Preface

This text started out as a lab-based text, is put together expose the
reader to the basic principles of computer hardware. In this book the
information and chapters have been presented to take account of the
needs of the curriculum for Computer hardware and to give ths
student a broader understanding of the basic concepts of computer
hardware.
To aid the student's systematic understanding of the subject matter
as presented in this five chapter book, the book have been prepared
to consider; the basics of Principles of Systematic Fault Diagnosis as
presented in chapter one, chapter two considers Computer Modules
and Modems, chapter three exposes the reader to the basics of
computer Hardware Installation and Assembly, Peripherals and
Periphery Equipment is treated in chapter four and chapter five
introduces the reader to the Hardware Measurement Basics.
Upon completing this book, the student is expected to understand
and appreciate the basics of Computer Hardware. Hence, preparing
the reader for the advanced courses in computer hardware
installation, maintenance and repairs.
A.U Affiah
2013

Chapter 1
Overview of computers
1.0 Introduction
Recent developments in computers, particularly with regard to the possibility of
developing artificial intelligence, have made a precise definition of computer a
difficult task. However, for our purpose we shall consider it as a device for
performing logical operations at a very high speed or as a machine which
processes given data to derive the required and useful information. During the
processing the computer has to perform various functions like
(i) Accepting Instructions & data from the user.
(ii) Performing various arithmetic and Logical operations as per Instructions
given.
(iii) Presenting the Information or Output to the user.
The earliest computers were as large as a room. But thanks to continuous
technological advances over the last 60 years has made it possible to hold
some computers in the palm of our hand. Computers are found in businesses
and establishments, such as stores, restaurants, banks, airports, and homes,
where they are used to perform a large variety of functions. They are available
in a wide range of sizes, shapes, types, and speeds to meet user needs.
With regards to today’s computers, the “machine” part of the computer is called
the hardware, while the “programmable” part is called the software. Software
can be broken down into 3 main categories:
System Software: is designed to operate the computer’s hardware and to
provide and maintain a platform for running applications. (e.g., Windows,
MacOS, Linux, Unix, etc..)
Middleware: is a set of services that allows multiple processes running on one
or more machines to interact. Most often used to support and simplify complex
distributed applications. It can also allow data contained in one database to be
accessed through another. Middleware is sometimes called plumbing because
it connects two applications and passes data between them. (e.g., web servers,
application servers).
Application Software: is designed to help the user perform one or more
related specific tasks. Depending on the work for which it was designed, an
application can manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these
elements. (e.g., office suites, web browsers, video games, media players,
etc…)

1.1 Measuring Computing Power
For physical machines, we can compare the power of different machines by
measuring the amount of mechanical work they can perform within a given
amount of time. This power can be captured with units like horsepower and watt.
Physical power is not a very useful measure of computing power, though, since
the amount of computing achieved for the same amount of energy varies
greatly. Energy is consumed when a computer operates, but consuming energy
is not the purpose of using a computer. Two properties that measure the power
of a computing machine are: How much information it can process and how fast
can it process the information.
Information: To understand information quantitatively, as something we can
measure, we need a more precise way to think about information. The
measurement of information is based on how what is known changes as a
result of obtaining the information. The primary unit of information is a bit . One
bit of information halves the amount of uncertainty. It is equivalent to answering
a “yes” or “no” question, where either answer is equally likely beforehand.
Before learning the answer, there were two possibilities; after learning the
answer, there is one. We call a question with two possible answers a binary
question. Since a bit can have two possible values, we often represent the
values as 0 and 1. For example, suppose we perform a fair coin toss but do not
reveal the result. Half of the time, the coin will land “heads”, and the other half of
the time the coin will land “tails”. Without knowing any more information, our
chances of guessing the correct answer are 1/2 . One bit of information would
be enough to convey either “heads” or “tails”; we can use 0 to represent “heads”
and 1 to represent “tails”. So, the amount of information in a coin toss is one bit.

Units of Information: One byte is defined as eight bits. Hence, one byte of
information corresponds to eight binary questions, and can distinguish among
8
2 (256) different values. For larger amounts of information, we use metric
10
prefixes, but instead of scaling by factors of 1000 they scale by factors of 2
20
(1024). Hence, one kilobyte is 1024 bytes; one megabyte is 2 (approximately
30
one million) bytes; one gigabyte is 2 (approximately one billion) bytes; and one
40
terabyte is 2 (approximately one trillion) bytes.
Representing Data: We can use sequences of bits to represent many kinds of
data. All we need to do is think of the right binary questions for which the bits give
answers that allow us to represent each possible value.

2 Benefits. they are due to errors in instructions given by the programmer. 1. analyze.The computer has a provision to store large volumes of data in the small storage devices. If it all there are errors. characteristics and Limitations of a Computer Computers can store. 3) It is capable to generate the desired output in the desired form. However. which gives instructions are correct and reliable. Unlike humans. For these reasons. Computers also work at very high speeds and rarely make mistakes. 7) Diligent :. the computers accuracy is consistently high enough which avoids any errors.In spite of its high speed of processing. it does each and every calculation with same speed and accuracy. which is passing as input to the computer and the program. ranging from ATM machines to electronic cash registers to multimedia games. 2) It performs basic Arithmetic and Logic operations on data as desired.The computer is able to process the date and give the output in fractions of seconds such that required information is given to the user on time enabling the user to take right decisions on right time.2.The output generated by the computer is very reliable. A powerful computer is capable of executing about 3 million calculations per second. which have capacity to store huge amounts of data and help the retrieval of data an easy task.Once the instructions fed into computer it works automatically without any human intervention until the completion of execution of program until meets logical instructions to terminate the job. they are a popular choice for performing many tasks. and retrieve large amounts of information. 5) Versatile :. 3) Reliable :.The computer performance is consistent even to all extent of more than 10 million calculations. therefore. the use of computers is spreading to a large number of spheres.1. 6) Automation :.The computer perform three basic operations 1) It is capable to access and accept information through various input-output devices from the user. the monotony of repetitive work does not affect computers. 2) Accuracy :. computers can fail or produce faulty results if the instructions are incorrect or incomplete. 4) Storage Capacity :. 1) Speed :. but it is reliable only when the data. .1 Characteristics of a computer The Characteristics which make computer indispensable are.

Digital Data Corporation's PDP 1/5/8 Honeywell 400) With the development of Transistors and there use in circuits. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data.3 The Computer Generations The development of computers has followed different steps in the terminology used and these steps of technological differences are called as GENERATIONS in computer terminology. 2) Computer are not intelligent. they have to be instructed about each and every step which they have to perform 3) Computers cannot take decisions on its own.2. unlike humans cannot learn by experience.1. they consume less power. it requires set of instructions to be provided. The size of transistors is much smaller when compared to vaccum tubes. 4) Computers. generated less heat and faster and reliable. else computer (Hardware) is waste. Second Generation (Manufacturers – IBM 7030. one has to program the computer to take an action if some conditional prevail. magnetic core for memory storage. the vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors to arrive at 2nd generation of computers. . 1.2 Limitation of Computer The limitations of a computer is summarized as follows.Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701) The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors. There are totally five generations of computers till today. I Generation : 1945 – 55 II Generation : 1955 – 65 III Generation : 1965 – 75 IV Generation : 1975 – 89 V Generation : 1989 to present First Generation (ENIAC . memories and I/O units. 1) Computer does not work on itself.

(2) The Cost of Computer reduced. expert systems. SUN work stations. government agencies.. These computers are used Integrated Circuits (IC's) of silicon chips. These machines used IC's with large scale Integration (LSI).80386..80486 . PDP-8 Mini Computer from Digital Equipment Corporation) The development of silicon chips. these computers have very processing speeds and are more reliable. This era was characterized by small and inexpensive microcomputers (commonly known as personal computers (PCs)) . Fourth Generation (Intel's 8088. Each of these IC's consist of large number of chips in very small packages. Motorola's 68000.4 Evolution of computers Computer technology has advanced to a point where you can connect your computer to a network of computers without even using a cable. Apple II. 1. in the place of transistors. 68030.Advantages (1) Size of Computer has come down as well as power consumption. Robotics etc. Origin 2000. 2) The size & cost of computers come down drastically Fifth Generation (IBM notebooks. heat generation and power consumption decreased to great extent. IBM SP/2) These computers use optic fibre technology to handle Artificial Intelligence. The evolution of computers can be broadly classified as follows: Institutional computing era. high reliability and very low power consumption. Advantage : The size of computers.. PARAM 10000. speed and reliability increased as compared to previous generation. the third generation of computers came into existence. Third Generation (System 360 Mainframe from IBM.. 68040. CRAY I/2/X/MP etc) The Computers belonging to these generations used Integrated circuits with Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). Advantages 1) These computers have high processing powers.80286. cost. and scientific and military establishments. Personal computing era. This era was characterized by a few large and expensive computers that were used to meet the data processing requirements of large organizations. low maintenance. Pentium PCs-Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core.

. schools. They can be classified as shown in figure 1.1 with the brief exploitations as follows: Figure 1.1 Types of computers Various types of computers that have evolved over the last few decades.that were used by individuals in small organizations. This era is characterized by networks of interconnected computers that organizations. 1. They are used to perform tasks such as scientific calculations and data processing for large businesses. This era is also be called the Internet era because it’s characterized by the development of Internet technology. various types of computers have evolved. which has revolutionized the way people work and communicate. banks. With the progression of computer technology. Interpersonal computing era. Mainframes have large data storage capacity and can process bulk data.4. and homes.1 Mainframe: A large and expensive multi-user computer on which hundreds of users can work simultaneously on the same data. and homes use for communication and data storage and manipulation. schools. and manufacturers. insurance companies.

reliability and cost effectiveness.Applications · Used to process large amount of data at very high speed such as in the case of Banks/ Insurance Companies/ Hospitals/ Railways…which need online processing of large number of transactions and requires massive data storage and processing capabilities · Used as controlling nodes in WANs (Wide Area Networks) · Used to mange large centralized databases 1. velocity etc and under load conditions. · Meteorological centers use super computers for weather forecasting · In Biomedical research – atomic nuclear and plasma analysis – to study the structure of viruses such as that causing AIDS . This helps in producing an effective aerodynamic design for superior performance · In Automobile industry – to do crash simulation of the design of an automobile before it is released for manufacturing – for better automobile design · In structural mechanics – to solve complex structural engineering problems to ensure safety.to analyze volumes of seismic data which are gathered during oil seeking explorations to identify areas where there is possibility of getting petroleum products inside the earth · In Aerospace industry . biomedical applications. and aircraft design.g.to simulate airflow around an aircraft at different speeds and altitude. Designer of a large bridge has to ensure that the bridge must be proper in various atmospheric conditions and pressures from wind. Hitachi (S820). E. Anupam by BARC.4. and processing tasks with complex requirements such as weather forecasting. PACE Series by DRDO Applications: · In petroleum industry . NEC (SX20). Eg.CRAY Research : CRAY-1 & CRAY-2.2 Supercomputer: A very fast computer that can process billions of instructions per second. PARAM 10000 by C-DAC.:. Supercomputers are used to perform tasks that involve processing large amounts of data. Fujitsu (VP2000).

IBM PC. single-user computer that you can use to perform a variety of tasks.4 Micro Computers: Microcomputers are tiny computers that can vary in size from a single chip to the size of a desktop model and uses a microprocessor as its central Processing Unit.g. ranging from maintaining household finances to managing the finances of a large company. CDD. graphic designing.Very small in terms of size – can be folded and carried around – Monitor is made up of LCD and the keyboard and system units are contained in a single box.1. Got all the facilities of a personal computer (HDD. Cars and Note book/Personal computers. E.size is similar to that of a calculator – pocket size.g. teaching. accounting. The different models of microcomputers are given below:Personal computer (PC): A small. project management.:. Modem etc) and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data.Smaller model of the microcomputer. PS/2 and Apple Macintosh Applications · Used in the field of desktop publishing.It has a processor and memory and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data. Minicomputers are used to perform tasks such as hospital administration and manufacturing processes. N/W card. investment analysis.g.4. E.It has a processor and memory and a wireless modem .Smallest type of microcomputer – can be worn on our wrist like a watch. Palm Top:. Wrist PC:. entertainment etc. TVs. Sound card. They are designed to be used by only one person at a time.:. Data processing for a medium sized organization · Used to control and monitor production processes · To analyze results of experiments in laboratories · Used as servers in LANs (Local Area Networks) 1. The common examples of microcomputers are chips used in washing machines.Digital Equipments PDP 11/45 and VAX 11) Applications · These computers are used when the volume of processing is large for e. statistical analysis.3 Minicomputer: A multi-user computer that can support 4 to 200 users simultaneously. Note book or Lap Top:.4.

on the other hand. but weighs much less and has a built-in video screen. Tablet PC: A computer that looks like a notebook.2 shows some of the portable PCs available today with description as follows. Notebook: A computing device with the same processing power as a laptop but is much smaller. It includes a clock. a date book. and a simple calculator. Figure 1. PCs are classified in two categories. can run on batteries.Personal computers The most popular type of computer in use today is the PC. an address book. built-in applications. Palmtop: A device that you can hold in the palm of your hand. and are easy to carry. desktops are too large and cumbersome to carry while traveling. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA): A handheld device originally designed as a personal organizer. However. are among the smallest of all the portables. such as Palm-Pilots. PCs were developed in the early 1980s. Palmtops. You can use palmtops only for limited. . a memo pad. usually the size of a pocket calculator. Unlike the earliest computers that occupied a lot of space. Figure 1. are small in size. Today’s PCs are faster and smaller than those sold two decades ago. desktops can be placed conveniently on a desk (hence. It has a screen on which a user can write with a special purpose pen. the name).2 Portable Pcs Laptop: A portable computer with the same computing power as a desktop. Portable PCs. desktops and portables. a task list.

Wearable computer: A small personal computer that users can wear while operating. PCs are used to perform a diverse range of tasks. such as letters. schedules. speed and applications of the major classes of computer is illustrated below. Servers can also be used as multi-user computers. It also handles communication between interconnected computers. for example: • Writing and editing documents. This device is being developed and designed to act as an intelligent assistant. The cost. . and reports • Maintaining large volumes of data • Managing numbers and performing calculations • Creating and manipulating graphics • Using multimedia and playing games • Representing data in the form of charts and graphs • Communicating through e-mail and instant messengers • Buying and selling items by using the Internet • Learning or researching various subjects and technologies by using the Internet and interactive CD-ROMss multi-user computers. Server A computer that makes programs and data available to a network of computers.

Keyboard 14. A block diagram of the basic computer organization specifying different functional units is shown in figure 1.3. Speakers 10. they differ only in size and capacity as well as the addon features. Secondary storage (Hard disk) 8.5 Comp o n e n t s o f Pe r s o n a l Comp u t e r Computer technology has undergone profound changes since the first generation computer. Figure 1. Motherboard 9. the basic logical structure proposed by Von Neumann has not change.4. By size three types of Personal Computers are now available. etc. By configuration all three are more or less same. supercomputers for high level multitasking precision jobs. Desktop. CPU (Microprocessor) 3. Mouse 15. We shall restrict our discussion to the Personal Computer. Expansion cards (graphics. reliability and cost of computers have been changing over the years. System software 12. e. The most commonly used computer nowadays is the Personal Computer. External hard disk 16. Primary storage (RAM) 4. There are various types of computers for various purposes. performance. Here the solid lines indicate the flow of instruction and data and the dotted lines represent the control exercised by the control unit. The way present day motorcar differs from its original version.1. and Palmtop or Notepad. Application software 13.) 5. See figure 1. the computer we use today is totally different from its first make. . Laptop. The internal architecture of computers differs from one system model to another. Monitor 11. Optical disc drive 7. Printer Even though the size.3 An exploded view of a modern desktop personal computer and peripherals 1. shape.g. Scanner 2. Power supply 6.

E g. The information received is either stored in the memory for later reference or immediately used by the Arithmetic and Logic circuitry to perform the desired operation. These cells are processed in group of fixed size called words containing 'n' bits.10nS to 100nS. This memory is fast and expensive. The time required to access one word is called Memory Access Time .4 Block diagram of computer organization Input Unit: Input unit accepts coded information from human operators through electro mechanical devices such as the keyboard or from other computers over digital communication lines. Finally the result is sent back to the outside through the output unit. track ball. The keyboard is wired so that whenever a key is pressed. scanner etc. The number of bits in each word is called the word length and it may vary from 16 to 64 bits. a distinct address is associated with each word location. Other kinds of input devices: Joy stick. The main memory is organized such that the contents of one word can be stored or retrieved in one basic operation.Primary memory and Secondary memory. the corresponding letter or digit is automatically translated into its corresponding code and sent directly to either the memory or the processor. Data and programs must be in the primary memory for execution. There are two classes of memory devices :. Memory Unit: The memory unit stores program and data. For accessing data.Figure 1. This time is fixed and independent of the location. Primary memory (Main memory) Contains a large number of semiconductor cells each capable of storing one bit of information. Random Access Memory (RAM) . mouse (pointing devices).

Control Unit The operations of all the units are coordinated by the control unity (act as the nerve centre that sends control signal to other units). disk memories. Processor Unit This is the heart of the computer system is the Processor unit.g. The control unit and ALU's are usually many times faster than other devices connected to a computer system. Processor contains a number of high speed storage elements called Registers. Video terminals (provides both input & output functions). These operands are brought into arithmetic unit – actual addition is carried. interpreting and executing the program instructions the program instructions the control unit is able to maintain order and direct the operation of the entire system. Printer. Magnetic Tapes etc. which may be used for temporary storage of frequently used operands. Output Unit This is the counter part of input unit. Synchronization signals are also generated by the Control Unit. Access times to registers are 5 to 10 times faster than access time to memory. It consists of Arithmetic and Logic Unit and Control Unit. By selecting. For example: Suppose two numbers (operands) located in the main memory are to be added. Note that all operands may not reside in the main memory. Hard Disk. Output devices accept binary data from the computer . The result is then stored in the memory or retained in the processor itself for immediate use. graphic displays etc. magnetic taped.Secondary storage They are used when large amount of data have to be stored (also when frequent access is not necessary) E. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Most computer operations (Arithmetical and logical) are executed in ALU of the processor. . displays and mechanical controllers which are much slower than the processor. Compact Disk. sensors. The timing signal that governs the I/O transfers is generated by the Control Unit. Floppy Disk.decodes it into original form and supplies this result to the outside world. E.g. Each register can store one word of data. This enabled a single processor to control a number of external devices such as video terminals.

During the execution of an instruction. Program Counter (PC): It contains the address of the instruction currently being executed. Most modern computers have 8 to 32 general purpose registers. Access to data in these registers is much faster than to data stored in memory locations because the registers are inside the processor. Memory Address Register (MAR): holds the address of the location to or from which data are to be transferred Memory Data Register (MDR): contains the data to be written into or read out of the address location. n General Purpose Registers (R0 to Rn-1): Facilitates communication with the main memory. Figure 1. the contents of the program counter are updated to hold the address of the next instruction to be executed.e.5 Internal circuitry of the processor . PC points to the next instruction that is to be fetched from the memory.Internal Organization of Processor Processor contains a number of registers used for temporary storage of data other than ALU and Control circuitry illustrated in figure 1. i.5 Instruction Register (IR): Holds the instruction that is currently being executed and its output is available to the control circuits which generate the timing signals that control the various processing elements involved in executing the instruction.

12. 7. 8. ALU will perform the desired operation. and some control information) are saved in memory locations. If the result is to be stored in the memory. then it is sent to the MDR. a sensing device in a computer controlled industrial process may detect a dangerous condition. 6. The internal state of the processor at such moments (like the contents of the PC. As soon as the execution of the current instruction is completed. the state of the processor is restored so that the normal program may be continued. Contents of the MDR are transferred to the IR. If the instruction involves an operation to be performed by the ALU. the general registers. PC is set to point to the first instruction of the program 3. The address of the location where the result is to be stored is sent to the MAR and a Write cycle is initiated. When the interrupt-service routine is completed. An interrupt is a request from an I/O device for service by the processor. This is done by sending its address to the MAR and initiating a Read cycle.5. Here the device raises an interrupt signal. At some point during the execution of the current instruction. 10.The steps involved during the processor operation is as follows: 1. the addressed word (in this case the first instruction) is read out of the memory and is loaded into the MDR 5.1 Hardware Means the physical parts of the computer. a new instruction fetch may be started. Now the processor provides the requested service by executing an appropriate interrupt-service routine. 1. 9. Operands are read from the memory into the MDR and are transferred from MDR to the ALU. the contents of the PC are incremented so that the PC now points to the next instruction to be executed. Now the instruction is ready to be decoded and executed. Contents of the PC are transferred to the MAR and a Read Control signal sent to the memory 4. Program is stored in the main memory 2. After the access time. 11. which are mainly of the following types: . the computer accepts data from input devices and sends data to output devices. the required operands are to be fetched from the memory (or CPU registers). For example. In addition to transferring data between the memory and the processor.

in Multi -media systems.6. Application Software 4.1. We shall make a brief description of these components. Software These are the structured information and commands. which may be classified as follows: 1. Many other accessories may be fitted to the computer Joysticks. The Motherboard and the CPU – Processor Memory Chip 2. Information Storage Device (and their Control Cards) 4. which starts the computer. There are various types of software. a Video Monitor. a scanner. Camera. When you switch on the system unit. Projector. Speaker. and output of the results or processed information. Language Software 3. Just as a physical desktop . The basic of all these is the Operating System Software. Before you switch on a computer. and sometimes a Printer. Desktop components After you switch on the computer. Next. as shown in figure 1. the operating system automatically begins a process known as booting. you switch on the monitor and any other attached devices such as a printer. the operating system (Windows XP for this course) displays a desktop. Utility Software It should be noted that these software are to be made according to the functions we desire the computer to perform. Input output Device (and their Control Cards) 3. which consists of three stages of operations. etc. a Key Board. and even Sound Recorder. 1. processing of information. which can be fed into the computer. usually through the internal Hard Disk or External disks. a mouse. input of information. But before that we must note the basic physical configuration of a personal computer system.6 Starting a computer Your computer must have an operating system installed before it can perform any task. Other Accessories (optional) Looking at any personal computer system we usually see three things – the Computer inside a cabinet. Modem. or speakers. Disk Operating System Software 2. you must ensure that all the cables are connected to the appropriate sockets (referring to the manual is recommended). Light pen.

The Windows XP desktop contains icons and a taskbar. Icons are pictorial representations of the programs included in Windows XP. launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet). Figure 1. working with storage devices. The taskbar is located at the bottom of the screen. The following describes these components. It contains the Start button. or launch Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media) Notification area: Contains a clock and displays the status of specific programs and controls. You click an icon to start the application associated with it. and shut down your computer Quick Launch toolbar: Used to display the desktop. and the notification area. configure the computer. Start button: Used to start applications. the Windows XP desktop contains programs (also called applications) that you use to perform tasks such as creating and editing documents.6 Sample of the windows XP desktop .contains the tools that you use to work. get help. and printing documents. the Quick Launch toolbar.

display the desktop. Observe the Start button . . called a ScreenTip. the Quick Launch toolbar. the pointer.(At the bottom of the screen. Observe the arrow on the desktop . It contains the Start button.) Follow your instructor's directions.This arrow is referred to as the mouse pointer or simply.Activity: Identifying the desktop components 1 Follow your instructor's directions to switch on your computer 2 Log on to Windows XP . Observe the notification area .) A message.) You use it to navigate within Windows XP. You use it for various activities such as selecting an icon on the desktop or starting an application.(A sample desktop is shown in figure 1. appears showing the current weekday and date. and the notification area. 6 Point to the clock .The Windows XP desktop appears.) It contains a clock that displays the time.) You can use this button to start applications.6.(In the lower-right corner of the screen on the taskbar.(If necessary. and set up (configure) and turn off your computer.) It contains icons of some commonly used Windows XP programs and a taskbar. 3 Observe the desktop . Observe the Quick Launch toolbar .(On the taskbar. 4 Observe the icons .You use icons to quickly start their associated applications.) You click the icons on this toolbar to launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet).(On the taskbar. or run Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media). 5 Observe the taskbar . Click OK .(On the notification area. get help.

