This text started out as a lab-based text, is put together expose the
reader to the basic principles of computer hardware. In this book the
information and chapters have been presented to take account of the
needs of the curriculum for Computer hardware and to give ths
student a broader understanding of the basic concepts of computer
To aid the student's systematic understanding of the subject matter
as presented in this five chapter book, the book have been prepared
to consider; the basics of Principles of Systematic Fault Diagnosis as
presented in chapter one, chapter two considers Computer Modules
and Modems, chapter three exposes the reader to the basics of
computer Hardware Installation and Assembly, Peripherals and
Periphery Equipment is treated in chapter four and chapter five
introduces the reader to the Hardware Measurement Basics.
Upon completing this book, the student is expected to understand
and appreciate the basics of Computer Hardware. Hence, preparing
the reader for the advanced courses in computer hardware
installation, maintenance and repairs.
A.U Affiah

Chapter 1
Overview of computers
1.0 Introduction
Recent developments in computers, particularly with regard to the possibility of
developing artificial intelligence, have made a precise definition of computer a
difficult task. However, for our purpose we shall consider it as a device for
performing logical operations at a very high speed or as a machine which
processes given data to derive the required and useful information. During the
processing the computer has to perform various functions like
(i) Accepting Instructions & data from the user.
(ii) Performing various arithmetic and Logical operations as per Instructions
(iii) Presenting the Information or Output to the user.
The earliest computers were as large as a room. But thanks to continuous
technological advances over the last 60 years has made it possible to hold
some computers in the palm of our hand. Computers are found in businesses
and establishments, such as stores, restaurants, banks, airports, and homes,
where they are used to perform a large variety of functions. They are available
in a wide range of sizes, shapes, types, and speeds to meet user needs.
With regards to today’s computers, the “machine” part of the computer is called
the hardware, while the “programmable” part is called the software. Software
can be broken down into 3 main categories:
System Software: is designed to operate the computer’s hardware and to
provide and maintain a platform for running applications. (e.g., Windows,
MacOS, Linux, Unix, etc..)
Middleware: is a set of services that allows multiple processes running on one
or more machines to interact. Most often used to support and simplify complex
distributed applications. It can also allow data contained in one database to be
accessed through another. Middleware is sometimes called plumbing because
it connects two applications and passes data between them. (e.g., web servers,
application servers).
Application Software: is designed to help the user perform one or more
related specific tasks. Depending on the work for which it was designed, an
application can manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these
elements. (e.g., office suites, web browsers, video games, media players,

1.1 Measuring Computing Power
For physical machines, we can compare the power of different machines by
measuring the amount of mechanical work they can perform within a given
amount of time. This power can be captured with units like horsepower and watt.
Physical power is not a very useful measure of computing power, though, since
the amount of computing achieved for the same amount of energy varies
greatly. Energy is consumed when a computer operates, but consuming energy
is not the purpose of using a computer. Two properties that measure the power
of a computing machine are: How much information it can process and how fast
can it process the information.
Information: To understand information quantitatively, as something we can
measure, we need a more precise way to think about information. The
measurement of information is based on how what is known changes as a
result of obtaining the information. The primary unit of information is a bit . One
bit of information halves the amount of uncertainty. It is equivalent to answering
a “yes” or “no” question, where either answer is equally likely beforehand.
Before learning the answer, there were two possibilities; after learning the
answer, there is one. We call a question with two possible answers a binary
question. Since a bit can have two possible values, we often represent the
values as 0 and 1. For example, suppose we perform a fair coin toss but do not
reveal the result. Half of the time, the coin will land “heads”, and the other half of
the time the coin will land “tails”. Without knowing any more information, our
chances of guessing the correct answer are 1/2 . One bit of information would
be enough to convey either “heads” or “tails”; we can use 0 to represent “heads”
and 1 to represent “tails”. So, the amount of information in a coin toss is one bit.

Units of Information: One byte is defined as eight bits. Hence, one byte of
information corresponds to eight binary questions, and can distinguish among
2 (256) different values. For larger amounts of information, we use metric
prefixes, but instead of scaling by factors of 1000 they scale by factors of 2
(1024). Hence, one kilobyte is 1024 bytes; one megabyte is 2 (approximately
one million) bytes; one gigabyte is 2 (approximately one billion) bytes; and one
terabyte is 2 (approximately one trillion) bytes.
Representing Data: We can use sequences of bits to represent many kinds of
data. All we need to do is think of the right binary questions for which the bits give
answers that allow us to represent each possible value.

characteristics and Limitations of a Computer Computers can store.In spite of its high speed of processing. therefore. Computers also work at very high speeds and rarely make mistakes.2 Benefits.2.The computer perform three basic operations 1) It is capable to access and accept information through various input-output devices from the user. 3) It is capable to generate the desired output in the desired form. For these reasons. 5) Versatile :. analyze. ranging from ATM machines to electronic cash registers to multimedia games.The output generated by the computer is very reliable. 6) Automation :.The computer performance is consistent even to all extent of more than 10 million calculations. 3) Reliable :. 2) Accuracy :. which is passing as input to the computer and the program. it does each and every calculation with same speed and accuracy. If it all there are errors. they are a popular choice for performing many tasks.The computer has a provision to store large volumes of data in the small storage devices. 7) Diligent :. Unlike humans. 1. However.The computer is able to process the date and give the output in fractions of seconds such that required information is given to the user on time enabling the user to take right decisions on right time. and retrieve large amounts of information. .Once the instructions fed into computer it works automatically without any human intervention until the completion of execution of program until meets logical instructions to terminate the job. 4) Storage Capacity :. 2) It performs basic Arithmetic and Logic operations on data as desired. the monotony of repetitive work does not affect computers. the use of computers is spreading to a large number of spheres. A powerful computer is capable of executing about 3 million calculations per second. the computers accuracy is consistently high enough which avoids any errors. computers can fail or produce faulty results if the instructions are incorrect or incomplete. which gives instructions are correct and reliable.1. which have capacity to store huge amounts of data and help the retrieval of data an easy task. 1) Speed :. they are due to errors in instructions given by the programmer. but it is reliable only when the data.1 Characteristics of a computer The Characteristics which make computer indispensable are.

they consume less power. Digital Data Corporation's PDP 1/5/8 Honeywell 400) With the development of Transistors and there use in circuits. 1. memories and I/O units. The size of transistors is much smaller when compared to vaccum tubes. 2) Computer are not intelligent. one has to program the computer to take an action if some conditional prevail. Second Generation (Manufacturers – IBM 7030.2. they have to be instructed about each and every step which they have to perform 3) Computers cannot take decisions on its own.3 The Computer Generations The development of computers has followed different steps in the terminology used and these steps of technological differences are called as GENERATIONS in computer terminology. generated less heat and faster and reliable. magnetic core for memory storage.2 Limitation of Computer The limitations of a computer is summarized as follows. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. . it requires set of instructions to be provided.Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701) The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. else computer (Hardware) is waste. unlike humans cannot learn by experience. I Generation : 1945 – 55 II Generation : 1955 – 65 III Generation : 1965 – 75 IV Generation : 1975 – 89 V Generation : 1989 to present First Generation (ENIAC . 4) Computers. the vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors to arrive at 2nd generation of computers. There are totally five generations of computers till today.1. 1) Computer does not work on itself. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors.

Apple II. speed and reliability increased as compared to previous generation.. cost. This era was characterized by small and inexpensive microcomputers (commonly known as personal computers (PCs)) . the third generation of computers came into existence. This era was characterized by a few large and expensive computers that were used to meet the data processing requirements of large organizations. 1. CRAY I/2/X/MP etc) The Computers belonging to these generations used Integrated circuits with Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). Origin 2000. These computers are used Integrated Circuits (IC's) of silicon chips. government agencies. low maintenance.. and scientific and military establishments.80386. (2) The Cost of Computer reduced. Advantages 1) These computers have high processing powers. IBM SP/2) These computers use optic fibre technology to handle Artificial Intelligence. PARAM 10000.4 Evolution of computers Computer technology has advanced to a point where you can connect your computer to a network of computers without even using a cable. heat generation and power consumption decreased to great extent.Advantages (1) Size of Computer has come down as well as power consumption. Third Generation (System 360 Mainframe from IBM.. SUN work stations. 68040. Each of these IC's consist of large number of chips in very small packages.. Fourth Generation (Intel's 8088. high reliability and very low power consumption.80486 . these computers have very processing speeds and are more reliable. expert systems. These machines used IC's with large scale Integration (LSI). in the place of transistors. Motorola's 68000. Personal computing era. Advantage : The size of computers. 2) The size & cost of computers come down drastically Fifth Generation (IBM notebooks. Pentium PCs-Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core. 68030. The evolution of computers can be broadly classified as follows: Institutional computing era. PDP-8 Mini Computer from Digital Equipment Corporation) The development of silicon chips. Robotics etc.80286.

4. various types of computers have evolved. This era is also be called the Internet era because it’s characterized by the development of Internet technology.that were used by individuals in small organizations. They are used to perform tasks such as scientific calculations and data processing for large businesses. schools.1 Mainframe: A large and expensive multi-user computer on which hundreds of users can work simultaneously on the same data. insurance companies. They can be classified as shown in figure 1. schools. 1. Interpersonal computing era. With the progression of computer technology. This era is characterized by networks of interconnected computers that organizations. Mainframes have large data storage capacity and can process bulk data. and manufacturers. and homes use for communication and data storage and manipulation.1 Types of computers Various types of computers that have evolved over the last few decades. .1 with the brief exploitations as follows: Figure 1. which has revolutionized the way people work and communicate. and homes. banks.

NEC (SX20). velocity etc and under load conditions. biomedical simulate airflow around an aircraft at different speeds and altitude. Anupam by BARC. reliability and cost effectiveness.CRAY Research : CRAY-1 & CRAY-2. and processing tasks with complex requirements such as weather forecasting. Fujitsu (VP2000). This helps in producing an effective aerodynamic design for superior performance · In Automobile industry – to do crash simulation of the design of an automobile before it is released for manufacturing – for better automobile design · In structural mechanics – to solve complex structural engineering problems to ensure safety. E. Hitachi (S820).2 Supercomputer: A very fast computer that can process billions of instructions per second. Designer of a large bridge has to ensure that the bridge must be proper in various atmospheric conditions and pressures from wind. PARAM 10000 by analyze volumes of seismic data which are gathered during oil seeking explorations to identify areas where there is possibility of getting petroleum products inside the earth · In Aerospace industry . Eg.Applications · Used to process large amount of data at very high speed such as in the case of Banks/ Insurance Companies/ Hospitals/ Railways…which need online processing of large number of transactions and requires massive data storage and processing capabilities · Used as controlling nodes in WANs (Wide Area Networks) · Used to mange large centralized databases 1.4. and aircraft design. PACE Series by DRDO Applications: · In petroleum industry . Supercomputers are used to perform tasks that involve processing large amounts of data.:. · Meteorological centers use super computers for weather forecasting · In Biomedical research – atomic nuclear and plasma analysis – to study the structure of viruses such as that causing AIDS .

graphic designing.g. Wrist PC:. E. single-user computer that you can use to perform a variety of tasks.3 Minicomputer: A multi-user computer that can support 4 to 200 users simultaneously. ranging from maintaining household finances to managing the finances of a large company. accounting. Data processing for a medium sized organization · Used to control and monitor production processes · To analyze results of experiments in laboratories · Used as servers in LANs (Local Area Networks) 1.IBM PC.Smallest type of microcomputer – can be worn on our wrist like a watch.It has a processor and memory and a wireless modem . Got all the facilities of a personal computer (HDD.1.Smaller model of the microcomputer. They are designed to be used by only one person at a time. Sound card. Note book or Lap Top:. entertainment etc.4.It has a processor and memory and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data.Very small in terms of size – can be folded and carried around – Monitor is made up of LCD and the keyboard and system units are contained in a single box. project management.Digital Equipments PDP 11/45 and VAX 11) Applications · These computers are used when the volume of processing is large for e.size is similar to that of a calculator – pocket size. Modem etc) and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data. TVs.g. PS/2 and Apple Macintosh Applications · Used in the field of desktop publishing.:. Minicomputers are used to perform tasks such as hospital administration and manufacturing processes. teaching. N/W card. E. Palm Top:.g. CDD.:. The common examples of microcomputers are chips used in washing machines.4.4 Micro Computers: Microcomputers are tiny computers that can vary in size from a single chip to the size of a desktop model and uses a microprocessor as its central Processing Unit. investment analysis. statistical analysis. The different models of microcomputers are given below:Personal computer (PC): A small. Cars and Note book/Personal computers.

desktops are too large and cumbersome to carry while traveling. a task list. Figure 1.Personal computers The most popular type of computer in use today is the PC. built-in applications. It includes a clock. Notebook: A computing device with the same processing power as a laptop but is much smaller.2 Portable Pcs Laptop: A portable computer with the same computing power as a desktop. desktops and portables. PCs were developed in the early 1980s. PCs are classified in two categories. . Portable PCs. Today’s PCs are faster and smaller than those sold two decades ago. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA): A handheld device originally designed as a personal organizer. a date book. Tablet PC: A computer that looks like a notebook. and are easy to carry. and a simple calculator. Figure 1. usually the size of a pocket calculator. It has a screen on which a user can write with a special purpose pen. a memo pad. are among the smallest of all the portables. are small in size. You can use palmtops only for limited. but weighs much less and has a built-in video screen. an address book. the name).2 shows some of the portable PCs available today with description as follows. Palmtops. such as Palm-Pilots. Unlike the earliest computers that occupied a lot of space. Palmtop: A device that you can hold in the palm of your hand. desktops can be placed conveniently on a desk (hence. can run on batteries. on the other hand. However.

PCs are used to perform a diverse range of tasks. schedules. such as letters. for example: • Writing and editing documents. The cost. It also handles communication between interconnected computers. Server A computer that makes programs and data available to a network of computers. speed and applications of the major classes of computer is illustrated below. Servers can also be used as multi-user computers.Wearable computer: A small personal computer that users can wear while operating. and reports • Maintaining large volumes of data • Managing numbers and performing calculations • Creating and manipulating graphics • Using multimedia and playing games • Representing data in the form of charts and graphs • Communicating through e-mail and instant messengers • Buying and selling items by using the Internet • Learning or researching various subjects and technologies by using the Internet and interactive CD-ROMss multi-user computers. . This device is being developed and designed to act as an intelligent assistant.

CPU (Microprocessor) 3. Laptop. Motherboard 9. External hard disk 16. Monitor 11. shape. Application software 13. Primary storage (RAM) 4. System software 12. the basic logical structure proposed by Von Neumann has not change. Power supply 6. We shall restrict our discussion to the Personal Computer.3 An exploded view of a modern desktop personal computer and peripherals 1. the computer we use today is totally different from its first make. .g. See figure 1. Expansion cards (graphics. Figure 1.3. supercomputers for high level multitasking precision jobs. By configuration all three are more or less same. Mouse 15. reliability and cost of computers have been changing over the years. The most commonly used computer nowadays is the Personal Computer. Scanner 2. they differ only in size and capacity as well as the addon features. By size three types of Personal Computers are now available. Speakers 10.5 Comp o n e n t s o f Pe r s o n a l Comp u t e r Computer technology has undergone profound changes since the first generation computer. performance. The way present day motorcar differs from its original version. Here the solid lines indicate the flow of instruction and data and the dotted lines represent the control exercised by the control unit. etc.) 5. Printer Even though the size.1. Keyboard 14. Secondary storage (Hard disk) 8. and Palmtop or Notepad. A block diagram of the basic computer organization specifying different functional units is shown in figure 1.4. Desktop. Optical disc drive 7. e. There are various types of computers for various purposes. The internal architecture of computers differs from one system model to another.

These cells are processed in group of fixed size called words containing 'n' bits. mouse (pointing devices). For accessing data. Random Access Memory (RAM) . There are two classes of memory devices :.Figure 1. The information received is either stored in the memory for later reference or immediately used by the Arithmetic and Logic circuitry to perform the desired operation.Primary memory and Secondary memory. a distinct address is associated with each word location. Memory Unit: The memory unit stores program and data. The time required to access one word is called Memory Access Time . The number of bits in each word is called the word length and it may vary from 16 to 64 bits. The main memory is organized such that the contents of one word can be stored or retrieved in one basic operation. scanner etc. Data and programs must be in the primary memory for execution. This memory is fast and expensive.4 Block diagram of computer organization Input Unit: Input unit accepts coded information from human operators through electro mechanical devices such as the keyboard or from other computers over digital communication lines.10nS to 100nS. Primary memory (Main memory) Contains a large number of semiconductor cells each capable of storing one bit of information. This time is fixed and independent of the location. The keyboard is wired so that whenever a key is pressed. the corresponding letter or digit is automatically translated into its corresponding code and sent directly to either the memory or the processor. Finally the result is sent back to the outside through the output unit. track ball. Other kinds of input devices: Joy stick. E g.

sensors. Each register can store one word of data.Secondary storage They are used when large amount of data have to be stored (also when frequent access is not necessary) E. The timing signal that governs the I/O transfers is generated by the Control Unit.g. . Hard Disk. Processor Unit This is the heart of the computer system is the Processor unit. interpreting and executing the program instructions the program instructions the control unit is able to maintain order and direct the operation of the entire system. This enabled a single processor to control a number of external devices such as video terminals. For example: Suppose two numbers (operands) located in the main memory are to be added. It consists of Arithmetic and Logic Unit and Control Unit.decodes it into original form and supplies this result to the outside world. Compact Disk. Processor contains a number of high speed storage elements called Registers. E. which may be used for temporary storage of frequently used operands. Note that all operands may not reside in the main memory. disk memories. Output devices accept binary data from the computer . By selecting. Output Unit This is the counter part of input unit. Access times to registers are 5 to 10 times faster than access time to memory. The result is then stored in the memory or retained in the processor itself for immediate use. Synchronization signals are also generated by the Control Unit. Printer. The control unit and ALU's are usually many times faster than other devices connected to a computer system. Video terminals (provides both input & output functions). magnetic taped. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Most computer operations (Arithmetical and logical) are executed in ALU of the processor.g. Control Unit The operations of all the units are coordinated by the control unity (act as the nerve centre that sends control signal to other units). Magnetic Tapes etc. These operands are brought into arithmetic unit – actual addition is carried. graphic displays etc. Floppy Disk. displays and mechanical controllers which are much slower than the processor.

Access to data in these registers is much faster than to data stored in memory locations because the registers are inside the processor. n General Purpose Registers (R0 to Rn-1): Facilitates communication with the main memory.e.Internal Organization of Processor Processor contains a number of registers used for temporary storage of data other than ALU and Control circuitry illustrated in figure 1.5 Internal circuitry of the processor . Most modern computers have 8 to 32 general purpose registers. Figure 1. Program Counter (PC): It contains the address of the instruction currently being executed. During the execution of an instruction. the contents of the program counter are updated to hold the address of the next instruction to be executed. i.5 Instruction Register (IR): Holds the instruction that is currently being executed and its output is available to the control circuits which generate the timing signals that control the various processing elements involved in executing the instruction. Memory Address Register (MAR): holds the address of the location to or from which data are to be transferred Memory Data Register (MDR): contains the data to be written into or read out of the address location. PC points to the next instruction that is to be fetched from the memory.

When the interrupt-service routine is completed. Here the device raises an interrupt signal. the state of the processor is restored so that the normal program may be continued. 12. 8. Now the processor provides the requested service by executing an appropriate interrupt-service routine. Operands are read from the memory into the MDR and are transferred from MDR to the ALU. The internal state of the processor at such moments (like the contents of the PC. 9.1 Hardware Means the physical parts of the computer. 7. If the instruction involves an operation to be performed by the ALU. the general registers. For example. If the result is to be stored in the memory. After the access time. PC is set to point to the first instruction of the program 3. 11. Contents of the MDR are transferred to the IR. As soon as the execution of the current instruction is completed. the addressed word (in this case the first instruction) is read out of the memory and is loaded into the MDR 5. the computer accepts data from input devices and sends data to output devices. ALU will perform the desired operation. The address of the location where the result is to be stored is sent to the MAR and a Write cycle is initiated. then it is sent to the MDR. 10. Program is stored in the main memory 2. This is done by sending its address to the MAR and initiating a Read cycle. At some point during the execution of the current instruction.The steps involved during the processor operation is as follows: 1. the contents of the PC are incremented so that the PC now points to the next instruction to be executed. In addition to transferring data between the memory and the processor. which are mainly of the following types: .5. a sensing device in a computer controlled industrial process may detect a dangerous condition. a new instruction fetch may be started. the required operands are to be fetched from the memory (or CPU registers). and some control information) are saved in memory locations. Contents of the PC are transferred to the MAR and a Read Control signal sent to the memory 4. Now the instruction is ready to be decoded and executed. 6. 1. An interrupt is a request from an I/O device for service by the processor.

