another second key that is kept secret. This will
be covered in more detail in third and fourth year courses.
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are a very powerful and general tool that can
be used to encrypt all of the communications between participating
computers. VPNs can be used to improve the privacy and security of protocols
that are not encrypted (or not securely encrypted) by default. The biggest
catch with VPNs is that all of the computers participating in them must be
running the same VPN software, and must be correctly configured to
communicate with each other. In general, this means that deploying a VPN is
a non-trivial task requiring significant systems administration time.
Organizations that need to arrange secure access to intranet web servers, file
servers, print servers and similar facilities should deploy VPNs.
8.6.2 Digital Signature
A digital signature is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate

the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and
possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that
has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures are easily transportable,
cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is
encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender's
identity and that the message arrived intact. Assume that you have a public
key system. Instead of keeping the key that you use to decode a message
secret, keep the key that you use to encode the message a secret. this means
that you can give everyone the key that you need to decode a message but
only one person will know how to encode a message so that the decryption will
work. Because only one person can correctly encode the data, this system is
like adding a signature to a message, recipients know its from you because
only you know how to encode the data.
8.7 Access control
Ultimately, the security of most systems depends upon associating lists of
privileges with either users or system resources. For example, when you logon you typically give a password. This then sets all of your privileges with the
system. If you are a member of the support staff then you will be able to do
more things than a member of academic staff. This technique is known as a
capability based approach
8.7.1 Unauthorized Access
This is when a person who does not have permission to connect to or use a
system gains entry in a manner unintended by the system owner. The popular
term for this is “Hacking”. Nobody wants that someone access to his/her
system in unauthorized way. To secure your computer and prevent any
unauthorized access from other people or software programs we can use the
following;
1. Operating system and software patches and updates:There is no such
thing as perfect software, often a software program may have several issues
and could potentially have security vulnerabilities that can leave your
computer open to attacks that compromise your computer and your data.
Software patches, updates, and drivers are made available, often for free, to
consumers to help keep a software program and operating systems running
properly and secure. If the program you are using does not have any type of
method of checking for updates on its own it is up to you to verify the program
is up-to-date. Often this can be done by visiting the web site of the developer
who created the program. A listing of third-party companies and links to each

admin or no password will allow easy access to your computer or your Internet account * Change passwords often. Default passwords such as password. Get a hardware or software firewall: We highly recommend all users have some type of firewall solution. for example: 1mypassword23!. There are two types of firewall's your computer and/or network can have.of their pages can be found on our third-party support page. Instead use a password manager. Passwords: Make sure a password has been set on computer. . * When creating a password. Often many home users who have a home network use their network router as a firewall solution. root. * Do not use sticky notes around your computer to write down passwords. Hardware firewall: A hardware firewall is a hardware device that is connected to your network. 3. * Create a BIOS password. 2. Software firewall: A software firewall is a software program that you install on your computer that helps protect that computer from unauthorized incoming and outgoing data. It is recommended at least once every few months. add numbers or other characters to the password to make it more difficult to guess.