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Chapter 2 Concept of The Operating System 2. such as application software. commercial computer vendors were supplying quite extensive tools for streamlining the development. Examples of operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows. have an operating system to run other programs. The kernel provides access to various common core services to all other system and application programs. Examples were produced by UNIVAC and Control Data Corporation. such as controlling and allocating memory. software tools for managing the system and simplifying the use of hardware appeared very quickly afterwards. An operating system is often distributed with tools for programs to display and manage a graphical user interface (although Windows and the Macintosh have these tools built into the operating system). However. facilitating networking. These services include. The lowest level of any operating system is its kernel. The first computers did not have operating systems. Modern general-purpose computers. including personal computers and mainframes. as well as utility programs for tasks such as managing files and configuring the operating system.2 Concept of an operating system An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs. memory management.1 Introduction An operating system (OS) is a software program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. The OS performs basic tasks. . Mac OS (and Darwin). controlling input and output devices. Commercially-supplied operating systems are present on virtually all modern devices described as computers. but are not limited to: disk access. Unix. but which the operating system distributor finds advantageous to supply with the operating system. from personal computers to mainframes. as well as mobile computers such as PDAs and mobile phones. and gradually expanded in scope. and Linux. By the early 1960s. scheduling. and access to other hardware devices. They are also often distributed with application software that does not relate directly to the operating system's core function. task scheduling. 2. and managing files. and execution of jobs on batch processing systems. prioritizing the processing of instructions. This is the first layer of software loaded into memory when a system boots or starts up.

processors. Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU. Figure 2.1 shows the block diagram of an operating system. it is software which manages hardware. it must in the main memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address. Figure 2. In technical terms. devices and information. what part are not in use. Operating System does the following activities for memory management. So for a program to be executed.1 Block Diagram of the Operating System Some of important functions of an operating system is listed below.e. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently.is an intermediary between users and computer hardware. . An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory. Ÿ Memory Management Ÿ Processor Management Ÿ Device Management Ÿ File Management Ÿ Security Ÿ Control over system performance Ÿ Job accounting Ÿ Error detecting aids Ÿ Coordination between other software and users Memory Management Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. Ÿ Keeps tracks of primary memory i. what part of it are in use by whom.

Ÿ Allocates the resources. Ÿ Keeps tracks of all devices. OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. Operating System does the following activities for processor management. The collective facilities are often known as file system. Ÿ De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required. Ÿ Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process. These directories may contain files and other directions. Ÿ Keeps track of information. Ÿ De-allocates devices. Ÿ Allocates the device in the efficient way. preventing unauthorized access to programs and data. Operating System does the following activities for file management. Ÿ De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated. Ÿ De-allocates the resources. Ÿ Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. Device Management OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. Security By means of password and similar other techniques. status etc. Operating System does the following activities for device management. Ÿ File Management A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller. . Ÿ Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so. OS decides which process will get memory when and how much. Ÿ Decides who gets the resources. This function is called process scheduling. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. location.Ÿ In multiprogramming. Processor Management In multiprogramming environment. uses. Ÿ Keeps tracks of processor and status of process.

driving the development of operating systems. Multics. assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems. Another commercially-popular minicomputer operating system was VMS. particularly. The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis.Control over system performance Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system. minimalistic operating systems were developed. traces. applications written for the OS/360 can still be run on modern machines. several major concepts were developed. which was supported on many early microcomputers and was largely cloned in creating MS-DOS. Coordination between other software and users Coordination and assignment of compilers. One notable early operating system was CP/M. the Multics timesharing system was the most famous of a number of new operating systems developed to take advantage of the concept. error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids. The development of the IBM System/360 2. OS/360 also contained another important advance: the development of the hard disk permanent storage device (which IBM called DASD). which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's v . was an inspiration to a number of operating systems developed in the 1970s. Job accounting Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users.3 Generations of Operating System Through the 1960s. Another key development was the concept of time-sharing: the idea of sharing the resources of expensive computers amongst multiple computer users interacting in real time with the system. Error detecting aids Production of dumps. notably Unix. in fact. IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system. This concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line was crucial for the success of System/360 and.produced a family of mainframe computers available in widely differing capacities and price points. Time sharing allowed all of the users to have the illusion of having exclusive access to the machine. interpreters. for which a single operating system OS/360 was planned (rather than developing ad-hoc programs for every individual model). 2.

the microcomputer had evolved to the point where. an operating system vendor must pay a licensing fee and annual trademark royalties to The Open Group. Today. but not many. its successors making Microsoft one of the world's most profitable companies. and modifiable source code. as well as extensive GUI facilities. specifically the CPU. By the 1990s. utilities. Command line interface (or CLI) operating systems can operate using only the keyboard for input. enabling its portability across multiple computer platforms. but typically more similar to Unix than Windows. development environment. comprising the operating system. AIX (IBM). Since the early 1990s the choice for personal computers has been largely limited to the Microsoft Windows family and the Unix-like family. documentation.2008). Windows NT has been ported to other CPUs. many with no direct connection to Windows or Unix. Unix also was developed as a self-contained software system. 2.ersion of it was called IBM-DOS or PC-DOS). Modern OS's use a mouse for input with a graphical user interface (GUI) sometimes implemented as a shell. most notably the Alpha.1 . the robustness and flexibility of operating systems of larger computers became increasingly desirable. Microsoft's response to this change was the development of Windows NT. which served as the basis for Microsoft's entire operating system line starting in 1999. Unix-like OS is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems . Unix was developed using a high-level programming language (C) instead of platform-specific assembly language.3. IRIX (SGI). Mainframe computers and embedded systems use a variety of different operating systems.1 Unix Unix (officially UNIX) is a registered trademark of The Open Group that refers to a family of computer operating systems and tools conforming to The Open Group Base Specification. and helped Unix and its variants become an important teaching and learning tool used in academic settings. Apple rebuilt their operating system on top of a Unix core as Mac OS X. tied intimately to the Apple Macintosh computer. released in 2001. These key factors led to widespread use and further development in commercial settings. The major alternative throughout the 1980s in the microcomputer market was Mac OS. Solaris (Oracle). The appropriate OS may depend on the hardware architecture. To use the Unix trademark. with only Linux and BSD running on almost any CPU. Issue 7 (also known as POSIX. Officially licensed Unix operating systems (and their vendors) include OS X (Apple). of which Linux and Mac OS X are becoming the major choices. and HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard).1-2008 or IEEE Std 1003.

Today.. In 1993. but do not conform to Unix specification or are not licensed by The Open Group. which a few years later sold the Unix trademark to the consortium that eventually became The Open Group. including Berkeley Unix. so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. Over the past several years. are commonly known as Unix-like systems. and CentOS) and several descendents of the Berkeley Software Distribution operating system (e. Operating systems that behave like Unix systems and provide similar utilities. The original Unix operating system was developed at AT&T's Bell Labs research center in 1969. and are commonly used on web servers. In the 1970s and 1980s. tablets. AT&T sold the rights to the Unix operating system to Novell. as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments.. FreeBSD. and NetBSD). and personal computers running versions or variants of Unix have become increasingly popular. scientific modeling and computer animation were once the province of SGI's IRIX.g. In the early days of microcomputing.. refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e. Otherwise. This component was only loaded if it was needed. Red Hat Enterprise Linux. They are used heavily as server systems in business. Unix systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures. mainframes. For instance. file systems for organizing files of all sorts). These include a wide variety of Linux distributions (e. Unix operating systems (and Unix-like variants) run on a wide variety of digital architectures. and supercomputers. free Unix systems have supplanted proprietary ones in most instances. the disk operating system component (or even the . and Microsoft's Xenix. Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks). In some cases. memory space was often limited.3.g..2 Disk operating system Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically). smartphones. In recent years. HP-UX. leading to the development of several Unix variants.which resemble the original Unix. most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform). Inc.g. OpenBSD. Ubuntu. disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sectorlevel. they are dominated by Linux-based or Plan 9 clusters. 2. AT&T licensed Unix to thirdparty vendors. AIX.

COM. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT core that first took shape in OS/2 and borrowed from OpenVMS.operating system) was known as DOS.1 was a new 32-bit operating system with the ability to support older DOS and Windows applications as well as provide OS/2 support. with the same GUI as Windows 3.x have been moved into the Windows NT Executive.0 provides the same user interface as Windows 95. the program that formats blank disks. it usually resides there. and there are times when the command processor will be overwritten in memory by a program and have to be reloaded when the program stops executing. Sometimes. e.3. MIPS. The benefit of this change is to speed . DOS consists of an input/output system. FORMAT.0. NT 4. these files are not needed often enough to make it necessary or practical to keep them in the computer's RAM all the time. The first version of Windows NT (3. While part of DOS. Some programs provide their own command processor. the desired default drive followed by a colon at the prompt. another Microsoft operating system (the follow-on to Windows 3. The command processor is also a file you see on the disk.x. although earlier versions also ran on the DEC Alpha. NT 3. Microsoft released NT 4. After several versions of NT 3.g.x.0). an entire family of operating systems was called DOS. The utilities are individual program files found on your DOS disk. which runs in kernel mode. Sometimes these utilities are called external commands (as opposed to internal commands which are included as part of the file COMMAND. DIR and COPY).. However.3 Microsoft Windows Operating System The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems originated as a graphical layer on top of the older MS-DOS environment for the IBM PC. To change to drive C type C: as shown here: A:###BOT_TEXT###gt;C: to get C:###BOT_TEXT###gt; 2.1.1) was released in 1993. An example is DOS/360. but once read into the computer's memory. Windows runs on 32-bit and 64-bit Intel and AMD computers.0 has essentially the same internal architecture as 3. a command processor and several utilities. The major architectural change is that several graphics components that ran in user mode as part of the Win32 subsystem in 3. a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. and PowerPC architectures (some work was done to port it to the SPARC architecture). The most notable external change is that NT 4.COM and remain resident in memory at all times. is an example of a DOS utility. On the PC compatible platform.

windows 7 and windows 8 as new entrant into the market with excellent capabilities. the kernel and executive architecture and services remain the same. Also in 2001. Microsoft introduced a new server version. a 64-bit version of XP was introduced. both 32-bit and 64 bit versions are available. but Server includes some services required to use as a network server. which could impact the reliability of the operating system. Advantages and Disadvantages of Windows Windows series are excellent products of Microsoft. Although some technology of Windows is not as good as UNIX. although this is thought to be dwindling due to the increase of interest focused on open source operating systems. In 2003. it would not be as . but they are not supported by so many kinds of software as Windows series are. but new features have been added. known as Windows XP. In 2000. the underlying Executive and kernel architecture is fundamentally the same as in NT 4. The emphasis in Windows 2000 is the addition of services and functions to support distributed processing. which is a distributed directory service able to map names of arbitrary objects to any kind of information about those objects.0. Again. In 2001. Microsoft introduced the next major upgrade. As of 2004. called Windows 2000. Microsoft has spent significant marketing and R&D money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application. Microsoft developed its operating system on a too large scale. The Windows 7 and 8 OS provides many new tools and features that focus on improved productivity through improved usability. This new OS has been constructed to be more intuitive and less distracting (no more annoying and unnecessary pop-ups notifying the user that there is a notification for the user). they are still of the best operating systems running on PCs. Both home PC and business workstation versions of XP are offered.up the operation of these important functions. Products of Linux are cheap. Recently we have seen the vista. In recent years. and are getting larger and larger. Windows series are large. another desktop version of Windows was released. known as Windows Server 2003. If such situation happened on Linux. The central element of Windows 2000's new features is Active Directory. The 64-bit versions of XP and Server 2003 are designed specifically for the 64-bit Intel Itanium hardware. Windows held a near-monopoly of around 90% of the worldwide desktop market share. In essence. One final general point to make about Windows 2000 is the distinction between Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 desktop. The potential drawback is that these graphics functions now have access to low-level system services.

They are only debugged by Microsoft itself. Ÿ Windows series are not very expensive (only for home users on mature products). Figure 2. Ÿ Windows series are wide spread. The structure of this window is very similar to the others. All the windows have the same structure shown in figure 2. Ÿ Windows NT series after 2004 are stabler and securer. This is because the source code of Linux is open. The window is the one that opens when you click on My Computer. Ÿ Windows series are big. Ÿ Source codes of Windows are closed. and they will be debugged by a much larger number of people. Ÿ Windows series are usually not strong enough for high security.bad as such situation happening on Microsoft. Ÿ Windows series are supported by most popular softwares.2. windows menu and tools. Ÿ Windows series are buggy. Microsoft Windows series are not open-source. Ÿ Windows ME and earlier 9x versions are unstable and insecure.2 The Windows Structure . but more expensive than Linux. owned by Microsoft.

If on a menu an option appears with a small arrow pointing to the right it means that that option contains other options. The title bar contains the name of the program you are working with (Notepad) and in some cases the name of the opened document (aulaclic) also appears. when we click on File as shown in figure 2. The menu bar has the program functions organized in menus. To open a menu with the keyboard.) it means that the option needs more i . you only need to maintain the option highlighted for a few seconds and the menu will appear. (for example Sharing and Security. In the top right corner we can find the minimize.All the windows are formed by the sections explained as follows. The minimize button shrinks the window it turns it into a button located in the WindowsXP task bar. For example Alt+F opens the menu File. press Alt key. If you want to open the menu related to that option. the different operations that can be performed with files are displayed. maximize/restore. The maximize button amplifies the size of the window to the whole screen The restore button restores the window to its original state.. The close button closes the window. All the operations that the program allows us to do are located within the different menus of this bar.. If on a menu you find an option that contains three dots. and close buttons.3. you need to press the Alt key plus the underlined letter of the menu you want to open. For example. In no letter is underlined.

files. the Recycle Bin. On the bottom left corner there is the Start button.nformation to be executed. such as system components.4 The Desk Top Task Bar The taskbar is the small blue bar you see at the bottom of your desktop. On this example Copy is lighter colored than Paste. It as a workspace where you can access everything you need to operate your computer. The desktop shown in figure 2. and lastly the notification area. The Desktop is the on-screen work area on which windows appear. Figure 2. normally a dialog box will open in which you can place that information. it' s the first screen that appears when the operating system has initialized. etc. the Internet. By default Windows XP provides you with one desktop icon. If you find an option that is grey or lighter colored it means that it is not possible to select it at that moment. Ÿ Icons (or graphical pictures): represent applications. and other parts of the operating system. Ÿ Taskbar: primarily used to switch between open windows and applications. applications.4 contains: Ÿ Start button: one of the most important tools you will use while working with Windows XP. Learn more about the Recycle Bin in a later lesson. . In our case it will be the Windows XP desktop. The Start button allows you to open menus and start applications. Learn more about using the Taskbar in a later lesson. Next we have the area for shortcuts. then the programs running.

When you click the Start button. 2. Pop-up menus like this are called cascading menus. a menu similar to the one below will be displayed in figure 2. Click the Start button. for example). Move the mouse pointer to each option. . If a cascading menu is available. and view the various cascading menus. the Start menu appears.The Start Button is the button through which we can access the entire breadth of options that Windows XP offers us. Click (or roll your mouse pointer over) All Programs. To explore the Start menu: 1. The left side of the Start menu lists programs. If we browse it. Search.5. It also provides access to Help and Support. and the right side allows access to common Windows folders (My Documents. a pop-up menu appears. Figure 2. The Start menu is your gateway to the applications that are on your computer. a small black triangle appears next to the name of the application or function.5 The Start Menu If you select All Programs. and Run. 3.

4. Windows XP allows everyone who uses your computer to have separate computer accounts. your applications will close. documents. Switch User allows someone else to log on to the computer. be sure to turn off (or shut down) the computer correctly. your applications will continue to run in the background while the new user logs on. In any case. A computer accounts tracks each person's unique settings.6 The Log off pop up To log off/switch users: 1. 5. To exit the menus. 2. and email accounts. 3. Turn Off and Restart the Computer When you've finished using Windows XP. Figure 2. If you choose Log Off. Log off and Switch Users More than one person may use your computer. The XP Log off pop up is shown in figure 2. For example. you're taken to a Windows XP logon screen where you're prompted to enter your username and password. many family members may use the same computer at home while several coworkers may be able to access your computer on a computer network. 4. Move the mouse pointer to the right and view other cascading menus. If you choose to Switch User. To turn off the computer: 1. Click the Start menu and click Log Off. click outside the menu area or press Esc on your keyboard. Click the Start menu. . A dialog box appears asking you if you want to Switch User or Log Off. Windows XP even enables you to log off the computer so someone else can log on without having to restart the computer. 5.6.

Desktop shortcuts are . If you're experiencing computer problems or have installed something new. The process described above is illustrated in figure 2. Click the Start menu. These icons allow you to open files and programs on your computer.8. Recycle Bin.7. It is generally safest tor turn off or restart your computer using the methods above. (a) (b) Figure 2. Examples of object icons are My Computer. Click Turn Off. One type of icon is an object icon. Click Turn Off Computer. A dialog box opens. 2.8 Computer Icons (a) My desktop and (b) microsoft word short cut Shortcut icons allow you to open an application quickly. Click Turn Off Computer. 3. you can simply restart your computer. and Internet Explorer See figure 2. Icons The small pictures on the desktop are called icons. These icons appear on your desktop and with little arrow in the left corner. Click Restart. To restart the computer: 1.7 Turning off the computer. A dialog box opens. 3.2. Figure 2.

etc. click on the left of the first element (but not on it) and. it will subsequently name the new folders New Folder(1). but we will see how to do that later on.. Windows Explorer will allow you to select several elements at the same time. You can add or delete shortcuts without affecting the programs on your computer. To open the folders that we have by clicking on the + located to the left of the folders. To select consecutive elements. Select the first element and continue to select the desired elements while keeping the Ctrl key presse Creating and Deleting Folders To CREATE a folder we need to place the pointer where we want the folder to be. This way any operation you perform will only apply to the selected file or folder. To open a program using an icon: 1. Click on the first element and then click on the last element while keeping Shift key pressed.links to files and programs. To do this. Open the menu File. This can also be done with the mouse. then let go of the left mouse button. drag it. or hide the content of the folder selected. Place your mouse over the icon. To select several elements that are not consecutive. Continue dragging until all the desired elements are within the frame. Text appears identifying its name or contents. Then. The name of the folder can be changed. . Once we have the folder that we want open we will select it by clicking on the appropriate folder. This is the name that Windows gives new folders by default. Selecting Files To select a single file or folder you simply need to click on it. 2.. To realize an operation on several files or folders. A frame should appear that shows the area that the frame encompasses. this will take care of retracting the folders displayed.. New Folder(2). select the option New and then select the option Folder. without letting go. double-click the icon. 3. If we click on the plus sign of a particular folder it will display and show all of the folders contained in it and the plus sign will become a minus sign -. In the event that it finds another folder with that same name. Now we can view on the bottom right window a new folder that has the name New Folder.

but instead of selecting a folder select the file you wish to delete. you can clearly see how Windows explorer changes when a new folder is created. When we delete a folder or file. To delete a file we follow the same steps to delete a folder. by default Windows will move it to the Recycle Bin.9a is the image that Windows explorer shows before creating a new folder and figure 2. Copying Files or Folders Select the element to be copied and Click on Copy and it will open a dialog box titled Copy Items. first place the pointer on it. Once the folder has been selected go to the Standard bar and click on or you can use Delete.If you look at the two images below. click on Copy. If we click on the + that appears on the left. the contents of the folder will be displayed. Once the folder has been selected. It works like Windows explorer. write the name of the new folder and Click OK. In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to copy to. The settings can be changed so that it deletes it completely.9b is the image that it shows after a new folder has been created.9 Creating a folder To Delete a folder. If we do not have this button on the tool bar. Search for the folder to which we will copy the selected element. click Make new folder. See the . The folder that is highlighted is the new folder that has just been created within the folder (a) (b) Figure 2. Figure 2. we can go to the Edit menu and select Copy to Folder but select the item to copy First of all. The Recycle Bin is nothing more than a space reserved on the hard disk so that in case of having deleted any element it would be possible for us to retrieve it.

In this case Windows will ask if we want to substitute the existing file or folder by the new one. Ÿ Click Enter or click outside the file or folder so that the changes take place. Ÿ Select the file or folder you want to move.10 below. its entire content is also moved or copied. click Move.9 Coping files or folder Moving Files or Folder Ÿ Moving a file or folder means copying the element to the desired location and then deleting its original location. Ÿ Search for the folder where the element are to be moved to. When moving or copying an item. The following steps are very similar . simply click Make New Folder. its name can coincide with the name of a file or folder that is in the destination folder. Ÿ Click on. Ÿ Write the new name. Ÿ Select Rename from the shortcut menu. Once the folder is selected. Figure 2. .illustration in figure 2. You can also do this with Remane option from File menu. Changing a File or Folder Name Ÿ Select the file or folder that you want to change the name of. Write the name of the new folder and click OK. then the name of the file or folder will be highlighted and with the pointer blinking inside the name box. Ÿ With the right mouse button click on it. When folder is moved or copied. or Edit --> Move to Folder which will open a new window titled Move Items. Ÿ In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to move the information to.

You can also choose to print something like a fax or a Microsoft XPS file. If you have a USB printer.Printing a Document Printing in Windows is often as simple as clicking the File menu found in most programs. depending on your software and printer. The dialog box you see might look different from the one shown here. see Install a printer. This option is useful if you want to print something later. . but it doesn't always work with modern USB printers. This opens the Print dialog box where you can change basic settings such as what printer to use or how many copies to print as shown in figure 2. Figure 2. (See XPS documents: frequently asked questions. you might prefer to print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer. see Print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer.) Helps locate network printers.10 Printing Dialog The following explains the actions you can take and the results within printing Action Select Printer Find Printer Print to File Result Shows the available printers on your computer. For more information. Allows you to save a document as a . and then clicking PRINT.10.prn file. This option is useful in office settings or for home networks. For more information about installing network printers.

Printing to PDF Just select Print to create a PDF.... change whether background colors and images are printed. and select Page Setup. go over to the Print menu (File menu in Windows XP). for example. click on the Firefox button. If so. To print part of a document. Click Selection to print only highlighted text or graphics. Print multiple copies of a document. click Pages and then enter the page numbers separated by hyphens. Select the Collate check box to print all pages in a document in order before printing additional copies.11 for information on what settings can be changed. See Print window settings in figure 2. For example. Hit Print. The Page Setup window will appear. Some programs let you choose non-sequential pages too. Ÿ At the top of the Firefox window. Click Current Page to print only what you see. From this point you can manipulate the printing process as discussed in the document printing section. Ÿ In the standard Print window that opens. type 5–7 to print only pages 5 through 7. and 8. . file. Printing a Website We shall discuss printing web pages in Firefox. 8 to print only pages 1. you can select Adobe PDF in almost any Windows OS application. Ÿ Click OK to start printing. Tells Windows what to print. 4. you can type 1. click on the Firefox button (File menu in Windows XP) and select Print. page margins. and what to include on the printed pages' header and footer. Instead of a physical printer. And create an electronic copy of your file that you can save to disk. or picture. at the top of the Firefox window. if necessary. adjust settings for what you are about to print. 4.Action Preferences Page Range Number of copies Result Opens the Printing Preferences dialog box. where you can choose options such as paper size and layout. Changing the page setup To change the orientation of the page that prints.

Access the Print window by clicking Print. go over to the Print. and select Print Preview. at the top of the Firefox window.11. You can also adjust the scaling and orientation as shown in figure 2.10 Print window settings Print Preview To see how the web page you want to print will look when printed. or the Page Setup window by clicking Page Setup. click on the Firefox button. The double arrows take you to the first or last page. Figure 2. and the single arrows go to the next or previous page. The Print Preview window allows you to change some of the options detailed above.11Margins and Header/ Footer . Click on the arrows next to the Page: field to flip through the pages of the document.Figure 2. menu (File menu in Windows XP).