1. Input output Device (and their Control Cards) 3. you switch on the monitor and any other attached devices such as a printer. and sometimes a Printer. Software These are the structured information and commands. or speakers. Before you switch on a computer. you must ensure that all the cables are connected to the appropriate sockets (referring to the manual is recommended).6 Starting a computer Your computer must have an operating system installed before it can perform any task. The basic of all these is the Operating System Software. a scanner. and even Sound Recorder. Speaker. the operating system (Windows XP for this course) displays a desktop. But before that we must note the basic physical configuration of a personal computer system. Desktop components After you switch on the computer. which starts the computer. the operating system automatically begins a process known as booting. usually through the internal Hard Disk or External disks. Camera. The Motherboard and the CPU – Processor Memory Chip 2. etc. Light pen. a mouse.6. Disk Operating System Software 2. Utility Software It should be noted that these software are to be made according to the functions we desire the computer to perform. Many other accessories may be fitted to the computer Joysticks. a Key Board. and output of the results or processed information. There are various types of software. Modem. which can be fed into the computer. Information Storage Device (and their Control Cards) 4. Application Software 4. which consists of three stages of operations. input of information. Just as a physical desktop . When you switch on the system unit. 1. Next. Other Accessories (optional) Looking at any personal computer system we usually see three things – the Computer inside a cabinet. which may be classified as follows: 1. a Video Monitor. Language Software 3. Projector. processing of information. We shall make a brief description of these components. as shown in figure 1. in Multi -media systems.

Start button: Used to start applications. Icons are pictorial representations of the programs included in Windows XP. and printing documents.contains the tools that you use to work. Figure 1. configure the computer. The following describes these components. launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet). working with storage devices. and shut down your computer Quick Launch toolbar: Used to display the desktop. The Windows XP desktop contains icons and a taskbar. or launch Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media) Notification area: Contains a clock and displays the status of specific programs and controls. The taskbar is located at the bottom of the screen. It contains the Start button. You click an icon to start the application associated with it. get help.6 Sample of the windows XP desktop . and the notification area. the Quick Launch toolbar. the Windows XP desktop contains programs (also called applications) that you use to perform tasks such as creating and editing documents.

You use icons to quickly start their associated applications.) You use it to navigate within Windows XP.) It contains a clock that displays the time. Observe the notification area .(At the bottom of the screen. the Quick Launch toolbar. display the desktop.(A sample desktop is shown in figure 1. .) You can use this button to start applications. 3 Observe the desktop . appears showing the current weekday and date. It contains the Start button.(On the taskbar.This arrow is referred to as the mouse pointer or simply. the pointer.) You click the icons on this toolbar to launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet). or run Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media). Observe the Quick Launch toolbar .) A message.(In the lower-right corner of the screen on the taskbar.) It contains icons of some commonly used Windows XP programs and a taskbar.) Follow your instructor's directions. get help.Activity: Identifying the desktop components 1 Follow your instructor's directions to switch on your computer 2 Log on to Windows XP . and set up (configure) and turn off your computer.(On the taskbar. Click OK . You use it for various activities such as selecting an icon on the desktop or starting an application.6. Observe the Start button . called a ScreenTip. Observe the arrow on the desktop .(If necessary.The Windows XP desktop appears.(On the notification area. and the notification area. 4 Observe the icons . 5 Observe the taskbar . 6 Point to the clock .


The OS performs basic tasks. from personal computers to mainframes. have an operating system to run other programs. but are not limited to: disk access. Commercially-supplied operating systems are present on virtually all modern devices described as computers. including personal computers and mainframes. memory management. They are also often distributed with application software that does not relate directly to the operating system's core function.1 Introduction An operating system (OS) is a software program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. software tools for managing the system and simplifying the use of hardware appeared very quickly afterwards. controlling input and output devices. commercial computer vendors were supplying quite extensive tools for streamlining the development. Examples of operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows. as well as utility programs for tasks such as managing files and configuring the operating system. prioritizing the processing of instructions.Chapter 2 Concept of The Operating System 2. Unix. By the early 1960s. and access to other hardware devices. An operating system is often distributed with tools for programs to display and manage a graphical user interface (although Windows and the Macintosh have these tools built into the operating system). . 2. This is the first layer of software loaded into memory when a system boots or starts up. The kernel provides access to various common core services to all other system and application programs. as well as mobile computers such as PDAs and mobile phones. and Linux. Modern general-purpose computers. Mac OS (and Darwin). and gradually expanded in scope. task scheduling. facilitating networking.2 Concept of an operating system An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs. However. but which the operating system distributor finds advantageous to supply with the operating system. These services include. The first computers did not have operating systems. and managing files. Examples were produced by UNIVAC and Control Data Corporation. such as controlling and allocating memory. and execution of jobs on batch processing systems. The lowest level of any operating system is its kernel. such as application software. scheduling.

1 shows the block diagram of an operating system. it is software which manages hardware. Ÿ Memory Management Ÿ Processor Management Ÿ Device Management Ÿ File Management Ÿ Security Ÿ Control over system performance Ÿ Job accounting Ÿ Error detecting aids Ÿ Coordination between other software and users Memory Management Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. it must in the main memory. Operating System does the following activities for memory an intermediary between users and computer hardware. processors. what part are not in use. Figure 2. Ÿ Keeps tracks of primary memory i. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently. So for a program to be executed.e. Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU. Figure 2. An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory. . what part of it are in use by whom. In technical terms.1 Block Diagram of the Operating System Some of important functions of an operating system is listed below. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address. devices and information.

Device Management OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. These directories may contain files and other directions. Operating System does the following activities for processor management. Ÿ Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so. location. Ÿ Allocates the resources. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller.Ÿ In multiprogramming. Ÿ De-allocates devices. Ÿ De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required. . OS decides which process will get memory when and how much. uses. Operating System does the following activities for device management. Security By means of password and similar other techniques. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller. Ÿ Allocates the device in the efficient way. This function is called process scheduling. status etc. Ÿ Keeps tracks of all devices. preventing unauthorized access to programs and data. Ÿ Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. Processor Management In multiprogramming environment. Ÿ Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. Operating System does the following activities for file management. Ÿ Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process. Ÿ De-allocates the resources. Ÿ Decides who gets the resources. Ÿ File Management A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. The collective facilities are often known as file system. OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. Ÿ Keeps track of information. Ÿ De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated.

the Multics timesharing system was the most famous of a number of new operating systems developed to take advantage of the concept. Error detecting aids Production of dumps. for which a single operating system OS/360 was planned (rather than developing ad-hoc programs for every individual model). Job accounting Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users. which was supported on many early microcomputers and was largely cloned in creating MS-DOS.3 Generations of Operating System Through the 1960s. Time sharing allowed all of the users to have the illusion of having exclusive access to the machine. traces. OS/360 also contained another important advance: the development of the hard disk permanent storage device (which IBM called DASD). Another commercially-popular minicomputer operating system was VMS.Control over system performance Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system. which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's v . Coordination between other software and users Coordination and assignment of compilers. notably Unix. Another key development was the concept of time-sharing: the idea of sharing the resources of expensive computers amongst multiple computer users interacting in real time with the system. was an inspiration to a number of operating systems developed in the 1970s. applications written for the OS/360 can still be run on modern machines. particularly. One notable early operating system was CP/M. interpreters. This concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line was crucial for the success of System/360 and. driving the development of operating systems. error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids. The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis. several major concepts were developed. Multics. assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems. 2. minimalistic operating systems were developed.produced a family of mainframe computers available in widely differing capacities and price points. in fact. IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system. The development of the IBM System/360 2.

Unix was developed using a high-level programming language (C) instead of platform-specific assembly language. Apple rebuilt their operating system on top of a Unix core as Mac OS X. development environment. Unix also was developed as a self-contained software system. with only Linux and BSD running on almost any CPU. Microsoft's response to this change was the development of Windows NT. Command line interface (or CLI) operating systems can operate using only the keyboard for input. By the 1990s. comprising the operating system. enabling its portability across multiple computer platforms. its successors making Microsoft one of the world's most profitable companies. Windows NT has been ported to other CPUs. Unix-like OS is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems . the robustness and flexibility of operating systems of larger computers became increasingly desirable.ersion of it was called IBM-DOS or PC-DOS). of which Linux and Mac OS X are becoming the major choices. and helped Unix and its variants become an important teaching and learning tool used in academic settings. To use the Unix trademark.1 Unix Unix (officially UNIX) is a registered trademark of The Open Group that refers to a family of computer operating systems and tools conforming to The Open Group Base Specification. which served as the basis for Microsoft's entire operating system line starting in 1999. released in 2001. but not many. Modern OS's use a mouse for input with a graphical user interface (GUI) sometimes implemented as a shell. many with no direct connection to Windows or Unix. and modifiable source code. Today. Mainframe computers and embedded systems use a variety of different operating systems. utilities.1 . the microcomputer had evolved to the point where. Officially licensed Unix operating systems (and their vendors) include OS X (Apple). IRIX (SGI).2008). and HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard). documentation.3. AIX (IBM). specifically the CPU. The major alternative throughout the 1980s in the microcomputer market was Mac OS. The appropriate OS may depend on the hardware architecture. Since the early 1990s the choice for personal computers has been largely limited to the Microsoft Windows family and the Unix-like family. as well as extensive GUI facilities. an operating system vendor must pay a licensing fee and annual trademark royalties to The Open Group. Issue 7 (also known as POSIX. but typically more similar to Unix than Windows. tied intimately to the Apple Macintosh computer. These key factors led to widespread use and further development in commercial settings.1-2008 or IEEE Std 1003. most notably the Alpha. 2. Solaris (Oracle).

HP-UX. most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform). In the 1970s and 1980s. are commonly known as Unix-like systems. smartphones.. AT&T sold the rights to the Unix operating system to Novell. The original Unix operating system was developed at AT&T's Bell Labs research center in 1969. In 1993. Ubuntu.3. refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e. Inc.g. OpenBSD. and CentOS) and several descendents of the Berkeley Software Distribution operating system (e. leading to the development of several Unix variants. the disk operating system component (or even the . Over the past several years. Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks). FreeBSD. and NetBSD). They are used heavily as server systems in business.which resemble the original Unix.g. In recent years. file systems for organizing files of all sorts). Otherwise. AT&T licensed Unix to thirdparty vendors. Operating systems that behave like Unix systems and provide similar utilities. but do not conform to Unix specification or are not licensed by The Open Group. disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sectorlevel. which a few years later sold the Unix trademark to the consortium that eventually became The Open Group. These include a wide variety of Linux distributions (e..g. and are commonly used on web servers. Today. Red Hat Enterprise Linux. In the early days of microcomputing.. and personal computers running versions or variants of Unix have become increasingly popular. including Berkeley Unix. as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. memory space was often limited. tablets. 2. free Unix systems have supplanted proprietary ones in most instances. and Microsoft's Xenix.. Unix systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures. Unix operating systems (and Unix-like variants) run on a wide variety of digital architectures. so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. AIX. mainframes. they are dominated by Linux-based or Plan 9 clusters. scientific modeling and computer animation were once the province of SGI's IRIX.2 Disk operating system Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically). For instance. In some cases. This component was only loaded if it was needed. and supercomputers.

COM and remain resident in memory at all times.3. On the PC compatible platform. Some programs provide their own command processor. although earlier versions also ran on the DEC Alpha. Microsoft released NT 4.0).COM. Sometimes. and there are times when the command processor will be overwritten in memory by a program and have to be reloaded when the program stops executing.1. and PowerPC architectures (some work was done to port it to the SPARC architecture). NT 3. The most notable external change is that NT 4.0 provides the same user interface as Windows 95. another Microsoft operating system (the follow-on to Windows 3. NT 4. MIPS. The command processor is also a file you see on the disk. the desired default drive followed by a colon at the prompt. An example is DOS/360. The benefit of this change is to speed .. is an example of a DOS utility.1 was a new 32-bit operating system with the ability to support older DOS and Windows applications as well as provide OS/2 support. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT core that first took shape in OS/2 and borrowed from OpenVMS. After several versions of NT 3. The first version of Windows NT (3. these files are not needed often enough to make it necessary or practical to keep them in the computer's RAM all the time. DOS consists of an input/output system.g.operating system) was known as DOS. which runs in kernel mode. The major architectural change is that several graphics components that ran in user mode as part of the Win32 subsystem in 3. the program that formats blank disks. a command processor and several utilities.0. While part of DOS. an entire family of operating systems was called DOS. However. but once read into the computer's memory. Windows runs on 32-bit and 64-bit Intel and AMD computers. DIR and COPY). FORMAT.x have been moved into the Windows NT Executive. e.3 Microsoft Windows Operating System The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems originated as a graphical layer on top of the older MS-DOS environment for the IBM PC.1) was released in 1993.x. it usually resides there.x. a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. To change to drive C type C: as shown here: A:\>C: to get C:\> 2.0 has essentially the same internal architecture as 3. The utilities are individual program files found on your DOS disk. Sometimes these utilities are called external commands (as opposed to internal commands which are included as part of the file COMMAND. with the same GUI as Windows 3.

Although some technology of Windows is not as good as UNIX. and are getting larger and larger. If such situation happened on Linux. known as Windows Server 2003. the kernel and executive architecture and services remain the same. The Windows 7 and 8 OS provides many new tools and features that focus on improved productivity through improved usability. although this is thought to be dwindling due to the increase of interest focused on open source operating systems. but they are not supported by so many kinds of software as Windows series are. In recent years. In 2003. Microsoft has spent significant marketing and R&D money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application. called Windows 2000. windows 7 and windows 8 as new entrant into the market with excellent capabilities. In 2001. Both home PC and business workstation versions of XP are offered. The emphasis in Windows 2000 is the addition of services and functions to support distributed processing. Microsoft introduced the next major upgrade. Again. In 2000. The central element of Windows 2000's new features is Active Directory. One final general point to make about Windows 2000 is the distinction between Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 desktop. they are still of the best operating systems running on PCs. the underlying Executive and kernel architecture is fundamentally the same as in NT 4. Windows series are large. In essence. it would not be as . a 64-bit version of XP was introduced. Also in 2001. Windows held a near-monopoly of around 90% of the worldwide desktop market share. another desktop version of Windows was released. The 64-bit versions of XP and Server 2003 are designed specifically for the 64-bit Intel Itanium hardware. Microsoft developed its operating system on a too large scale. but new features have been added. Products of Linux are cheap. Advantages and Disadvantages of Windows Windows series are excellent products of Microsoft. known as Windows XP. both 32-bit and 64 bit versions are available. This new OS has been constructed to be more intuitive and less distracting (no more annoying and unnecessary pop-ups notifying the user that there is a notification for the user).up the operation of these important functions. Microsoft introduced a new server version. which could impact the reliability of the operating system.0. Recently we have seen the vista. The potential drawback is that these graphics functions now have access to low-level system services. As of 2004. which is a distributed directory service able to map names of arbitrary objects to any kind of information about those objects. but Server includes some services required to use as a network server.

but more expensive than Linux. The window is the one that opens when you click on My Computer. The structure of this window is very similar to the others.2. Figure 2.2 The Windows Structure . Ÿ Source codes of Windows are closed. They are only debugged by Microsoft itself. Ÿ Windows series are supported by most popular softwares. owned by Microsoft. Ÿ Windows series are wide spread. Ÿ Windows series are buggy. and they will be debugged by a much larger number of people. Ÿ Windows series are usually not strong enough for high security. Ÿ Windows ME and earlier 9x versions are unstable and insecure. Ÿ Windows NT series after 2004 are stabler and securer. All the windows have the same structure shown in figure 2. Microsoft Windows series are not open-source. Ÿ Windows series are not very expensive (only for home users on mature products). windows menu and tools. This is because the source code of Linux is open. Ÿ Windows series are big.bad as such situation happening on Microsoft.

For example.. To open a menu with the keyboard. In no letter is underlined. In the top right corner we can find the minimize. The menu bar has the program functions organized in menus. If on a menu you find an option that contains three dots. The minimize button shrinks the window it turns it into a button located in the WindowsXP task bar. The title bar contains the name of the program you are working with (Notepad) and in some cases the name of the opened document (aulaclic) also appears.) it means that the option needs more i . (for example Sharing and Security.All the windows are formed by the sections explained as follows. maximize/restore.3. press Alt key. If you want to open the menu related to that option. and close buttons. All the operations that the program allows us to do are located within the different menus of this bar. The maximize button amplifies the size of the window to the whole screen The restore button restores the window to its original state. For example Alt+F opens the menu File. when we click on File as shown in figure 2.. you only need to maintain the option highlighted for a few seconds and the menu will appear. The close button closes the window. you need to press the Alt key plus the underlined letter of the menu you want to open. the different operations that can be performed with files are displayed. If on a menu an option appears with a small arrow pointing to the right it means that that option contains other options.

Next we have the area for shortcuts. On the bottom left corner there is the Start button. Ÿ Icons (or graphical pictures): represent applications. it' s the first screen that appears when the operating system has initialized.4 The Desk Top Task Bar The taskbar is the small blue bar you see at the bottom of your desktop. applications. By default Windows XP provides you with one desktop icon. Figure 2. Learn more about the Recycle Bin in a later lesson. then the programs running. Ÿ Taskbar: primarily used to switch between open windows and applications.nformation to be executed. and lastly the notification area. files. the Internet. etc. In our case it will be the Windows XP desktop. such as system components. The desktop shown in figure 2. Learn more about using the Taskbar in a later lesson. It as a workspace where you can access everything you need to operate your computer. normally a dialog box will open in which you can place that information. The Start button allows you to open menus and start applications. If you find an option that is grey or lighter colored it means that it is not possible to select it at that moment.4 contains: Ÿ Start button: one of the most important tools you will use while working with Windows XP. . and other parts of the operating system. On this example Copy is lighter colored than Paste. The Desktop is the on-screen work area on which windows appear. the Recycle Bin.

Search. To explore the Start menu: 1. The left side of the Start menu lists programs. If a cascading menu is available. If we browse it. and the right side allows access to common Windows folders (My Documents. When you click the Start button. . 3.The Start Button is the button through which we can access the entire breadth of options that Windows XP offers us. a small black triangle appears next to the name of the application or function. Figure 2. the Start menu appears. 2. Click the Start button. a pop-up menu appears. It also provides access to Help and Support. and view the various cascading menus.5 The Start Menu If you select All Programs. The Start menu is your gateway to the applications that are on your computer.5. a menu similar to the one below will be displayed in figure 2. and Run. Click (or roll your mouse pointer over) All Programs. Pop-up menus like this are called cascading menus. Move the mouse pointer to each option. for example).

documents. A computer accounts tracks each person's unique settings. you're taken to a Windows XP logon screen where you're prompted to enter your username and password. Windows XP even enables you to log off the computer so someone else can log on without having to restart the computer. 4. To exit the menus. be sure to turn off (or shut down) the computer correctly. Log off and Switch Users More than one person may use your computer. Click the Start menu and click Log Off. For example. If you choose Log Off. . A dialog box appears asking you if you want to Switch User or Log Off. 5. Click the Start menu. If you choose to Switch User. your applications will close. The XP Log off pop up is shown in figure 2. and email accounts. Turn Off and Restart the Computer When you've finished using Windows XP. To turn off the computer: 1. Switch User allows someone else to log on to the computer. 3.6. click outside the menu area or press Esc on your keyboard. Move the mouse pointer to the right and view other cascading menus. Windows XP allows everyone who uses your computer to have separate computer accounts. 2. your applications will continue to run in the background while the new user logs on.6 The Log off pop up To log off/switch users: 1. In any case.4. many family members may use the same computer at home while several coworkers may be able to access your computer on a computer network. Figure 2. 5.

Click Restart. Examples of object icons are My Computer. Click the Start menu. Recycle Bin. The process described above is illustrated in figure 2. and Internet Explorer See figure 2. It is generally safest tor turn off or restart your computer using the methods above. Desktop shortcuts are .8 Computer Icons (a) My desktop and (b) microsoft word short cut Shortcut icons allow you to open an application quickly.7. 3. Click Turn Off Computer.2. Figure 2. (a) (b) Figure 2. Click Turn Off. you can simply restart your computer. Click Turn Off Computer. One type of icon is an object icon. To restart the computer: 1. If you're experiencing computer problems or have installed something new. These icons allow you to open files and programs on your computer. These icons appear on your desktop and with little arrow in the left corner.8. 2. A dialog box opens. 3.7 Turning off the computer. Icons The small pictures on the desktop are called icons. A dialog box opens.

Click on the first element and then click on the last element while keeping Shift key pressed. A frame should appear that shows the area that the frame encompasses. double-click the icon. Continue dragging until all the desired elements are within the frame. then let go of the left mouse button. If we click on the plus sign of a particular folder it will display and show all of the folders contained in it and the plus sign will become a minus sign -. Then. In the event that it finds another folder with that same name. this will take care of retracting the folders displayed. This can also be done with the mouse. 2. or hide the content of the folder selected. To open the folders that we have by clicking on the + located to the left of the folders. To select several elements that are not consecutive. click on the left of the first element (but not on it) and. drag it. Selecting Files To select a single file or folder you simply need to click on it. To select consecutive elements. select the option New and then select the option Folder. The name of the folder can be changed. Windows Explorer will allow you to select several elements at the same time. Select the first element and continue to select the desired elements while keeping the Ctrl key presse Creating and Deleting Folders To CREATE a folder we need to place the pointer where we want the folder to be. Text appears identifying its name or contents.links to files and programs. This is the name that Windows gives new folders by default. Place your mouse over the icon. New Folder(2).. To open a program using an icon: 1. Now we can view on the bottom right window a new folder that has the name New Folder. 3.. without letting go. This way any operation you perform will only apply to the selected file or folder. etc. To do this. To realize an operation on several files or folders. but we will see how to do that later on.. Once we have the folder that we want open we will select it by clicking on the appropriate folder. Open the menu File. . it will subsequently name the new folders New Folder(1). You can add or delete shortcuts without affecting the programs on your computer.

To delete a file we follow the same steps to delete a folder. first place the pointer on it.If you look at the two images below. In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to copy to. Figure 2. Once the folder has been selected go to the Standard bar and click on or you can use Delete.9b is the image that it shows after a new folder has been created. you can clearly see how Windows explorer changes when a new folder is created. Once the folder has been selected. The folder that is highlighted is the new folder that has just been created within the folder (a) (b) Figure 2. When we delete a folder or file. click on Copy. Search for the folder to which we will copy the selected element. The settings can be changed so that it deletes it completely. write the name of the new folder and Click OK. It works like Windows explorer.9 Creating a folder To Delete a folder. See the . the contents of the folder will be displayed. If we click on the + that appears on the left. by default Windows will move it to the Recycle Bin. If we do not have this button on the tool bar. we can go to the Edit menu and select Copy to Folder but select the item to copy First of all. click Make new folder. The Recycle Bin is nothing more than a space reserved on the hard disk so that in case of having deleted any element it would be possible for us to retrieve it.9a is the image that Windows explorer shows before creating a new folder and figure 2. Copying Files or Folders Select the element to be copied and Click on Copy and it will open a dialog box titled Copy Items. but instead of selecting a folder select the file you wish to delete.

Ÿ With the right mouse button click on it. You can also do this with Remane option from File menu. then the name of the file or folder will be highlighted and with the pointer blinking inside the name box. simply click Make New Folder.9 Coping files or folder Moving Files or Folder Ÿ Moving a file or folder means copying the element to the desired location and then deleting its original location.illustration in figure 2. Ÿ Click on. its name can coincide with the name of a file or folder that is in the destination folder. Changing a File or Folder Name Ÿ Select the file or folder that you want to change the name of. or Edit --> Move to Folder which will open a new window titled Move Items. Ÿ Click Enter or click outside the file or folder so that the changes take place. When folder is moved or copied. Ÿ Write the new name. When moving or copying an item. click Move. Write the name of the new folder and click OK. . Figure 2. Ÿ Select Rename from the shortcut menu. Ÿ Select the file or folder you want to move. The following steps are very similar . In this case Windows will ask if we want to substitute the existing file or folder by the new one.10 below. Ÿ In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to move the information to. Once the folder is selected. Ÿ Search for the folder where the element are to be moved to. its entire content is also moved or copied.

This opens the Print dialog box where you can change basic settings such as what printer to use or how many copies to print as shown in figure 2. This option is useful if you want to print something later. The dialog box you see might look different from the one shown here. and then clicking PRINT. see Print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer. . For more information about installing network printers. depending on your software and printer. For more information.Printing a Document Printing in Windows is often as simple as clicking the File menu found in most programs.10 Printing Dialog The following explains the actions you can take and the results within printing Action Select Printer Find Printer Print to File Result Shows the available printers on your computer.) Helps locate network printers. (See XPS documents: frequently asked questions. Allows you to save a document as a . This option is useful in office settings or for home networks. If you have a USB printer.10. you might prefer to print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer. see Install a printer.prn file. but it doesn't always work with modern USB printers. You can also choose to print something like a fax or a Microsoft XPS file. Figure 2.

Hit Print. page margins. And create an electronic copy of your file that you can save to disk. and 8.. and what to include on the printed pages' header and footer. The Page Setup window will appear. 4. Printing a Website We shall discuss printing web pages in Firefox. you can type 1. you can select Adobe PDF in almost any Windows OS application. click Pages and then enter the page numbers separated by hyphens. Printing to PDF Just select Print to create a PDF. Ÿ In the standard Print window that opens..Action Preferences Page Range Number of copies Result Opens the Printing Preferences dialog box. if necessary. Instead of a physical printer. If so. For example. See Print window settings in figure 2. From this point you can manipulate the printing process as discussed in the document printing section. and select Page Setup. file. where you can choose options such as paper size and layout. Ÿ Click OK to start printing..11 for information on what settings can be changed. Select the Collate check box to print all pages in a document in order before printing additional copies. . Some programs let you choose non-sequential pages too. adjust settings for what you are about to print. 8 to print only pages 1. 4. Changing the page setup To change the orientation of the page that prints. change whether background colors and images are printed. Click Selection to print only highlighted text or graphics. click on the Firefox button (File menu in Windows XP) and select Print. at the top of the Firefox window. Ÿ At the top of the Firefox window. Print multiple copies of a document. click on the Firefox button. or picture. go over to the Print menu (File menu in Windows XP). for example. Click Current Page to print only what you see. To print part of a document. Tells Windows what to print. type 5–7 to print only pages 5 through 7.

The Print Preview window allows you to change some of the options detailed above.11Margins and Header/ Footer . Click on the arrows next to the Page: field to flip through the pages of the document.Figure 2. and the single arrows go to the next or previous page. go over to the Print.11. click on the Firefox button. at the top of the Firefox window. menu (File menu in Windows XP).10 Print window settings Print Preview To see how the web page you want to print will look when printed. Access the Print window by clicking Print. The double arrows take you to the first or last page. or the Page Setup window by clicking Page Setup. You can also adjust the scaling and orientation as shown in figure 2. and select Print Preview. Figure 2.

The top-left dropdown box's value appears at the top-left corner of the page. Ÿ Page #: Print the page number. Ÿ Custom: Enter your own header or footer text. Headers & Footers: Use the dropdown menus to select what appears on the printed page. This can be used to show a company or organization name at the top or bottom of every printed page. . Choose from: Ÿ Blank: Nothing will be printed. left. and right sides of the page separately. and so on. the top-center dropdown box's value appears at the top-center portion of the page. Ÿ Title: Print the title of the page. Ÿ Page # of #: Print the page number and the total number of pages.Margins: You can enter the width of the page margins for the top. Ÿ URL: Print the web address of the page. bottom. Ÿ Date/ Time: Print the date and time when the page was printed. Click OK to finish making changes and close the Page Setup window.

Chapter 3 The Concept of Software Packages 3. and communications programs. database. Consider a word processor which most people use fairly regularly. audio clips and videos. interactive activities. or all of the above.0 Introduction A Software Package is a collection of modules. The entire program is the “package”. Lotus SmartSuite and MS Office will be be explained in this chapter. maps. presentation. while something like the word count would be considered a “tool”. For example a word processor could later be enhanced by installing a tool that allows you to manipulate pictures more efficiently within the program. In addition to the encyclopedia entries. A tool is a single component of a software package that adds to the overall functionality of a program. atlases and geographic tools to solve student assignments. The product of a software package is a library of compiled code objects.000 items while its Spanish version. extended by a purely declarative description of all elements. which is designed to meet specific needs or circumstances. Many programs can be enhanced a later times by adding specific software tools. The difference between software tools & software packages should not be confused. package or prepackaged software. In 2008. The encyclopedia was available on DVD-ROM or multiple CD-ROMs and also had limited availability (with ads) to their online content on the World Wide Web. and which function especially well together. the complete edition of Encarta Premium English containing over 62. It is a combination of application programs which are tailored to a given type of work. but there must be enough unique elements to be able to identify a certain kind of package. including about 43. The MS Encarta. For example an office suite incorporating word processing. 3. An application program which is sold to the general public with all that should be necessary for it to work properly. The structure of software packages may be different for different kinds of packages.000.1 MS Encarta Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009 (in Spanish since the '97 version). This contrasts with custom software. timelines. formatted documentation. data. a runnable program. the information was complemented by numerous photos and illustrations. and directories. allowing an . spreadsheet. Also called packaged software.

Encarta's popularity suffered because of the convenience of userupdated websites such as Wikipedia. The dictionary is one of many available on the Internet and carries the name "Encarta. however. as consumers preferred to be able to make instant changes and updates to articles. The Encarta Online Dictionary (dictionary. Portuguese and Japanese. which was that there were differences between them. For example. Microsoft announced the discontinuation of all existing stocks Encarta (CD and online version). Microsoft edited and published editions of Encarta in different languages. The Japanese site closed down definitively on 31 December 2009.0 (2008 & 2009) includes a wide range of tools and resources for students. rather than submit them and hope they were made.msn. Web sites for all localized versions of MSN Encarta were closed (except Japan) on October 31. In March 2009. and the Encarta website was available online only until the end of that year. At that time. Encarta Premium Microsoft Student with Encarta Premium 16. Localized versions contain material licensed from local or national. Microsoft changed its approach in 2005 to be more in line with Wiki-based sites. giving users the ability to send updates and other suggestions for Encarta articles to its editors. . Despite discontinuing the software. In 2011. the last edition of Encarta was released in continues to be operated by Microsoft." Users can look up word definitions. including English. Microsoft stopped selling its Encarta software in June of 2009. the Encarta brand exists only in Microsoft's online dictionary. the explosion of the Internet and encyclopedia sites such as Wikipedia gave users a free alternative to encyclopedias such as Encarta. Microsoft continues to provide product support for Encarta users until 2012 or three years from the purchase of the 2009 edition of the encyclopedia. French. It can help you with your math homework and your foreign language studies. German. Due to declining sales. Spanish. is denominated Encarta Winkler Prins Encyclopedie. Encarta Premium combines the resources of its award-winning encyclopedia with a variety of research and learning tools to deliver a complete reference resource for home or school use. search for synonyms in a thesaurus and learn different translations for words. but only in their English and French. 2009. Italian. This idea did not succeed. Dutch.annual subscription to access more. the Dutch edition of the free content owned regional Winkler Prins in the Netherlands. Encarta was a strong seller throughout the decade but its sales began to wane in the 2000s.

(a) (b) Figure 3.Comprehensive homework tools integrate homework project and research starters with the Dictionary & Thesaurus. It includes templates and tutorials to help you do your homework in Microsoft Office. The GUI for Encarta is shown in figure 3.1 Encarta GUI . There are collection of videos from Discovery Channel and a new Visual Browser providing users with a rich and dynamic way to make learning fun.1.

back and forward arrow buttons and the keyboard let you navigate.Encarta's uncluttered layout makes it a snap to explore a variety of subjects. The definition appears on the Dictionary tab." Encarta's 2.2 Encarta Layout Encarta's bright interface offers more blank space and pictures than Britannica's. and virtual tours of landmarks. . You can double-click a word to quickly find the definition in the dictionary. along with time lines. and excerpts from Beethoven's 9th Symphony.2. As with a Web browser. The function icons are sparse. Figure 3.500 audio files let you hear music from around the world. The Home page lists subjects. The Explore features encourage you to check out hundreds of videos. Videos include encyclopedic staples. or you can zero in on a particular topic through the search field as shown in figure 3. natural wonders. preventing clutter. such as Arts & Literature. and the like. such as the first moon landing. and a search field. Encarta Dictionaries Encarta Dictionaries help you find definitions of words. including some from the Discovery Channel. such as that of Grandmaster Flash. classical sitar melodies. to quirky stuff such as "machine-shaped kaiser rolls.

Map Customizer: Customize your view of a map by selecting the geographic features that you want to view. Globe View is an orthographic projection of the world. Colors and symbols vary according to the map style. Flat Map View is a flat Miller . Encarta's Atlas pages include a Map Trek feature that walks you through basic facts about regions of the world. Next to the encyclopedia the World Atlas. Translations: Use to translate a word or phrase into another language. statistics.Additional dictionary tools include: Thesaurus: Use to find synonyms and antonyms of words. You can explore the World Atlas to find maps of many places. See figure 3. and more shown in figure 3. night. Map Customizer also lets you change the way maps are projected. Geographic features vary according to the map style.4.3 for an illustration. Maps (World Atlas) Encarta consists of the Encarta Encyclopedia as the flagship product. Figure 3. topography.3 Encrata world Atlas scren Some features of the atlas are: Map Legend: Explains the map symbols and colors. Verb Conjugation: Use to conjugate verbs from foreign languages. which you can display by day.

Many types of maps are available. Parental controls are available for encarta dictionary to block inappropriate words. click a map style to the right. Encarta Kids offers articles. Learning Essentials Learning Essentials for Microsoft Office provides tutorials specifically created for student tasks such as writing reports. and working on everyday homework assignments.4 Encarta's Map Trek feature cylindrical projection of the world. It helps you get the most out of Microsoft Office in the least amount of time by providing Office templates with customized toolbars and project assistance to help you with your studies. Encarta Kids Encarta Kids helps young students with homework and encourages them to learn in a fun and engaging way.Figure 3. such as a map of climates. This is just a separate interface for Kids with filtered contents and more stylishly designed front end. making presentations. A statistical map is also available in the list of map styles. . and interactive games specifically for ages 7 and up. multimedia. To view a different type of map.

Triangle Solver: Calculate sides. and equations from a variety of mathematical and scientific disciplines. The science section's Environment page. calculus. inequalities. the grown-up tools within Encarta Premium still emphasize text search and images. algebra. Jr. The search field may eerily anticipate your query: Encarta knew by the time we typed "I H" that we were looking up the "I Have a Dream" speech by Dr. the picture of a dune links nowhere. such as the Ecosystem menu's Sahara Desert. Martin Luther King. chemistry. Equation Solver: Solve a single equation or system of equations. without an alphabetical list of subjects. Microsoft Math includes the following features: Calculator pad and Worksheet tab: Evaluate expressions and perform numeric calculations. 3. and Lotus Word Pro. Encarta Kids is intuitive. This latest version helps easily convert files from earlier versions of Lotus SmartSuite and other business applications including Microsoft Office Filters that exchange documents seamlessly to and . The Read Article button in the corner just sent us back to a write-up about ecosystems in general. trigonometry. functions. if you up Hurricane Katrina you will find an impressive collection of articles. Graphing tab: Plot equations.2 Lotus SmartSuite Lotus SmartSuite is an office productivity suite that includes Lotus 1-2-3. Unit Conversion Tool: Convert measurements in one system to a different system. statistics. Formulas and Equations: Find many widely used formulas. and other expressions. as the gateway to articles. This is a new software included with is Microsoft Math is a collection of tools to help you solve simple or complex math and science problems. physics. when you zero in on a topic. angles. and a timeline complete with political controversy and environmental damage Microsoft Math. and other information about triangles from known information that you provide. and more.Microsoft Encarta Kids 2007's big. photographs. chemistry. Lotus FastSite. You can use it for basic math. For older children and adults who may not need such descriptive narrative. geometry. including algebra. Lotus Organizer. for instance. constants. Click an equation to plot it or solve it for a particular variable. geometry. and physics. shows 28 pictures from Acid Rain to the Water Cycle. bright images invite you to wander. Lotus Approach. Lotus Freelance Graphics. Lotus SmartCenter.

sorted. Cells contain various kinds of data that can be formatted. However. you will see the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box within the Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window. They also have information on transferring files to and from other word processing and database programs.from Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel. Use the tools at on the menus to sort any way you want your data sorted. You can format your projects and documents using templates.5 shows some of the common spreadsheet components. the spreadsheet program. The tasks that can be performed with it range from preparing a simple invoice to creating elaborate 3-D charts. Install the software following the onscreen directions for installation and read the prompts carefully so you can decide what programs. analyzed. When you start Lotus 1-2-3. makes Lotus SmartSuite the industry's most complete suite for addressing the needs of both enterprise and individual users. Users can also create tables. or creating an accounting ledger for a company. The SmartSuite library can be downloaded for extra information and tutorials that you may need if you are new to the SmartSuite programs. calculate. the first thing you need to know is how to start Lotus 1-2-3. or your own formatting by using the options on Word Pro menus. Word Pro and Microsoft Word. the word processor. for sorting. . and any writing that you need done. You can use Lotus 1-2-3. features. and made into charts. To Use Lotus' SmartSuite check your computer for hardware requirements against what is needed for SmartSuite. which consists of one or more worksheets. In Lotus 1-2-3. and what directory to install them for questions or troubleshooting problems. Spreadsheet Application The electronic spreadsheet application that is a part of Lotus SmartSuite that is used to organize. Combined with Lotus Notes and the Internet. and organizing. Launch Word Pro. spreadsheets are called worksheets or simply sheets. By default. A worksheet consists of rows and columns that intersect to form cells. tracking. graphs and write short code to run data and information and export that into Word Pro to make up to date documents. a workbook comprises only one worksheet. You can open an existing workbook or create a new workbook by using this dialog box. You can also bring in tables or graphs from the other programs in SmartSuite to the document you are writing to give a visual of information. A 1-2-3 file is called a workbook. and analyze data. Review the online support for these programs at http://www-306. or Freelance Graphics and PowerPoint. The Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window has several components through which you interact with the program. for letters. Figure

Column Cell Row Figure 3. Lotus 1-2-3. Figure 3.6 Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box The 1-2-3 window has many components through which you can interact with or get information about the worksheet you are working on. click the Start button on the Windows desktop and then choose Programs. Lotus SmartSuite.5 General spreadsheet components To start 1-2-3.7 shows some of these components.6. You will see the Lotus SmartSuite 12-3 window showing the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box as shown in figure 3. figure 3. .

The last part is the contents box.” Menu bar .The rectangular outline of the current cell.The worksheet tab appears above the worksheet.7 and the description of each. Cell pointer .The vertical and horizontal scroll bars are also used to move through the worksheet.The title bar displays the name of the workbook. Scroll bars . which is A by default. Scroll box .Title bar Menu bar Edit line Smart Icon bar Worksheet tab Scroll box Cell Scroll bars Status bar Figure 3. Status bar . The first part is the selection indicator that displays the name of the current worksheet and the current cell. Title bar . SmartIcons bar .The SmartIcons bar contains buttons (called SmartIcons) for frequently used actions.The scroll box can be used to move through the worksheet vertically and horizontally. The SmartIcons are alternatives to the commands available in the menus. Each menu consists of a set of related commands. The default name of a workbook is “Untitled. such as opening or saving a file. It shows information about the ongoing activities.7 Components of the 1-2-3 window The following gives the components in figure 3. It shows the name of the current worksheet. . which displays the content of the current cell. For example. It also contains various buttons to perform common tasks such as changing font style. The second part consists of the navigator and the function selector. the Edit menu contains all the commands needed to edit a workbook.This line consists of three parts. Worksheet tab .The menu bar displays all the menus available in Lotus 1-2-3. Edit line .The status bar appears at the bottom of the worksheet.