Ÿ URL: Print the web address of the page. and so on. left. The top-left dropdown box's value appears at the top-left corner of the page. bottom. Ÿ Page #: Print the page number. Ÿ Title: Print the title of the page. Ÿ Custom: Enter your own header or footer text. Headers & Footers: Use the dropdown menus to select what appears on the printed page. Choose from: Ÿ Blank: Nothing will be printed. Ÿ Page # of #: Print the page number and the total number of pages. Click OK to finish making changes and close the Page Setup window. This can be used to show a company or organization name at the top or bottom of every printed page. .Margins: You can enter the width of the page margins for the top. Ÿ Date/ Time: Print the date and time when the page was printed. and right sides of the page separately. the top-center dropdown box's value appears at the top-center portion of the page.

and communications programs. In addition to the encyclopedia entries. atlases and geographic tools to solve student assignments.1 MS Encarta Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009 (in Spanish since the '97 version). formatted documentation. while something like the word count would be considered a “tool”. This contrasts with custom software. or all of the above. Also called packaged software. Many programs can be enhanced a later times by adding specific software tools. maps. presentation. and which function especially well together. The product of a software package is a library of compiled code objects. The difference between software tools & software packages should not be confused. data. and directories. It is a combination of application programs which are tailored to a given type of work. A tool is a single component of a software package that adds to the overall functionality of a program. For example an office suite incorporating word processing. Consider a word processor which most people use fairly regularly.0 Introduction A Software Package is a collection of modules. For example a word processor could later be enhanced by installing a tool that allows you to manipulate pictures more efficiently within the program. audio clips and videos. extended by a purely declarative description of all elements. The structure of software packages may be different for different kinds of packages. timelines. which is designed to meet specific needs or circumstances. including about 43. The MS Encarta. but there must be enough unique elements to be able to identify a certain kind of package.Chapter 3 The Concept of Software Packages 3. spreadsheet. interactive activities. package or prepackaged software. a runnable program. database. The entire program is the “package”. Lotus SmartSuite and MS Office will be be explained in this chapter. An application program which is sold to the general public with all that should be necessary for it to work properly. the complete edition of Encarta Premium English containing over 62.000. The encyclopedia was available on DVD-ROM or multiple CD-ROMs and also had limited availability (with ads) to their online content on the World Wide Web. In 2008. the information was complemented by numerous photos and illustrations. allowing an . 3.000 items while its Spanish version.

giving users the ability to send updates and other suggestions for Encarta articles to its editors. It can help you with your math homework and your foreign language studies. Microsoft continues to provide product support for Encarta users until 2012 or three years from the purchase of the 2009 edition of the encyclopedia.com) continues to be operated by Microsoft.annual subscription to access more. as consumers preferred to be able to make instant changes and updates to articles. rather than submit them and hope they were made. German. Microsoft stopped selling its Encarta software in June of 2009. Spanish.msn. The dictionary is one of many available on the Internet and carries the name "Encarta. Due to declining sales. the Encarta brand exists only in Microsoft's online dictionary. including English. Despite discontinuing the software. Encarta Premium Microsoft Student with Encarta Premium 16. 2009. Microsoft edited and published editions of Encarta in different languages. Microsoft changed its approach in 2005 to be more in line with Wiki-based sites. which was that there were differences between them. search for synonyms in a thesaurus and learn different translations for words. . In March 2009. In 2011. is denominated Encarta Winkler Prins Encyclopedie. Encarta Premium combines the resources of its award-winning encyclopedia with a variety of research and learning tools to deliver a complete reference resource for home or school use. The Japanese site closed down definitively on 31 December 2009. French. Italian. but only in their English and French. For example. the Dutch edition of the free content owned regional Winkler Prins in the Netherlands. This idea did not succeed.0 (2008 & 2009) includes a wide range of tools and resources for students. Microsoft announced the discontinuation of all existing stocks Encarta (CD and online version). the last edition of Encarta was released in 2009. Dutch. The Encarta Online Dictionary (dictionary. Portuguese and Japanese. Localized versions contain material licensed from local or national. Encarta was a strong seller throughout the decade but its sales began to wane in the 2000s. Web sites for all localized versions of MSN Encarta were closed (except Japan) on October 31." Users can look up word definitions. and the Encarta website was available online only until the end of that year. however. At that time. Encarta's popularity suffered because of the convenience of userupdated websites such as Wikipedia. the explosion of the Internet and encyclopedia sites such as Wikipedia gave users a free alternative to encyclopedias such as Encarta.

1 Encarta GUI . (a) (b) Figure 3.1. It includes templates and tutorials to help you do your homework in Microsoft Office. The GUI for Encarta is shown in figure 3. There are collection of videos from Discovery Channel and a new Visual Browser providing users with a rich and dynamic way to make learning fun.Comprehensive homework tools integrate homework project and research starters with the Dictionary & Thesaurus.

and virtual tours of landmarks. such as Arts & Literature. The Home page lists subjects. including some from the Discovery Channel. As with a Web browser." Encarta's 2. and the like.500 audio files let you hear music from around the world.Encarta's uncluttered layout makes it a snap to explore a variety of subjects. such as that of Grandmaster Flash.2 Encarta Layout Encarta's bright interface offers more blank space and pictures than Britannica's. along with time lines. natural wonders. Videos include encyclopedic staples. The definition appears on the Dictionary tab.2. Figure 3. Encarta Dictionaries Encarta Dictionaries help you find definitions of words. classical sitar melodies. such as the first moon landing. The function icons are sparse. . or you can zero in on a particular topic through the search field as shown in figure 3. The Explore features encourage you to check out hundreds of videos. preventing clutter. to quirky stuff such as "machine-shaped kaiser rolls. back and forward arrow buttons and the keyboard let you navigate. and a search field. You can double-click a word to quickly find the definition in the dictionary. and excerpts from Beethoven's 9th Symphony.

Next to the encyclopedia the World Atlas. Geographic features vary according to the map style.3 for an illustration.4.3 Encrata world Atlas scren Some features of the atlas are: Map Legend: Explains the map symbols and colors. Flat Map View is a flat Miller . which you can display by day. statistics. and more shown in figure 3. night. Encarta's Atlas pages include a Map Trek feature that walks you through basic facts about regions of the world. You can explore the World Atlas to find maps of many places. Globe View is an orthographic projection of the world.Additional dictionary tools include: Thesaurus: Use to find synonyms and antonyms of words. Map Customizer also lets you change the way maps are projected. Map Customizer: Customize your view of a map by selecting the geographic features that you want to view. Maps (World Atlas) Encarta consists of the Encarta Encyclopedia as the flagship product. topography. Translations: Use to translate a word or phrase into another language. Figure 3. Verb Conjugation: Use to conjugate verbs from foreign languages. See figure 3. Colors and symbols vary according to the map style.

Encarta Kids Encarta Kids helps young students with homework and encourages them to learn in a fun and engaging way.Figure 3. Many types of maps are available.4 Encarta's Map Trek feature cylindrical projection of the world. Learning Essentials Learning Essentials for Microsoft Office provides tutorials specifically created for student tasks such as writing reports. A statistical map is also available in the list of map styles. such as a map of climates. Parental controls are available for encarta dictionary to block inappropriate words. . It helps you get the most out of Microsoft Office in the least amount of time by providing Office templates with customized toolbars and project assistance to help you with your studies. This is just a separate interface for Kids with filtered contents and more stylishly designed front end. and working on everyday homework assignments. multimedia. Encarta Kids offers articles. click a map style to the right. and interactive games specifically for ages 7 and up. To view a different type of map. making presentations.

The science section's Environment page. inequalities. if you up Hurricane Katrina you will find an impressive collection of articles. and other information about triangles from known information that you provide. Click an equation to plot it or solve it for a particular variable. Equation Solver: Solve a single equation or system of equations. Lotus Organizer. photographs. This latest version helps easily convert files from earlier versions of Lotus SmartSuite and other business applications including Microsoft Office Filters that exchange documents seamlessly to and . and equations from a variety of mathematical and scientific disciplines. the grown-up tools within Encarta Premium still emphasize text search and images. as the gateway to articles. statistics. Lotus Freelance Graphics. Microsoft Math includes the following features: Calculator pad and Worksheet tab: Evaluate expressions and perform numeric calculations. such as the Ecosystem menu's Sahara Desert. You can use it for basic math. Lotus SmartCenter. angles. Martin Luther King. chemistry. functions. the picture of a dune links nowhere. The Read Article button in the corner just sent us back to a write-up about ecosystems in general. and a timeline complete with political controversy and environmental damage Microsoft Math. and physics. The search field may eerily anticipate your query: Encarta knew by the time we typed "I H" that we were looking up the "I Have a Dream" speech by Dr. constants. and Lotus Word Pro. Triangle Solver: Calculate sides. when you zero in on a topic. Encarta Kids is intuitive. For older children and adults who may not need such descriptive narrative. This is a new software included with is Microsoft Math is a collection of tools to help you solve simple or complex math and science problems. algebra. Unit Conversion Tool: Convert measurements in one system to a different system. trigonometry. 3. for instance. Formulas and Equations: Find many widely used formulas. geometry. without an alphabetical list of subjects. Lotus Approach. physics. Jr. geometry. and more. Lotus FastSite. chemistry.Microsoft Encarta Kids 2007's big. bright images invite you to wander. calculus. including algebra.2 Lotus SmartSuite Lotus SmartSuite is an office productivity suite that includes Lotus 1-2-3. and other expressions. Graphing tab: Plot equations. shows 28 pictures from Acid Rain to the Water Cycle.

You can also bring in tables or graphs from the other programs in SmartSuite to the document you are writing to give a visual of information. for sorting. You can use Lotus 1-2-3. In Lotus 1-2-3. or Freelance Graphics and PowerPoint. the first thing you need to know is how to start Lotus 1-2-3. Figure 3. and analyze data. features. a workbook comprises only one worksheet. the spreadsheet program. or your own formatting by using the options on Word Pro menus. for letters. and any writing that you need done. Launch Word Pro. spreadsheets are called worksheets or simply sheets. Word Pro and Microsoft Word. the word processor. When you start Lotus 1-2-3. Install the software following the onscreen directions for installation and read the prompts carefully so you can decide what programs. You can format your projects and documents using templates. To Use Lotus' SmartSuite check your computer for hardware requirements against what is needed for SmartSuite.from Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel. You can open an existing workbook or create a new workbook by using this dialog box. and made into charts. Review the online support for these programs at http://www-306. They also have information on transferring files to and from other word processing and database programs. Users can also create tables.ibm. analyzed.5 shows some of the common spreadsheet components. sorted. The SmartSuite library can be downloaded for extra information and tutorials that you may need if you are new to the SmartSuite programs.com/software/support/ for questions or troubleshooting problems. and organizing. tracking. you will see the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box within the Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window. which consists of one or more worksheets. calculate. Use the tools at on the menus to sort any way you want your data sorted. . graphs and write short code to run data and information and export that into Word Pro to make up to date documents. A 1-2-3 file is called a workbook. Cells contain various kinds of data that can be formatted. makes Lotus SmartSuite the industry's most complete suite for addressing the needs of both enterprise and individual users. and what directory to install them to. or creating an accounting ledger for a company. Spreadsheet Application The electronic spreadsheet application that is a part of Lotus SmartSuite that is used to organize. The Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window has several components through which you interact with the program. Combined with Lotus Notes and the Internet. However. A worksheet consists of rows and columns that intersect to form cells. The tasks that can be performed with it range from preparing a simple invoice to creating elaborate 3-D charts. By default.

6 Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box The 1-2-3 window has many components through which you can interact with or get information about the worksheet you are working on.7 shows some of these components.6.5 General spreadsheet components To start 1-2-3. . You will see the Lotus SmartSuite 12-3 window showing the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box as shown in figure 3.Column Cell Row Figure 3. click the Start button on the Windows desktop and then choose Programs. Lotus 1-2-3. figure 3. Lotus SmartSuite. Figure 3.

The default name of a workbook is “Untitled.The scroll box can be used to move through the worksheet vertically and horizontally.The title bar displays the name of the workbook. It shows the name of the current worksheet. . Scroll box . Worksheet tab .The vertical and horizontal scroll bars are also used to move through the worksheet. The SmartIcons are alternatives to the commands available in the menus.7 and the description of each. Each menu consists of a set of related commands.7 Components of the 1-2-3 window The following gives the components in figure 3. The first part is the selection indicator that displays the name of the current worksheet and the current cell. Status bar . It also contains various buttons to perform common tasks such as changing font style.” Menu bar .The status bar appears at the bottom of the worksheet.Title bar Menu bar Edit line Smart Icon bar Worksheet tab Scroll box Cell Scroll bars Status bar Figure 3. For example. which displays the content of the current cell. SmartIcons bar . Scroll bars .The rectangular outline of the current cell. such as opening or saving a file. Edit line . the Edit menu contains all the commands needed to edit a workbook. Title bar .The menu bar displays all the menus available in Lotus 1-2-3.The worksheet tab appears above the worksheet. Cell pointer . It shows information about the ongoing activities.This line consists of three parts. The second part consists of the navigator and the function selector. The last part is the contents box. which is A by default.The SmartIcons bar contains buttons (called SmartIcons) for frequently used actions.

select the folder that contains the workbook you want to open. You can then choose a command by clicking its name. you simply click it. Open (or click the Open SmartIcon) to display the Open dialog box shown in figure 3. whereas others move only your view of the worksheet (without moving the cell pointer). 3 From the list of files. The address of the current cell appears in the selection indicator on the edit line. will appear next to the icon.When you click a menu name. Keyboard shortcuts are shown next to the command names in the menu. . To open an existing workbook: 1 Choose File. A short description. Opening and navigating a workbook To open a workbook in 1-2-3 use the menu commands or by click them Open SmartIcon.8 A sample Open dialog box There are many techniques for moving around in a worksheet. Figure 3. You can find out the function of a SmartIcon by pointing to it and waiting a moment. select the workbook you want to open and click Open (or double-click the workbook name). To use a SmartIcon. The cell in which the cell pointer appears is the current cell.8. a list of related commands appears below the menu. The current cell is where data you enter will appear. Some navigation techniques move the cell pointer. 2 From the Look in box. called bubble help.

the left arrow moves the cell pointer to the left. Press . Press . Closing a workbook There are various ways to close a workbook in 1-2-3 and these includes the following. and Quick Demos.Moves the view of the worksheet one screen up.The following describes various techniques to navigate a worksheet and the corresponding effect.Moves the cell pointer up one row. The 1-2-3 Help provides assistance on topics related to 1-2-3. Similarly. Index. procedures. the Help Topics dialog box appears by default.→ .8.END + ↓ .Makes the cell active. and Find. This dialog box contains three tabs: Contents. Click scroll arrow .Moves the cell pointer to the rightmost cell that contains data and precedes a blank cell. Drag scroll box . pressing F1 or clicking the Ask the Expert button on the status bar. depending on which side of the scroll bar you click. Press .↑ .Moves the cell pointer to the last row that contains data and precedes a blank cell. Does not move the cell pointer. Press . Each tab provides a different interface for getting assistance. Similarly. down. Getting Help The three ways to access Help when working with 1-2-3 includes choosing Help from the menu bar. . For example the help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 is illustrated in figure 3.Moves the cell pointer one column to the right.SHIFT+TAB .Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the left. Help Topics from the menu bar. Quick Demos are demonstrations on specific help topics.HOME . or right. examples.Moves the view of the worksheet one row or one column. Click cell .TAB . the down arrow moves the cell pointer down one row. Press .Moves the cell pointer to cell A1. technical details. When you choose Help. Click scroll bar . Press.Moves the view of worksheet quickly without moving the cell pointer. They teach you about using 1-2-3.Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the right. Does not move the cell pointer. Click Help Topics to open the Help Topics: 1-2-3 Help dialog box. Help contains overviews. Press . left.END + → .

. Exit 1-2-3. the data that begins with a letter or an apostrophe (’) is called label. In 1-2-3. Ÿ Press Enter to confirm the entry. • Click the Control menu icon on the title bar and choose Close. Ÿ Type the label or number. you will be prompted to save changes. • Click the Close button on the title bar. • Click the Close button on the extreme right of the menu bar. • Click the Control menu icon on the menu bar to open the Control menu and choose Close.Figure 3. When you close a workbook. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the menu bar. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the title bar. Entering and editing data To enter labels or numbers: Ÿ Click the cell where you want to enter the label or number. On the work sheet if you do not want to continue working with 1-2-3.8 Help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 • Choose File. you can simply exit by using any of the following methods: • Choose File. Labels can contain text and numbers. Close.

and press Enter. When you begin an entry with a digit. Entering and editing formulas An integral part of formulas are operators. All 1-2-3 formulas begin with the equal to sign (=) or plus sign (+). • Click the contents box. Figure 3. type the appropriate data.When you begin an entry with a letter. a cell address. You can also use special formulas called functions to perform calculations such as determining the sum or average for a range of cells. you can: • Double-click the cell. you will see the Confirm button and the Cancel button on the edit line as shown in figure 3. To make corrections. Then you type the formula in the selected cell. For example. If you make an error while entering data in a cell. type the appropriate data.operator is used to subtract them.10 The edit line showing the Cancel and Confirm buttons Confirm an entry either by clicking the Confirm button or by pressing Enter to update the data in the cell. For example. Functions are built-in formulas that perform simple to complex calculations automatically. . When the contents box is activated. the + operator is used to add numbers and the . and press Enter. or range names. Operators indicate the type of operation that a formula will perform. 1-2-3 automatically appends an apostrophe at the beginning. you can easily correct it at any point. 1-2-3 treats it as a number and does not append an apostrophe at the beginning. you first select the cell where you want the result to appear. another formula. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. To enter a formula. A formula can refer to a value.10. • Press Delete to remove the contents of the current cell and then type the correct label or number. if there are numbers in A2 and A3. you would: Type = A2+A3 in A4 and Press Enter. You can cancel an entry either by clicking the Cancel button or by pressing Esc to leave the entry in its original state. and you want to add them and show the result in A4. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. You can use numbers in calculations.

2 From the Save in list. You can edit formulas as you would edit any other data. enter the name of the workbook. 6 Press Enter. and then enter the edited formula. 3 In the File name box. 5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have created the formula you want. If the cell is active. The shape of the pointer changes to a range selector. edit the formula. 2 Type + (to begin the formula). 4 Type the operator you want.12 Editing Formula Saving and updating a workbook To save a workbook for the first time after creating it do the following. To edit a formula. select the folder in which you want to save the workbook. 3 Edit the formula. the formula will appear in the contents box. Save As to open the Save As dialog box. 1 Select the cell that you want to edit.12. 2 Click the contents box. Figure 3. 1 Choose File.11 Sample formula To enter a cell reference. as shown in figure 3.11. click the contents box. Select the cell. 4 Click Save. 3 Select the cell for which you want to enter a reference. 1 Select the cell in which you want to enter the formula. See figure 3. . 4 Click the Confirm button.The result will appear in A4. Figure 3.

giving you formatting options from which you can choose. A pop-up list appears when you click any of these buttons.14. You use the Save option to update changes to a workbook under the same name and in the same location.13 Save As dial box Formatting worksheets The status bar is located at the bottom of the 1-2-3 window and contains different buttons used for formatting. The rightmost part of the status bar contains the mode indicator. a list of point sizes appears. you can change the size of the selected cells. By selecting a different size from the list.13. if you click the Point size button. the mode indicator shows “Ready” as shown in figure 3. . By default. It displays the styles of the current selection and also shows the status of 1-2-3. you will lose all the changes that you have made. or to save it to a different location.If you close a workbook without saving it. Use the Save As option to save a new workbook or to save an existing workbook with a different name. Figure 3. A simple Save As dial box is shown in figure 3. For example. The status bar also contains several buttons used to format texts and numbers in a workbook. It changes every time you perform another action.

You can also click the Range Properties SmartIcon. • Double-click the column border. In some cases. and click the Basic properties tab. A noncontiguous range is a range in which all the cells are not adjacent. and alignment. This automatically sizes the column to fit the widest data it contains. The InfoBox consists of several tabs. Under Column. and the range C6. size. but in most cases you will need to adjust column widths manually to make the columns fit the data you put in them.14 The Status bar To format text by using the InfoBox: 1 Select the cell or range you want to format. and color. select the column. When you point to the border between two column headings. B4. column widths will adjust automatically. The Text Format tab shows the characteristics of the selected data.. select any other nonadjacent cells or ranges you want to add to the selection. • Set a specific column size in characters. Each tab contains a different category of properties. To select a noncontiguous range: 1 Select the first cell or range. an indicator appears showing the column width in characters. For example. To do this. 5 Close the InfoBox. font. To change column widths: • Drag the column border. 3 Click the Text Format tab. 4 Select the desired font. . You can then drag the border to the left or right to decrease or increase the size of the column.D7. The changes you make are reflected instantly.Figure 3. 2 Choose Range. Column widths and row heights Row heights will change automatically to accommodate the size of the data in a row. 2 While holding down the Ctrl key. As you drag. such as color. select Width. you might want to apply the same formatting to cells A1. display the InfoBox. which are known as its properties. attributes. point size. Range Properties to open the InfoBox. the pointer takes the shape of a two-headed arrow. and specify the size in the Width spinner control.

The Align across columns checkbox in the properties for InfoBox is used to center data over a range of cells (rather than within a single cell). You can set alignments either by using the Alignment tab in the InfoBox or by using the Alignment button in the status bar.15. right. and then from the list select a format. For example. Alignment Alignment refers to the place where data is positioned in a cell. currency. select the number. Figure 3. or center in a cell. including dates.14 shows the alignment dial box. The Wrap text in cell checkbox folds the text that extends across columns. within a single cell. click the Number format button. the data you type could appear to the left. You can also use the Number Format tab in the InfoBox to apply a wide variety of number formats.15 InfoBox showing the Number Format tab . To format a number. Figure 3. Figure 3.The same methods work for changing row height.14 InfoBox showing the Alignment tab Formatting numbers The Number format button on the status bar shows General by default. time. and scientific notation as shown in figure 3.

. To use the Fast Format SmartIcon: 1 Select the cell or range from which you want to copy the formatting. Printing When you either click the Print SmartIcon or choose File.16 The Print dial box Creating a chart To create a chart. 3 Select the cell or range to which you want to copy the formatting. You can also access the Preview window by using the Preview & Page Setup button. 1-2-3 displays the Print dialog box shown in figure 3.Instead of repeating the same formatting you can simply copy the styles from one range of cells to another. and the number of copies needed. Choose the printer to which you want to send the page. The data should include all the values you want included in the chart. You can also specify printing the entire workbook. You can use the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of cells. the current sheet. as well as any labels that identify those values. Print. 1 Select the data you want to include in the chart. including number formats without copying the data in the cells. specify the range of pages to print. Figure 3.16. or a selected range. 2 Click the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of the selection.

. you can format only the color of the fill and the line around it. The maximum number of series you canhave in a chart is 26. • Double-click the element. For some elements.17 Main elements of a chart Change chart elements There are three methods for formatting a chart element namely. It makes working with charts intuitive. Figure 3. you have various formatting choices. and click the Chart properties SmartIcon. • Select the element. Lotus1-2-3 plots the data in the selected range as a bar chart by default. 3 Click the worksheet where you want the top left corner of the chart to appear. You can select a range that contains all the elements you need to create a basic chart. The pointer changes to a small bar chart. Each row and column of data plotted on a chart represents a series. Create. Figure 3. • Choose a command from the Chart menu (the name of the command will vary depending on which element you selected). For other elements. but it is helpful to know some basic terms as you work with charts.2 Choose Chart.17 shows a chart with labeled elements.