To use a SmartIcon. 2 From the Look in box. will appear next to the icon.8. whereas others move only your view of the worksheet (without moving the cell pointer). Figure 3. Open (or click the Open SmartIcon) to display the Open dialog box shown in figure 3. Opening and navigating a workbook To open a workbook in 1-2-3 use the menu commands or by click them Open SmartIcon. You can find out the function of a SmartIcon by pointing to it and waiting a moment. . Keyboard shortcuts are shown next to the command names in the menu. called bubble help. To open an existing workbook: 1 Choose File. you simply click it. A short description. You can then choose a command by clicking its name.When you click a menu name. select the workbook you want to open and click Open (or double-click the workbook name). 3 From the list of files. The address of the current cell appears in the selection indicator on the edit line. a list of related commands appears below the menu.8 A sample Open dialog box There are many techniques for moving around in a worksheet. Some navigation techniques move the cell pointer. The cell in which the cell pointer appears is the current cell. select the folder that contains the workbook you want to open. The current cell is where data you enter will appear.

down.Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the left.Moves the cell pointer one column to the right. Closing a workbook There are various ways to close a workbook in 1-2-3 and these includes the following. the left arrow moves the cell pointer to the left. pressing F1 or clicking the Ask the Expert button on the status bar. For example the help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 is illustrated in figure 3. Press .Moves the view of worksheet quickly without moving the cell pointer.→ . technical details. or right. depending on which side of the scroll bar you click. When you choose Help.Makes the cell active. examples. The 1-2-3 Help provides assistance on topics related to 1-2-3. Press . They teach you about using 1-2-3. .The following describes various techniques to navigate a worksheet and the corresponding effect.SHIFT+TAB . Help contains overviews. Press . procedures. Each tab provides a different interface for getting assistance.Moves the cell pointer to cell A1. Press .Moves the cell pointer up one row.HOME .Moves the cell pointer to the rightmost cell that contains data and precedes a blank cell. Quick Demos are demonstrations on specific help topics. Drag scroll box .Moves the view of the worksheet one screen up.Moves the view of the worksheet one row or one column.Moves the cell pointer to the last row that contains data and precedes a blank cell. Press. This dialog box contains three tabs: Contents. Similarly. and Quick Demos. Click cell .Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the right. and Find. Index.END + ↓ . the down arrow moves the cell pointer down one row.END + → . left. Help Topics from the menu bar. Click Help Topics to open the Help Topics: 1-2-3 Help dialog box. Does not move the cell pointer. Click scroll bar . Press . Does not move the cell pointer.8. Click scroll arrow .↑ . Press .TAB . the Help Topics dialog box appears by default. Similarly. Getting Help The three ways to access Help when working with 1-2-3 includes choosing Help from the menu bar.

. you can simply exit by using any of the following methods: • Choose File. Labels can contain text and numbers. the data that begins with a letter or an apostrophe (’) is called label. Entering and editing data To enter labels or numbers: Ÿ Click the cell where you want to enter the label or number. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the menu bar. • Click the Close button on the extreme right of the menu bar. • Click the Control menu icon on the menu bar to open the Control menu and choose Close. Exit 1-2-3. In 1-2-3. you will be prompted to save changes. When you close a workbook.Figure 3. Close. • Click the Control menu icon on the title bar and choose Close. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the title bar. On the work sheet if you do not want to continue working with 1-2-3.8 Help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 • Choose File. Ÿ Press Enter to confirm the entry. • Click the Close button on the title bar. Ÿ Type the label or number.

operator is used to subtract them. You can cancel an entry either by clicking the Cancel button or by pressing Esc to leave the entry in its original state. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. A formula can refer to a value.10. • Click the contents box. Figure 3. To make corrections. or range names. the + operator is used to add numbers and the . Entering and editing formulas An integral part of formulas are operators. • Press Delete to remove the contents of the current cell and then type the correct label or number. When the contents box is activated. if there are numbers in A2 and A3.10 The edit line showing the Cancel and Confirm buttons Confirm an entry either by clicking the Confirm button or by pressing Enter to update the data in the cell. you will see the Confirm button and the Cancel button on the edit line as shown in figure 3. 1-2-3 automatically appends an apostrophe at the beginning. All 1-2-3 formulas begin with the equal to sign (=) or plus sign (+). and press Enter. you can: • Double-click the cell. Operators indicate the type of operation that a formula will perform. For example. another formula. To enter a formula. When you begin an entry with a digit. 1-2-3 treats it as a number and does not append an apostrophe at the beginning. If you make an error while entering data in a cell. Then you type the formula in the selected cell. .When you begin an entry with a letter. you first select the cell where you want the result to appear. a cell address. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. you can easily correct it at any point. and press Enter. and you want to add them and show the result in A4. type the appropriate data. Functions are built-in formulas that perform simple to complex calculations automatically. You can also use special formulas called functions to perform calculations such as determining the sum or average for a range of cells. For example. You can use numbers in calculations. type the appropriate data. you would: Type = A2+A3 in A4 and Press Enter.

4 Click Save.12. the formula will appear in the contents box.11. If the cell is active. edit the formula.The result will appear in A4. To edit a formula.11 Sample formula To enter a cell reference.12 Editing Formula Saving and updating a workbook To save a workbook for the first time after creating it do the following. 6 Press Enter. The shape of the pointer changes to a range selector. 3 In the File name box. Save As to open the Save As dialog box. 2 From the Save in list. 3 Edit the formula. You can edit formulas as you would edit any other data. 4 Type the operator you want. 2 Click the contents box. 5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have created the formula you want. and then enter the edited formula. enter the name of the workbook. click the contents box. 1 Select the cell that you want to edit. 2 Type + (to begin the formula). Figure 3. 1 Select the cell in which you want to enter the formula. select the folder in which you want to save the workbook. . 1 Choose File. See figure 3. 3 Select the cell for which you want to enter a reference. Select the cell. as shown in figure 3. 4 Click the Confirm button. Figure 3.

You use the Save option to update changes to a workbook under the same name and in the same location. giving you formatting options from which you can choose. Figure 3.13. The status bar also contains several buttons used to format texts and numbers in a workbook. A simple Save As dial box is shown in figure 3. By default.If you close a workbook without saving it. if you click the Point size button. you will lose all the changes that you have made. a list of point sizes appears. A pop-up list appears when you click any of these buttons. By selecting a different size from the list. the mode indicator shows “Ready” as shown in figure 3. For example.14. you can change the size of the selected cells. Use the Save As option to save a new workbook or to save an existing workbook with a different name. It changes every time you perform another action. It displays the styles of the current selection and also shows the status of 1-2-3. The rightmost part of the status bar contains the mode indicator.13 Save As dial box Formatting worksheets The status bar is located at the bottom of the 1-2-3 window and contains different buttons used for formatting. or to save it to a different location. .

You can then drag the border to the left or right to decrease or increase the size of the column. an indicator appears showing the column width in characters. 4 Select the desired font. The Text Format tab shows the characteristics of the selected data.Figure 3. attributes. select Width. You can also click the Range Properties SmartIcon. such as color. For example. point size. 5 Close the InfoBox. size. and alignment. This automatically sizes the column to fit the widest data it contains. Range Properties to open the InfoBox. 3 Click the Text Format tab. font. select the column. column widths will adjust automatically. display the InfoBox. To change column widths: • Drag the column border. 2 While holding down the Ctrl key. B4. To do this.14 The Status bar To format text by using the InfoBox: 1 Select the cell or range you want to format. To select a noncontiguous range: 1 Select the first cell or range. and the range C6. and click the Basic properties tab. Column widths and row heights Row heights will change automatically to accommodate the size of the data in a row. In some cases. select any other nonadjacent cells or ranges you want to add to the selection. Each tab contains a different category of properties.D7. 2 Choose Range. A noncontiguous range is a range in which all the cells are not adjacent. you might want to apply the same formatting to cells A1.. Under Column. • Double-click the column border. • Set a specific column size in characters. When you point to the border between two column headings. and color. . the pointer takes the shape of a two-headed arrow. but in most cases you will need to adjust column widths manually to make the columns fit the data you put in them. The changes you make are reflected instantly. As you drag. The InfoBox consists of several tabs. which are known as its properties. and specify the size in the Width spinner control.

15.14 shows the alignment dial box. the data you type could appear to the left. time. including dates. or center in a cell. For example. Alignment Alignment refers to the place where data is positioned in a cell. right. Figure 3.15 InfoBox showing the Number Format tab . select the number. and scientific notation as shown in figure 3. Figure 3. You can set alignments either by using the Alignment tab in the InfoBox or by using the Alignment button in the status bar. Figure 3. The Wrap text in cell checkbox folds the text that extends across columns. You can also use the Number Format tab in the InfoBox to apply a wide variety of number formats. click the Number format button. To format a number.The same methods work for changing row height. The Align across columns checkbox in the properties for InfoBox is used to center data over a range of cells (rather than within a single cell). within a single cell. and then from the list select a format. currency.14 InfoBox showing the Alignment tab Formatting numbers The Number format button on the status bar shows General by default.

You can use the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of cells. Print. 2 Click the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of the selection. 3 Select the cell or range to which you want to copy the formatting. You can also access the Preview window by using the Preview & Page Setup button.16. as well as any labels that identify those values.16 The Print dial box Creating a chart To create a chart. The data should include all the values you want included in the chart. specify the range of pages to print.Instead of repeating the same formatting you can simply copy the styles from one range of cells to another. Choose the printer to which you want to send the page. To use the Fast Format SmartIcon: 1 Select the cell or range from which you want to copy the formatting. 1 Select the data you want to include in the chart. 1-2-3 displays the Print dialog box shown in figure 3. You can also specify printing the entire workbook. the current sheet. and the number of copies needed. including number formats without copying the data in the cells. Figure 3. . or a selected range. Printing When you either click the Print SmartIcon or choose File.

Figure 3. . and click the Chart properties SmartIcon. You can select a range that contains all the elements you need to create a basic chart. The maximum number of series you canhave in a chart is 26. • Select the element. Create. • Double-click the element.17 Main elements of a chart Change chart elements There are three methods for formatting a chart element namely. • Choose a command from the Chart menu (the name of the command will vary depending on which element you selected). For some elements. but it is helpful to know some basic terms as you work with charts. 3 Click the worksheet where you want the top left corner of the chart to appear. Each row and column of data plotted on a chart represents a series. Lotus1-2-3 plots the data in the selected range as a bar chart by default. Figure 3. It makes working with charts intuitive. For other elements. you have various formatting choices.2 Choose Chart.17 shows a chart with labeled elements. you can format only the color of the fill and the line around it. The pointer changes to a small bar chart.



MS Excel. drawing graphs. and otherwise organize and present lists or other raw data. MS Publisher etc.2 Ÿ MS Office 4. manage large quantities of information. In simple words we can say that MS Office is a computer Programme/Software which is use to perform various office related tasks making files. This type of facility is often referred to as Object Linking and Embedding. · Excel – create spreadsheets. tables.3. For example. video. The Versions are. MS Office is a suite of productivity tools consisting of word processing. charts. graphs. creating tables.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. typing letters. · Communicator – IM.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. presentation and personal information. Ÿ MS Office 1. In simple words its a virtual representation of all the tools you use in your Office. making Presentation etc. It comes as a combination of MS Word. · Accounting – bookkeeping and accounting software for small businesses. you can insert part of an Excel spreadsheet in a word document.3 Ÿ MS Office95 Ÿ MS Office97 Std.6 Ÿ MS Office 3. MS Powerpoint. create reports. database. · Groove – software for group working. or you can use data from Outlook schedule to build a Power Point presentation. and voice chat. . Pro. Some of the important application programs of MS Office suits include are : · Access – create databases. allows file sharing and collaborative work spaces. Dev Ÿ MS Office 2000 Ÿ MS Office XP Ÿ MS Office 2003 Ÿ MS Office 2007 Ÿ MS Office 2010 Ÿ MS Office 2013 The most of GUI and and Control features are common to all the applications of Microsoft Office. These applications are intimately connected to each other meaning information can be shared among multiple applications.4 MS Office Concept The word MS stands for MicroSoft (an American multinational software corporation who is the developer of Office). spreadsheet.

a unique Tab will appear (for example. within each Ribbon are Groups. and images in one place with full search capabilities. · Visio – visualize information by creating diagrams.18 Microsoft office work space The set-up of the ribbon differs greatly from the earlier editions of Word.The Office Button shown in figure 3. and newsletters. and requires its own vocabulary. The Office Button . brochures. used to create text documents like papers. · OneNote – note-taking software that allows you to save text. video. located in the upper left hand corner contains such options as: .. Tabs open a Ribbon. posters. video. and to do list. · Outlook – email client that includes a calendar. · Word – word processing software. Navigating the Workspace The Ribbon . and audio with pretty backgrounds! · Project – project management software that allows you to control workflows. images. · Publisher – create visual print materials such as fliers. toolbars. Page Layout. and models with pictures. and task panes with a simpler system of interfaces optimized for efficiency and discoverability. etc) are called Tabs. Each of the words across the top (Home. and format your work for better visual appeal. the Design Tab).· InfoPath – create and manage electronic forms for gathering information. · PowerPoint – create slide show presentations with text. budgets. See figure 3. and other planning needs. Insert. audio. text and arrows. contact manager.18 Figure 3.The Ribbon replaces the previous system of layered menus. flowcharts. Tabs will differ depending on which Office program you are using.19. outlines. When selecting some Groups. schedules. and bibliographies.

Figure 3. See figure 3.· Save · Save As · Print · New · Open · etc. To do this.19 The office button Customizing the Toolbar: The toolbar can be customized to include your favorite actions using the Quick Access Toolbar. Figure 3.20 Customizing the toolbar .20. right-click any frequently used action (such as Paste) and choose “Add to Quick Access Toolbar”.

Some Basic Actions
Figure 3.21a Inserting break page

Figure 3.21b inserting pictures and graphics

Figure 3.21c inserting headers
and footers

Figure 3.21d track changing
(useful for group projects)

Figure 3.21e Spelling and
grammar check or word count
Figure 3.21 Basic actions
Figure 3.21 shows some basic actions using the ms word platform.

Some Basic Actions of the Microsoft PowerPoint is shown in figure 3.22

(a) Use the Home tab to change the slide
layout with the Layout button

(b) Use the Design tab to
change the colors and
background of your slides

( c) Custom Slide Show: choose which
slides to include in your presentation

(d) Practice your presentation and
automatically time how long to spend
on each slide using rehearse timings.

Microsoft Excel Basic Actions
An Excel file is called a workbook. A workbook can be made up of any number of
worksheets (up to a point, but the limit is very large). The worksheets are
organized into tabs at the bottom of the document as shown in figure 3.23a.

(a) Worksheets
(b) Cell
3.23 Excel worksheets and cells
These worksheets are composed of cells in which you can enter data.
You can use Functions to calculate information from your data (functions can be
found in the Formulas tab).

Figure 3.24 Calculating data information.
To insert charts into your worksheet use the insert tab. First highlight the data
you want to use, then choose the chart type from the Ribbon, shown in figure

Figure 3.25 Inserting a chart

When the chart is highlighted, use the Chart Tools tabs to change the design,
layout, or format of the chart as shown in figure 3.26.

Figure 3.26The chart tool



pages. if there is an icon of Microsoft Word available on your desktop (shaped like a square with a "W" in the middle). the most significant improvement over the typewriter is the word processor's ability to make changes to a document after it has been written.1. and entire papers. which could be as simple as an electric typewriter with a small screen display. Some examples of word processing programs include Microsoft Word. “Start menu” >> “All Programs” >> “Microsoft Office” >> “Microsoft Office Word 20XX.Chapter 4 Word-processing Introduction In the 1970s. and OpenOffice. or word processing program. and page numbers to each page. include features to customize the style of the text. It processes words. does exactly what the name implies. However. . and may be able to add headers. you can click anywhere within the text of a document and add or remove content. Alternatively. word processing programs have make revising text documents a much more efficient process. change the page formatting. Some may also include a "Word Count" option. WordPerfect (Windows only). however.” The following is the screen that will be displayed after selecting the previous sequence of menu It also processes paragraphs. the typewriter evolved into a word processing system. Today. Modern word processing programs. AppleWorks (Mac only). it is more commonly used to describe basic word processing programs with limited features Starting Microsoft Word To run Word on your computer click on. The first word processors were basically computerized typewriters. which counts the words and characters within a document. or an old fashioned green screen computer. The term "text editor" can also be used to refer to a word processing program. While all these features can be useful and fun to play with. you can open up the program by double-clicking it. Since reprinting a paper is much easier than retyping it. By using the mouse. which could then be printed by a printer. which did little more than place characters on a screen. This is shown in figure 4. footers. A word processor. the term "word processing" basically means creating a text document and using a computer and word processing software such as Word.

Although window elements are fully explained in our Windows course. (a) (b) Figure 4.(a) Word 2003 (b) Word 2010 Figure 4. a new blank document. opens in Print Layout view. here is a brief explanation of the Word window. When Word is launched.2 is the Microsoft Word default window for (a).1 Microsoft Word default window . word 2003 and (b).1 Steps for starting word Shown in figure 4. word 2010. or default window.

Draft view: This formats text as it appears on the printed page with a few exceptions. Insert. Commands: Commands appear within each group as mentioned above. such as Internet Explorer.s standard heading styles. Outline view: This lets you work with outlines established using Word. Title bar: This lies in the middle and at the top or the window. Zoom Control: Zoom control lets you zoom in for a closer look at your text.The following Descriptions holds for the MS-Word screen elements shown in figure 4. You can customize this toolbar based on your comfort. View Buttons: The group of five buttons located to the left of the Zoom control. headers and footers aren't shown. and do other file-related operations. lets you switch among Word's various document views. Home. Title bar shows the program and document titles. Page Layout are example of ribbon tabs. Web Layout view: This shows how a document appears when viewed by a Web browser. Full Screen Reading view: This gives a full screen look of the document. near the bottom of the screen.a horizontal ruler and a vertical ruler. The horizontal ruler appears just beneath the Ribbon and is used to set margins and tab stops. Ribbon: Word Ribbon contains commands organized in three components Tabs: They appear across the top of the Ribbon and contain groups of related commands. .2. For example group of commands related to fonts or or group of commands related to alignment etc. You can click it to check Backstage view. The zoom control consists of a slider that you can slide left or right to zoom in or out. . Groups: They organize related commands. This provides nice tutorial on various subjects related to word. and + buttons you can click to increase or decrease the zoom factor. Print Layout view: This displays pages exactly as they will appear when printed. Most people prefer this mode. create new documents. Quick Access Toolbar: This you will find just above the File tab and its purpose is to provide a convenient resting place for the Word most frequently used commands. print a document. For example. The vertical ruler appears on the left edge of the Word window and is used to gauge the vertical position of elements on the page. which is the place to come when you need to open or save files. each group name appears below the group on the Ribbon. Help: The Help Icon can be used to get word related help anytime you like. Rulers: Word has two rulers . ile Tab: The File tab replaces the Office button from Word 2007.

Indicates the end of the document. buttons and tools.Provides easy access to commonly used menus.Links to the Microsoft Office Help feature 4.Contains buttons used for formatting. Dialog Box Launcher: This appears as very small arrow in the lower-right corner of many groups on the Ribbon. Figure 4. Formatting Toolbar . You can configure the status bar by right-clicking anywhere on it and by selecting or deselecting options from the provided list. language etc. Standard Toolbar . The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type. Scroll bars . From left to right. Office Assistant .Used to view parts of the document. go to File>New shown in figure 4.2 Creating a New Document To create a new document. this bar contains the total number of pages and words in the document. Task Pane .Contains shortcut buttons for the most popular commands.The location where the next character appears.Document Area: The area where you type. Clicking this button opens a dialog box or task pane that provides more options about the group. Menu Bar . Insertion Point .Contains a list of options to manage and customize documents. Status Bar: This displays document information as well as the insertion point location.3 Creating a New Document . End-of-Document Marker .3 below.

To change the text . you are ready to start typing.Another option to open a new document is to customize your Quick Access Toolbar to display the New document icon New Document Icon. The text appears to the left of the insertion point as it is typed. the orientation of the text on the page. The icon will appear on the toolbar until you uncheck New. The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type. The document area is the area where you type your text. or the location of a block of text on the page can also be changed. Keep the mouse cursor at the text insertion point and start typing whatever text you would like to type. After you create document. highlight it. Figure 4.4 Entering a text into the document area 4. Click on the New document icon on the Quick Access toolbar and a new blank document will automatically open. Click on the Quick Access Toolbar list arrow and click New.4 show two word "Hello Word" text. Find the folder where your existing file is. and click Open. The font style or size. Figure 4. The dialog box will look similar to the dialog box for saving. go to File>Open.2 Formatting Text The text can be formatted before it is typed into the document or edit existing text. To open an existing file.

Before changing font. If you want the changes to apply to all text in your document. we have figure 4. To select the text of the whole document. you must first select(or highlight) the text you wish to change.5a below. size and color of text. style. Click and drag the mouse over the text. In microsoft Word 2010 choose the Home tab and click the Select button from the Editing group or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl A . Changing font. size and color of text.formatting first you must highlight or select the block of text you wish to format. In MS Word. (a) From home tab (b) From the dial box launcher Figure 4.5 Opening the font dial box . To assist you user with selecting a font for an application. Once you have selected the text you would like to format. The following diagrams reveal how to perform font changes from the home tab and the Font dialog box in Word. Word processing applications come with a set of fonts. apply the required formatting options that Microsoft Word provides. The Edit>Undo feature can take you back a step if you are not comfortable with a change made. It offers a nice preview window which shows you exactly how your text will look before you apply the changes. you may also go to Edit>Select All. most attributes to text can be made by opening the Format>Font dialog box. From the home tab of word 2010. Microsoft Windows provides the Font dialog box. style.