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MS Office is a suite of productivity tools consisting of word processing. allows file sharing and collaborative work spaces. For example. In simple words its a virtual representation of all the tools you use in your Office. · Excel – create spreadsheets. · Groove – software for group working. or you can use data from Outlook schedule to build a Power Point presentation.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. The Versions are. tables. MS Powerpoint. you can insert part of an Excel spreadsheet in a word document. graphs.2 Ÿ MS Office 4. database. typing letters. Ÿ MS Office 1. These applications are intimately connected to each other meaning information can be shared among multiple applications.6 Ÿ MS Office 3. . drawing graphs. Some of the important application programs of MS Office suits include are : · Access – create databases. spreadsheet.3 Ÿ MS Office95 Ÿ MS Office97 Std. MS Excel.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. creating tables. · Communicator – IM. It comes as a combination of MS Word. In simple words we can say that MS Office is a computer Programme/Software which is use to perform various office related tasks making files. Dev Ÿ MS Office 2000 Ÿ MS Office XP Ÿ MS Office 2003 Ÿ MS Office 2007 Ÿ MS Office 2010 Ÿ MS Office 2013 The most of GUI and and Control features are common to all the applications of Microsoft Office. presentation and personal information.4 MS Office Concept The word MS stands for MicroSoft (an American multinational software corporation who is the developer of Office).3. MS Publisher etc. · Accounting – bookkeeping and accounting software for small businesses. and voice chat. and otherwise organize and present lists or other raw data. making Presentation etc. create reports. This type of facility is often referred to as Object Linking and Embedding. Pro. manage large quantities of information. charts. video.

text and arrows. posters. · PowerPoint – create slide show presentations with text. flowcharts. When selecting some Groups.The Office Button shown in figure 3.The Ribbon replaces the previous system of layered menus.19. · OneNote – note-taking software that allows you to save text. the Design Tab). and to do list. Each of the words across the top (Home. Insert. Tabs will differ depending on which Office program you are using. within each Ribbon are Groups. Tabs open a Ribbon. and format your work for better visual appeal. video. contact manager. a unique Tab will appear (for example. audio.· InfoPath – create and manage electronic forms for gathering information. and models with pictures. video. images. and audio with pretty backgrounds! · Project – project management software that allows you to control workflows. The Office Button . outlines. · Outlook – email client that includes a calendar. toolbars. and images in one place with full search capabilities. and newsletters. Navigating the Workspace The Ribbon . and requires its own vocabulary. and other planning needs. · Visio – visualize information by creating diagrams.18 Figure 3. etc) are called Tabs. schedules. · Word – word processing software. located in the upper left hand corner contains such options as: . Page Layout. and task panes with a simpler system of interfaces optimized for efficiency and discoverability. and bibliographies. used to create text documents like papers. See figure 3. budgets. · Publisher – create visual print materials such as fliers.18 Microsoft office work space The set-up of the ribbon differs greatly from the earlier editions of Word.. brochures.

20. To do this. Figure 3. See figure 3.· Save · Save As · Print · New · Open · etc. right-click any frequently used action (such as Paste) and choose “Add to Quick Access Toolbar”.19 The office button Customizing the Toolbar: The toolbar can be customized to include your favorite actions using the Quick Access Toolbar. Figure 3.20 Customizing the toolbar .

Some Basic Actions
Figure 3.21a Inserting break page

Figure 3.21b inserting pictures and graphics

Figure 3.21c inserting headers
and footers

Figure 3.21d track changing
(useful for group projects)

Figure 3.21e Spelling and
grammar check or word count
Figure 3.21 Basic actions
Figure 3.21 shows some basic actions using the ms word platform.

Some Basic Actions of the Microsoft PowerPoint is shown in figure 3.22
below.

(a) Use the Home tab to change the slide
layout with the Layout button

(b) Use the Design tab to
change the colors and
background of your slides

( c) Custom Slide Show: choose which
slides to include in your presentation

(d) Practice your presentation and
automatically time how long to spend
on each slide using rehearse timings.

Microsoft Excel Basic Actions
An Excel file is called a workbook. A workbook can be made up of any number of
worksheets (up to a point, but the limit is very large). The worksheets are
organized into tabs at the bottom of the document as shown in figure 3.23a.

(a) Worksheets
(b) Cell
3.23 Excel worksheets and cells
These worksheets are composed of cells in which you can enter data.
You can use Functions to calculate information from your data (functions can be
found in the Formulas tab).

Figure 3.24 Calculating data information.
To insert charts into your worksheet use the insert tab. First highlight the data
you want to use, then choose the chart type from the Ribbon, shown in figure
3.25.

Figure 3.25 Inserting a chart

When the chart is highlighted, use the Chart Tools tabs to change the design,
layout, or format of the chart as shown in figure 3.26.

Figure 3.26The chart tool

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It processes words. does exactly what the name implies. you can click anywhere within the text of a document and add or remove content. it is more commonly used to describe basic word processing programs with limited features Starting Microsoft Word To run Word on your computer click on. This is shown in figure 4. which did little more than place characters on a screen. the typewriter evolved into a word processing system. and page numbers to each page. The term "text editor" can also be used to refer to a word processing program. or an old fashioned green screen computer.Chapter 4 Word-processing Introduction In the 1970s. Since reprinting a paper is much easier than retyping it. which could then be printed by a printer. and may be able to add headers. Today. footers. and entire papers. include features to customize the style of the text. word processing programs have make revising text documents a much more efficient process.1. if there is an icon of Microsoft Word available on your desktop (shaped like a square with a "W" in the middle). The first word processors were basically computerized typewriters. change the page formatting. However. the most significant improvement over the typewriter is the word processor's ability to make changes to a document after it has been written. pages. Alternatively. WordPerfect (Windows only). It also processes paragraphs. While all these features can be useful and fun to play with. or word processing program. AppleWorks (Mac only). Modern word processing programs. “Start menu” >> “All Programs” >> “Microsoft Office” >> “Microsoft Office Word 20XX. you can open up the program by double-clicking it. however.” The following is the screen that will be displayed after selecting the previous sequence of menu commands. which could be as simple as an electric typewriter with a small screen display. A word processor. which counts the words and characters within a document. Some examples of word processing programs include Microsoft Word. the term "word processing" basically means creating a text document and using a computer and word processing software such as Word. . By using the mouse. and OpenOffice. Some may also include a "Word Count" option.org.

When Word is launched.1 Microsoft Word default window . word 2010.1 Steps for starting word Shown in figure 4. a new blank document. word 2003 and (b). Although window elements are fully explained in our Windows course. or default window.2 is the Microsoft Word default window for (a). opens in Print Layout view.(a) Word 2003 (b) Word 2010 Figure 4. here is a brief explanation of the Word window. (a) (b) Figure 4.

Zoom Control: Zoom control lets you zoom in for a closer look at your text. and + buttons you can click to increase or decrease the zoom factor. You can customize this toolbar based on your comfort. Draft view: This formats text as it appears on the printed page with a few exceptions. and do other file-related operations. This provides nice tutorial on various subjects related to word.s standard heading styles. which is the place to come when you need to open or save files. Help: The Help Icon can be used to get word related help anytime you like. such as Internet Explorer. Print Layout view: This displays pages exactly as they will appear when printed. View Buttons: The group of five buttons located to the left of the Zoom control.a horizontal ruler and a vertical ruler. The vertical ruler appears on the left edge of the Word window and is used to gauge the vertical position of elements on the page. For example group of commands related to fonts or or group of commands related to alignment etc.The following Descriptions holds for the MS-Word screen elements shown in figure 4. The zoom control consists of a slider that you can slide left or right to zoom in or out. Title bar shows the program and document titles. create new documents. Most people prefer this mode. print a document. You can click it to check Backstage view. each group name appears below the group on the Ribbon. ile Tab: The File tab replaces the Office button from Word 2007. near the bottom of the screen. .2. Full Screen Reading view: This gives a full screen look of the document. For example. Quick Access Toolbar: This you will find just above the File tab and its purpose is to provide a convenient resting place for the Word most frequently used commands. Title bar: This lies in the middle and at the top or the window. Page Layout are example of ribbon tabs. Home. Outline view: This lets you work with outlines established using Word. Ribbon: Word Ribbon contains commands organized in three components Tabs: They appear across the top of the Ribbon and contain groups of related commands. Rulers: Word has two rulers . headers and footers aren't shown. Groups: They organize related commands. Insert. The horizontal ruler appears just beneath the Ribbon and is used to set margins and tab stops. Web Layout view: This shows how a document appears when viewed by a Web browser. . lets you switch among Word's various document views. Commands: Commands appear within each group as mentioned above.

The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type. Task Pane . Clicking this button opens a dialog box or task pane that provides more options about the group. Insertion Point . End-of-Document Marker .Contains buttons used for formatting.3 Creating a New Document .3 below.Contains shortcut buttons for the most popular commands.2 Creating a New Document To create a new document. From left to right. Office Assistant . Formatting Toolbar . Standard Toolbar . Scroll bars . Status Bar: This displays document information as well as the insertion point location. go to File>New shown in figure 4.The location where the next character appears.Document Area: The area where you type. You can configure the status bar by right-clicking anywhere on it and by selecting or deselecting options from the provided list. Dialog Box Launcher: This appears as very small arrow in the lower-right corner of many groups on the Ribbon.Provides easy access to commonly used menus. Menu Bar . this bar contains the total number of pages and words in the document.Links to the Microsoft Office Help feature 4. buttons and tools. Figure 4. language etc.Indicates the end of the document.Contains a list of options to manage and customize documents.Used to view parts of the document.

The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type.4 Entering a text into the document area 4.4 show two word "Hello Word" text. or the location of a block of text on the page can also be changed. After you create document.2 Formatting Text The text can be formatted before it is typed into the document or edit existing text. highlight it. The text appears to the left of the insertion point as it is typed. Click on the Quick Access Toolbar list arrow and click New. The icon will appear on the toolbar until you uncheck New. and click Open. go to File>Open. To open an existing file. Figure 4. Keep the mouse cursor at the text insertion point and start typing whatever text you would like to type. The dialog box will look similar to the dialog box for saving. Figure 4. you are ready to start typing. The font style or size. the orientation of the text on the page. The document area is the area where you type your text.Another option to open a new document is to customize your Quick Access Toolbar to display the New document icon New Document Icon. Click on the New document icon on the Quick Access toolbar and a new blank document will automatically open. To change the text . Find the folder where your existing file is.

Changing font. The Edit>Undo feature can take you back a step if you are not comfortable with a change made. Word processing applications come with a set of fonts. style. In MS Word. style. Before changing font.5a below. apply the required formatting options that Microsoft Word provides. (a) From home tab (b) From the dial box launcher Figure 4. It offers a nice preview window which shows you exactly how your text will look before you apply the changes. Microsoft Windows provides the Font dialog box. size and color of text. you may also go to Edit>Select All. The following diagrams reveal how to perform font changes from the home tab and the Font dialog box in Word. Click and drag the mouse over the text. most attributes to text can be made by opening the Format>Font dialog box. If you want the changes to apply to all text in your document. In microsoft Word 2010 choose the Home tab and click the Select button from the Editing group or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl A . we have figure 4.5 Opening the font dial box . size and color of text. From the home tab of word 2010. Once you have selected the text you would like to format. you must first select(or highlight) the text you wish to change. To select the text of the whole document.formatting first you must highlight or select the block of text you wish to format. To assist you user with selecting a font for an application.

change the default properties you wish.5b. 6. Confirm. 3.Once the font dialog opens. 4. Figure 4. Click the Default button. Open Word. 5.6. The Font dialog box will appear and you can edit your font settings.From the Font Dialog Box shown in figure 4. and color you wish you use by default. this button text has been changed to Set as Default. Select the font. press the Default button when you are done. . click the dialog box launcher button located on the bottom right-hand corner of the Font group. See figure 4. 2. Click the Format menu. In Word 2007.6 the font dial box For the older Versions of Microsoft Word 1. style. In Word 2010. Click OK.

Try to move your mouse pointer over different colors and you will see text color will change automatically.Change Font Colors: By default any typed text comes in black color.7 Changing font colors If the color of your choice is not displayed. Select the text that you want to change to a bold font. so you would have to click over small triangle to display a list of colors. Select any of the colors available by simply clicking over it. but the font color can be changed to any of the color which one can imagine. and justified shown in figure 4. If you click at the left portion of the Font Color button. then already selected color will be applied to the text. Text Alignment There are four types of paragraph alignment are available in Microsoft Word left-aligned. This is very simple to change text color by following two simple steps: 1. 2. Figure 4.7. See figure 4. Align left: A paragraph's text will be said left aligned if it is aligned with left margin.8. centered. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. . Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Left button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + L keys. Click the Font Color button triangle to display a list of colors. use the More Colors option to display color pallet box which allows the select of any color from range of millions of colors. right-aligned.

Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Right button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + R keys. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text center aligned. Justify Aligned Text: A paragraph's text will be said justify aligned if it is aligned with both left and right margins. (a) Align left \ (b) Align center ( c) Align right (d) Justify align Figure 4. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Justify button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + J keys.8 Text alignment and justification .Align center: A paragraph's text will be said center aligned if it is in the center of the left and right margins. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text justify aligned. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text right aligned. Align Right: A paragraph's text will be said right aligned if it is aligned with right margin. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Center button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + E keys.

2. You can select any of the bullet style available by simply clicking over it. justify. click the Numbering Button triangle instead of bullet button to display a list of numbers to assign to the list.Clicking the Justify button displays four options. You need to select only justify option. medium creates a bit more space and high creates maximum space between two words to justify the text.9 The bullet buttons 1. Difference between these options is that low justify creates little space between two words. Select a list of text to which you want to assign bullets or numbers. 3. Any of the numbering style available can be selected by simply clicking over it. justify low. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. Figure 4.9. See figure 4. . justify high and justify medium. To create a list with numbers. Creating a List This is very simple to convert a list of lines into a bulleted or numbered list. Following are the simple steps to create either bulleted list or numbered list. Click the Bullet Button triangle to display a list of bullets you want to assign to the list.

Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing and click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher available on Home tab. Click the Line and Paragraph Spacing Button triangle to display a list of options to adjust space between the lines.10 Adjusting spacing between document lines 1. See figure 4.11. Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing. You can use any of the text selection method to select the paragraph(s).10 Figure 4. You can select any of the option available by simply clicking over it. Similar way click After spinner to increase or decrease the space after the selected paragraph. 2. Finally click OK button to apply the changes. 1. 2. . The distance between two paragraphs can be set using the following simple steps.Lines and Spacing Following are the simple steps to adjust spacing between two lines of the document. This action is shown in figure 4. Click Before spinner to increase or decrease the space before the selected paragraph.

Copy. To cut. copy. If you do not select the text first. your . quick keys. copy. Text can be moved around in a document by using the Cut. It will delete the original text when you have completed the action by Pasting Copy: This will copy the selected text. and Paste commands. Copy and Paste. right hand mouse click and Drag `n' Drop. you must first select some text. the Edit Menu. Click and drag your mouse over the text you wish to cut or copy. leaving the original text in it's original place Paste: This deposits the text you have Cut or Copied wherever your cursor is situated.11 Spacing between Paragraphs Cut. There are several ways to Cut. You can use the toolbar buttons. and paste text.Figure 4. and paste text. Cut: Use this when you want to move a bit of text from one place to another in your document.

See figure 4. The various options available to copy the selected text is as follows. it will display copy option. Ÿ Using Ctrl + c Keys: After selecting a text. . The following is the procedure to copy the content in word: 1. Figure 4. just press Ctrl + c keys to copy the selected content in clipboard.12 Copy and paste operation Step (3): Finally click at the place where you want to copy selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the copied content at the desired location. you can use copy button available at the ribbon to copy the selected content in clipboard. Copy. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. Copy & Paste Operation: Copy operation will just copy the content from its original place and create a duplicate copy of the content at the desired location without deleting the text from it's the original location.12. 2. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods. Ÿ Using Ribbon Copy Button: After selecting a text.Cut. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. just click this option to copy the selected content in clipboard. Paste features will be grayed out and unusable in your Edit menu as shown below.

13b. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to add first. 2. 1. See figure 4. it will display cut option.12. any photo etc. To add header and footer in a word document. Once any of the headers is selected. To copy and paste or cut and paste content form one document to another document just copy or cut the desired content from one document and go into another document where you want to paste the content and use mentioned step to paste the content. Ÿ Using Ribbon Cut Button: After selecting a text. Ÿ Using Ctrl + x Keys: After selecting a text. These are. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location.Cut & Paste Operation: Cut operation will cut the content from its original place and move the content from its original location to a new desired location. company logo. Formatting Pages Headers and Footers: Headers (appears at the top of every page) and footers (footer appears at the bottom of every page) are parts of a document that contain special information such as page numbers and the total number of pages. . you can use cut button available at the ribbon to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. Header and Footer buttons appear on the Ribbon and a Close Header and Footer button will also appear at the top-right corner. There are various options available to cut the selected text and put it in clipboard. Clicking on the Header button will display a list of built-in Headers from where any can be chosen from. the document title. Following is the procedure to move the content in word: 1. just press Ctrl + x keys to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. just click this option to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Refer to figure 4. 2.13a. 3. it will be applied to the document in editable mode and the text in the document domain will appear dimmed. See figure 4. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. Finally click at the place where you want to move the selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the content at the new location. Click the Insert tab. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods.

or the time into your document. 1. Page numbers. These things can be inserted through the Header/Footer dialog box. One way to check to see your resulting header and/or footer attributes is by going to Print Preview. Note that the date.13 Header and footer illustration 3. a date. 2. and it will apply it to all your pages automatically. you might need to insert page numbers. Type the information required in the document header and click Close Header and Footer to come out of header insertion mode. and page number may not appear as you might think until printing or unless you are in the Print Preview mode. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to edit. To edit an existing Header and Footer of a document do the following. time. Consequently. . Clicking the Header button will display a list of options including Edit Header option. Click the Insert tab. Click on it and word will display editable header 3. date. this feature is intended to be used as a tool for a multi-page document. Headers and footers allow you to add uniform content to the very top and very bottom of each page of your document. & time In various circumstances. click Close Header and Footer to come out of header edit mode. The fundamental idea behing the header and footer is that you only have to enter the information one time.(a) (b) Figure 4. This will vary depending on the word processing application. Edit the document header and once done.

current position etc. 2. This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. Change Page Orientation Page Orientation is useful when you print your pages.5 inches x 11 inches.5 inches. 3. current position etc and at the bottom you will have Remove Page Numbers option.14a. The following are the simple steps to change the page orientation of a word document.The following are the simple steps to add page numbers in a word document. Just click this option and it will delete your all the page numbers set in your document. Click the Insert tab. You can change page orientation from portrait to landscape orientation in which case page width will be more than page height and page will be 11 inches x 8. (a) (b) Figure 4. click the Insert tab. By default Microsoft Word shows a page in portrait orientation and in this case page width is less than page height and page will be 8.14b. bottom. . and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. See figure 4. Finally select of the page number styles which is desired. Moving the mouse pointer over the available options displays further styles of page numbers to be displayed as shown in figure 4. bottom.13 Adding page numbers To remove page numbers. This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. After this step enter in Page Footer modification mode and click Close Header and Footer button to come out of footer edit mode. 1.

it makes a table in the table which appears in the document. Each cell can contain text or graphics. and click Orientation button available in the Page Setup group. To create a table apply the following procedures. Click the square representing the lower-right corner of your table. Create a Table: 1. Click any of the options you want to set to orientation.1. You can make your table having desired number of rows and columns as per figure 4.15a. By default. When you move your mouse over the grid cells.14. and click Table button. Usually top row in the table is kept as a table header and can be used to put some informative instruction. This will display a simple grid shown below. Open a word document for which you want to change the orientation. Figure 4. orientation will be Portrait Orientation 2. 2. Tables A table is a structure of vertical columns and horizontal rows with a cell at every intersection. Click the Insert tab.14 Layout tab showing page orientation options 4. This will display an Option Menu having both the options (Portrait & Landscape) to be selected as shown in figure 4. and you can format the table in any way you want. which will . Click the Page Layout tab.

Figure 4. and so on. Each column is identified by a letter. starting with A for the first column. After the letter comes the row number. Word formulas use a reference system to refer to individual table cells. Click OK to apply the formula. See figure 4. Thus. You can select a number format using Number Format List Box to display the result or you can change the formula using Formula List Box.16. 1. find average of numbers. Click in a cell that should contain the sum of a rows.16 Adding Formula to a document. B for the second column. Word cell formula can bee constructed. 3. The following are useful points in constructing word cell formula.Microsoft Word allows the use of mathematical formula in table cells which can be used to add numbers. the first cell in the first row is A1. a formula can be used based on the requirement. You can repeat the procedure to have sum of other two rows as well. The following are the simple steps to add formula in a table cell available in word document. The cell . which is =SUM(LEFT) in our case. There is a long list of formulas from which. or find the largest or smallest number in table cells you specify. and so on. the third cell in the fourth row is C4. 2. Click the Layout tab and then click Formula button which will display a Formula Dialog Box which will suggest a default formula.

create a actual table in the document and goes in table design mode giving lots of options to work with table as per figure 4. When you move your mouse over any of the styles. Click over the small Cross Icon which will select the whole table. 1. a small Cross Icon will appear at the top-left corner of the table. Click anywhere in the table you want to delete. Click Table Styles button to display a gallery of table styles. use Cut button or simply press Ctrl + X keys to cut the table from its original location. . As soon as you bring your mouse pointer inside the table. it shows real time preview of your actual table. (a) (b) Figure 4. just click over the built-in table style and you will see that selected style has been applied on your table.15 Creating the table 3. 3. 2.15b. and click Delete Table option under the Delete Table Button to delete complete table from the document along with its content. Bring your insertion point at the location where you want to move the table and use Paste button or simply press Ctrl + C keys to paste the table at the new location. 1. 2. To Move a Table with-in the same word document. To select any of the styles. Click the Layout tab. Once table is selected. Bring the mouse pointer over the table which you want to move. If you want to have fancy table. To Delete a Table from a word document.

references and description is as follows. Floating means it can be modified and relocated more easily. *. you can insert them into your own word processor. you need to designate which database you want to merge with. format it. BELOW. Integration: Inserting images. Inline means that it is fixed between the text where it appears with very limited modification. . referring to all cells in the column below the current cell. -. often as a selected image. such as A3. There should be a feature within your menus called Insert or Insert Image. /. In order to create a mailmerge document. referring to all cells in the column above the current cell. and directly from other artists will require some type of citation depending on how you plan to use it. referring to all cells in the row to the right of the current cell You can also construct simple math expressions. If you create or find images through other applications and save them to a folder on your harddrive. attach it to a data source. and merge the documents. Once you find it and choose it. specific fields or pieces of information from a database. Be sure to follow copyright law and work within the Fair Use Guidelines if you use an image you did not create. This is a critical difference. it will appear in your word processing document. within it. You should also wrap text around the image. there might be a separate menu item Insert Clip Art which will automatically take you to the folder filled with the application's library of art. If you want to insert clip art. Most images from the Internet. It will either be inline or floating.B4. CDROM's. Integration: Mail Merge A mail merge is when you create a word processing document that has. such as A4:A9 or C5:C13 A series of individual cells. LEFT. and insert an image. A window will pop up that will allow you to find the folder with your collected images. referring to all cells in the row to the left of the current cell RIGHT. %. Clip art libraries that come with your software package need no citation.C5 ABOVE. Often times it will be located under File>Insert. Inserting images can be one way to use integrative applications. Look for the copyright statements before using images. A single cell reference. such as B3 or F7 A range of cells. The place where you begin creating a mailmerge can appear in various menus. The following procedure describes how to create a form letter. You may have to browse through folders or directories until you find it. such as B3+B5*10 by using simple mathematical operators +. Find your Insert feature.

and then click Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard. On the Mailings tab. Figure 4. click Start Mail Merge.1.17 Mailmerge steps .17a (a) (b) ( c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 4.

This will allow you to send letters to a group of people and personalize the results of the letter that each person receives.17e. . exclude a recipient or edit the entire recipient list. See figure 4. The information that you want to merge into your documents will be stored in the data source. 6. 8. it might be the address of each recipient. Think of a “field” as that information that is unique to each letter. Connect to the data source. You can also search for a specific recipient. For example. You could also choose More Items. click Next: Select recipients. Select recipients When you open or create a data source by using the Mail Merge Wizard. To preview. Select the starting document Click one of the following options: Ÿ Use the current document: Use the currently open document as your main document. Ÿ Start from existing document: Open an existing document to use as your mail merge main document. click Letters. Add fields to your document. Indicate the records you want to include by checking or un-checking the subsequent box as shown in figure 4. After previewing the merged information.17d.17b. Ÿ Click Next: Starting document. This will allow you to add any specific information that you had included in your data file. Preview and complete the merge. making sure that there are no mistakes. you are telling Word to use a specific set of variable information for your merge. Ÿ In the Mail Merge task pane.17c. select Type a New List to begin creating. Use one of the following methods to attach the main document to the data source shown in figure 4. If you have not yet created this information. 7. Method 1: Use an existing data source Method 2: Use names from a Microsoft Outlook Contacts List Method 3: Create a database of names and addresses 5.2. In the Mail Merge task pane. you can scroll through each merged document. 4. and can be found in your Outlook contacts or in an existing file as shown in figure 4. 3. Choose a document type. Ÿ Start from a template: Select one of the ready-to-use mail merge templates.