Select the font. 3. Click OK. 5. . 4. Click the Default button. change the default properties you wish. In Word 2007. See figure 4.6 the font dial box For the older Versions of Microsoft Word 1.6. and color you wish you use by default. style. Open Word. press the Default button when you are done. click the dialog box launcher button located on the bottom right-hand corner of the Font group. 2. The Font dialog box will appear and you can edit your font settings. Click the Format menu. In Word 2010. Confirm.5b.From the Font Dialog Box shown in figure 4.Once the font dialog opens. Figure 4. 6. this button text has been changed to Set as Default.

then already selected color will be applied to the text. . and justified shown in figure 4.Change Font Colors: By default any typed text comes in black color.7. Select the text that you want to change to a bold font. Align left: A paragraph's text will be said left aligned if it is aligned with left margin. See figure 4.7 Changing font colors If the color of your choice is not displayed. Try to move your mouse pointer over different colors and you will see text color will change automatically. This is very simple to change text color by following two simple steps: 1. 2. so you would have to click over small triangle to display a list of colors. Select any of the colors available by simply clicking over it. Click the Font Color button triangle to display a list of colors. but the font color can be changed to any of the color which one can imagine. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Left button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + L keys. centered. use the More Colors option to display color pallet box which allows the select of any color from range of millions of colors.8. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. right-aligned. If you click at the left portion of the Font Color button. Figure 4. Text Alignment There are four types of paragraph alignment are available in Microsoft Word left-aligned.

Align Right: A paragraph's text will be said right aligned if it is aligned with right margin. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Right button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + R keys. (a) Align left \ (b) Align center ( c) Align right (d) Justify align Figure 4. Justify Aligned Text: A paragraph's text will be said justify aligned if it is aligned with both left and right margins. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text center aligned.Align center: A paragraph's text will be said center aligned if it is in the center of the left and right margins.8 Text alignment and justification . Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Justify button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + J keys. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text right aligned. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text justify aligned. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Center button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + E keys.

3. Difference between these options is that low justify creates little space between two words.9. click the Numbering Button triangle instead of bullet button to display a list of numbers to assign to the list. Select a list of text to which you want to assign bullets or numbers. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. Any of the numbering style available can be selected by simply clicking over it. To create a list with numbers.9 The bullet buttons 1. You need to select only justify option.Clicking the Justify button displays four options. You can select any of the bullet style available by simply clicking over it. Figure 4. See figure 4. medium creates a bit more space and high creates maximum space between two words to justify the text. 2. Following are the simple steps to create either bulleted list or numbered list. justify high and justify medium. justify. Creating a List This is very simple to convert a list of lines into a bulleted or numbered list. . Click the Bullet Button triangle to display a list of bullets you want to assign to the list. justify low.

2. You can use any of the text selection method to select the paragraph(s).10 Figure 4.11. Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing and click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher available on Home tab. Similar way click After spinner to increase or decrease the space after the selected paragraph.Lines and Spacing Following are the simple steps to adjust spacing between two lines of the document. See figure 4. 2. You can select any of the option available by simply clicking over it. The distance between two paragraphs can be set using the following simple steps. This action is shown in figure 4. 1. . Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing. Click the Line and Paragraph Spacing Button triangle to display a list of options to adjust space between the lines. Click Before spinner to increase or decrease the space before the selected paragraph. Finally click OK button to apply the changes.10 Adjusting spacing between document lines 1.

copy. To cut. If you do not select the text first. You can use the toolbar buttons. you must first select some text.11 Spacing between Paragraphs Cut. Text can be moved around in a document by using the Cut. Click and drag your mouse over the text you wish to cut or copy.Figure 4. Cut: Use this when you want to move a bit of text from one place to another in your document. Copy and Paste. There are several ways to Cut. copy. and paste text. and paste text. leaving the original text in it's original place Paste: This deposits the text you have Cut or Copied wherever your cursor is situated. right hand mouse click and Drag `n' Drop. and Paste commands. the Edit Menu. It will delete the original text when you have completed the action by Pasting Copy: This will copy the selected text. your . Copy. quick keys.

Copy & Paste Operation: Copy operation will just copy the content from its original place and create a duplicate copy of the content at the desired location without deleting the text from it's the original location. it will display copy option. Ÿ Using Ctrl + c Keys: After selecting a text. Ÿ Using Ribbon Copy Button: After selecting a text. you can use copy button available at the ribbon to copy the selected content in clipboard. The following is the procedure to copy the content in word: 1. Figure 4. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods.12 Copy and paste operation Step (3): Finally click at the place where you want to copy selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the copied content at the desired location. 2. .Cut. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. just press Ctrl + c keys to copy the selected content in clipboard.12. See figure 4. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. The various options available to copy the selected text is as follows. Paste features will be grayed out and unusable in your Edit menu as shown below. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. just click this option to copy the selected content in clipboard. Copy.

Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. it will be applied to the document in editable mode and the text in the document domain will appear dimmed. These are. company logo. Formatting Pages Headers and Footers: Headers (appears at the top of every page) and footers (footer appears at the bottom of every page) are parts of a document that contain special information such as page numbers and the total number of pages. See figure 4. just click this option to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. To copy and paste or cut and paste content form one document to another document just copy or cut the desired content from one document and go into another document where you want to paste the content and use mentioned step to paste the content.13b. Following is the procedure to move the content in word: 1. just press Ctrl + x keys to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Header and Footer buttons appear on the Ribbon and a Close Header and Footer button will also appear at the top-right corner. Ÿ Using Ctrl + x Keys: After selecting a text. Once any of the headers is selected. 3. Click the Insert tab.12. See figure 4.Cut & Paste Operation: Cut operation will cut the content from its original place and move the content from its original location to a new desired location. the document title. Finally click at the place where you want to move the selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the content at the new location. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods. Clicking on the Header button will display a list of built-in Headers from where any can be chosen from. you can use cut button available at the ribbon to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. Ÿ Using Ribbon Cut Button: After selecting a text. To add header and footer in a word document. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to add first. any photo etc. it will display cut option. 2. Refer to figure 4. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. .13a. There are various options available to cut the selected text and put it in clipboard. 1. 2.

(a) (b) Figure 4. 1. . These things can be inserted through the Header/Footer dialog box. this feature is intended to be used as a tool for a multi-page document. and it will apply it to all your pages automatically. Note that the date. Consequently. time. 2. & time In various circumstances. and page number may not appear as you might think until printing or unless you are in the Print Preview mode.13 Header and footer illustration 3. date. One way to check to see your resulting header and/or footer attributes is by going to Print Preview. click Close Header and Footer to come out of header edit mode. The fundamental idea behing the header and footer is that you only have to enter the information one time. To edit an existing Header and Footer of a document do the following. a date. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to edit. Edit the document header and once done. Click on it and word will display editable header 3. you might need to insert page numbers. Click the Insert tab. Type the information required in the document header and click Close Header and Footer to come out of header insertion mode. Page numbers. Clicking the Header button will display a list of options including Edit Header option. or the time into your document. Headers and footers allow you to add uniform content to the very top and very bottom of each page of your document. This will vary depending on the word processing application.

This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. .14a. 1. current position etc and at the bottom you will have Remove Page Numbers option. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. click the Insert tab.13 Adding page numbers To remove page numbers. This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. Moving the mouse pointer over the available options displays further styles of page numbers to be displayed as shown in figure 4.14b. See figure 4. bottom. (a) (b) Figure 4. By default Microsoft Word shows a page in portrait orientation and in this case page width is less than page height and page will be 8.5 inches. 2.The following are the simple steps to add page numbers in a word document. 3. Change Page Orientation Page Orientation is useful when you print your pages. Finally select of the page number styles which is desired. Just click this option and it will delete your all the page numbers set in your document.5 inches x 11 inches. Click the Insert tab. After this step enter in Page Footer modification mode and click Close Header and Footer button to come out of footer edit mode. You can change page orientation from portrait to landscape orientation in which case page width will be more than page height and page will be 11 inches x 8. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. bottom. current position etc. The following are the simple steps to change the page orientation of a word document.

When you move your mouse over the grid cells. orientation will be Portrait Orientation 2. This will display a simple grid shown below. which will . This will display an Option Menu having both the options (Portrait & Landscape) to be selected as shown in figure 4.15a. Figure 4. Each cell can contain text or graphics. and click Table button. Click the Insert tab. 2. Open a word document for which you want to change the orientation.14 Layout tab showing page orientation options 4. Usually top row in the table is kept as a table header and can be used to put some informative instruction. and click Orientation button available in the Page Setup group. it makes a table in the table which appears in the document. Click any of the options you want to set to orientation. You can make your table having desired number of rows and columns as per figure 4.1. Click the square representing the lower-right corner of your table.14. To create a table apply the following procedures. and you can format the table in any way you want. Tables A table is a structure of vertical columns and horizontal rows with a cell at every intersection. By default. Create a Table: 1. Click the Page Layout tab.

16. See figure 4. There is a long list of formulas from which. The following are useful points in constructing word cell formula. 3. the first cell in the first row is A1. Click in a cell that should contain the sum of a rows. find average of numbers. 2. Word cell formula can bee constructed. Click OK to apply the formula. Figure 4. 1. You can select a number format using Number Format List Box to display the result or you can change the formula using Formula List Box.Microsoft Word allows the use of mathematical formula in table cells which can be used to add numbers. a formula can be used based on the requirement. Thus. and so on. You can repeat the procedure to have sum of other two rows as well. After the letter comes the row number. Word formulas use a reference system to refer to individual table cells. B for the second column. Click the Layout tab and then click Formula button which will display a Formula Dialog Box which will suggest a default formula. starting with A for the first column. Each column is identified by a letter. The following are the simple steps to add formula in a table cell available in word document. which is =SUM(LEFT) in our case. The cell .16 Adding Formula to a document. the third cell in the fourth row is C4. or find the largest or smallest number in table cells you specify. and so on.

it shows real time preview of your actual table. To Move a Table with-in the same word document. 1. When you move your mouse over any of the styles.create a actual table in the document and goes in table design mode giving lots of options to work with table as per figure 4. Click anywhere in the table you want to delete. use Cut button or simply press Ctrl + X keys to cut the table from its original location. 2. a small Cross Icon will appear at the top-left corner of the table. As soon as you bring your mouse pointer inside the table. 2. Click over the small Cross Icon which will select the whole table. and click Delete Table option under the Delete Table Button to delete complete table from the document along with its content. (a) (b) Figure 4. If you want to have fancy table.15b. To select any of the styles.15 Creating the table 3. Click Table Styles button to display a gallery of table styles. To Delete a Table from a word document. Click the Layout tab. 3. just click over the built-in table style and you will see that selected style has been applied on your table. Bring your insertion point at the location where you want to move the table and use Paste button or simply press Ctrl + C keys to paste the table at the new location. Bring the mouse pointer over the table which you want to move. . Once table is selected. 1.

Integration: Inserting images. BELOW. attach it to a data source. . Clip art libraries that come with your software package need no citation. The following procedure describes how to create a form letter. and insert an image. Be sure to follow copyright law and work within the Fair Use Guidelines if you use an image you did not create. If you create or find images through other applications and save them to a folder on your harddrive. such as A3. Most images from the Internet. Inline means that it is fixed between the text where it appears with very limited modification. specific fields or pieces of information from a database. Look for the copyright statements before using images. /.C5 ABOVE. CDROM's. format it. In order to create a mailmerge document. it will appear in your word processing document. often as a selected image. Integration: Mail Merge A mail merge is when you create a word processing document that has. referring to all cells in the row to the right of the current cell You can also construct simple math expressions. such as A4:A9 or C5:C13 A series of individual cells. Inserting images can be one way to use integrative applications. -. Find your Insert feature. This is a critical difference. *. there might be a separate menu item Insert Clip Art which will automatically take you to the folder filled with the application's library of art. you can insert them into your own word processor. referring to all cells in the row to the left of the current cell RIGHT. %. Once you find it and choose it. It will either be inline or floating. referring to all cells in the column below the current cell. Floating means it can be modified and relocated more easily. within it. and directly from other artists will require some type of citation depending on how you plan to use it. LEFT. Often times it will be located under File>Insert. There should be a feature within your menus called Insert or Insert Image. A single cell reference. You may have to browse through folders or directories until you find it. If you want to insert clip art. such as B3 or F7 A range of cells. You should also wrap text around the image. referring to all cells in the column above the current cell.B4. The place where you begin creating a mailmerge can appear in various menus. and merge the documents.references and description is as follows. A window will pop up that will allow you to find the folder with your collected images. you need to designate which database you want to merge with. such as B3+B5*10 by using simple mathematical operators +.

On the Mailings tab.17a (a) (b) ( c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 4. and then click Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard.17 Mailmerge steps . click Start Mail Merge. Figure 4.1.

To preview. In the Mail Merge task pane. . Preview and complete the merge. The information that you want to merge into your documents will be stored in the data source. Indicate the records you want to include by checking or un-checking the subsequent box as shown in figure 4. making sure that there are no mistakes. click Letters.2. click Next: Select recipients. Choose a document type. Ÿ Click Next: Starting document. Select recipients When you open or create a data source by using the Mail Merge Wizard. you are telling Word to use a specific set of variable information for your merge. For example. Add fields to your document. Ÿ Start from existing document: Open an existing document to use as your mail merge main document. 8. You could also choose More Items. Think of a “field” as that information that is unique to each letter. Ÿ In the Mail Merge task pane. 6.17b. Connect to the data source. After previewing the merged information. Method 1: Use an existing data source Method 2: Use names from a Microsoft Outlook Contacts List Method 3: Create a database of names and addresses 5.17d.17e. select Type a New List to begin creating. Ÿ Start from a template: Select one of the ready-to-use mail merge templates. This will allow you to send letters to a group of people and personalize the results of the letter that each person receives. Use one of the following methods to attach the main document to the data source shown in figure 4. 4. Select the starting document Click one of the following options: Ÿ Use the current document: Use the currently open document as your main document. exclude a recipient or edit the entire recipient list. This will allow you to add any specific information that you had included in your data file. and can be found in your Outlook contacts or in an existing file as shown in figure 4. See figure 4.17c. If you have not yet created this information. you can scroll through each merged document. it might be the address of each recipient. You can also search for a specific recipient. 7. 3.

You can print. save all or save just a portion of the document you next and your merge will be complete. . transmit.

Chapter 5 Corel Draw 5. This graphics application is used to design advertisements. the information contained in each pixel is stored separately. Vector images are ideal for Web pages because they download faster than the raster images. for print or for the Web. 15 and 16. brochures. Each component created in a drawing such as a line.7. which increases the file size. A pixel is the smallest unit of composition in an image. it becomes a raster image. text. 5. curve. When you enlarge raster images. logos. symbol or image is referred to as an object. newsletters and so on. There are different versions of Corel draw like versions 5. An artwork developed in CorelDRAW is referred to as a drawing. These images consist of lines and curves that are defined by mathematical objects called vectors.6. position. The CorelDRAW application is a part of CorelDRAW Graphics Suite. When you want sharp images.9. vector images. such as logos with smooth and precise edges. size.1Features of the soft wares CorelDRAW differentiates itself from its competitors in a number of ways: The first is its positioning as a graphics suite. color and size of each pixel.13.10. CorelDRAW is one of the most powerful and versatile illustration programs on the market today. CorelDRAW is ideal for creating drawings. When you save raster images. After a vector image is converted to a bitmap. Images are displayed on the computer screen as pixels. rather than just a vector graphics . A bitmap file defines the position. The bitmap becomes a distorted image with jagged edges. you need to create them as vector images. You can alter the size of vector images without making their edges rough or jagged. such as shape. A vector program defines a line of pixels and treats them as a single object. cards. To add special effects to a vector image in CorelDRAW. and color.12. in which objects are created and modified again and again while designing. their edges appear rough and jagged.14. on any platform.0 Introduction CorelDRAW is a vector illustration program. Each object in a drawing stores its own attributes. you convert the image into a bitmap. The images you create by using CorelDRAW are by default. Raster images are bitmapped images composed of pixels.8.11. This process of conversion is called rasterizing. You can modify an object without affecting the image quality. How the program treats the pixels is determined by whether the image is defined as a vector or a bitmap.

Point on All Programs 3.Corel DRAW is capable of handling multiple pages along with multiple master layers. select the required file format. Multipage documents are easy to create and edit One of the useful features for single and multi-page documents is the ability to create linked text boxes across documents that can be resized and moved while the text itself resets and flows through the boxes. The Tools present enable you to carry out series of designs. the application window opens containing a drawing window. 1. Some Element Present in CorelDraw Environment are described as follows. A full range of editing tools allow the user to adjust contrast. This window contains a Drawing page in which you create or modify your drawings. The CorelDRAW interface contains various components. such as a Drawing window. Figure 5. create your drawing. From the Files of type list. 3 Select the file. add special effects such as vignettes and special borders to bitmaps. When you open a drawing in CorelDRAW. You can also press Ctrl + O to open the Open Drawing dialog box. . 4 Click Open. Drawing page. Useful for creating and editing multi-article Newsletters. The rectangle in the center of the drawing window is the drawing page where you. 2 From the Look in list. color balance. Click on Start Button 2. It also allows a laser to cut out any drawings. It gives information about the program which you are working on and also the name used in saving the document. Brochures. Click on Corel Graphic suites (sub-menu list appears) 4. To Launch CorelDraw. and toolbox. you can apply commands to the active drawing window only.program. select a folder that contains the files. etc. toolbars. Booklets. The CorelDraw Window provides a work area where you can create and modify a job. to open the Open Drawing dialog box. Although more than one drawing window can be opened. Click on CorelDraw Icon (wait for some seconds for program to launch) To open an existing drawing: 1 Choose File. 1. Open. Title Bar: It is the first bar in the screen of any opened application. change the format from RGB to CMYK. When you launch CorelDRAW. a new window called Drawing window opens.1 shows a sample CorelDRAW window with the various components identified.

Edit. 3. Menu bar: CorelDraw as a program has Eleven (11) menus. Any design done in the drawing window should be . 4. When clicked on. Standard bar: Tools present in the standard bar enables us to save. the orientation Portrait or Landscape etc 6. Tools Window and Help menu. Property Bar: It gives us information about the Width/Height. View. they include. minimize. restore. zoom etc. and right. the opened programs automatically goes to the task bar.1 The Screen (Window) of CorelDraw 2. 5. it contains command like: close. Close: To exit a particular window Maximize/Restore: To increase and decrease a window (opened program) Minimize: When you minimize. Effect. Bitmap. 7. left. Printable page: The Printable Page Area is the rectangular shape located at the center of the drawing window. maximize. This area represents the portion of your drawing that will print. Each menu has its own function. Control Menu Box: It is located at the title bar. undo/redo.Figure 5. down. Arrange. File. And also with the help of the property bar we can also set our paper size. sub-menu list appears. 8. The Rule: The rule (horizontal and vertical rule) enables us to measure. Scroll bar: The scroll bar (horizontal and vertical scroll) enables to view unseen object by scrolling up. Texts. Layout. paper size. and orientation of a page and also the width/height of an object.

placed in the printable page.2 Tools and Flyouts The Toolbox is located in the left portion of the window and contains all the drawing and editing tools necessary to create objects for an illustration. Flyouts contain additional tools. Tools Bar: The tools bar of CorelDraw enables us to carryout certain designs and also helps us to beautify our work. a program can be launched. Without the tools present in CorelDraw. 12. you can fill or outline an object. 11. 14. . Status bar: The Status bar is located immediately after the task bar (at the top of the task bar) it gives you information about the currently highlighted object and also guideline on how to carryout some processes. it houses any opened programmed/minimize window. 13. Flyouts are described following the Tool Overview. or tool options and are explained below in the order they appear on the default screen. Task bar: The task bar is located in line with the Start button. Any drawing or designed processed in the drawing window must be brought to the printable page. Pick tool etc. Colour Palette: With the help of the colour palette. Example of the tools bar is the Text tool. Start Button: The start button enables us to view programs. 5. 9. Tools containing a small triangle in the corner produce a Flyout. Also through the start button. Drawing Window: The drawing window is the large white area of the screen where you find the Printable page. drawing/designing in CorelDraw will be difficult. 10.


Flyouts are used by CorelDRAW to display additional tools. . The table below is not meant to be a comprehensive look at each tool Flyout.Flyouts Tool buttons containing a small triangle in the lower right corner display Flyouts. They are activated by holding down the tool button with the mouse. but rather a reference.

To close a docker. (a) Floating mode (b) Flyout mode Figure 5. Unlocking a docker detaches it from other parts of the workspace. place your cursor over the area at the end of the bar that resembles two ribbed bumps or gray lines. to collapse or expand a docker. To float a Toolbar or a Flyout. To dock a floating docker. See figure 5. . so it can be easily moved around. double click on the title bar of the floating Flyout. Below is the Interactive Tool Flyout in floating mode and in Flyout mode. They are accessed by clicking on the tabs at the right of the working window.Dockers are placed into the interface or “docked” as are Tool Bars or the Property Bar. click the X button at the top comer. and drag to position the pointer on the edge of the drawing window. You can also collapse dockers to save screen space. such as command buttons.2 Flyouts Dockers Dockers display the same types of controls as a dialog box. click the docker's title bar. All tools on the Flyout will be displayed so you can easily access them. you can dock them to any part of the window. Once floating. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the bar out to the main window of the program. click on the closing X in the upper right-hand corner.Toolbars and Flyouts can be made to float. options. To dock the Flyout or return the toolbar to its original location. Dockers can also float or be closed so only the tabs show. Dockers can be either docked or floating. To return the Flyout to its original location. Docking a docker attaches it to the edge of the application window. and list boxes. click the arrow button .3.

To access the Dockers. go to the Windows menu →Dockers.Floating dockers Examples of other dockers Figure 5. .3 Dockers at the top comer.. The table following explains the different dockers and their functions.


3.Color Palettes The colorful row of boxes on the right of the screen is the Color Palette. you can choose a shade of a color quickly and apply it to a line or fill an object . or the Color Palette Browser Docker. a box with shades of that color displays. When you hold down a chip on the color palette. the Property Bar displays the following options. DRAW comes with 18 color systems and gives you the ability to create your own palette. The type of palette can be changed with the Windows menu. DRAW gives you several options for zooming into your object or out as shown in the table below. By dragging to one of the shades of the first color. The palette can be floated or parked. You may have several palettes open at once. When the Zoom Tool on the Toolbox is selected. Shown in figure 5. . Figure 5.3 Color palette The Zoom Property Bar This help to get a closer detail or make small adjustments.

or typed in as needed. You can also zoom in by dragging the Zoom Tool around a specific area. Press the F3 key on your keyboard. 6. Click and drag diagonally to create a zoom marquee. This will change the display to show you the whole page. Select To Page (Shift + F4). You have just gotten closer to the drawing. . Release the mouse. Place the tool icon to the upper right of the Bluebonnet. Values for the magnification settings can be selected from the list. 7. Click in an area. 4. 3. The mouse cursor changes to the magnifying glass with the plus sign. 8. Go to the Toolbox and select the Zoom Tool (F2). The Property Bar also displays the tools described above. Go to the Standard Toolbar and select the Zoom Levels list (the box showing the % of magnifications). 2.Zooming 1. This shortcut zooms out to the previous view each time you press it. you can enhance the magnification and be more precise by zooming to a specific area. 5. By dragging the Zoom Tool around an area.

(a) Tool screen 1 . We will use a CD with 120mm diameter to show our illustration.Illustration of tool function Take a look at the screenshots below to get an overview of some of the basic tools.

(b) Tool screen 2 .

( c) Tool screen 3 .

Next to that pull-down there are 2 boxes with horizontal and vertical dimensions of the page.5). just below the “file” menu. Once you've specified the file name you can use ctrl-S or click on the disk icon at the top of the page or use file>save. This means that all the locations on the page have a negative Y value.5).Creating Drawings When you first open up CorelDraw you are presented with a default screen that gives you a number of options. There is a rectangle on the screen with a drop shadow behind it. This is the document. Pull it down and select “custom” (see figure 5. If you want to save a different file type you would use file->save as and use the “save as type” pull down to select what type of file you want.4 Default Plate / Document Size When you first open CorelDraw there may be one or more dialog boxes which you probably want to just close. (1) Leave the "Make this the default Windows screen page" checked so a new document will always by default come up. You should also “zero” your rulers by clicking on the corner where the 2 rulers meet and dragging it to the corner of the page (see figure 5. Typically we want a new document to come up. The "Always shows the Welcome screen at launch" will pop up. In this dialog box you can set the name of the document and various other things but for now just say “OK”. This will cause a dialog box (see figure 5. To create a new document you can do file>new or ctrl-N or you can click on the icon in the extreme upper left corner of the window. To save a document you can use file->save as. At the upper left side there is a drop down that might say “letter” or “broadsheet” or “custom”. Keep in mind that the horizontal ruler increases to the right but the vertical ruler increases in the up direction. . Figure 5.5).

you can set or modify the Drawing page using the options such as size. orientation. To create a blank drawing. a blank Drawing page appears. to open the New From Template dialog box. A blank page appears with default settings. choose File.5 Dialog box and rulers In CorelDRAW drawings are created by using an existing drawing. When you create drawings in CorelDRAW. layout. or a template. The first file will be named Graphic 1. You can see the preview on the right of the dialog box. each file has a default name. After creating a drawing. You can also press Ctrl + N or click the New button on the standard toolbar to open a new drawing. When you create a drawing. New. New From Template. the second file will be named Graphic 2. To create a drawing from a template: 1 Choose File. 3 Click OK.Figure 5. and background. 2 Select any template from the given list of templates. a Drawing page with pre-designed elements and placeholders appears. When you use a template. a blank page. and so on. .

Drawing Lines The Freehand tool and the Pen tool are used frequently while drawing line(s). texts are required for decoration and also for information. Drawing Straight Lines Step 1 Click on the freehand tool to activate it Click on a specified area and drag to draw a line Step 2 Click on Freehand tool Hold your Ctrl Key on the keyboard Click and drag at the same time Click to end Step 3 Click on Pen Tool Point your mouse to the area in the window Click and drag then Double click to end Drawing a Rectangle. constitutions. are example of the Artistic text. . Decoration text in CorelDraw is known as Artistic test. Below is a rotated object. CorelDraw. Address. Sphere and Circle Click on your Rectangular Tool (F6) Hold your Ctrl key. Skewing: Skewing simple means to slant or twist an object from it definite shape to be at an angle. The Paragraphing Text: The paragraphing text is used when creating a large amount of text. Drag to draw a perfect square Drawing a Rectangle Click on your rectangle tool (F6) Hold your Shift Key. Features.g. E. Theme etc. The Artistic Text: The artistic text is use for special effect while designing. Adding A Text In CorelDraw. toast etc. Square. Rotating: Rotating simply means revolving/turning an object from on angle to another. while Information text called Paragraph text The difference between the two is the amount of text that will be entered. Drag to draw from the center Drawing a Circle/Sphere using the Ellipse tool Step 1 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Ctrl Key Drag to draw a perfect circle Step 2 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Shift key Drag to draw a sphere Skewing and Rotating An Object You may decide to rotate an object or distort its perspective by skewing it. It is added in a frame because of its length.

Or the freehand tool (F5 and the 6th tool). The polygon tool will let you do spirals or stars.7).6 shows a complex star created Figure 5. Figure 5.6 shows a complex star created. click on the lower right hand corner of the tool button (where there is a little black triangle) and select the option you want. To access the various options for each tool. Or the polygon tools (F8 and the 9th tool).Making Shapes (Box/Circle/Freehand/Polygon) To create some kind of object. use the box tool (F6 and the 7th tool on the left hand tool bar). Or the ellipse tool (F7 and the 8th tool). Figure 5.6 shows the selection tool . Selecting An Object The selection tool is the very first tool in the tool bar on the left (see figure 5.

it looks like a bucket) to set the fill and outline parameters(see figure 5. You can now use the fill and outline tools (the “outline pen” is the 15th tool on the left. the fill tool is the 16th. It helps if you click on an edge. Figure 5. In those cases you can use the “Object Manager” (tool->object manager) to get the exact object you want. When you select something. there are different options for objects and text and bitmaps and nothing selected.8 The fill and outline tool drop box .8). Fill and Outline Select the object you created. For example. it looks like a pen nib.It has a rectangular picker and a freehand picker but most of the time you will simply click on an object. if you select two things together the "trace" options in the bitmap menu will not be available. One caveat: if there are multiple objects and some are in front of some others the program will select the object that's in front. all the menus change based on what is selected.

You can also fill with a pattern or a texture or use “postscript fill” which allows for parametrized patterns. But bitmaps always look kind of funky. On your computer it may be a “jpeg” or a “tiff” or a “png” or a “gif” or any of a whole collection of other types.The fill tool allows you to set the fill pattern and color of your object. Objects will generally look better even if you generated the object from a bitmap. The outline tool allows you to set the outline width and color or to remove the outline altogether. An object is a collection of curves that are defined in such a way that they can scale well. especially if you change their size. If you set it to “uniform fill” it will just be one color. If you set it to “no fill” it will be transparent. If you use “fountain fill” you can make a gradient of colors. Bitmaps and Objects A bitmap is a collection of pixels in a rectangular shape. You can apply various filters and other effects to a bitmap which you can not do to an object. Figure 5. In CorelDraw all those are converted to a bitmap.8 Converting Objects to Bitmaps .

Save.There are a wide variety of things you can do to objects that are quite distinct from what you can do to bitmaps. choose File. The Print dialog box appears. to open the Save Drawing dialog box. To print a drawing. A window opens. To preview a drawing. After saving or printing the drawing. • Click the Close Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar. To save a drawing: 1 Choose File. you need to update your drawing. choose File. you can: • Choose File. Close drawings and CorelDRAW: When you complete a drawing. you want to save them for further use. it can be closed. it is a good idea to preview it first. Save As. Preview and print drawings: To print an already saved drawing. It can also be printed. Here.cdr. you’ll use the CDR . you are prompted to save the file. If you have an object (perhaps some text or a complex set of shapes you have created) you can convert it to a bit map by selecting it and then the Bitmap->Convert to bitmap menu option (see figure 4. Close Print Preview. 3 In the File name box. select the folder in which you want to save the file. When you close a drawing after making changes to it. Save. Be sure to have everything you want converted selected when you do that. To return to the drawing. 5 Click Save. 2 From the Save in list. The default extension for files created in CorelDRAW is . You can also press Ctrl + S to update a drawing. Close or click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the Drawing window. specify the name of the file. To save the changes. which displays the preview of the Drawing page. select the required format. To close a drawing. choose File. and Close Drawings Drawings can be saved for reuse. Print. To do so.CorelDRAW format. you might need to make some changes in it. You can also press Ctrl + Shift + S to open the Save Drawing dialog box. After previewing. you can print the drawing. you can click Yes to save and close the . you’ll need to close it. Print. Saving drawings: When you create designs and drawings. 4 From the Save as type list. After saving a drawing for the first time.8). choose File. Click Print to print with the default settings. Print Preview. • Click the Close button in the upper right corner of the print preview window. If you are working on an existing file.

To close CorelDRAW. You can personalize and customize your calendar dates and specify calendar elements. and specify calendar o r i e n t a t i o n . Exit. d i m e n s i o n s . a n d m a r g i n s . To create a calendar the following steps should be applied. * Select CalendarWizard and click Run. choose File Close All.> Play. Creating a Calender CorelDRAW enables you to create calendars easily and quickly. and click All to include all months of the year or enable the check boxes for corresponding months to create calendars for one or more months. If you are working on a new file. Click on Holidays if you want to add special dates and events. Applications 1. the Calendar Wizard by default generates a calendar in the active project. To do so. date.file. This will display dialog box for the CorelDRAW Visual Basic for Applications Macros. choose File. * Select a layout style from the Layout box. a n d c l i c k A d d / M o d i f y. If you want to customize your page size disable the Create Calendar in. You can also press Alt + F4 or click the Close button on the CorelDRAW window. * Based on the project's orientation and page size. you need to save the file by using the options in the Save Drawing dialog box. and the n a m e o f t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t i n t h e . You can use the Calendar Wizard. Go to Tools -> Visual Basic. * Choose a language In the Calendar language area. Then specify the month. * Click Generate . and choose from 20 different style layout and create single or multiple page calendars automatically. You can also close multiple drawings simultaneously. * Select a year from the Year list box In the Calendar date area.

3. * Delete nodes 4. 9 we now have half of the logo remaining. Designing The NNPC Logo * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle * Draw a rectangle vertically across the circle * Highlight the Rectangle * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list appears) * Click on Rotate to activate the rotate tab type 25 on the angle tab * Click on Apply to Duplicate until rectangle fills the circle * Close the transformation box * Highlight the angles and the circle (Ctrl A) * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on shaping (sub-menu list appears) then click on "Weld to" and click on the centre of Object to weld . 7.2. * Click on your Arrange menu while object is highlighted * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list) click on Scale to activate scale and mirror tab * Click on Mirror boxes H & V to activate * Click on Apply to Duplicate * Use your arrow key to create gap between each half * Close the Transformation dialog box * Fill the first half with Blue and the second with Red. 6. Creating a Zenith Bank Logo * Click on the Text tool * Type Z in Capital Letter while the caps lock is on * Increase the font size to 150 and font type Arial Black * Still Highlighted click on Arrange Menu * Click on convert to curve (Ctrl Q) * Click on your shape tool to activate the node. 8. Notice 10 nodes * Delete node by double clicking on the node or click once and press delete on the keyboard.

* Apply yellow color to the object * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle. Designing a Lipton Label * Click on the Ellipse tool * Hold your Shift key to draw a sphere * Click on the rectangle tool and draw a rectangle horizontally across the sphere * Highlight the both and click on your Arrange Menu * Click on Align and Distribute (Align and Distribute dialog box appears) * Click on Center Horizontal and Vertical * Click on Apply * Click on Arrange Menu again * Click on Shaping (sub-menu list surfaces) click on "Weld to" * Make a duplicate from the original object * Click on your text tool and type LIPTON TEA and colour with deep yellow . apply green colour to it * Create another circle and place inside the first circle and colour with red * Place the both circle in the weld object by using the Align and Distribution * Click on Arrange menu while objects is highlighted * Click on Align and Distribute (align & Distribute dialog box appears) * Click center horizontal and vertical * click on Apply 4.



A spreadsheet is a computer program or a document produced by such a program that we can use for arithmetic computations. Click the All Programs arrow at the bottom left of the Start menu. (f) Breakeven analysis.1 Opening Microsoft Excel To begin Microsoft Excel 2007. click Create. Click the Microsoft Office folder on the Start menu.1a). Go to Start > All Programs > Applications > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Excel (see figure 5. which is very similar to the Windows Vista operating system. Note that these steps along with Figure 5. A spreadsheet offers major advantages over the use of a hand calculator just as a word processing program offers many advantages over typewriting. (d) creating forms and consolidating results. 4. 1. To begin Excel 2010 application the following steps will be applied. Excel is used for a large number of functions. organizing and manipulating data.Chapter 6 Excel Introduction MS Excel stands for MicroSoft's spreadsheet programme that is used for storing. These computations ultimately convert that quantitative data into information. The information produced in Excel can be used to make decisions in both professional and personal contexts. From here a dialog box with various different templates will appear on the screen that you can choose from. Some of the functions for which Excel is widely used includes. 5. (c) corporate budgeting. Click the Start button on the lower left corner of your computer screen. 2. 3. Click the Microsoft Excel 2010 option. .1b "Start Menu" relate to the Windows 7 operating system. Excel is a tool that allows you to enter quantitative data into an electronic spreadsheet to apply one or many mathematical computations. This will start the Excel application. Once a template is chosen. (e) inventory management . This will open the list of Microsoft Office applications. if this does not happen click on the Office Icon > New. When opened a new spreadsheet will pop up on the screen. (a) Managing data records like name list (b) Analysis through pivot tables.

scaling and symbols to charts. Presentation Features • Individual cells and chart text can be formatted to any font and font size supported by Windows. delete and find database records. style and alignment control can be determined. pull down menus. Once Excel is started. A workbook is an Excel file that contains one or more worksheets (sometimes referred to as spreadsheets). There are two main features of MS-Excel . such as . Excel will assign a file name to the workbook. • Supports on screen databases with querying. • Variations in font size. a blank workbook will open on your screen.(a) Starting Excel 2007 (b) Starting Excel 2010 Figure 5. dialog boxes and mouse support. • Worksheets can be printed horizontally or vertically. text.1 Starting Excel Excel incorporates all the user-friendly features of Windows. Easy to use macros and user defined functions. • Permits the user to add. • Full featured graphing and charting facilities. pattern. • Repetitive tasks can be automated with MS-Excel. the analysis and presentation features. Like most of the Windows application in Excel you can minimize or maximize worksheets. extracting and sorting functions. Linking of worksheets. Analysis Features • The windows interface includes windows. edit. • The user can add legends.

depending on how many new workbooks are opened. Book2. .2 "Blank Workbook" shows a blank workbook after starting Excel. This replaces the menu and toolbar system in previous versions of Excel. Maximize and Close buttons. Book3. In the top left corner of the screen. which can comprise a set of related data and chart sheets. The next section down the screen is called the Ribbon. On the far right are the usual Minimize. Book1. at which time you will be asked to supply a real name. • Click on the Start button. Excel has given your work a name. which has a series of tabs under which different commands are grouped. telling you what that button does. Below the Ribbon is the command line. To its right is the Formula Bar. • Select Excel icon from the icon list. Use this to Open or Print your files. • Select Program menu. A blank worksheet labeled Sheet 1 will be displayed and ready for use. To add extra buttons. which only has three buttons on it by default – Save. a tool-tip appears. All the commands now appear as buttons (pictures) on this Ribbon. Figure 5.Book1. which shows you what information is stored in a cell. When you point to a button. the Office Button appears. Figure 5. Undo and Redo. Moving right. The area on the left (showing the characters A1) is the Name Box.2 "Blank Workbook" To Get started with worksheet the following steps apply. This name will change when you save your work in a file. and so on. To the right of this is the Quick Access Toolbar. click on the down arrow on the right and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar.

while the column letter and row number are shown with an orange-brown background. The following steps explain how to navigate through an Excel worksheet.The main body of the screen contains the worksheet. The worksheet has numbers down the side. appears to the right of the sheet tabs.3 Activating a Cell Location . Each cell in an Excel worksheet contains an address. Navigating Worksheets Data are entered and managed in an Excel worksheet. Each intersection of a row and column is known as a cell and has a unique name. You are currently using Sheet1 of Book1. The worksheet contains several rectangles called cells for entering numeric and nonnumeric data. Within the cells it appears as an outlined cross. This can have several different shapes. and letters across the top denoting columns. The mouse cursor should also be visible. denoting rows. some of which you will be meeting later in the course. with its identity shown in the Name Box. for moving left and right. which is defined by a column letter followed by a row number. as denoted by the sheet tab at the bottom. Any information you type is stored in the active cell. Down the right of the screen is the scroll bar. This is denoted by a darker border. The cell in the top left corner is A1 (the intersection of column A and row 1) and is currently the active cell. Figure 5. A horizontal scroll bar. which is used for moving up and down your work.

as shown in Figure 5. Any two cell locations separated by a colon are known as a cell range. and the second cell is the lower right corner of the range. Check to make sure column letter D and row number 5 are highlighted in orange. Click the Sheet1 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet to return to the worksheet shown in Figure 1. Place your mouse pointer over cell D5 and left click.4 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". 4.6 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse pointer back to cell D5.5 "Activating a Cell Location". 3. You should see several cells highlighted. Move the mouse pointer to cell A1. Release the left mouse button. Figure 5. The first cell is the top left corner of the range. 5. 7. as shown in Figure 1.4 Highlighting a Range of Cells 6. 2. Click the Sheet3 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet. . This is referred to as a cell range and is documented as follows: A1:D5.1. This is how you open a worksheet within a workbook.

click any tab on the Ribbon or click the image of the worksheet on the right side of the window. Figure 1.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" to see the image of your worksheet on the right side of the window. which gives you access to settings such as the default font style. . The File tab is also known as the Backstage view of the workbook. new workbooks. or workbooks stored in other locations on your computer or network.5 File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook Included in the File tab are the default settings for the Excel application that can be accessed and modified by clicking the Options button. To leave the Backstage view and return to the worksheet.11 "Excel Options Window" shows the Excel Options window. font size. It contains a variety of features and commands related to the workbook that is currently open. and the number of worksheets that appear in new workbooks.The File Tab The Office button in the 2010 version has been replaced with the File tab on the far left side of the Ribbon. You must click the Info button highlighted in green in Figure 5. 5.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" shows the options available in the File tab or Backstage view. Figure 5.

holding down the left mouse button..g. including · Text data: typically consisting of words or phrases. Note we may enter more text than a cell. functions. 2. can display. and dragging to the desired width or height. in its current configuration. Lock the data by pressing the Enter key. · Numeric constants may be entered as text is entered. 1. the following steps are to be followed. operators of . 3. Data may be entered into the cells of a worksheet in many types.Figure 5. typically not used in arithmetic. typically used for explanation (e.6 Excel Options Window Data Entry in Worksheet To enter the data in a worksheet. We can stretch or shrink a column or row by placing the mouse cursor at the right edge of a column margin header or the bottom edge of a row margin header. These values are typically used in arithmetic. Activate the cell by moving the MS-Excel cursor (rectangular box) or by clicking with the left mouse button. · Formulas are used to describe a calculation whose value is to be displayed in the cell. row or column headers). Enter the data from the keyboard. A formula typically starts with the “=” character and may involve a variety of symbols that may be cell references.