You can print.click next and your merge will be complete. save all or save just a portion of the document you created. transmit. .

CorelDRAW is one of the most powerful and versatile illustration programs on the market today. These images consist of lines and curves that are defined by mathematical objects called vectors. How the program treats the pixels is determined by whether the image is defined as a vector or a bitmap. such as logos with smooth and precise edges. logos. This process of conversion is called rasterizing.Chapter 5 Corel Draw 5. position. When you save raster images. An artwork developed in CorelDRAW is referred to as a drawing.12. it becomes a raster image. The images you create by using CorelDRAW are by default. for print or for the Web.11. There are different versions of Corel draw like versions 5. curve. color and size of each pixel. symbol or image is referred to as an object. 15 and 16. Vector images are ideal for Web pages because they download faster than the raster images. When you want sharp images. The bitmap becomes a distorted image with jagged edges. and color. You can alter the size of vector images without making their edges rough or jagged. which increases the file size.8. you need to create them as vector images. The CorelDRAW application is a part of CorelDRAW Graphics Suite.0 Introduction CorelDRAW is a vector illustration program. rather than just a vector graphics . You can modify an object without affecting the image quality. CorelDRAW is ideal for creating drawings. A pixel is the smallest unit of composition in an image. After a vector image is converted to a bitmap. Each component created in a drawing such as a line. Raster images are bitmapped images composed of pixels. size. A bitmap file defines the position.7.14. cards. Each object in a drawing stores its own attributes. the information contained in each pixel is stored separately. newsletters and so on. This graphics application is used to design advertisements. such as shape.13. brochures. To add special effects to a vector image in CorelDRAW. their edges appear rough and jagged. vector images.6. text.9. in which objects are created and modified again and again while designing. you convert the image into a bitmap. Images are displayed on the computer screen as pixels. 5. on any platform. A vector program defines a line of pixels and treats them as a single object.1Features of the soft wares CorelDRAW differentiates itself from its competitors in a number of ways: The first is its positioning as a graphics suite. When you enlarge raster images.10.

Although more than one drawing window can be opened. Open. the application window opens containing a drawing window. select the required file format. When you open a drawing in CorelDRAW. To Launch CorelDraw. 1. Click on Start Button 2. 1. etc. It also allows a laser to cut out any drawings. The rectangle in the center of the drawing window is the drawing page where you. The CorelDRAW interface contains various components. change the format from RGB to CMYK. A full range of editing tools allow the user to adjust contrast. toolbars. You can also press Ctrl + O to open the Open Drawing dialog box. a new window called Drawing window opens. Title Bar: It is the first bar in the screen of any opened application. . Multipage documents are easy to create and edit One of the useful features for single and multi-page documents is the ability to create linked text boxes across documents that can be resized and moved while the text itself resets and flows through the boxes. Brochures. 2 From the Look in list. The CorelDraw Window provides a work area where you can create and modify a job. you can apply commands to the active drawing window only. It gives information about the program which you are working on and also the name used in saving the document. Click on Corel Graphic suites (sub-menu list appears) 4. Some Element Present in CorelDraw Environment are described as follows. The Tools present enable you to carry out series of designs. Useful for creating and editing multi-article Newsletters. When you launch CorelDRAW.program. and toolbox. select a folder that contains the files. Drawing page. to open the Open Drawing dialog box. From the Files of type list. Point on All Programs 3. 4 Click Open.Corel DRAW is capable of handling multiple pages along with multiple master layers. add special effects such as vignettes and special borders to bitmaps. color balance. Click on CorelDraw Icon (wait for some seconds for program to launch) To open an existing drawing: 1 Choose File. Figure 5. Booklets. 3 Select the file. This window contains a Drawing page in which you create or modify your drawings.1 shows a sample CorelDRAW window with the various components identified. such as a Drawing window. create your drawing.

Any design done in the drawing window should be . And also with the help of the property bar we can also set our paper size. Printable page: The Printable Page Area is the rectangular shape located at the center of the drawing window. Close: To exit a particular window Maximize/Restore: To increase and decrease a window (opened program) Minimize: When you minimize. Edit. down. the orientation Portrait or Landscape etc 6. File.1 The Screen (Window) of CorelDraw 2. Control Menu Box: It is located at the title bar. 8. Tools Window and Help menu. The Rule: The rule (horizontal and vertical rule) enables us to measure. 3. they include. When clicked on. 4. Arrange. 7. restore.Figure 5. Each menu has its own function. Property Bar: It gives us information about the Width/Height. Effect. and orientation of a page and also the width/height of an object. View. sub-menu list appears. Menu bar: CorelDraw as a program has Eleven (11) menus. 5. Texts. left. it contains command like: close. undo/redo. and right. This area represents the portion of your drawing that will print. Layout. Standard bar: Tools present in the standard bar enables us to save. minimize. zoom etc. Bitmap. maximize. paper size. the opened programs automatically goes to the task bar. Scroll bar: The scroll bar (horizontal and vertical scroll) enables to view unseen object by scrolling up.

Start Button: The start button enables us to view programs. 14. 12. it houses any opened programmed/minimize window. or tool options and are explained below in the order they appear on the default screen. Any drawing or designed processed in the drawing window must be brought to the printable page.2 Tools and Flyouts The Toolbox is located in the left portion of the window and contains all the drawing and editing tools necessary to create objects for an illustration. Flyouts are described following the Tool Overview. a program can be launched. 9. drawing/designing in CorelDraw will be difficult. . Tools containing a small triangle in the corner produce a Flyout.placed in the printable page. Pick tool etc. Flyouts contain additional tools. Example of the tools bar is the Text tool. 11. Tools Bar: The tools bar of CorelDraw enables us to carryout certain designs and also helps us to beautify our work. you can fill or outline an object. Also through the start button. 13. 10. Drawing Window: The drawing window is the large white area of the screen where you find the Printable page. Colour Palette: With the help of the colour palette. Task bar: The task bar is located in line with the Start button. Status bar: The Status bar is located immediately after the task bar (at the top of the task bar) it gives you information about the currently highlighted object and also guideline on how to carryout some processes. 5. Without the tools present in CorelDraw.

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The table below is not meant to be a comprehensive look at each tool Flyout. but rather a reference.Flyouts Tool buttons containing a small triangle in the lower right corner display Flyouts. They are activated by holding down the tool button with the mouse. Flyouts are used by CorelDRAW to display additional tools. .

Hold down the left mouse button and drag the bar out to the main window of the program. such as command buttons. . To dock the Flyout or return the toolbar to its original location.3. and drag to position the pointer on the edge of the drawing window. To close a docker. They are accessed by clicking on the tabs at the right of the working window. Dockers can also float or be closed so only the tabs show. (a) Floating mode (b) Flyout mode Figure 5. All tools on the Flyout will be displayed so you can easily access them. Once floating. options. To dock a floating docker. Unlocking a docker detaches it from other parts of the workspace. place your cursor over the area at the end of the bar that resembles two ribbed bumps or gray lines.Dockers are placed into the interface or “docked” as are Tool Bars or the Property Bar. Docking a docker attaches it to the edge of the application window. click the X button at the top comer.2 Flyouts Dockers Dockers display the same types of controls as a dialog box. Below is the Interactive Tool Flyout in floating mode and in Flyout mode. click on the closing X in the upper right-hand corner. To return the Flyout to its original location. Dockers can be either docked or floating.Toolbars and Flyouts can be made to float. click the docker's title bar. and list boxes. click the arrow button . so it can be easily moved around. See figure 5. To float a Toolbar or a Flyout. to collapse or expand a docker. you can dock them to any part of the window. double click on the title bar of the floating Flyout. You can also collapse dockers to save screen space.

Floating dockers Examples of other dockers Figure 5. The table following explains the different dockers and their functions. To access the Dockers. go to the Windows menu →Dockers. .3 Dockers at the top comer..

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. When you hold down a chip on the color palette. The palette can be floated or parked. DRAW comes with 18 color systems and gives you the ability to create your own palette. Figure 5. a box with shades of that color displays.3 Color palette The Zoom Property Bar This help to get a closer detail or make small adjustments. When the Zoom Tool on the Toolbox is selected.3. By dragging to one of the shades of the first color. or the Color Palette Browser Docker. DRAW gives you several options for zooming into your object or out as shown in the table below. you can choose a shade of a color quickly and apply it to a line or fill an object . Shown in figure 5.Color Palettes The colorful row of boxes on the right of the screen is the Color Palette. the Property Bar displays the following options. You may have several palettes open at once. The type of palette can be changed with the Windows menu.

Go to the Toolbox and select the Zoom Tool (F2).Zooming 1. Go to the Standard Toolbar and select the Zoom Levels list (the box showing the % of magnifications). or typed in as needed. Place the tool icon to the upper right of the Bluebonnet. . 6. 2. Click in an area. you can enhance the magnification and be more precise by zooming to a specific area. 5. You can also zoom in by dragging the Zoom Tool around a specific area. 7. 3. You have just gotten closer to the drawing. The mouse cursor changes to the magnifying glass with the plus sign. 4. Click and drag diagonally to create a zoom marquee. Press the F3 key on your keyboard. This will change the display to show you the whole page. The Property Bar also displays the tools described above. By dragging the Zoom Tool around an area. Release the mouse. 8. This shortcut zooms out to the previous view each time you press it. Select To Page (Shift + F4). Values for the magnification settings can be selected from the list.

Illustration of tool function Take a look at the screenshots below to get an overview of some of the basic tools. We will use a CD with 120mm diameter to show our illustration. (a) Tool screen 1 .

(b) Tool screen 2 .

( c) Tool screen 3 .

At the upper left side there is a drop down that might say “letter” or “broadsheet” or “custom”. You should also “zero” your rulers by clicking on the corner where the 2 rulers meet and dragging it to the corner of the page (see figure 5. If you want to save a different file type you would use file->save as and use the “save as type” pull down to select what type of file you want.5). To create a new document you can do file>new or ctrl-N or you can click on the icon in the extreme upper left corner of the window. This is the document. (1) Leave the "Make this the default Windows screen page" checked so a new document will always by default come up. Once you've specified the file name you can use ctrl-S or click on the disk icon at the top of the page or use file>save. This means that all the locations on the page have a negative Y value. Figure 5. .5). Keep in mind that the horizontal ruler increases to the right but the vertical ruler increases in the up direction.Creating Drawings When you first open up CorelDraw you are presented with a default screen that gives you a number of options. In this dialog box you can set the name of the document and various other things but for now just say “OK”. To save a document you can use file->save as.5). The "Always shows the Welcome screen at launch" will pop up. Pull it down and select “custom” (see figure 5.4 Default Plate / Document Size When you first open CorelDraw there may be one or more dialog boxes which you probably want to just close. just below the “file” menu. This will cause a dialog box (see figure 5. There is a rectangle on the screen with a drop shadow behind it. Next to that pull-down there are 2 boxes with horizontal and vertical dimensions of the page. Typically we want a new document to come up.

layout. A blank page appears with default settings. New. To create a drawing from a template: 1 Choose File. New From Template. When you create a drawing. and so on. you can set or modify the Drawing page using the options such as size. The first file will be named Graphic 1. .5 Dialog box and rulers In CorelDRAW drawings are created by using an existing drawing. choose File. You can also press Ctrl + N or click the New button on the standard toolbar to open a new drawing. To create a blank drawing. You can see the preview on the right of the dialog box. a blank page.Figure 5. After creating a drawing. 2 Select any template from the given list of templates. or a template. When you use a template. the second file will be named Graphic 2. a blank Drawing page appears. When you create drawings in CorelDRAW. orientation. to open the New From Template dialog box. a Drawing page with pre-designed elements and placeholders appears. each file has a default name. and background. 3 Click OK.

Below is a rotated object. Drag to draw a perfect square Drawing a Rectangle Click on your rectangle tool (F6) Hold your Shift Key. Skewing: Skewing simple means to slant or twist an object from it definite shape to be at an angle. The Artistic Text: The artistic text is use for special effect while designing. The Paragraphing Text: The paragraphing text is used when creating a large amount of text. Drawing Straight Lines Step 1 Click on the freehand tool to activate it Click on a specified area and drag to draw a line Step 2 Click on Freehand tool Hold your Ctrl Key on the keyboard Click and drag at the same time Click to end Step 3 Click on Pen Tool Point your mouse to the area in the window Click and drag then Double click to end Drawing a Rectangle. constitutions. toast etc. Adding A Text In CorelDraw. Sphere and Circle Click on your Rectangular Tool (F6) Hold your Ctrl key. while Information text called Paragraph text The difference between the two is the amount of text that will be entered. Rotating: Rotating simply means revolving/turning an object from on angle to another.g. E. are example of the Artistic text. texts are required for decoration and also for information. . Theme etc. It is added in a frame because of its length. Features. CorelDraw. Decoration text in CorelDraw is known as Artistic test. Drag to draw from the center Drawing a Circle/Sphere using the Ellipse tool Step 1 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Ctrl Key Drag to draw a perfect circle Step 2 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Shift key Drag to draw a sphere Skewing and Rotating An Object You may decide to rotate an object or distort its perspective by skewing it. Address.Drawing Lines The Freehand tool and the Pen tool are used frequently while drawing line(s). Square.

7). Figure 5.Making Shapes (Box/Circle/Freehand/Polygon) To create some kind of object. The polygon tool will let you do spirals or stars.6 shows a complex star created Figure 5. Or the freehand tool (F5 and the 6th tool). Or the ellipse tool (F7 and the 8th tool). use the box tool (F6 and the 7th tool on the left hand tool bar). Selecting An Object The selection tool is the very first tool in the tool bar on the left (see figure 5.6 shows the selection tool . click on the lower right hand corner of the tool button (where there is a little black triangle) and select the option you want. Figure 5. To access the various options for each tool. Or the polygon tools (F8 and the 9th tool).6 shows a complex star created.

You can now use the fill and outline tools (the “outline pen” is the 15th tool on the left. the fill tool is the 16th.8 The fill and outline tool drop box . When you select something. For example. Fill and Outline Select the object you created. Figure 5.8). there are different options for objects and text and bitmaps and nothing selected. it looks like a bucket) to set the fill and outline parameters(see figure 5.It has a rectangular picker and a freehand picker but most of the time you will simply click on an object. it looks like a pen nib. It helps if you click on an edge. In those cases you can use the “Object Manager” (tool->object manager) to get the exact object you want. all the menus change based on what is selected. if you select two things together the "trace" options in the bitmap menu will not be available. One caveat: if there are multiple objects and some are in front of some others the program will select the object that's in front.

But bitmaps always look kind of funky. Figure 5. The outline tool allows you to set the outline width and color or to remove the outline altogether. If you use “fountain fill” you can make a gradient of colors. If you set it to “no fill” it will be transparent.The fill tool allows you to set the fill pattern and color of your object. An object is a collection of curves that are defined in such a way that they can scale well. You can apply various filters and other effects to a bitmap which you can not do to an object. You can also fill with a pattern or a texture or use “postscript fill” which allows for parametrized patterns. Objects will generally look better even if you generated the object from a bitmap. If you set it to “uniform fill” it will just be one color. especially if you change their size. On your computer it may be a “jpeg” or a “tiff” or a “png” or a “gif” or any of a whole collection of other types.8 Converting Objects to Bitmaps . In CorelDraw all those are converted to a bitmap. Bitmaps and Objects A bitmap is a collection of pixels in a rectangular shape.

Click Print to print with the default settings. To save the changes. To save a drawing: 1 Choose File. Save. and Close Drawings Drawings can be saved for reuse. Here. select the required format.8).There are a wide variety of things you can do to objects that are quite distinct from what you can do to bitmaps. To return to the drawing. choose File. you can click Yes to save and close the . Print. To close a drawing. Be sure to have everything you want converted selected when you do that. To preview a drawing. A window opens.cdr. to open the Save Drawing dialog box. After saving a drawing for the first time. If you are working on an existing file. it is a good idea to preview it first. choose File.CorelDRAW format. you are prompted to save the file. 4 From the Save as type list. Save As. To do so. choose File. • Click the Close Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar. select the folder in which you want to save the file. Print Preview. 5 Click Save. Save. The Print dialog box appears. 3 In the File name box. You can also press Ctrl + Shift + S to open the Save Drawing dialog box. 2 From the Save in list. specify the name of the file. you’ll use the CDR . After saving or printing the drawing. you might need to make some changes in it. you want to save them for further use. When you close a drawing after making changes to it. choose File. Close drawings and CorelDRAW: When you complete a drawing. you can print the drawing. The default extension for files created in CorelDRAW is . • Click the Close button in the upper right corner of the print preview window. Close Print Preview. Print. If you have an object (perhaps some text or a complex set of shapes you have created) you can convert it to a bit map by selecting it and then the Bitmap->Convert to bitmap menu option (see figure 4. Close or click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the Drawing window. you can: • Choose File. you’ll need to close it. you need to update your drawing. Saving drawings: When you create designs and drawings. After previewing. it can be closed. which displays the preview of the Drawing page. To print a drawing. Preview and print drawings: To print an already saved drawing. You can also press Ctrl + S to update a drawing. It can also be printed.

you need to save the file by using the options in the Save Drawing dialog box. a n d m a r g i n s .> Play. * Choose a language In the Calendar language area. To close CorelDRAW. Click on Holidays if you want to add special dates and events. If you are working on a new file. choose File. You can use the Calendar Wizard. You can also close multiple drawings simultaneously. To do so. Then specify the month. * Select a year from the Year list box In the Calendar date area.file. a n d c l i c k A d d / M o d i f y. date. Exit. and choose from 20 different style layout and create single or multiple page calendars automatically. * Based on the project's orientation and page size. This will display dialog box for the CorelDRAW Visual Basic for Applications Macros. You can personalize and customize your calendar dates and specify calendar elements. If you want to customize your page size disable the Create Calendar in. * Click Generate . Applications 1. * Select CalendarWizard and click Run. To create a calendar the following steps should be applied. and specify calendar o r i e n t a t i o n . * Select a layout style from the Layout box. You can also press Alt + F4 or click the Close button on the CorelDRAW window. d i m e n s i o n s . and click All to include all months of the year or enable the check boxes for corresponding months to create calendars for one or more months. Go to Tools -> Visual Basic. the Calendar Wizard by default generates a calendar in the active project. Creating a Calender CorelDRAW enables you to create calendars easily and quickly. choose File Close All. and the n a m e o f t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t i n t h e .

9 we now have half of the logo remaining. Designing The NNPC Logo * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle * Draw a rectangle vertically across the circle * Highlight the Rectangle * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list appears) * Click on Rotate to activate the rotate tab type 25 on the angle tab * Click on Apply to Duplicate until rectangle fills the circle * Close the transformation box * Highlight the angles and the circle (Ctrl A) * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on shaping (sub-menu list appears) then click on "Weld to" and click on the centre of Object to weld . 6. 8. 3. * Click on your Arrange menu while object is highlighted * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list) click on Scale to activate scale and mirror tab * Click on Mirror boxes H & V to activate * Click on Apply to Duplicate * Use your arrow key to create gap between each half * Close the Transformation dialog box * Fill the first half with Blue and the second with Red. Creating a Zenith Bank Logo * Click on the Text tool * Type Z in Capital Letter while the caps lock is on * Increase the font size to 150 and font type Arial Black * Still Highlighted click on Arrange Menu * Click on convert to curve (Ctrl Q) * Click on your shape tool to activate the node. * Delete nodes 4.2. Notice 10 nodes * Delete node by double clicking on the node or click once and press delete on the keyboard. 7.

* Apply yellow color to the object * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle. Designing a Lipton Label * Click on the Ellipse tool * Hold your Shift key to draw a sphere * Click on the rectangle tool and draw a rectangle horizontally across the sphere * Highlight the both and click on your Arrange Menu * Click on Align and Distribute (Align and Distribute dialog box appears) * Click on Center Horizontal and Vertical * Click on Apply * Click on Arrange Menu again * Click on Shaping (sub-menu list surfaces) click on "Weld to" * Make a duplicate from the original object * Click on your text tool and type LIPTON TEA and colour with deep yellow . apply green colour to it * Create another circle and place inside the first circle and colour with red * Place the both circle in the weld object by using the Align and Distribution * Click on Arrange menu while objects is highlighted * Click on Align and Distribute (align & Distribute dialog box appears) * Click center horizontal and vertical * click on Apply 4.

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2. Click the All Programs arrow at the bottom left of the Start menu. Excel is used for a large number of functions. When opened a new spreadsheet will pop up on the screen. 1. click Create. . Excel is a tool that allows you to enter quantitative data into an electronic spreadsheet to apply one or many mathematical computations. Note that these steps along with Figure 5.1 Opening Microsoft Excel To begin Microsoft Excel 2007. This will start the Excel application.Chapter 6 Excel Introduction MS Excel stands for MicroSoft's spreadsheet programme that is used for storing. To begin Excel 2010 application the following steps will be applied. if this does not happen click on the Office Icon > New. This will open the list of Microsoft Office applications. Click the Start button on the lower left corner of your computer screen. Click the Microsoft Office folder on the Start menu. which is very similar to the Windows Vista operating system. A spreadsheet offers major advantages over the use of a hand calculator just as a word processing program offers many advantages over typewriting. (c) corporate budgeting.1a).1b "Start Menu" relate to the Windows 7 operating system. (a) Managing data records like name list (b) Analysis through pivot tables. Once a template is chosen. 4. The information produced in Excel can be used to make decisions in both professional and personal contexts. (e) inventory management . Go to Start > All Programs > Applications > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Excel (see figure 5. organizing and manipulating data. Some of the functions for which Excel is widely used includes. 3. (f) Breakeven analysis. These computations ultimately convert that quantitative data into information. 5. From here a dialog box with various different templates will appear on the screen that you can choose from. (d) creating forms and consolidating results. Click the Microsoft Excel 2010 option. A spreadsheet is a computer program or a document produced by such a program that we can use for arithmetic computations.

pattern. scaling and symbols to charts. edit. • Permits the user to add.(a) Starting Excel 2007 (b) Starting Excel 2010 Figure 5.1 Starting Excel Excel incorporates all the user-friendly features of Windows. pull down menus. Easy to use macros and user defined functions. • Worksheets can be printed horizontally or vertically. the analysis and presentation features. delete and find database records. • Repetitive tasks can be automated with MS-Excel. dialog boxes and mouse support. A workbook is an Excel file that contains one or more worksheets (sometimes referred to as spreadsheets). a blank workbook will open on your screen. • Supports on screen databases with querying. Linking of worksheets. Analysis Features • The windows interface includes windows. There are two main features of MS-Excel . such as . • Variations in font size. Once Excel is started. Excel will assign a file name to the workbook. text. extracting and sorting functions. • Full featured graphing and charting facilities. • The user can add legends. Like most of the Windows application in Excel you can minimize or maximize worksheets. style and alignment control can be determined. Presentation Features • Individual cells and chart text can be formatted to any font and font size supported by Windows.

The area on the left (showing the characters A1) is the Name Box. which can comprise a set of related data and chart sheets. • Click on the Start button.2 "Blank Workbook" To Get started with worksheet the following steps apply. which only has three buttons on it by default – Save. which shows you what information is stored in a cell. a tool-tip appears. Book2. depending on how many new workbooks are opened. This replaces the menu and toolbar system in previous versions of Excel. Book1. telling you what that button does. All the commands now appear as buttons (pictures) on this Ribbon.2 "Blank Workbook" shows a blank workbook after starting Excel. • Select Excel icon from the icon list. To its right is the Formula Bar. To the right of this is the Quick Access Toolbar. . which has a series of tabs under which different commands are grouped. the Office Button appears. Use this to Open or Print your files. The next section down the screen is called the Ribbon. Maximize and Close buttons. Undo and Redo. Moving right. When you point to a button. Figure 5. Figure 5. In the top left corner of the screen. • Select Program menu.Book1. On the far right are the usual Minimize. Below the Ribbon is the command line. To add extra buttons. A blank worksheet labeled Sheet 1 will be displayed and ready for use. and so on. at which time you will be asked to supply a real name. Book3. click on the down arrow on the right and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar. Excel has given your work a name. This name will change when you save your work in a file.

and letters across the top denoting columns. A horizontal scroll bar. as denoted by the sheet tab at the bottom.The main body of the screen contains the worksheet. This is denoted by a darker border. The worksheet contains several rectangles called cells for entering numeric and nonnumeric data. Within the cells it appears as an outlined cross. The cell in the top left corner is A1 (the intersection of column A and row 1) and is currently the active cell. denoting rows. some of which you will be meeting later in the course. Each cell in an Excel worksheet contains an address. You are currently using Sheet1 of Book1. Down the right of the screen is the scroll bar. Each intersection of a row and column is known as a cell and has a unique name. which is defined by a column letter followed by a row number. The worksheet has numbers down the side. This can have several different shapes. The following steps explain how to navigate through an Excel worksheet. The mouse cursor should also be visible. Any information you type is stored in the active cell. with its identity shown in the Name Box. Figure 5.3 Activating a Cell Location . appears to the right of the sheet tabs. Navigating Worksheets Data are entered and managed in an Excel worksheet. while the column letter and row number are shown with an orange-brown background. which is used for moving up and down your work. for moving left and right.