A simple formula combines constant values with operators. Type the formula =B4+B5 then press enter key. etc). For example. The following steps provide an example of entering and then editing data that has been entered into a cell location: Figure 5. Example: To get the sum of cell B4 and B5 in cell B15 4. the data typed appears in the Formula Bar. and constants (numeric. 3. Write the formula starting with equal (=) sign and then press enter key. text. To enter formula in a cell: 1. the formula “=C2-B2” instructs the cell in which it appears to display the result of taking the value in C2 and subtracting the value in B2. Place the cursor in the cell where you want to write the formula 2. The Formula Bar can be used for entering data into cells as well as for editing data that already exists in a cell. as well as “cell ranges”. Place the cursor in cell B15 5. As data is entered into a cell location. such as plus sign or minus sign or other operators in a cell to produce a new value from existing values.arithmetic.7 Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data . Editing Data Data that has been entered in a cell can be changed by double clicking the cell location or using the Formula Bar.

On the Home tab. patterns. To turn text wrapping back on. Click cell A15. This will enter the change into the cell. Type the abbreviation Tot and press the ENTER key. 3.1. You can hover over an icon on the toolbar to see a description of what that option can do. You can also find a number of these actions in the menus or use shortcuts to apply formatting. Select the format you'd like to apply to the range of cells Wrap text: Text within a cell is wrapped by default in work sheets. and thickness • Align text • Merge cells horizontally in selected rows • Wrap text To save time on many of these formatting actions. Click the number format icon in the toolbar or click the Format menu and hover over “Number”. 1. it will wrap onto a second line in the cell. Format data in a range of cells Data can be formatted in a variety of ways using the options in the toolbar. simply click the icon again. 2. Activate cell A15 in the Sheet1 worksheet. 5. If text extends past the length of the cell in your spreadsheet. use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Y to repeat the last action you took in your spreadsheet. 4. click Wrap Text. To format or change the format of numbers. Type the letters al to complete the word Total. follow these steps: 1. Move the mouse pointer up to the Formula Bar. In a worksheet. . Select the range of cells you'd like to format or modify. If you want to turn this feature off. and allow the text to get clipped off in a cell if it is too long. To wrap text automatically. Here are the main formatting options: • Change the number. You will see the pointer turn into a cursor. 2. 6. Click the checkmark to the left of the Formula Bar (see Figure 5. 3. select the cells that you want to format. Move the cursor to the end of the abbreviation Tot and left click. date or currency format • Format cell contents • Change font size • Add bold or strikethrough • Change color of the text or a background color • Add borders and adjust border colors. in the Alignment group. click the wrap text icon in the toolbar.7 "Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data"). 2. dates or currencies in a spreadsheet.

style. Copy and Paste features of Excel can be used to change the data within the spreadsheet. . • Double click the cell and a cursor will appear inside.8). Border: Gives the option to change the design of the border around or through the cells. • Go to the Home Tab > Copy (CTRL + C) or Home Tab > Cut (CTRL + X). To Cut or Copy: • Highlight the data or text by selecting the cells that they are held within. You may change an entry within a cell two different ways: • Click the cell one time and begin typing. This border indicates that it is a selected cell. • Click the location where the information should be placed.Formatting: Working With Cells Cells are an important part of any project being used in Microsoft Excel. a black border will appear around the cell. Font: Gives the option to change the size. The new information will replace any information that was previously entered. Paste is used to insert data that has been cut or copied. To get to the Format Cells dialog box select the cells you wish to change then go toHome Tab > Format > Format Cells. Copy. When changing the format within cells you must select the cells that you wish to format. Explanations of the basic options in the format dialog box are bulleted below. Alignment: This allows you to change the horizontal and vertical alignment of the text within each cell. Formatting Cells: There are various different options that can be changed to format the spreadsheets cells differently. To enter data into a cell simply click once inside of the desired cell. and effects. and to save the time of re-entering information in a spreadsheet. A box will appear on the screen with six different tab options (see figure 5. The text within the cells and the control of the text within the cells can be changed as well. Cells hold all of the data that is being used to create the spreadsheet or workbook. Cut. color. Cut will actually remove the selection from the original location and allow it to be placed somewhere else. • Go to Home Tab > Paste (CTRL + V) to be able to paste your information. to move data from other spreadsheets into new spreadsheets. You may then begin typing in the data for that cell. and Paste: The Cut. Number: Allows you to change the measurement in which your data is used. Copy allows you to leave the original selection where it is and insert a copy elsewhere. This allows you to edit certain pieces of information within the cells instead of replacing all of the data.

Formatting Cells To format a row or column go to Home Tab > Row Height (or Column Height). Figure 5. The cell or cells that are going to be formatted need to be selected before doing this. When changing the row or column visibility (hidden. you will go to the Home Tab and click Format. The drop down menu will show these options Figure 5. unhidden) or autofit. then choose which height you are going to use (Figure 9).8. Formatting Rows and Columns Height .Figure 5.9.9.

11.11). Before you can add a Row you have to select the way place the new row (Rows are on the left hand side of the spreadsheet) once the row is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that is chosen. To insert the row you have to go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Rows (Figure 5.10). Inserting Columns .Adding Rows and Columns When adding a row or column you are inserting a blank row or column next to the already entered data.) Once the column is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that you chose. To insert a column go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Column (Figure 5. The column will automatically be place on the spreadsheet and any data to the right of the new column will be moved more to the right. Figure 5.10. Inserting Rows Before you can add a Column select a column on the spreadsheet that is located in the area that you want to enter the new column. (Columns are on the top part of the spreadsheet. The row will automatically be placed on the spreadsheet and any data that was selected in the original row will be moved down below the new row. Figure 5.

you can have instantaneous calculations whenever changing any information in cells the formula is looking at."BLANK". you could put in cell A2 =A1&" "&B1 which would put cell A1 in with B1 with a space between. 2. * The function tells the spreadsheet what kind of formula it's dealing with. =IF(*) The syntax of the IF statement are =IF(CELL="VALUE" . So a good example of the syntax would be =IF(A1="". you would type: =AVERAGE(A1:A30) =COUNTIF(X:X. * Using the colon (:) will allow you to get a range of cells for a formula. 7. * If a function is being performed the math formula or cells being dealt with are surrounded in parentheses."TEST") put in cell A11 then anywhere between A1 through A10 that has the word test would be counted as 1."*") Count the cells that have a certain value. * All spreadsheet formulas begin with = * After the equal symbol either the cell or formula function is entered. ."NOT BLANK"). of course. =AVERAGE(X:X) Display the average amount between cells. By creating formulas. and "NOT BLANK" if any information was within it.Formulas and Functions Formulas are what helped make spreadsheets so popular. Formula examples = will create a cell equal to another. For example. For example."ELSE PRINT OR DO THIS"). if you have a first name in cell A1 and a last name in cell B1. if you wanted to get the average for cells A1 to A30. become a lot more complicated but can be reduced if following the above structure. if you had =COUNTIF(A1:A10. For example. so if you had 5 cells that had the word test A11 would say 5. For example. 5. You could also create a formula that would make one cell equal to more than one value. 6. 4."PRINT OR DO THIS". this would make any cell besides cell A1 say "BLANK" if a1 had nothing within it. The if statement can. =MEDIAN(A1:A7) Find the median of the values of cells A1 through A7. For example. if you were to put =A1 in B1 what ever was in A1 would automatically be put in B1. four is the median for 1. 3.

6. =SUM(A1*A2) Multiply cells A1 and A2."TEST". If you want to enter a date that doesn't change hold down CTRL and . =SUM(A1+A2) Add the cells A1 and A2. For example =Product(A1:A30) would multiple all cells together. =SUM(A1:A5) Add cells A1 through A5. to enter the date. This value will change to reflect the current date each time you open your spreadsheet."*"X:X) Perform the SUM function only if there is a specified value in the first selected cells.A2. if cells A1 through A6 had 2. An example of this would be =SUMIF(A1:A6. =SUMIF(X:X.X. you would get the value of 2 because each number is going up by 2. =SUM(X:X) The most commonly used function to add.=MIN/MAX(X:X) Multiples multiple cells together. so A1 * A2 * A3. =SUM(A1/A2) Divide cells A1 and A2. it would only add the value in B1 because TEST is in A1. =TREND(X:X) To find the common value of cell. but had numbers in B1 through B6. =SUM(A1. =TODAY() Would print out the current date in the cell entered. or vlookup formula allows you to search and find related valuesfor returned results.A5) Adds cells A1. multiple.X:X. etc. =VLOOKUP(X. For example.4.B1:B6) which only adds the values B1:B6 if the word "test" was put somewhere in between A1:A6. or divide values in cells. Below are some examples.10.12 and you entered formula =TREND(A1:A6) in a different cell.X) The lookup. hlookup. subtract. and A5.8. So if you put TEST (not case sensitive) in A1. See our lookup definition for a complete definition and full details on this formula. =SUM(A2-A1) Subtract cell A2 from A1. A2. .

etc. Modifying a formula in Excel Demands change over time in every occupation. To create the required formula in C2. and we must similarly adapt Excel formulas to meet these demands (calculating expenses. * To include functions in a formula. Example: Create a formula in cell C2 to add the contents of cells A2 and B2. Cell addresses. type + . tax calculations. The following elements gan be used to create a formula: Numeric values. then type = .* / ( ) . left click in A2. left click on the required cell or drag across the required cells. * To include cell addresses in a formula. type these from the keyboard. : etc). (a) inserting formula (a) Adding C2 and A2 Figure 5. Excel immediately adds the contents of cells A2 and B2 and displays the result in C2. Enter numbers in A2 and B2 (eg: 13 and 6).12a marked 1. left click in B2. left click in the cell. etc). monitoring revenues. select the required function from those displayed when you click the down arrow ( ▼ ) next to the Functions box. * To include numerical values and operators in a formula. type = . then press the <Enter> key.). Excel functions (more than 200 available). See figure 5. * To create a formula in a cell. motor vehicle running costs. .Creating Formulas Formulas are used to process numerical data in a worksheet (eg: to calculate a bank account balance . and Operators ( + . left click in C2.12 Including functions in a formula.

Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. The reference A7. A union reference: includes two or more references. We click on the field and we can modify it using the familiar text cursor that appears. The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1. or /. . you can use the SUM function to add. This displays the formula in the formula field. you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations.13 Modifying Formula To modify a formula in Excel apply the following steps using figure 5. cell D3. Understanding Functions Functions are prewritten formulas. such as +. C2. After revising the formula. B1.13: 1. Creating Excel Functions. Using Reference Operators To use functions. and C3. C1. A range reference consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon. Filling Cells. using the mouse. A2. Simply add + 10 to the end of the formula. 3. or cell addresses separated by a comma. There are two types of reference operators: range and union. A2. A union reference consists of two or more numbers. -. and Printing By using functions. A range reference: refers to all the cells between and including the reference. i. A3.Figure 5. 2. to which the formula applies. and A3.10 refers to cells A7. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators. press the Enter key and the revised formula is saved.e. Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. *. When using a function. B3. range references. B2.C9. and the formula in cell D3 is immediately calculated. the highest number. For example. C9 and the number 10. The reference A1:C3 includes cells A1. the lowest number. and a count of the number of items in a list. B8 to B10. you need to understand reference operators. such as finding an average. Click on the cell.B8:B10.

B2:C7) In this function: The equal sign begins the function. Arguments are values on which you want to perform the calculation. Here is an example of a function: =SUM(2.14 SUM function Follow the steps below to apply the sum function. 7. 6. 5. which is 63. * Use a comma to separate arguments. Example 2 The SUM function adds argument values shown in figure 5. Excel will complete the function name and enter the first parenthesis. Type 27 in cell B2. Press Enter. Figure 5. Type 24 in cell B3. double-click on an item in the Auto-Complete list to completes the entry quickly. 4. and B2:C7 are the arguments. 3. * Enclose arguments within parentheses . * Specify the function name . arguments specify the numbers or cells you want to add. Press Enter. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4. 13. the Auto-Complete list appears. 1. After typing the first letter of a function name. SUM is the name of the function. 2.13. Type 12 in cell B1. appears . Open Microsoft Excel.remember the following: * Use an equal sign to begin a formula . For example. 8. 2. 9. A1. The sum of cells B1 to B3. Parentheses enclose the arguments. Press Enter. Commas separate the arguments.14.A1. Press Enter.

The sum of cells C1 to C3.15 as indicated with the encircled numbers. Type 150 in cell C1. Type 65 in cell C3. Choose the Formulas tab. 5. Figure 5. Click the down arrow next to the Borders button . Choose the Home tab. which is 300. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box. 3. 2. Type 85 in cell C2. Click Top and Double Bottom Border. Figure 5. Press Enter. 1.Enter the following also. appears. Move to cell A4. 10.15 Function dialog Steps 11 and 12 describes figure 5. Click Sum in the Select A Function box. The Insert Function dialog box appears.16 illustrates the formatting. 1. Press Enter. 3.15. Click OK. Click the Insert Function button. 4. if it does not automatically appear. 11 Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field. 2. 5. To format the worksheet follow the following steps . 4. 7. Type the word Sum. . Select cells B4 to C4. 6. 12. Click OK. The Function Arguments dialog box appears as shown in figure 5. 6. 9. 8.

4. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3). Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6. appears. 2. Move to cell A6. 3.16 Formatting the work sheet To calculating the average use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers as illustrated in figure 5. Type Average. which is 12.17 Calculating average The following steps apply. 5. Figure 5. Press Enter. . 2. which is 21. 4. appears. 1. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7. The lowest number in the series. The average of cells B1 to B3. Move to cell A7.17. Type = MIN(B1:B3). 3. Type Min. Press Enter.Figure 5. To determine the lowest. highest number and number count do the following. Lowest number: 1.

Type Max. which is 27. 1. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8. 5. 2. 4.18. Press Enter. Click the down arrow next to the AutoSum button The three operations described above is illustrated in figure 5. use the count function to count the number of numbers in a series as follows. Type = MAX(B1:B3). Move to cell A8.Highest Number: Use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers as follows. Figure 5. The highest number in the series. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9. 5. 1. Choose the Home tab. Move to cell A9. Max and count operation .18 Min. appears. Type Count. 4. 2. To count the numbers in a series of numbers. 3. 3.

· Chart should appear · In the design tab under chart layout · Choose layout From figure 5.21 · In the graph double click on chart title and change it to "Force vs Acceleration” · Double click on the x axis title and change it to "Acceleration (m/s2) Note: To superscript the 2 you need to click on the home tab of the main menu and then expand the Font Box so that you can check the superscript box. · · · · Select cells D8 through E17 as shown in figure 5.19 Cell selection From figure 5.19. The following steps and figures explains this.Graphing Data Graphing data is important because it allows us to visualize the relationship between the data and calculated values. We are now going to graph Force vs Acceleration to illustrate data graphing. Select the insert tab from the top of the excel window In the chart box click on Scatter Choose Scater with Markers Only Figure 5. .20.

21 Format trendline . · Add a trendline by right clicking on one of the data points and choosing "Add Trendline" In the add trandline window Figure 5.20 Appearance of layout · Double click on the y axis title and change it to "Force (kg m/s2) Note: Again superscript the 2.Figure 5.

Figure 5.23b · Change Major units to fixed · Change the value to 5 · Click close .23a · Choose format axis · Under the axis Options in figure 5.22. · Select "New Sheet · it "Force vs Acceleration" · Click OK Figure 5.Copying or placing the chart · Click on the trendline equation text box and move it to the upper right hand corner of the graph window. · click on one of the x axis values and then select "Add Major Gridlines" · If you wanted to paste this into a word document you could copy and past the graph from here to the word document. right click on the "y-axis" as shown in figure 5. · Right click on the legend on the right hand side of the graph and select delete. If you are going to print the graph as its own page do the following : · Right click in the lower left hand corner and select "Move Chart.22 Placing the chart Formatting the axis · In the new window.

after you choose Column Chart . a three-dimensional chart. There are further sub-types within each of these categories. start by entering the numeric data for the chart on a worksheet. Excel supplies a brief description of each chart sub-type. you can choose to have your chart represented as a two-dimensional chart. bar. the chart will automatically update.If Excel is already open on your workstation open a new .(a) Format axis drop box (b) Axis options Figure 5. or bar. Launch Excel . As the data is changed. a cone chart. execute the following steps. and scatter. To create a chart in Excel. or a pyramid chart. line. Then plot that data into a chart by selecting the chart type that you want to use on the Office Fluent Ribbon (Insert tab. choose a chart sub-type. Select a chart type by choosing an option from the Insert tab's Chart group. For example. column.23 Formatting the axis Creating Charts Charts are used to display series of numeric data in a graphical format to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationship between different series of data. 1. To create a line chart. pie. The basic procedure for creating a chart is the same no matter what type of chart you choose. On the Insert tab there are a variety of chart types to choose from. a cylinder chart. such as column. As you roll your mouse pointer over each option. Charts group). line. area. After you choose a chart type.

Excel workbook. · Use a keyboard combination: on a Windows computer use Ctrl + N. Click on the New Workbook button. only the names of fruit and the numbers. 5. 2. You can also click on the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. From the Chart Wizard box that opens select Chart type. See figure 5. I selected pie . Table 1 Raw Data 3. Enter the data to be graphed. Select New. Select the Chart Wizard. For this activity.24. Highlighted data should look like what we have in table 2. Highlight data to be graphed. We will use the data in table 1. There are three ways to do that. That is done by going to the Insert menu and selecting Chart. · Go to the File menu. If your worksheet looks like the one above. Do not include the row with heading titles. click hold the mouse button down and drag to cell B7. · Go to the Standard toolbar. put your cursor in call A2. Table 2 Highlighted Data 4.

· Select Finish and Chart Wizard puts your completed chart on the spreadsheet. click and hold your mouse pointer down on the Press and Hold button to see what the data looks like in the chart type selected.24 Chart wizard After selecting the Chart type. Shown in figure 5. After selecting the chart type two options will be available: · Select Next and let Chart Wizard show you a series of options to make changes to your chart.25.25 . Figure 5.Figure 4. Another chart type can be selected.

It is pointing to the small box at the end of the line where the Data range is displayed. The dialog box shrinks allowing you to see your entire spreadsheet. make changes on the legend.27. click on the box the cursor is pointing to. Figure 5.The second step taken by Chart Wizard is to verify the range of data being used for this chart.26. You can edit the data range in this small window.26 Chart options Select Next to move to the final dialog box which allows you to see the chart as a new sheet or place it on one of the sheets in your workbook as shown in figure 5. When you are finished.27 Chart Location . Select Next to go to the dialog box in figure 5. This box allows you to add a title to the chart. or make changes on the data labels. If the data range should be changed.” Notice where the cursor is located in the dialog box above. Figure 5. The Data range displayed below is read "all cells from A2 to B7. click the same box at the end to restore the window.

Click the Header & Footer button in the Text group. right. Excel will place the page number in the upper-right corner. A context tab is a tab that only appears when you need it. Your worksheet changes to Page Layout view and the Design context tab appears. 3. Choose the Insert tab. Click the Go To Footer button. the Design context tab appears and Excel changes to Page Layout view.23 Figure 5. right.Create Headers and Footers A header is text that appears at the top of every page of your printed worksheet. When you print your document. Type your name. where you place your information determines whether it appears on the left. When you click the Header & Footer button. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page of your printed worksheet. 6. You use the Go To Header and Go To Footer buttons on the Design tab to move between the header and footer areas of your worksheet. Click Page Number in the Header & Footer Elements group. or center of the printed page. Page Layout view structures your worksheet so that you can easily change the format of your document. When you choose a Header or Footer from the Header & Footer Elements group. 2. You can type in your header or footer or you can use predefined headers and footers. When you print your document. 7. and center. Excel will place your name in the upper-left corner. To insert Headers and Footers as shown in figure 5. Excel moves to the footer area. .23 Inserting Header and Footer 1. Click the right side of the header area. 5. 4. Both the header and footer areas are divided into three sections: left. Click the left side of the Header area.

the shortest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. Printing The simplest way to print is to click the Office button. top. Paper. When using Print Preview. Among other things. and your document prints. If you click the Page Setup button while in Print Preview mode. left. You set print options on the Page Layout tab. Paper comes in a variety of sizes. you can set page settings such as centering your data on the page. you will see margin lines on your document. 7. bottom. and select your paper size. If you are not using 8 1/2 by 11 paper. is longer on one edge than it is on the other. Dotted lines appear on your screen. Most business correspondence uses 8 1/2 by 11 paper. you can use the Size option on the Page Layout tab to change the Size setting. The Margin option on the Page Layout tab provides several standard margin sizes from which you can choose. You can click and drag the margin markers to increase or decrease the size of your margins. There are two page orientations: portrait and landscape. you can set your margins. The Print Preview option can be to print. click the Close Print Preview button. Margins define the amount of white space that appears on the top. If you check the Show Margins check box. Click the Footer button. you can use the Next Page and Previous Page buttons to move forward and backward through your document. If your document is several pages long. Excel will place the path to your document at the bottom of every printed page. you can see onscreen how your printed document will look when you print it. Portrait is the default option. the longest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. left. To print specific pages. To return to Excel. which is the default page size in Excel. and right edges of your document. set your page orientation. Set Print Options There are many print options. . You can enter the number of copies you want to print in the Number of Copies field. Click the path to your document. and then click Quick Print in the Preview and Print the Document pane. A menu appears. You can choose to print the entire worksheet or specific pages. highlight Print on the menu that appears. If you print in Portrait. The dotted lines indicate the right.6. such as paper sized 8 1/2 by 11. and bottom edges of your printed pages. enter the page numbers in the From and To fields. The Print dialog box appears when the print button is clicked. If you print in Landscape.