6 "Highlighting a Range of Cells".4 Highlighting a Range of Cells 6. 5. 7. 3. Place your mouse pointer over cell D5 and left click. and the second cell is the lower right corner of the range. The first cell is the top left corner of the range. as shown in Figure 5. Release the left mouse button. Move the mouse pointer to cell A1. Click the Sheet1 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet to return to the worksheet shown in Figure 1. 4.1. as shown in Figure 1.5 "Activating a Cell Location". This is referred to as a cell range and is documented as follows: A1:D5. Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse pointer back to cell D5. . Figure 5.4 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". This is how you open a worksheet within a workbook. Any two cell locations separated by a colon are known as a cell range. 2. You should see several cells highlighted. Check to make sure column letter D and row number 5 are highlighted in orange. Click the Sheet3 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet.

. new workbooks. and the number of worksheets that appear in new workbooks. or workbooks stored in other locations on your computer or network. To leave the Backstage view and return to the worksheet. Figure 5. Figure 1. You must click the Info button highlighted in green in Figure 5.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" to see the image of your worksheet on the right side of the window. 5. click any tab on the Ribbon or click the image of the worksheet on the right side of the window.5 File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook Included in the File tab are the default settings for the Excel application that can be accessed and modified by clicking the Options button.11 "Excel Options Window" shows the Excel Options window. The File tab is also known as the Backstage view of the workbook. It contains a variety of features and commands related to the workbook that is currently open.The File Tab The Office button in the 2010 version has been replaced with the File tab on the far left side of the Ribbon. font size.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" shows the options available in the File tab or Backstage view. which gives you access to settings such as the default font style.

We can stretch or shrink a column or row by placing the mouse cursor at the right edge of a column margin header or the bottom edge of a row margin header. functions.6 Excel Options Window Data Entry in Worksheet To enter the data in a worksheet. holding down the left mouse button. row or column headers). 2.Figure 5.g. Activate the cell by moving the MS-Excel cursor (rectangular box) or by clicking with the left mouse button. Enter the data from the keyboard. These values are typically used in arithmetic. Lock the data by pressing the Enter key.. · Numeric constants may be entered as text is entered. 3. Data may be entered into the cells of a worksheet in many types. can display. including · Text data: typically consisting of words or phrases. · Formulas are used to describe a calculation whose value is to be displayed in the cell. Note we may enter more text than a cell. and dragging to the desired width or height. typically not used in arithmetic. operators of . A formula typically starts with the “=” character and may involve a variety of symbols that may be cell references. the following steps are to be followed. typically used for explanation (e. in its current configuration. 1.

As data is entered into a cell location. Write the formula starting with equal (=) sign and then press enter key. The Formula Bar can be used for entering data into cells as well as for editing data that already exists in a cell. The following steps provide an example of entering and then editing data that has been entered into a cell location: Figure 5. To enter formula in a cell: 1. A simple formula combines constant values with operators. and constants (numeric. Place the cursor in the cell where you want to write the formula 2. such as plus sign or minus sign or other operators in a cell to produce a new value from existing values. Place the cursor in cell B15 5. text. For example.7 Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data . the data typed appears in the Formula Bar. as well as “cell ranges”. 3.arithmetic. Example: To get the sum of cell B4 and B5 in cell B15 4. Editing Data Data that has been entered in a cell can be changed by double clicking the cell location or using the Formula Bar. the formula “=C2-B2” instructs the cell in which it appears to display the result of taking the value in C2 and subtracting the value in B2. Type the formula =B4+B5 then press enter key. etc).

dates or currencies in a spreadsheet.1. In a worksheet. simply click the icon again. in the Alignment group. If you want to turn this feature off. This will enter the change into the cell. Click the checkmark to the left of the Formula Bar (see Figure 5. 5. Select the range of cells you'd like to format or modify. and allow the text to get clipped off in a cell if it is too long. Move the mouse pointer up to the Formula Bar. You will see the pointer turn into a cursor. If text extends past the length of the cell in your spreadsheet. use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Y to repeat the last action you took in your spreadsheet. click Wrap Text. You can hover over an icon on the toolbar to see a description of what that option can do. 4. . To wrap text automatically. 2. 3.7 "Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data"). select the cells that you want to format. Here are the main formatting options: • Change the number. To format or change the format of numbers. You can also find a number of these actions in the menus or use shortcuts to apply formatting. 3. Type the abbreviation Tot and press the ENTER key. Click the number format icon in the toolbar or click the Format menu and hover over “Number”. patterns. 6. Move the cursor to the end of the abbreviation Tot and left click. and thickness • Align text • Merge cells horizontally in selected rows • Wrap text To save time on many of these formatting actions. To turn text wrapping back on. Activate cell A15 in the Sheet1 worksheet. 2. it will wrap onto a second line in the cell. Click cell A15. Format data in a range of cells Data can be formatted in a variety of ways using the options in the toolbar. 1. Type the letters al to complete the word Total. click the wrap text icon in the toolbar. 2. On the Home tab. Select the format you'd like to apply to the range of cells Wrap text: Text within a cell is wrapped by default in work sheets. follow these steps: 1. date or currency format • Format cell contents • Change font size • Add bold or strikethrough • Change color of the text or a background color • Add borders and adjust border colors.

8). Explanations of the basic options in the format dialog box are bulleted below. • Double click the cell and a cursor will appear inside. color. style. Font: Gives the option to change the size. Border: Gives the option to change the design of the border around or through the cells. To get to the Format Cells dialog box select the cells you wish to change then go toHome Tab > Format > Format Cells. The new information will replace any information that was previously entered. Copy and Paste features of Excel can be used to change the data within the spreadsheet. When changing the format within cells you must select the cells that you wish to format. Number: Allows you to change the measurement in which your data is used. Cells hold all of the data that is being used to create the spreadsheet or workbook. • Go to the Home Tab > Copy (CTRL + C) or Home Tab > Cut (CTRL + X). This border indicates that it is a selected cell. Cut. to move data from other spreadsheets into new spreadsheets. Alignment: This allows you to change the horizontal and vertical alignment of the text within each cell. and effects. Paste is used to insert data that has been cut or copied. • Click the location where the information should be placed. Cut will actually remove the selection from the original location and allow it to be placed somewhere else. You may then begin typing in the data for that cell.Formatting: Working With Cells Cells are an important part of any project being used in Microsoft Excel. The text within the cells and the control of the text within the cells can be changed as well. To Cut or Copy: • Highlight the data or text by selecting the cells that they are held within. and to save the time of re-entering information in a spreadsheet. • Go to Home Tab > Paste (CTRL + V) to be able to paste your information. This allows you to edit certain pieces of information within the cells instead of replacing all of the data. You may change an entry within a cell two different ways: • Click the cell one time and begin typing. Formatting Cells: There are various different options that can be changed to format the spreadsheets cells differently. Copy. To enter data into a cell simply click once inside of the desired cell. . A box will appear on the screen with six different tab options (see figure 5. a black border will appear around the cell. and Paste: The Cut. Copy allows you to leave the original selection where it is and insert a copy elsewhere.

Figure 5. When changing the row or column visibility (hidden. then choose which height you are going to use (Figure 9). you will go to the Home Tab and click Format. Formatting Cells To format a row or column go to Home Tab > Row Height (or Column Height). unhidden) or autofit.9. The drop down menu will show these options Figure 5.Figure 5. Formatting Rows and Columns Height .8.9. The cell or cells that are going to be formatted need to be selected before doing this.

11.) Once the column is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that you chose. Inserting Rows Before you can add a Column select a column on the spreadsheet that is located in the area that you want to enter the new column. The row will automatically be placed on the spreadsheet and any data that was selected in the original row will be moved down below the new row.10. To insert the row you have to go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Rows (Figure 5. Figure 5.Adding Rows and Columns When adding a row or column you are inserting a blank row or column next to the already entered data. To insert a column go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Column (Figure 5. (Columns are on the top part of the spreadsheet.10). Inserting Columns .11). Figure 5. Before you can add a Row you have to select the way place the new row (Rows are on the left hand side of the spreadsheet) once the row is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that is chosen. The column will automatically be place on the spreadsheet and any data to the right of the new column will be moved more to the right.

"*") Count the cells that have a certain value."BLANK". 5. you would type: =AVERAGE(A1:A30) =COUNTIF(X:X. you could put in cell A2 =A1&" "&B1 which would put cell A1 in with B1 with a space between. For example. By creating formulas. 6. * If a function is being performed the math formula or cells being dealt with are surrounded in parentheses. So a good example of the syntax would be =IF(A1="". four is the median for 1. . if you have a first name in cell A1 and a last name in cell B1. You could also create a formula that would make one cell equal to more than one value. For example."PRINT OR DO THIS". 4.Formulas and Functions Formulas are what helped make spreadsheets so popular. 7. Formula examples = will create a cell equal to another. you can have instantaneous calculations whenever changing any information in cells the formula is looking at. and "NOT BLANK" if any information was within it. of course. 3. For example."TEST") put in cell A11 then anywhere between A1 through A10 that has the word test would be counted as 1."NOT BLANK"). =IF(*) The syntax of the IF statement are =IF(CELL="VALUE" . 2. =AVERAGE(X:X) Display the average amount between cells. so if you had 5 cells that had the word test A11 would say 5. The if statement can. if you had =COUNTIF(A1:A10. if you wanted to get the average for cells A1 to A30. =MEDIAN(A1:A7) Find the median of the values of cells A1 through A7. * All spreadsheet formulas begin with = * After the equal symbol either the cell or formula function is entered. * The function tells the spreadsheet what kind of formula it's dealing with. if you were to put =A1 in B1 what ever was in A1 would automatically be put in B1. become a lot more complicated but can be reduced if following the above structure. For example. For example."ELSE PRINT OR DO THIS"). this would make any cell besides cell A1 say "BLANK" if a1 had nothing within it. * Using the colon (:) will allow you to get a range of cells for a formula.

=SUM(A2-A1) Subtract cell A2 from A1. . it would only add the value in B1 because TEST is in A1."TEST". subtract. =SUM(A1*A2) Multiply cells A1 and A2. See our lookup definition for a complete definition and full details on this formula. but had numbers in B1 through B6. So if you put TEST (not case sensitive) in A1. and A5. =SUM(A1/A2) Divide cells A1 and A2. etc.X) The lookup.4. =VLOOKUP(X. A2. or vlookup formula allows you to search and find related valuesfor returned results. =SUM(A1.X:X.=MIN/MAX(X:X) Multiples multiple cells together.B1:B6) which only adds the values B1:B6 if the word "test" was put somewhere in between A1:A6. or divide values in cells. For example. you would get the value of 2 because each number is going up by 2. =TREND(X:X) To find the common value of cell. multiple.A2.10."*"X:X) Perform the SUM function only if there is a specified value in the first selected cells. If you want to enter a date that doesn't change hold down CTRL and . =SUM(X:X) The most commonly used function to add.X. hlookup. to enter the date. =TODAY() Would print out the current date in the cell entered. if cells A1 through A6 had 2. so A1 * A2 * A3. =SUM(A1:A5) Add cells A1 through A5. =SUM(A1+A2) Add the cells A1 and A2. This value will change to reflect the current date each time you open your spreadsheet. Below are some examples. For example =Product(A1:A30) would multiple all cells together.A5) Adds cells A1. An example of this would be =SUMIF(A1:A6. =SUMIF(X:X.12 and you entered formula =TREND(A1:A6) in a different cell.8.6.

etc. Example: Create a formula in cell C2 to add the contents of cells A2 and B2. type = . : etc).* / ( ) . left click in C2. See figure 5. * To create a formula in a cell.Creating Formulas Formulas are used to process numerical data in a worksheet (eg: to calculate a bank account balance . monitoring revenues. and we must similarly adapt Excel formulas to meet these demands (calculating expenses. * To include cell addresses in a formula. motor vehicle running costs. The following elements gan be used to create a formula: Numeric values. Excel immediately adds the contents of cells A2 and B2 and displays the result in C2. Modifying a formula in Excel Demands change over time in every occupation. (a) inserting formula (a) Adding C2 and A2 Figure 5. type + . . then press the <Enter> key. tax calculations. etc). select the required function from those displayed when you click the down arrow ( ▼ ) next to the Functions box. left click in A2. type these from the keyboard.). Excel functions (more than 200 available). * To include numerical values and operators in a formula. and Operators ( + . then type = .12 Including functions in a formula. left click in B2. left click in the cell.12a marked 1. Cell addresses. * To include functions in a formula. Enter numbers in A2 and B2 (eg: 13 and 6). To create the required formula in C2. left click on the required cell or drag across the required cells.

Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators. A2.C9. -. We click on the field and we can modify it using the familiar text cursor that appears. Filling Cells.Figure 5. and the formula in cell D3 is immediately calculated. B2. you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations. or /. the lowest number. There are two types of reference operators: range and union. and A3. B8 to B10. you need to understand reference operators. The reference A7. The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1. A union reference: includes two or more references. A range reference: refers to all the cells between and including the reference. When using a function. the highest number. C2. to which the formula applies. or cell addresses separated by a comma. For example. press the Enter key and the revised formula is saved. and Printing By using functions.B8:B10. After revising the formula. A2. . Using Reference Operators To use functions. range references.e. Simply add + 10 to the end of the formula.13: 1. *. B3. such as +. C1. such as finding an average.13 Modifying Formula To modify a formula in Excel apply the following steps using figure 5.10 refers to cells A7. A union reference consists of two or more numbers. Understanding Functions Functions are prewritten formulas. B1. A3. and a count of the number of items in a list. 2. Creating Excel Functions. Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. 3. The reference A1:C3 includes cells A1. and C3. you can use the SUM function to add. This displays the formula in the formula field. C9 and the number 10. A range reference consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon. cell D3. Click on the cell. i. using the mouse.

* Use a comma to separate arguments. SUM is the name of the function. Type 24 in cell B3. Type 12 in cell B1. After typing the first letter of a function name. * Specify the function name . For example. 13. 1. 3. Press Enter. Arguments are values on which you want to perform the calculation. Example 2 The SUM function adds argument values shown in figure 5. Parentheses enclose the arguments. 5. Press Enter. Commas separate the arguments. Figure 5. and B2:C7 are the arguments. 6. Press Enter. which is 63. 2. The sum of cells B1 to B3. the Auto-Complete list appears. Excel will complete the function name and enter the first parenthesis. Here is an example of a function: =SUM(2. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4. 4.B2:C7) In this function: The equal sign begins the function.13. A1. arguments specify the numbers or cells you want to add. double-click on an item in the Auto-Complete list to completes the entry quickly. 2. * Enclose arguments within parentheses . 8. Type 27 in cell B2.remember the following: * Use an equal sign to begin a formula . appears .14 SUM function Follow the steps below to apply the sum function. Press Enter. 9.14.A1. Open Microsoft Excel. 7.

appears. 3. 5.15 as indicated with the encircled numbers. Choose the Home tab. if it does not automatically appear.16 illustrates the formatting. 5. 4. 11 Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field.Enter the following also. Type 85 in cell C2. The Insert Function dialog box appears. Type 150 in cell C1. 4. 7. 6. To format the worksheet follow the following steps . Type 65 in cell C3. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box. which is 300. 8. 3. Click Sum in the Select A Function box.15. 2. 2. Move to cell A4. Figure 5. 10. Click Top and Double Bottom Border. 1. The Function Arguments dialog box appears as shown in figure 5. The sum of cells C1 to C3. Select cells B4 to C4.15 Function dialog Steps 11 and 12 describes figure 5. 9. Click OK. Choose the Formulas tab. 1. Figure 5. Click the down arrow next to the Borders button . Click OK. Press Enter. Press Enter. . 12. Click the Insert Function button. Type the word Sum. 6.

16 Formatting the work sheet To calculating the average use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers as illustrated in figure 5. Press Enter. which is 21. 5. highest number and number count do the following. appears. 4. 4. Type Min. 3. 2. which is 12.17. Move to cell A7. Press Enter. appears. Type Average. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7. 1. . The lowest number in the series. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6. 3. Figure 5. Lowest number: 1.17 Calculating average The following steps apply. 2. The average of cells B1 to B3. Move to cell A6. To determine the lowest.Figure 5. Type = MIN(B1:B3). Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3).

4. 1. Type Max. 1. Move to cell A8. which is 27.Highest Number: Use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers as follows. 3. 2. Max and count operation . 3. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8.18 Min. Choose the Home tab. 5. Type = MAX(B1:B3). use the count function to count the number of numbers in a series as follows. 4. The highest number in the series. Press Enter. 2. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9.18. Move to cell A9. Type Count. To count the numbers in a series of numbers. appears. 5. Click the down arrow next to the AutoSum button The three operations described above is illustrated in figure 5. Figure 5.

Select the insert tab from the top of the excel window In the chart box click on Scatter Choose Scater with Markers Only Figure 5.19. We are now going to graph Force vs Acceleration to illustrate data graphing. · Chart should appear · In the design tab under chart layout · Choose layout From figure 5.Graphing Data Graphing data is important because it allows us to visualize the relationship between the data and calculated values. · · · · Select cells D8 through E17 as shown in figure 5.21 · In the graph double click on chart title and change it to "Force vs Acceleration” · Double click on the x axis title and change it to "Acceleration (m/s2) Note: To superscript the 2 you need to click on the home tab of the main menu and then expand the Font Box so that you can check the superscript box.20. The following steps and figures explains this. .19 Cell selection From figure 5.

21 Format trendline .20 Appearance of layout · Double click on the y axis title and change it to "Force (kg m/s2) Note: Again superscript the 2. · Add a trendline by right clicking on one of the data points and choosing "Add Trendline" In the add trandline window Figure 5.Figure 5.

22 Placing the chart Formatting the axis · In the new window. · Select "New Sheet · it "Force vs Acceleration" · Click OK Figure 5. · Right click on the legend on the right hand side of the graph and select delete. right click on the "y-axis" as shown in figure 5. If you are going to print the graph as its own page do the following : · Right click in the lower left hand corner and select "Move Chart.23a · Choose format axis · Under the axis Options in figure 5.23b · Change Major units to fixed · Change the value to 5 · Click close . · click on one of the x axis values and then select "Add Major Gridlines" · If you wanted to paste this into a word document you could copy and past the graph from here to the word document.22.Copying or placing the chart · Click on the trendline equation text box and move it to the upper right hand corner of the graph window. Figure 5.

a three-dimensional chart. a cone chart. column. 1. and scatter. such as column. Then plot that data into a chart by selecting the chart type that you want to use on the Office Fluent Ribbon (Insert tab. To create a chart in Excel. The basic procedure for creating a chart is the same no matter what type of chart you choose.If Excel is already open on your workstation open a new . or bar. after you choose Column Chart . you can choose to have your chart represented as a two-dimensional chart. Charts group). After you choose a chart type. bar. line. line.23 Formatting the axis Creating Charts Charts are used to display series of numeric data in a graphical format to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationship between different series of data. As you roll your mouse pointer over each option.(a) Format axis drop box (b) Axis options Figure 5. For example. As the data is changed. area. pie. a cylinder chart. start by entering the numeric data for the chart on a worksheet. Excel supplies a brief description of each chart sub-type. There are further sub-types within each of these categories. On the Insert tab there are a variety of chart types to choose from. choose a chart sub-type. To create a line chart. the chart will automatically update. or a pyramid chart. Launch Excel . execute the following steps. Select a chart type by choosing an option from the Insert tab's Chart group.

put your cursor in call A2. Click on the New Workbook button. · Use a keyboard combination: on a Windows computer use Ctrl + N. For this activity. · Go to the File menu. See figure 5. You can also click on the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar.24. 5. · Go to the Standard toolbar. We will use the data in table 1. Enter the data to be graphed. Table 2 Highlighted Data 4. Highlight data to be graphed. only the names of fruit and the numbers. Highlighted data should look like what we have in table 2. click hold the mouse button down and drag to cell B7. There are three ways to do that. 2. That is done by going to the Insert menu and selecting Chart. If your worksheet looks like the one above.Excel workbook. From the Chart Wizard box that opens select Chart type. Select the Chart Wizard. Select New. Do not include the row with heading titles. I selected pie . Table 1 Raw Data 3.

Another chart type can be selected. click and hold your mouse pointer down on the Press and Hold button to see what the data looks like in the chart type selected.25 . Figure 5. After selecting the chart type two options will be available: · Select Next and let Chart Wizard show you a series of options to make changes to your chart.Figure 4.24 Chart wizard After selecting the Chart type.25. · Select Finish and Chart Wizard puts your completed chart on the spreadsheet. Shown in figure 5.

make changes on the legend. click the same box at the end to restore the window. You can edit the data range in this small window.” Notice where the cursor is located in the dialog box above.27. When you are finished.The second step taken by Chart Wizard is to verify the range of data being used for this chart. Figure 5. click on the box the cursor is pointing to. Figure 5.26.26 Chart options Select Next to move to the final dialog box which allows you to see the chart as a new sheet or place it on one of the sheets in your workbook as shown in figure 5.27 Chart Location . It is pointing to the small box at the end of the line where the Data range is displayed. The Data range displayed below is read "all cells from A2 to B7. Select Next to go to the dialog box in figure 5. The dialog box shrinks allowing you to see your entire spreadsheet. If the data range should be changed. or make changes on the data labels. This box allows you to add a title to the chart.

A context tab is a tab that only appears when you need it. 7. 6. Choose the Insert tab. 3. Type your name. When you click the Header & Footer button. and center. Click the right side of the header area. Your worksheet changes to Page Layout view and the Design context tab appears. or center of the printed page. right. You use the Go To Header and Go To Footer buttons on the Design tab to move between the header and footer areas of your worksheet.23 Inserting Header and Footer 1. the Design context tab appears and Excel changes to Page Layout view. right. Click the Header & Footer button in the Text group. Click the Go To Footer button. Excel will place the page number in the upper-right corner. Click the left side of the Header area. where you place your information determines whether it appears on the left. When you print your document. When you print your document. Excel will place your name in the upper-left corner. 4. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page of your printed worksheet. 5. Page Layout view structures your worksheet so that you can easily change the format of your document. 2. Click Page Number in the Header & Footer Elements group. . Both the header and footer areas are divided into three sections: left.Create Headers and Footers A header is text that appears at the top of every page of your printed worksheet. When you choose a Header or Footer from the Header & Footer Elements group. Excel moves to the footer area. You can type in your header or footer or you can use predefined headers and footers. To insert Headers and Footers as shown in figure 5.23 Figure 5.

Set Print Options There are many print options. the longest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. you can set your margins. If you are not using 8 1/2 by 11 paper. A menu appears. If you check the Show Margins check box. 7. the shortest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. left. Excel will place the path to your document at the bottom of every printed page. You can click and drag the margin markers to increase or decrease the size of your margins. The dotted lines indicate the right. To print specific pages. and your document prints. The Print dialog box appears when the print button is clicked. The Print Preview option can be to print. top. you can use the Size option on the Page Layout tab to change the Size setting. Printing The simplest way to print is to click the Office button. highlight Print on the menu that appears. is longer on one edge than it is on the other. you can set page settings such as centering your data on the page. which is the default page size in Excel. bottom. There are two page orientations: portrait and landscape. You set print options on the Page Layout tab. Among other things. When using Print Preview. you can use the Next Page and Previous Page buttons to move forward and backward through your document. you can see onscreen how your printed document will look when you print it. Click the path to your document. . If you print in Portrait. Dotted lines appear on your screen. Portrait is the default option. The Margin option on the Page Layout tab provides several standard margin sizes from which you can choose. and then click Quick Print in the Preview and Print the Document pane. If you click the Page Setup button while in Print Preview mode.6. enter the page numbers in the From and To fields. Paper comes in a variety of sizes. you will see margin lines on your document. Margins define the amount of white space that appears on the top. set your page orientation. If you print in Landscape. Paper. Most business correspondence uses 8 1/2 by 11 paper. and bottom edges of your printed pages. To return to Excel. such as paper sized 8 1/2 by 11. You can choose to print the entire worksheet or specific pages. If your document is several pages long. and right edges of your document. click the Close Print Preview button. and select your paper size. left. Click the Footer button. You can enter the number of copies you want to print in the Number of Copies field.

Chapter 7
Microsoft Access
7.1 Introduction
The value any database can provide is to store related information in one
place, and then let you connect various different things (sometimes called
"entities" in database) together. Microsoft Access is an information
management tool that helps in the storage of information for reference,
reporting, and analysis. Microsoft Access helps in analyzing large amounts of
information, and manage related data more efficiently than Microsoft Excel or
other spreadsheet applications. Microsoft Access works in the same manner
any database does, by storing related information together, and letting you
create connections (commonly called relationships) between different things.
The relationships between two different things in MSAccess can be as simple
as a contact at a customer and the customer itself or complex. Data is stored
in Microsoft Access tables likened to a mini-spreadsheets that store only one
type of thing. A table can have many fields likened to the columns in
spreadsheet. Each field in a table can be set up to allow or prevent users from
entering certain information, for example, you could say one field only accepts
dates, another can only allow a user to enter a numeric value, while another
lets them enter anything they want. Once you have the MS Access tables,
fields, and relationships set up, you can create data entry forms that use those
tables to store your information and later create reports with the data. Some
of the major benefits to using a database are:
Fewer errors and inconsistencies: Maintaining one version of the truth for the
things you need to track minimizes the potential for duplication, errors, and
inconsistent values.
Higher productivity: When working in database you need only change a single
record and all other related things in the database will automatically "see" the
change.
Security and Control: Databases provide a central location to store, secure,
and control your data. Microsoft Access includes the ability to encrypt and
password protect database files.
Better Decisions and Insight: Perhaps most importantly, a single source of
truth in a standardized format means you can gain better insight and make
better decisions by reporting and analyzing your data in a database.
7.2 Features of MS Access
Microsoft Access is a database and, more specifically, a relational database.

Access has an .mdb extension by default, although this has changed in
Access 2007 where the extension is now an accdb extension. Early versions
of Access cannot read accdb extensions but Microsoft Access 2007 can read
and change earlier versions of Access. The Microsoft® Access Database is
made up of 7 major components namely the tables, relationships, queries,
forms, reports, macros and modules.The following gives a quick overview of
each component.
Tables: The tables are the backbone and the storage container of the data
entered into the database. If the tables are not set up correctly, with the correct
relationships, then the database may be slow, gives the wrong results or not
react the way we want it to. Queries, forms, etc. are usually based on a table.
The tables that contain data look a bit like a table in Microsoft® Word or a
Microsoft® Excel Spreadsheet, when opened. They have columns and rows
as does a table in Microsoft® Word and an Excel worksheet. Each of the
columns will have a field name at the top and each of the rows will represent a
record.
Relationships: Relationships are the bonds you build between the tables.
They join tables that have associated elements. To do this there is a field in
each table, which is linked to each other, and have the same values.
Queries: These the means of manipulating the data to display in a form or a
report. Queries can sort, calculate, group, filter, join tables, update data,
delete data, etc. Their power is immense. The Microsoft® Access database
query language is SQL (Structured Query Language). The need to know SQL
is not required in the early stages of learning Access. Microsoft® Access
writes the SQL for you, after you tell it what you want, in the Design view of the
queries window.
Forms: Forms are the primary interface through which the users of the
database enter data. The person who enters the data will interact with forms
regularly. The programmer can set the forms to show only the data required.
By using queries, properties, macros and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications),
the ability to add, edit and delete data can also be set. Forms can be set up and
developed to reflect the use they will be required for.
Reports: Reports are the results of the manipulation of the data you have
entered into the database. Unlike forms, they cannot be edited. Reports are
intended to be used to output data to another device or application, i.e. printer,
fax, Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel.
Macros: Macros are an automatic way for Access to carry out a series of
actions for the database. Access gives you a selection of actions that are

Tables usually contain multiple fields.1Database hierarchy Database File: This is your main file that encompasses the entire database and that is saved to your hard-drive or floppy disk.carried out in the order you enter.mdb Table: A table is a collection of data about a specific topic. Macros can open forms. the list is almost endless. etc. 7. There can be multiple tables in a database. Advanced users of Microsoft® Access tend to use VBA instead of Macros. FieldName) Student LastName Datatype) Text . run other Macros.3 Microsoft Access Hierarchy Description Microsoft Access is a powerful program to create and manage your databases. Figure 6. Modules: Modules are the basis of the programming language that supports Microsoft® Access. A field only has 1 datatype.1 shows the Hierarchy that Microsoft Access uses in breaking down a database. The module window is where you can write and store Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Example #1) Students Example #2) Teachers Field: Fields are the different categories within a Table. Figure 6. Example #1) Student LastName Example #2) Student FirstName Datatypes: Datatypes are the properties of each field. Example) StudentDatabase. run queries. change values of a field.

type the file name My First Database.4 Starting MS Access The first step is to start the MS Access DBMS software. After opening the Access application.7. Figure 6.3 Creating a Database . 2. To start Microsoft Access.2 Starting MS Access Creating a New Database 1. which is part of the Microsoft Office Professional suite.2b. you will see slight variations in the labeling of the MS Office components. Under the Blank Database section. the basics remain the same. For example. (a) Office 2003 (b) Office 2010 Figure 6. nevertheless.2a shows Office 2003 labels. Figure 6. The sequence is the same for all MS Office versions. Different version of Windows comes with different version of the Windows Office suite. The screen is likely to differ in detail from the office 2010 in Figure 6. select Blank Database. However. follow the sequence Start/All Programs/Microsoft Office/Microsoft Access. in the File Name field.

4 The work area The Access Interface consists of various tools: Office Button: Located in the top left corner of the office window frame. printing.3. emailing. reducing the need to search for the proper command tab. opening. saving. it resides above the ribbon. A list of the most recently viewed documents allows quick access to databases you are currently working on.5 Access User Interface access user interface is shown in figure 6. Ribbon: Contains task-specific commands grouped together under command tabs. Access Options assists you in customizing the Access environment. but can be moved below the ribbon. Quick Access Toolbar: The Quick Access Toolbar can be customized to hold your most frequently used commands. This new feature of Access 07 is the replacement for the . managing. publishing. this button displays a set of commands for creating a new database. By default. and closing a database. Click on the Create button 7.4. Figure 6. It remains visible at all times.

The user can assign names to fields and specify a property of each data type accordingly. Scroll Lock. queries. At the top of figure 6. Can be customized to display objects by various groupings. The Window Frame was previously known as the status bar. forms. using the Table option which creates the table and directly displays the blank fields. Creating a table is always the precursor to other objects such as queries. The Table Design option provides the most control over the design of the table. There are three ways to create a table. 7.6 Creating the Tables Tables The basic building block of a database is the table. and reports because each object uses the fields and records from a table as the basis for its output.4 with Tabs and Ribbons that automatically appear for the area in the Access work area. and reports. MS Office Window Frame: Located at the bottom of the user interface. Enable the full content if you are sure the database is virus-free. Security features cause the message bar to appear below the ribbon when you open a database outside of a trusted location. . Regardless of which method is used. Caps Lock. Navigation Pane: Displays database objects such as tables. When you click the Create button the Access 2007 screen will change to the image in figure 6. the frame can be customized to show additional features such as database views.4 the Table Tools and Datasheet Tabs appears.former menus and toolbars. fields can always be modified after the table is created. or by using the Table Templates option which allows the user to create a table based on predefined designs. or Num Lock. the Table Design option which creates a table in the design view where the field attributes are displayed. The default Objects selection is Tables and that the default table format is Create table in Design view. A table consists of fields and records. forms. Dialog Box Launcher: Miniature buttons found on command tabs provides additional commands and tools associated with the group. The intersection of a field and a record is a data cell where information relevant to that particular field for that particular record is entered.

If field names are not assigned.5 Table Name A table created using the Table Design gives the user the most control over the design of a database.6).Provide a name in the Table Name box and then click the OK button. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon.4 Tabs and Ribbons The Ribbon below these Tabs is composed of Groups of selections to assist in creating the Table. our selection will be the Design View selection. Figure 6. . When you click the View button the Datasheet and Design View dropbox will appear. To create a table using the Table Design option: 1. tables created with the Table Design option do not have an "ID" field. Assuming we want to create or design a new Table.5. On the left of the Table Tools-Datasheet Tab/Ribbon is the View button. 2. Unlike a table created using the Table option. Figure 6. A Save As menu screen will appear similar to figure 6. Access assigns the default name a field number. Click the Table Design button in the Tables group (see Figure 6. Field names are usually assigned first and then the field properties are specified in the Field Properties pane.

simply click in that row. and field descriptions. Click a field in the new record and enter data as desired. Field descriptions are entered by clicking inside the Description text box for a specific field. The Datasheet View window is useful for entering. 2. editing. To quickly move between fields in a record. the Datasheet View can be used to manage information entered into the table. After creating a table. Double click inside the Field Name text box and enter the desired field name. Press <Tab> or <Shift> + <Tab> keys. data types. 6. Designate the Data Type for each field by clicking the Data Type drop-down arrow and selecting the type from the drop-down menu. The record selector jumps to the blank row at the end of the table and the blinking insertion point appears in the first column. Use the rows and columns to enter field names. or deleting records. 1. To add a record. Using the Description column is optional. 2. 1.Figure 6. . Other Ways to Add a New Record: If the New record row is in view. It allows a user to explain or describe the type of information entered in the field. The bottom pane is the Field Properties pane.6 Table Design View Window The Table Design View window is split into two panes. The top pane is the Design Grid pane. 3. As you enter data. Press the [enter] key and the Data Type text box will become active. The default data type is Text. Click the New Record button on the Record Navigation bar. Access automatically saves the information as you enter it.

and whether a field is displayed when the query is run. click the Delete button in the Records group and click the Yes button. 2.7). related tables.To edit a record. Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. 2. they hold or save the criteria used to select the data from the table(s). Click the Home tab on the Ribbon. Other Ways to Delete a Record: Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. . and serve as the basis for forms or reports.8). Click the Query Design button in the Other group (see Figure 6. To delete records that you no longer need from a table. A query can be used to specify desired fields and criteria to display information from a table. Press the <Delete> key. 1. Creating a query in Design View: gives the user control over the design of the query including adding or deleting criteria to selected records and sorting results in the record set. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. This section will demonstrate how to create a query using the Design View or the Simple Query Wizard. A table must exist before a query or any other database object can be created. The bottom pane specifies the fields used in the query. criteria to retrieve the desired information. Queries can be used to analyze data. More than one table can be selected. Queries are different from tables even though the interfaces of tables and queries are very similar to each other. To create a simple query using the Query Design window: 1. If the table related to a query is deleted (intentionally or unintentionally) the query will no longer function. 7. Click the Yes button. The top pane displays the table(s) used in the query. Queries do not hold any data. The Design View window opens in the Object Display Area along with the Show Table dialog box (see Figure 6. Click the field you want to edit and make the changes. The Query Design window consists of top and bottom pane. or other queries. sort parameters in the query (ascending or descending order). display specific information.7 Queries A query is a request to select specific information from a table(s).

Type "CA" in the text box for the "State/Province" field.9 Setting query criteria . Figure 6. Double click the column names to use in the query. 4. This sets the criteria for the query.9. See figure 6. For example let us extract all customers in the state of 'CA'.Figure 5. Each column will drop into the query design grid.8 Table dialog box 3. Figure 6.7 'Query Design' Selection Select the table to use in the query and then click the 'Add' button. The fields are added to the bottom pane.

a warning box will open.10). 'Run' button Figure 6.11).12 Save As dialog box 'Run' butto . Click the RUN button in the Results group(see figure 6.11 Returned Records 6. Only records for classes that meet on CA criteria will be displayed. If the query has not been named. The query will execute according to the criteria entered and the results will be displayed in the Object Display Area .12) 8. Enter a name for the query in the QUERY NAME text box. Figure 6. Click the YES button to save the query. 7. The Save As dialog box opens (See figure 6. Removing the criteria from the query grid would return all records Figure 6.5. Close the query by clicking the Close button in the query window of the Object Display Area.10 Run' button on the Ribbon 3 records have been returned for the state of 'CA' (see Figure 6.

Select the table that will be the basis for the form in the Object Display Area.7. A new form containing all of the fields from the table will open in the Object Display Area(See figure 6. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. Forms can be created from either the Form Design window or by using the Form Tool. Creating a form using the form tool: The Form Tool is the quickest way to create a form in Access.12). 3.12). All of the information in a record will be displayed on the form.13 Form created using Form Tool . When creating a form. Figure 6. All fields for one record can be viewed at the same time. 2. To create a form using the Form Tool: 1.8 Forms Forms can be used to view and edit data in a record. forms cannot be created without a pre-existing table. which eliminates the need to scroll to display all the fields in a table. The Form Tool uses all of the fields in the data source and arranges them automatically on a form. Click the Form button in the Forms group (see Figure 6. it is important to remember that a table is the basis for all objects including forms. Forms can also be used to present data in a more attractive and efficient format than a datasheet and also to display data from related tables. Figure 6.12 Form groups Forms created using the Form Tool will contain the Record Navigation Control identical to those found on a table.

2. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. At the reports section click on the item called 'Report Wizard' as shown in figure 6.14 Navigation plane and the Create Tab on the Ribbon 3. Click on a table in the navigation pane. Click the OK button. The information from the tables and/or queries can also be arranged so that the report may be utilized as an invoice. To create a report. order form. A Report can be created using the Report Tool. Figure 51 is an example of a report in tabular format. Reports provide a means to display and summarize the data in tables or queries. . the Design View or with the Report Wizard. The tabular report looks similar to the format of tables with the field names listed at the top and their values beneath the field names.To save the form: 1. The columnar report orients field names to the left and their values to the right as in a column form. or for formatting and printing mailing labels.15 Figure 6. presentation.9 Reports A report can be created based on either a table or query object(s). At the Ribbon make sure the 'Create' tab is selected (See figure 6. Enter a name for the form in the text box. 1. (a) Navigation Plane (b) Create Tab Figure 6. 2. There are two basic formats for reports: columnar and tabular. The Save As dialog box opens. 3.14a). Reports can include headers and footers in which subtotals and totals can be calculated and displayed.14b). 7. Here we click on the 'Customers' table and it becomes highlighted (See figure 6.15 The Report Wizard.

. which sends the entire report to the printer without opening the Print dialog box. Table/Query Fields Figure 6. The . Select the table or query to base the report on. Previewing a report: Before printing. The options available in the Print menu of the Office Button include Print which opens the Print dialog box(See figure 6. The item will move to the box on the right. The report will open in the Object Display Area 7. sorting.16 Query to base report Any aspect of the report (i. it is best to preview the report to see how the text appears on each page. and Print Preview. In the left box double click the field you wish to show on the report. See figure 6. Click the 'Finish' button.17a) and allows the user to change printer settings. You can also use the arrow keys to move fields between the two boxes. data source. Print Preview opens with one page of the document sized to fit in the window. Quick Print. layout. Printing options in Access are accessed by clicking the Office Button and hovering the mouse over the Print button to display the options available.16. The Print Preview feature displays the pages as they will appear when printed. 5. Access prints the report using the formatting and margin settings.4. which allows the user to view the report in final form before printing.1 Printing Reports The report can be printed after it is created. grouping. or style) can be changed by clicking the button until the appropriate dialog box opens and making the changes. Click the button to complete the report.e. Using the Print Preview feature can avoid wasting time and paper by viewing the draft version of the report.9. fields selected.

Click the Print Preview option in figure 6.(a) (b) ( c) (d) Figure 6. Click the Office Button. Once a relationship is established you can view information from both tables at the same time by creating a query. Open the report to be printed. 7. select the Preview tab of the Ribbon. Contacts should have a relationship to Reservations because they both contain the field ContactID).17 Printing a Report located at the bottom right corner of the interface (see Figure 6. Table relationships can be created between two tables as long as they have a common field (in the example database. 3. Relationships are created using a Primary Key from one table and linking it to a related field in another table (now called a Foreign Key).17b). To use Print Preview: 1.17a.10 Setting the Relationships between Tables A Relationship is how you tell the program that a piece of information means the same thing in more than one table. Click the Close Print Preview button in the Preview group (see Figure 6. Setting the relationship up in Access is very important. The Zoom slider control is present only when the report is open. 4. 5. 2. To exit Print Preview.17c). 6. Hover the mouse over the Print button to display the printing options (see Figure 58). .

and the one created in our bookstore scenario. Repeat for each table involved in a relationship that you need to set up. These include: One to One One to Many Many to Many The relationship type you will come across most frequently. Click on the RELATIONSHIPS button in the datasheets ribbon. Click on the SHOW TABLE button. Make sure that your tables are closed and that you are at the database screen. To create a relationship between tables the following steps applies. Click on CLOSE. 1.Access 2007 allows for several different types of relationships. 3. is the One to Many relationship. 2. (The show table window appears automatically if no relationships have been defined. Select one of the desired tables in the relationship and click on ADD. .) 4.

9. .5. Double-click Order Details. The Employees table should appear in the Relationships field: 8. The Customers table should appear in the Relationships field: 7. Double-click Orders. double-click Employees. In the Show Table window.

11.10. The Relationships field should now look like this: . Double-click Products. click the Close button. In the Show Tables window.

The line will become bold. Double-click on the line connecting the two tables. Open the Relationships window. Individual files cannot be more than 256 MB though. Figure 6. and you can use it the old manner.To Edit Relationships 1. 3. A field created with this data type can have up to 2 GB storage allocated. date/time. 7. is the right type for storing images. 2. memo. To Delete Relationships 1. Open the Relationships window. Click once on the line connecting the two tables. 3. It can store documents. Press [DELETE] on the keyboard. The OLE data type is still available. numbers. Make any changes to the dialog box and click OK. The hyperlink data type allows for storage of hyperlinks and the field can be a solution for the indirect method discussed previously. 2.11 Adding Images to Access Access 2007 introduced a data type called "attachment". etc. You can have more than one file attached to a record. The complete list of data types available to define a field in a table in Access 2007 now include text. The new data type attachment however. including all kinds of Office files and binary objects.18 Attachment Dialog Box .

EXIF (Exchangeable File Format). Viewing attachments also does not need the use of a form.18 appears. select "New. 4. Click "OK. Select the image file that you want to add. (For example. Click "Create From File" and select to "Browse" for your file. If you are starting a new database file. RLE (Run Length Encoded Bitmap). Simply open the table. 6. remember to create a field for the same. ICON. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format).") 3. Double click the attachments field and the attachments dialog box in figure 6. Office Access 2007 supports the following graphic file formats natively. The dialog box lets you look through your directory for the file to be attached. and double click the specific icon of the attachment (as there can be multiple attachments in a attachment field)." . The document will open in the associated program. BMP (Windows Bitmap). for the field the image will be in. Type a field name. Click ''Datasheet View" on the top toolbar so that you return to your normal view. TIF (Tagged Image File Format). go to the right record. Instead open the table in the datasheet view." That is how you insert a file into Access. 5. JPE (Joint Photographic Experts Group). title it "Images. Use the drop-down menu in the "Data Type" column to select "OLE Object. 1. you do not need a data entry form." You will see a single table. meaning the attachment control renders them without the need for additional software. This brings up a sub-menu. Open Access 2007. Change your view to "Design View" by clicking the "Design View" button on the top bar of Access 2007.Whenever you need a field that can hold images and other attachments. JPEG. Select "Insert Object. titled "Table 1. WMF (Windows Metafile) and EMF (Enhanced Metafile) To attach an image file to an access database appy the following steps. Right-click on any empty field on your database." 2. TIFF. ICO (Icon). DIB (Device Independent Bitmap). name it and set the data type as "attachment"." A new window opens with your "Insert Object" options. JPG. PNG (Portable Network Graphics). To add attachments to a table.

apart from IP addresses. the Internet Protocol (IP). 8. mobile devices and computer supported cooperative work. client. The Internet is used to introduce the social implications of a world population that is either 'information rich' or 'information poor' ('computer literate' or 'computer illiterate'?). World Wide Web (Web) communications are transmitted via the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and e-mails via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). Security is used to introduce the technological and social threats posed by our reliance upon heavily interconnected systems. We will introduce some key technologies that will have a profound impact upon the way that we live and emphasize the complex social consequences that these technologies will have upon the way that we live.e. The Internet is a global network of many individual computer networks. Computers that offer files for download over the Internet are called servers or hosts.. Mobile devices and Computer Supported Cooperative Work are used to introduce the social implications of remote.com). unchanging. teleworking and of the team based use of computers to coordinate group activities. enabling different types of Internet communications. Safety is used to introduce the consequences of our increased reliance upon fallible programmers and their products.1 The Internet and World Wide Web. you need its Web address. or both.org). For example. For instance.g. user@emailprovider. i. For the purpose of understanding the central message we shall illustrate the social aspects of computing using the internet. such that your computer's address changes with each new Internet session. These additional protocols use their own types of addresses. all speaking the same computer language. or may be "dynamically" assigned by your ISP. Any computer may be server. More sophisticated networking protocols may be "layered" on top of the IP protocol. Every computer connected to the Internet has an IP address.. to download a Web page. depending .Chapter 8 Social Aspects of Computing 8. a computer that offers Web pages for download is called an HTTP server or Web host. To exchange e-mails. http://www.eff. a unique numeric identifier that can be "static". known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (e. both the sender and recipient need e-mail addresses (e. security and safety.0 Introduction This chapter is intended to introduce the social implications of computing technology.g. For example.

Those areas that are covered. called browsers. HTTP (Web) is assigned to port 80 and SMTP (e-mail) is assigned to port 25.2 Mobile Computing and Groupware Mobile computation can take place over larger distances using cellular and satellite telephone links. For example. Following the widespread availability of web browsers and servers. There are. The amount of data in an Internet communication is measured in bytes.g. These can refer to local or remote resources accessible via FTP.536 different computer software "ports. use several different systems. Hypertext links refer to other documents by their URLs. The client program (known as a browser). Gopher. runs on the user's computer and provides two basic navigation operations: to follow a link or to send a query to a server. e. The only problems concern the reliability of the system. Netscape Navigator." Many networking protocols have been assigned to particular port numbers by the Internet Engineering Task Force. menus. Switzerland. These systems use modems in the same way that many users use a modem to connect up over standard telephone networks. as well as those available via the http protocol used to transfer hypertext documents. 8. Most clients and servers also support "forms" which allow the user to enter arbitrary text as well as selecting options from customizable menus and on/off switches. translate user request for information into the communications primitives that are necessary to transfer relevant data from remote servers. Errors can be introduced because analogue.on the communication. many companies from about 1995 realized they could use the same software and protocols on their own private internal TCP/IP networks giving rise to the term "intranet". any port can be used for any application. These problems are being reduced by the introduction of digital networks. Telnet or news. Application or client programs. many areas of the world that are not covered by these facilities. however. telephone systems were designed to carry the human voice rather than the binary. NCSA Mosaic. However. On the WWW everything (documents. and these are only conventions The World Wide Web is an Internet client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva. . digital signals of computer networks. indices) is represented to the user as a hypertext object in HTML format. Communications to and from an Internet-connected computer occur through 65. that is non-digital. A variety of client and server software is freely available.

High frequency signals carry more information but are susceptible to interference and dispersion. These enable groups of users to remotely log-in to their place of work. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks provide means of firing multimedia data at high speeds across local and wide are networks. interference from other devices using the same channel and variable signal strength due to movement of the device. If the user moves from one cell to another then their 'calls' are passed between transceivers. humancomputer interaction.Cellular Architectures: Radio technology offers perhaps the most obvious means of connecting mobile devices. . In particular. unintentional electromagnetic interference. Another term that is commonly used for these applications is CSCW systems (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). Each cell has its own transceiver (transmitter-receiver). the intention is to reduce the problems that can arise during telephone conversations. Teleworking can combine elements of mobile computation if the user is moving around the country as they work. There are multi-user conferencing systems. there are important visual cues about who wants to talk next etc. the area to be covered is divided into a number of cells. This approach exploits the cellular systems that currently support mobile 'phones. broken connections and interruptions that frustrate mobile. Where communications infrastructure on the Internet supports relatively low quality video conferencing. They need not be physically present in their office. to full-blown video conferencing systems. delays may interrupt both images and sound. It can also include elements of groupware if they have to cooperate with their colleagues over the network. these systems avoid the irritations that can arise when three or more people try to communicate over the same phone line. There is a trade-off between the volume of information that a radio signal can carry and the distance that the signal will travel. Until such problems are addressed. group text-editors even `virtual' universities. Another class of systems supports teleworking. In this system. In the case of video conferencing systems. Groupware covers a vast range of computer applications: · Conferencing systems. Low frequency signals carry less information but will travel over longer distances. Radio-based communication also suffers from: signal fade due to adverse atmospheric conditions. Groupware refers to computer programs that are intended to help several different people work together on a common product. In either case. users will continue to suffer the delays. These systems range from simple messaging applications where textual messages may appear below the user's name.

These are Computer-Aided Software Engineering systems. Online Learning etc. The alternative would be to send and re-send different drafts between the various sites. When you think of the Internet. Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate the files. you probably think of ". They may also help teams to work out where their colleagues are currently concentrating within a system. · Command and control systems. The following can be done while surfing the net. Web pages on a site are linked together through a system of hyperlinks. they might provide information about the data types that must be used in two different areas of a program. For example. Online Shopping.3 Surfing the Web A website has one or more related web pages. Confusion would result if one user tried to shut-down a component while another tried to start it up and many more.com. The World Wide Web as a vast collection of electronic files stored on millions of computers all around the world. 8. Hypertext links these files together. Web Browsers: Web browsers are software on your machine that communicate with servers or hosts on the Internet. This page is referred to as the home page or start page. When you launch your web browser a predefined web page appears. This is important. Each site would then be unsure about whether they had the most recent copy or whether it was `in the post'. Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses so you can return to them quickly. Job Hunt Online. These systems enable groups of users to simultaneously edit the same document. if two different groups have to work on different sections of a joint publication. the web servers that host the information each have a unique numerical address. Using a web browser causes data to be stored on your computer and logs to be stored on the web servers you visit. If both groups can access the most recent version that the other group is working on then these problems may be avoided. without having to retype them. The battle between the two browsers to . Although many different browsers are available. Finding Cheaper Textbooks. enabling you to jump between them by clicking on a link. Again.· Multi-user text editors. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox are by far the most popular. They help groups of programmers to develop code. the various operators must cooperate to preserve the safety of an application. · CASE tools. These applications include computer interfaces to systems on-board aircraft or within power generation systems." In order to locate online data. and frequently transmits unencrypted information. depending on how it is designed. for example.

For instance. you will undoubtedly encounter many different types of electronic file formats. Web servers usually see and retain a large amount of information about what you do when you surf to them. depending on the . For instance. 8. Cookies: Cookies are pieces of information that a web site can send to your browser Cookies are the most common mechanisms used to record the fact that a particular visitor has logged in to an account on a site. IP Addresses: Whenever your browser fetches a page. If there is a site you are sending a sensitive information to. If a site does not support HTTPS. Media files. so downloading may take hours.1 Downloading data and Files: Almost everything you do on the Web is some form of downloading. if you type any information into a form on a web page (such as a search engine). the website to record the IP address of the computer you are using. (3) that the page was really sent by the web server listed in the URL bar.3. As a result. (2) there is a lock icon in the corner of the browser. what that previous site/page was. ensure that you are using HTTPS. and to track the state of a multi-step transaction such as a reservation or shopping cart purchase. HTTPS encrypts pages. but also information that might identify you: your IP address. the browser and operating system you are using. image or script from a website. When downloading content from the Web. HTTPS is a more secure alternative to HTTP. can be very large. your account if you are logged in to the site. (2) that the page cannot be modified by third parties. and cookies that were created when you previously looked at pages on the site. You need to identify the file type to know whether it will work on your computer. do not send sensitive information to it. especially full length movies. the server will record not only what you sent it. whether you followed a link from another web page to get to the page. HTTP is susceptible to eavesdropping. you are actually downloading a text document and all its associated graphics from a web server. HTTPS: Most sites on the web are accessed using the unencrypted HTTP protocol. and (3) the URL/location bar is colored. it is not possible to block all cookies without losing the ability to log into many sites and perform transactions with others. and even to intermediaries that might set out to modify the pages a browser is fetching. A web server must be configured to support HTTPS properly before you can use it. when you access a web page. and attempts to ensure three things: (1) that third parties cannot see the contents of the page. Check three indicators to ensure that you're at an HTTPS page: (1) the URL begins with https://.dominate the market has led to continuous improvements to the software.

. create a Temporary Files folder by opening Windows Explorer. 2. plug-ins. New programs are usually installed in the Program files folder. Follow these simple steps for downloading software.After the software is installed. Close all programs that are running. name it Temp files. To speed things up. although the tools for achieving this kind of end-to-end encryption are getting better and easier to use. Encrypt your drives and decide upon and follow an appropriate data deletion policy. 5. The usual measures apply to managing the copies of emails (both sent and received) that are kept on your own machines. and stores data on third party machines. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and its free cousin GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG) are the standard tools for doing this. delete the file in your Temporary files folder to free up space on your hard drive 8.Once you locate the software you want to download.When the folder appears.speed of your connection. End-to-End Encryption of Specific Emails Encrypting emails all the way from the sender to the receiver has historically been difficult. making it a simple matter of clicking a button to sign. 6. Figure 7.First you will be asked if you want to save the file. the transmission protocols used for those steps.1 illustrates the typical steps messages might travel through. you can watch the file as it downloads.If you are really bored. Email usually travels through a number of separate hops between the sender and receiver. transmits data over the network. then locate the Temp file folder on your hard drive and double-click to open it. Click the Save button. verify.If you do not already have one. Major email clients such as Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla Thunderbird can be configured to work smoothly with encryption software. After the download is finished. Find the file you downloaded and double-click it. games or any other files from the Internet. 3. many large files are compressed. then selecting File/New/Folder. 7. 4. click the Save button. encrypt and decrypt email messages. except Windows Explorer. and the available types of encryption for those steps. Next.A series of installation screens directs you through the process.4 Email The act of using email stores data on your machines. Both of these programs can provide protection for your email in transit and also protect your stored data. 1. you have to install the software. click on the link to begin the download process. highlighting your hard drive (typically the c: drive).

Client-to-Mail Server Encryption If you use POP or IMAP to fetch your email. This would commonly be an ISP.and Third-Party Machines There are two main reasons why your emails will be stored on computers controlled by third parties. You can use your mail client to look at the headers of any email you've received to see the chain of servers the message traveled along. ensure that you only access it using HTTPS rather than HTTP.1 Message route and transmission protocols Server-to-Server Encrypted Transit After you press "send". messages are passed between mail servers without encryption. If your mail server doesn't support the encrypted version of that protocol. Copies of messages will also be scattered across computers controlled by the ISPs. employers and webmail hosts of those you correspond with. But there is a standard called SMTP over TLS which allows encryption when the sending and receiving servers for a given hop of the chain support it. an employer. In most cases. then there is a third party who obtains (and may store) copies of all of your emails. Storage by your Service Provider: If you do not run a personal mail server. Data Stored on Second. emails are typically relayed along a chain of SMTP mail servers before reaching their destination.Figure 7. or a webmail provider. make sure it is encrypted POP or IMAP. If you use a webmail service. Make sure your email software is configured so that it deletes messages off of your ISP's . get your service provider or systems administrator to fix that.

If you use webmail or IMAP. If you haven't opened and read an email.1 Opening and Sending Emails and Attachments When you receive an email from friends or family. For security use PGP to encrypt those messages. are the best ways of mitigating these risks. it may take months before the message is really deleted. you can find out what they've written by opening it. The one towards the left shows who the email is from.mail server after it downloads them by using POP to fetch your mail. click on the line that shows the information about that email. Running your own mail server with an encrypted drive. delete messages immediately after reading them. the one in the centre gives the subject of each email. or send them by some means other than email. those you communicate with could be subject to subpoenas or requests from law enforcement to decrypt your correspondence. 5: You can now read the content of the email and reply if you wish by clicking on the arrow at the top right hand of the email for reply or by clicking Reply underneath the message. 2: Go to your inbox. regardless of the practices and procedures you follow. this information will appear as bold text in the list.4. Storage by Those You Correspond With: Most people and organizations save all of the email they send and receive. arranged in columns. copies might be made on their ISP or firm's mail or backup servers. Keep in mind that with major webmail services. 3: The inbox shows a list of emails received. Once you've opened and read the email and then returned to the inbox. Therefore. 4: Once you've identified an email you wish to open. the read email will be displayed in normal. just like opening an envelope to read a letter. non-bold text. although the email headers (such as the To: and Subject: lines) will be. Be aware that even if you use PGP. and you'll find the time and date when each one was received in the right-hand column. IMAP or webmail leaves copies of messages on the server. although other email applications will follow very similar steps. In addition to the personal machine of the person you sent/received the message to/from. almost every email you send and receive will be stored in at least one other place. . The content of PGP/GnuPG encrypted emails will not be accessible through these third parties. or using end-to-end encryption for sensitive communications. This guide explains how to open an email in a Gmail account. Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an email 1: Log into your Gmail account so that you are on the dashboard (main page) of your account. 8.

type in the email address of the recipient. To download. To send to multiple recipients. Once the document has been downloaded. 3: Another box will pop up asking if you want to 'Open'. Adding an email address to the 'Cc' field means that that person will receive a copy of the email and all the other recipients will see their email address. Step 7: Type your message in the main body field of your email. Click on the icon 2: The email will open up with the attachment shown at the bottom and you will be offered two options: view the attachment via an internet page or download the attachment to your computer. 5: The subject field allows you to give the recipient an idea of the topic of your email. 3: A new blank email will open up. like a heading. 'Cc' means 'carbon copy' and 'Bcc' means 'blind carbon copy'. Then type a comma and make a space. which will open another field. or open the folder to which the document has been saved by clicking Open folder. inserting a comma and a space between each subsequent address.6: When you've finished reading your email. you may be offered another dialogue box with further options: open the document itself by clicking Open. click back to inbox icon to close the email and go back to the list of emails in your inbox. to separate this address from the next email address. If an email address is put into the 'Bcc' field. You can also create bullet points and check the spelling of your email. Type in the second address and continue. type in the first recipient's email address. colour and size using the formatting icons. 4: Find a place to save your document and download it to your computer. . How to send an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to send an email 1: Log in to your Gmail account. 4: To include someone else in the email to 'keep them in the loop'. In the 'To' box. in the 'To' address box. You can change the font style. click on the Cc or Bcc. 'Save' or 'Cancel' the download. Click Save. the person will get a copy of the email but no other recipient will see that address. Step 8: Click Send. How to open an attachment Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an attachment 1: An email with an attachment will have a paperclip icon next to it to show that there is something attached to the received mail. 6: Email text can be formatted in a similar way to text in a word document. click Download. 5: Click Back to Inbox to go back to your list of received emails. 2: Click Compose from the dashboard options.

7: To send your email.5 Security and Privacy Security is becoming an increasing concern for computer users. 3: Peruse the inbox for emails to be deleted. 5:The selected email will be deleted. 2: Click Compose.Step 9: The email you've sent will now be stored in the 'Sent Mail' folder on your Gmail dashboard. click the 'select' box to the far left of the each email so that a tick appears in the box 4: Click the delete icon. 8. In all areas of computer use. How to email a document Follow these step-by-step instructions to email a document 1: Log in to your email account so that you are on the dashboard (front page) of your mail account. 4: Click where it says Attach a file to attach a file. 5: Browse through your Windows folders until you reach the document you want to attach to your email. Then put a title for your email in the 'Subject' box and type your message. 3: Once your new email is open. 6: You can tell that your document has been attached to you email by its file name appearing in blue text at the bottom of the compose window. you can retrieve it from the 'Drafts' folder by clicking Drafts and then clicking the correct item in the 'Drafts' folder list. 2: Go to your inbox. click Send How to delete an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to delete an email 1: Log into your email account. A number of reasons can be identified for this rising threat. type your recipient's email address in the 'To' field. you can reply to an email that you've received by double-clicking on it in your list of received emails. Alternatively. You can also delete an email by opening it and then clicking the delete icon. the threats posed by malicious and criminal activities are increasing. Step 10: Click Save Now at the top of the email to save the unfinished email to your 'Drafts' folder. These range from the increasing interconnection of the world's computers to the increasing technological sophistication of the general population. This will add the document as an attachment to your email. Highlight this by clicking on it and then click Open. Finish the email and click Send as normal. then following the same steps. When you decide that you are ready to send it. The increasing interconnection of the world's computer networks is a an issue .

Viruses can find their way onto the computer in many different ways. through network connections. computer viruses attach themselves to a host. viruses only attack files in the computer. The basic types of viruses are Worm Viruses: Worm viruses are self-contained programs that remain hidden and propagate via email or duplication.1 Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage or disrupt the normal functions of your computer and its files. causing hard drives to reformat. From there. like word documents and spreadsheets. modify existing software so that when run. 8. it replicates itself. What a particular virus will do to your computer depends on how it was programmed when created. it can be transmitted by email. in downloads from the internet. Trojan viruses: Trojan viruses pretend to be other software. or a file in the computer's operating system. Like biological viruses. but in reality can attack your hard drives. Macro viruses: Macro viruses tend to attack data files. hence their name as in the Trojan Horse. like the monitor. particular when operating system files are deleted. video drivers to be deleted or the operating system to stop running. some viruses will attack the files that operate your computer's hardware. Computer viruses can cause very serious damage to the computer's program and data files.5. All of this increases the stakes for malicious and criminal users.5.2 E-mail Viruses Email is probably the most common method for spreading viruses. Boot viruses: Boot viruses attack the boot sectors on your hard drive and interfere with your computer's basic operation. the legitimate program spawns copies of the virus. by floppy disks or by CDs. usually a program file. While this may cause the monitor to stop working properly. However. They do not attack the computer's hardware. particular those that have been burnt on a computer infected by viruses. spreading the infection to other files. as well as affect the computers hardware. 8. making your operating system run strangely or even corrupt it all together. Most email viruses are . which is then forwarded on in email or other files. deleting files and re-writing system files. such as the hard drive. data file. Plain text email messages normally do not spread viruses.because more and more companies are connecting to the Internet. mouse or keyboard. causing the computer to become unstable. Trojan viruses pretend to be a legitimate piece of software. causing you to loose files or cause your word or excel software to not work properly.

8. while seeming to alert you to a real virus treat. like open an attachment or open a html link embedded in the message. and offers an update service. • Make sure that you regularly scan your computer for viruses using your antivirus software. To protect yourself against email viruses it is important that you do not open attachments from senders you don't know. These emails. • Make sure that you regularly up date your anti virus software definitions. • Do not open emails or email attachments that have been sent by a strange person or organization. The reality is that most of these warnings are designed to cause fear or simple confuse people. If you use an email client to check your email. • you ignore all such emails unless they are clearly from an authoritative source. or in email messages containing embedded executable code. Purchase and Install anti-virus software. • Virus scan any new programs or other files that may contain executable files before you run or open them. For a virus contained in an email message to attack your computer. • Try to use an email client for checking your email which does not automatically execute or opens attachment .spread via attachments to email messages. Make sure the software you select is compatible with your computer's operating system. • Scan floppy disks before opening them. • you do not follow the instructions contained in the email or forward the email to others. you may receive "Virus Warning" emails. more often than not are merely hoaxes. it will normally require your computer to executive some code. sent on by well meaning people. like hotmail or yahoo. it is recommended that: • you do not forward the email. If you receive a message warning you about viruses.5. avoid clients that automatically open attachments Virus Hoaxes: From time to time.3 Minimising Exposure to Viruses The best way to minimize the chances of getting a virus infection is to be pro active and follow some basic steps we have outlined below. if followed. can result in damage to your computer. Virus hoaxes are typically alerts that are passed on by naive users who think they are helping people out. or come from a free email source. In some cases such messages contain instructions that. and back up their claims with references to credible sources.

businesses. Casual Copying: This is where a friend or colleague gives you a copy of an application. Software piracy is the unauthorized copying or distribution of copyrighted software.Intellectual Property. artists. The exclusive rights and legal protections of IP come in the form of copyrights. When you purchase software. Any discs they burn for you or email attachment sent to you should be treated . musicians and authors. trademarks and patents. selling. Respecting intellectual property rights laws benefits everyone. Despite persistent rumors to the contrary this is in fact illegal. or installing multiple copies onto personal or work computers. 8. Criminal and Counterfeit: This is where processional criminals sell unsuspecting victims goods that appear genuine but are not. creates job opportunities. There are fines and penalties for being out of compliance. We will attempt to explain them as follows. meaning having more licenses installed than you have entitlements for. so it is important to read it. Your unwitting involvement in such activities may also leave you open to threats and blackmail. protects honest workers from losing their jobs to criminals. and gives customers the genuine software experience they deserve while protecting them from becoming victims.5. Piracy & License Compliance Intellectual property (IP) represents original creative works and innovations belonging to inventors. There are different kinds of piracy and risk associated with them. That license is what tells you how many times you can install the software. This can be done by copying. not the actual software. unauthorized reproduction and illegal distribution of an item or product. sharing. Obtaining software this way entails all same risks as dealing with criminals for any other reason along with the risk that the software will not be operational and you will not be entitled to any support. have severe ramifications. you are actually purchasing a license to use it.4 Software Piracy Piracy is the mislicensing. whether for business or personal use. downloading. you are pirating. Many criminal software pirates also make extra money by being paid to distribute malware with their products. Casual copiers are statistically more likely to have PCs infected with malware. It strengthens economies. but they can be challenging due to widespread theft associated with counterfeiting and trafficking of pirated goods. These protections encourage innovation and creativity. This malware can be used to spy on you to steal identity information and passwords and to secretly use your computer for other criminal activities such sending spam. stimulates technological progress. If you make more copies of the software than the license permits. distributing illegal images and video or decrypting stolen passwords and credit card codes.

with that in mind. As proof of purchase is often required for technical support
you will not be able to benefit from free technical support and critical upgrades.
P2P or Filesharing: This is where pirated applications are uploaded to a
global network where anyone can download a copy of them. Malware
distribution and Identity Theft are major criminal operations and P2P networks
are an ideal way for them to distribute their dangerous software. Very often
files downloaded from such networks will pass all security checks because
they look like normal software.
8.5.5 Software License Compliance
Compliance is either a state of being in accordance with established
guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so.
Software, for example, may be developed in compliance with specifications
created by some standards body, such as the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and may be distributed in compliance with the
vendor's licensing agreement. In the legal system, compliance usually refers
to behavior in accordance with legislation. Licence compliance is operating
within the terms and conditions that apply on the license that is purchased.
Software compliance is being able to demonstrate that you have the correct
number of licenses paid for and accounted for on your systems compared and
matched to what you have installed.
Software license compliance and being compliant means;
* Knowing what software you have installed
* Knowing what software licenses you have purchased
* Knowing that your installations do not exceed your license purchases
* Knowing what software is being used
* Knowing the details of your software license usage rights & restrictions
* Maintaining compliance while significantly reducing overall software costs
8.6 Protection Mechanisms
The increasing range of attacks that can be made against computer systems
must be countered by a relatively small number of protection mechanisms. We
shall consider some of the protection mechanisms in this section.
8.6.1 Encryption
Encryption is a technique that uses math to transform information in a way that
makes it unreadable to anyone except those with special knowledge, usually
referred to as a "key." Encryption provides a very strong technical protection
against many kinds of threats and this protection is often easy to obtain. Users
can protect their data against attack by encrypting it. This involves turning any

message into a coded form that the intruder cannot read. Encryption is
conceptually similar to the "secret codes", the idea is to take a normal humanreadable message (often called the plaintext message) and transform it into
an incomprehensible format that can only become comprehensible again to
someone with secret knowledge:
Plaintext message + Encryption algorithm + Key = Scrambled message
Decryption algorithm + Key + Scrambled message = Plaintext Message
A simple encryption system would be to change each letter in your message to
a set number of letters later in the alphabet. The specific number of spaces
you move down the alphabet for each letter is the secret key. If the key is two, A
becomes C, B becomes D, C becomes E, etc. Using that encryption system,
the plaintext message "INSECURE" would become "KPUGEWTG.” There
are various different approaches to encryption;
· secret key encryption: In this approach, you have an algorithm which hides
the message. in order to decode any file, you need a key to extract the original
message. For example, if you take the position of any character in the
alphabet and add two positions to it you can get a coded message. A -> C, B ->
D, C -> E, D -> F and so on. In order to decode this message you need to know
the system that was used and you also need to know the key, that is that you
must more the characters two places to the left to get the original message. If
you moved the characters four places or five places the whole thing would fail.
· public key encryption: Basically, you have two keys. One is used to
encrypt the message. anyone can have this as a means of sending you a
secret. You also devise an algorithm which means that nobody else can
decode the message without another second key that is kept secret. This will
be covered in more detail in third and fourth year courses.
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are a very powerful and general tool that can
be used to encrypt all of the communications between participating
computers. VPNs can be used to improve the privacy and security of protocols
that are not encrypted (or not securely encrypted) by default. The biggest
catch with VPNs is that all of the computers participating in them must be
running the same VPN software, and must be correctly configured to
communicate with each other. In general, this means that deploying a VPN is
a non-trivial task requiring significant systems administration time.
Organizations that need to arrange secure access to intranet web servers, file
servers, print servers and similar facilities should deploy VPNs.
8.6.2 Digital Signature
A digital signature is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate

the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and
possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that
has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures are easily transportable,
cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is
encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender's
identity and that the message arrived intact. Assume that you have a public
key system. Instead of keeping the key that you use to decode a message
secret, keep the key that you use to encode the message a secret. this means
that you can give everyone the key that you need to decode a message but
only one person will know how to encode a message so that the decryption will
work. Because only one person can correctly encode the data, this system is
like adding a signature to a message, recipients know its from you because
only you know how to encode the data.
8.7 Access control
Ultimately, the security of most systems depends upon associating lists of
privileges with either users or system resources. For example, when you logon you typically give a password. This then sets all of your privileges with the
system. If you are a member of the support staff then you will be able to do
more things than a member of academic staff. This technique is known as a
capability based approach
8.7.1 Unauthorized Access
This is when a person who does not have permission to connect to or use a
system gains entry in a manner unintended by the system owner. The popular
term for this is “Hacking”. Nobody wants that someone access to his/her
system in unauthorized way. To secure your computer and prevent any
unauthorized access from other people or software programs we can use the
following;
1. Operating system and software patches and updates:There is no such
thing as perfect software, often a software program may have several issues
and could potentially have security vulnerabilities that can leave your
computer open to attacks that compromise your computer and your data.
Software patches, updates, and drivers are made available, often for free, to
consumers to help keep a software program and operating systems running
properly and secure. If the program you are using does not have any type of
method of checking for updates on its own it is up to you to verify the program
is up-to-date. Often this can be done by visiting the web site of the developer
who created the program. A listing of third-party companies and links to each

Often many home users who have a home network use their network router as a firewall solution. . Instead use a password manager. add numbers or other characters to the password to make it more difficult to guess. Default passwords such as password. * Create a BIOS password. 3. It is recommended at least once every few months. root. Get a hardware or software firewall: We highly recommend all users have some type of firewall solution.of their pages can be found on our third-party support page. * Do not use sticky notes around your computer to write down passwords. for example: 1mypassword23!. * When creating a password. There are two types of firewall's your computer and/or network can have. Software firewall: A software firewall is a software program that you install on your computer that helps protect that computer from unauthorized incoming and outgoing data. Passwords: Make sure a password has been set on computer. Hardware firewall: A hardware firewall is a hardware device that is connected to your network. 2. admin or no password will allow easy access to your computer or your Internet account * Change passwords often.