Chapter 7
Microsoft Access
7.1 Introduction
The value any database can provide is to store related information in one
place, and then let you connect various different things (sometimes called
"entities" in database) together. Microsoft Access is an information
management tool that helps in the storage of information for reference,
reporting, and analysis. Microsoft Access helps in analyzing large amounts of
information, and manage related data more efficiently than Microsoft Excel or
other spreadsheet applications. Microsoft Access works in the same manner
any database does, by storing related information together, and letting you
create connections (commonly called relationships) between different things.
The relationships between two different things in MSAccess can be as simple
as a contact at a customer and the customer itself or complex. Data is stored
in Microsoft Access tables likened to a mini-spreadsheets that store only one
type of thing. A table can have many fields likened to the columns in
spreadsheet. Each field in a table can be set up to allow or prevent users from
entering certain information, for example, you could say one field only accepts
dates, another can only allow a user to enter a numeric value, while another
lets them enter anything they want. Once you have the MS Access tables,
fields, and relationships set up, you can create data entry forms that use those
tables to store your information and later create reports with the data. Some
of the major benefits to using a database are:
Fewer errors and inconsistencies: Maintaining one version of the truth for the
things you need to track minimizes the potential for duplication, errors, and
inconsistent values.
Higher productivity: When working in database you need only change a single
record and all other related things in the database will automatically "see" the
Security and Control: Databases provide a central location to store, secure,
and control your data. Microsoft Access includes the ability to encrypt and
password protect database files.
Better Decisions and Insight: Perhaps most importantly, a single source of
truth in a standardized format means you can gain better insight and make
better decisions by reporting and analyzing your data in a database.
7.2 Features of MS Access
Microsoft Access is a database and, more specifically, a relational database.

Access has an .mdb extension by default, although this has changed in
Access 2007 where the extension is now an accdb extension. Early versions
of Access cannot read accdb extensions but Microsoft Access 2007 can read
and change earlier versions of Access. The Microsoft® Access Database is
made up of 7 major components namely the tables, relationships, queries,
forms, reports, macros and modules.The following gives a quick overview of
each component.
Tables: The tables are the backbone and the storage container of the data
entered into the database. If the tables are not set up correctly, with the correct
relationships, then the database may be slow, gives the wrong results or not
react the way we want it to. Queries, forms, etc. are usually based on a table.
The tables that contain data look a bit like a table in Microsoft® Word or a
Microsoft® Excel Spreadsheet, when opened. They have columns and rows
as does a table in Microsoft® Word and an Excel worksheet. Each of the
columns will have a field name at the top and each of the rows will represent a
Relationships: Relationships are the bonds you build between the tables.
They join tables that have associated elements. To do this there is a field in
each table, which is linked to each other, and have the same values.
Queries: These the means of manipulating the data to display in a form or a
report. Queries can sort, calculate, group, filter, join tables, update data,
delete data, etc. Their power is immense. The Microsoft® Access database
query language is SQL (Structured Query Language). The need to know SQL
is not required in the early stages of learning Access. Microsoft® Access
writes the SQL for you, after you tell it what you want, in the Design view of the
queries window.
Forms: Forms are the primary interface through which the users of the
database enter data. The person who enters the data will interact with forms
regularly. The programmer can set the forms to show only the data required.
By using queries, properties, macros and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications),
the ability to add, edit and delete data can also be set. Forms can be set up and
developed to reflect the use they will be required for.
Reports: Reports are the results of the manipulation of the data you have
entered into the database. Unlike forms, they cannot be edited. Reports are
intended to be used to output data to another device or application, i.e. printer,
fax, Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel.
Macros: Macros are an automatic way for Access to carry out a series of
actions for the database. Access gives you a selection of actions that are

A field only has 1 datatype. change values of a field. run queries. Advanced users of Microsoft® Access tend to use VBA instead of Macros. the list is almost endless. Modules: Modules are the basis of the programming language that supports Microsoft® Access. 7. etc. Example #1) Students Example #2) Teachers Field: Fields are the different categories within a Table. There can be multiple tables in a database. Macros can open forms.carried out in the order you enter. Example #1) Student LastName Example #2) Student FirstName Datatypes: Datatypes are the properties of each field. Tables usually contain multiple fields.mdb Table: A table is a collection of data about a specific topic.1Database hierarchy Database File: This is your main file that encompasses the entire database and that is saved to your hard-drive or floppy disk. FieldName) Student LastName Datatype) Text .3 Microsoft Access Hierarchy Description Microsoft Access is a powerful program to create and manage your databases. Example) StudentDatabase. Figure 6. run other Macros. The module window is where you can write and store Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Figure 6.1 shows the Hierarchy that Microsoft Access uses in breaking down a database.

For example. After opening the Access application.4 Starting MS Access The first step is to start the MS Access DBMS software. (a) Office 2003 (b) Office 2010 Figure 6.2 Starting MS Access Creating a New Database 1. Figure 6. Different version of Windows comes with different version of the Windows Office suite. Under the Blank Database section. However.3 Creating a Database .2b. Figure 6. type the file name My First Database. which is part of the Microsoft Office Professional suite. you will see slight variations in the labeling of the MS Office components. The sequence is the same for all MS Office versions. select Blank Database. 2. nevertheless.2a shows Office 2003 labels. the basics remain the same. The screen is likely to differ in detail from the office 2010 in Figure 6. in the File Name field.7. follow the sequence Start/All Programs/Microsoft Office/Microsoft Access. To start Microsoft Access.

and closing a database.4 The work area The Access Interface consists of various tools: Office Button: Located in the top left corner of the office window frame. opening. This new feature of Access 07 is the replacement for the . but can be moved below the ribbon. It remains visible at all times.3. publishing.5 Access User Interface access user interface is shown in figure 6. Click on the Create button 7.4. Ribbon: Contains task-specific commands grouped together under command tabs. printing. By default. Quick Access Toolbar: The Quick Access Toolbar can be customized to hold your most frequently used commands. reducing the need to search for the proper command tab. saving. managing. it resides above the ribbon. emailing. Access Options assists you in customizing the Access environment. A list of the most recently viewed documents allows quick access to databases you are currently working on. Figure 6. this button displays a set of commands for creating a new database.

. Dialog Box Launcher: Miniature buttons found on command tabs provides additional commands and tools associated with the group.former menus and toolbars. Regardless of which method is used. the frame can be customized to show additional features such as database views. At the top of figure 6. and reports because each object uses the fields and records from a table as the basis for its output. There are three ways to create a table. A table consists of fields and records. The Window Frame was previously known as the status bar. fields can always be modified after the table is created. Enable the full content if you are sure the database is virus-free.4 with Tabs and Ribbons that automatically appear for the area in the Access work area. the Table Design option which creates a table in the design view where the field attributes are displayed. The user can assign names to fields and specify a property of each data type accordingly. Security features cause the message bar to appear below the ribbon when you open a database outside of a trusted location. Caps Lock. The default Objects selection is Tables and that the default table format is Create table in Design view. or Num Lock.4 the Table Tools and Datasheet Tabs appears. using the Table option which creates the table and directly displays the blank fields. Navigation Pane: Displays database objects such as tables. forms. Can be customized to display objects by various groupings. queries. 7. forms. When you click the Create button the Access 2007 screen will change to the image in figure 6. Scroll Lock. The Table Design option provides the most control over the design of the table. The intersection of a field and a record is a data cell where information relevant to that particular field for that particular record is entered. Creating a table is always the precursor to other objects such as queries. MS Office Window Frame: Located at the bottom of the user interface. and reports. or by using the Table Templates option which allows the user to create a table based on predefined designs.6 Creating the Tables Tables The basic building block of a database is the table.

On the left of the Table Tools-Datasheet Tab/Ribbon is the View button. Field names are usually assigned first and then the field properties are specified in the Field Properties pane. A Save As menu screen will appear similar to figure 6. If field names are not assigned. our selection will be the Design View selection.Provide a name in the Table Name box and then click the OK button. Click the Table Design button in the Tables group (see Figure 6. Unlike a table created using the Table option. .5 Table Name A table created using the Table Design gives the user the most control over the design of a database. tables created with the Table Design option do not have an "ID" field. When you click the View button the Datasheet and Design View dropbox will appear. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon.4 Tabs and Ribbons The Ribbon below these Tabs is composed of Groups of selections to assist in creating the Table. Access assigns the default name a field number.5.6). Figure 6. To create a table using the Table Design option: 1. Figure 6. 2. Assuming we want to create or design a new Table.

Click a field in the new record and enter data as desired. Use the rows and columns to enter field names. Other Ways to Add a New Record: If the New record row is in view. The bottom pane is the Field Properties pane. and field descriptions. It allows a user to explain or describe the type of information entered in the field. To add a record. Press <Tab> or <Shift> + <Tab> keys. data types. 3. The record selector jumps to the blank row at the end of the table and the blinking insertion point appears in the first column. Press the [enter] key and the Data Type text box will become active. editing. Double click inside the Field Name text box and enter the desired field name. Designate the Data Type for each field by clicking the Data Type drop-down arrow and selecting the type from the drop-down menu. 1.Figure 6. The top pane is the Design Grid pane. Field descriptions are entered by clicking inside the Description text box for a specific field. Access automatically saves the information as you enter it. After creating a table.6 Table Design View Window The Table Design View window is split into two panes. 1. The default data type is Text. . Click the New Record button on the Record Navigation bar. To quickly move between fields in a record. The Datasheet View window is useful for entering. As you enter data. 2. or deleting records. simply click in that row. the Datasheet View can be used to manage information entered into the table. Using the Description column is optional. 2. 6.

Queries can be used to analyze data. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. Press the <Delete> key. criteria to retrieve the desired information. Click the Yes button. The Design View window opens in the Object Display Area along with the Show Table dialog box (see Figure 6. and whether a field is displayed when the query is run. More than one table can be selected. they hold or save the criteria used to select the data from the table(s). Click the field you want to edit and make the changes.To edit a record. 1. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon. A query can be used to specify desired fields and criteria to display information from a table. Click the Query Design button in the Other group (see Figure 6. The Query Design window consists of top and bottom pane. or other queries. 7. The top pane displays the table(s) used in the query. Queries are different from tables even though the interfaces of tables and queries are very similar to each other. Other Ways to Delete a Record: Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. This section will demonstrate how to create a query using the Design View or the Simple Query Wizard. If the table related to a query is deleted (intentionally or unintentionally) the query will no longer function. 2. display specific information. and serve as the basis for forms or reports.7 Queries A query is a request to select specific information from a table(s). Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. A table must exist before a query or any other database object can be created. The bottom pane specifies the fields used in the query.7). sort parameters in the query (ascending or descending order). related tables.8). . Creating a query in Design View: gives the user control over the design of the query including adding or deleting criteria to selected records and sorting results in the record set. 2. Queries do not hold any data. To delete records that you no longer need from a table. To create a simple query using the Query Design window: 1. click the Delete button in the Records group and click the Yes button.

See figure 6. 4.9.Figure 5. Type "CA" in the text box for the "State/Province" field. Figure 6. The fields are added to the bottom pane. Double click the column names to use in the query. This sets the criteria for the query.8 Table dialog box 3. Figure 6.9 Setting query criteria . For example let us extract all customers in the state of 'CA'.7 'Query Design' Selection Select the table to use in the query and then click the 'Add' button. Each column will drop into the query design grid.

12) 8. If the query has not been named.10). Click the RUN button in the Results group(see figure 6. Only records for classes that meet on CA criteria will be displayed. Enter a name for the query in the QUERY NAME text box.11 Returned Records 6. The Save As dialog box opens (See figure 6. The query will execute according to the criteria entered and the results will be displayed in the Object Display Area . Close the query by clicking the Close button in the query window of the Object Display Area. Click the YES button to save the query. 7. 'Run' button Figure 6. Figure 6.5. Removing the criteria from the query grid would return all records Figure 6.10 Run' button on the Ribbon 3 records have been returned for the state of 'CA' (see Figure 6. a warning box will open.11).12 Save As dialog box 'Run' butto .

forms cannot be created without a pre-existing table. A new form containing all of the fields from the table will open in the Object Display Area(See figure 6. which eliminates the need to scroll to display all the fields in a table. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. All of the information in a record will be displayed on the form. Forms can also be used to present data in a more attractive and efficient format than a datasheet and also to display data from related tables.7. 2.12). When creating a form. All fields for one record can be viewed at the same time. To create a form using the Form Tool: 1.12 Form groups Forms created using the Form Tool will contain the Record Navigation Control identical to those found on a table.8 Forms Forms can be used to view and edit data in a record.13 Form created using Form Tool . Select the table that will be the basis for the form in the Object Display Area. Creating a form using the form tool: The Form Tool is the quickest way to create a form in Access. Figure 6. 3. Figure 6. Click the Form button in the Forms group (see Figure 6. The Form Tool uses all of the fields in the data source and arranges them automatically on a form.12). it is important to remember that a table is the basis for all objects including forms. Forms can be created from either the Form Design window or by using the Form Tool.

15 Figure 6. To create a report. Here we click on the 'Customers' table and it becomes highlighted (See figure 6.To save the form: 1.15 The Report Wizard. 2. 3. The tabular report looks similar to the format of tables with the field names listed at the top and their values beneath the field names. The information from the tables and/or queries can also be arranged so that the report may be utilized as an invoice. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. 1. or for formatting and printing mailing labels. the Design View or with the Report Wizard.14 Navigation plane and the Create Tab on the Ribbon 3. (a) Navigation Plane (b) Create Tab Figure 6. Enter a name for the form in the text box.14a). At the reports section click on the item called 'Report Wizard' as shown in figure 6. There are two basic formats for reports: columnar and tabular. . A Report can be created using the Report Tool. The Save As dialog box opens.9 Reports A report can be created based on either a table or query object(s). At the Ribbon make sure the 'Create' tab is selected (See figure 6. 7. Click the OK button. order form. The columnar report orients field names to the left and their values to the right as in a column form. Figure 51 is an example of a report in tabular format. Reports can include headers and footers in which subtotals and totals can be calculated and displayed. 2.14b). Reports provide a means to display and summarize the data in tables or queries. presentation. Click on a table in the navigation pane.

grouping. Quick Print. it is best to preview the report to see how the text appears on each page. The Print Preview feature displays the pages as they will appear when printed. In the left box double click the field you wish to show on the report. fields selected.16 Query to base report Any aspect of the report (i. 5. Printing options in Access are accessed by clicking the Office Button and hovering the mouse over the Print button to display the options available. See figure 6. Access prints the report using the formatting and margin settings. Click the 'Finish' button. The . Table/Query Fields Figure 6.1 Printing Reports The report can be printed after it is created. which allows the user to view the report in final form before printing. Previewing a report: Before printing.4. Using the Print Preview feature can avoid wasting time and paper by viewing the draft version of the report. which sends the entire report to the printer without opening the Print dialog box.. Print Preview opens with one page of the document sized to fit in the window. The item will move to the box on the right.9. Select the table or query to base the report on.e. Click the button to complete the report. data source. and Print Preview.17a) and allows the user to change printer settings. layout.16. You can also use the arrow keys to move fields between the two boxes. The options available in the Print menu of the Office Button include Print which opens the Print dialog box(See figure 6. The report will open in the Object Display Area 7. or style) can be changed by clicking the button until the appropriate dialog box opens and making the changes. sorting.

Open the report to be printed. Table relationships can be created between two tables as long as they have a common field (in the example database. 7.17c).10 Setting the Relationships between Tables A Relationship is how you tell the program that a piece of information means the same thing in more than one table. Contacts should have a relationship to Reservations because they both contain the field ContactID). 2. To exit Print Preview. Relationships are created using a Primary Key from one table and linking it to a related field in another table (now called a Foreign Key). Click the Office Button. Click the Close Print Preview button in the Preview group (see Figure 6. 6. select the Preview tab of the Ribbon. 5. 4. Hover the mouse over the Print button to display the printing options (see Figure 58). The Zoom slider control is present only when the report is open. To use Print Preview: 1.17b). Once a relationship is established you can view information from both tables at the same time by creating a query.17a. 3. . Setting the relationship up in Access is very important. Click the Print Preview option in figure 6.17 Printing a Report located at the bottom right corner of the interface (see Figure 6.(a) (b) ( c) (d) Figure 6.

Click on CLOSE. Click on the RELATIONSHIPS button in the datasheets ribbon. To create a relationship between tables the following steps applies. is the One to Many relationship.) 4. 2. These include: One to One One to Many Many to Many The relationship type you will come across most frequently.Access 2007 allows for several different types of relationships. 1. Select one of the desired tables in the relationship and click on ADD. 3. (The show table window appears automatically if no relationships have been defined. and the one created in our bookstore scenario. . Make sure that your tables are closed and that you are at the database screen. Repeat for each table involved in a relationship that you need to set up. Click on the SHOW TABLE button.

The Customers table should appear in the Relationships field: 7. 9. . In the Show Table window. Double-click Orders. double-click Employees. The Employees table should appear in the Relationships field: 8.5. Double-click Order Details.

10. click the Close button. Double-click Products. In the Show Tables window. 11. The Relationships field should now look like this: .

The OLE data type is still available. You can have more than one file attached to a record. Press [DELETE] on the keyboard. memo.To Edit Relationships 1.18 Attachment Dialog Box . 7. Open the Relationships window. The new data type attachment however. Click once on the line connecting the two tables. Make any changes to the dialog box and click OK. Open the Relationships window. It can store documents. 2. Figure 6. The complete list of data types available to define a field in a table in Access 2007 now include text. including all kinds of Office files and binary objects. To Delete Relationships 1. 3. etc. The hyperlink data type allows for storage of hyperlinks and the field can be a solution for the indirect method discussed previously. Individual files cannot be more than 256 MB though. Double-click on the line connecting the two tables. date/time. 2. and you can use it the old manner. is the right type for storing images. The line will become bold. 3.11 Adding Images to Access Access 2007 introduced a data type called "attachment". A field created with this data type can have up to 2 GB storage allocated. numbers.

Change your view to "Design View" by clicking the "Design View" button on the top bar of Access 2007. Select "Insert Object. Click ''Datasheet View" on the top toolbar so that you return to your normal view." That is how you insert a file into Access. Click "Create From File" and select to "Browse" for your file. This brings up a sub-menu. for the field the image will be in. JPEG.") 3. BMP (Windows Bitmap). 5. name it and set the data type as "attachment". RLE (Run Length Encoded Bitmap). If you are starting a new database file. remember to create a field for the same. Simply open the table. Use the drop-down menu in the "Data Type" column to select "OLE Object.18 appears. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format). DIB (Device Independent Bitmap). you do not need a data entry form. 1. PNG (Portable Network Graphics). Open Access 2007. Click "OK. Viewing attachments also does not need the use of a form. title it "Images. To add attachments to a table. JPG. ICON. Right-click on any empty field on your database." You will see a single table. TIFF. Type a field name. WMF (Windows Metafile) and EMF (Enhanced Metafile) To attach an image file to an access database appy the following steps." A new window opens with your "Insert Object" options." 2. TIF (Tagged Image File Format). Select the image file that you want to add. go to the right record.Whenever you need a field that can hold images and other attachments. Double click the attachments field and the attachments dialog box in figure 6. select "New. Office Access 2007 supports the following graphic file formats natively. and double click the specific icon of the attachment (as there can be multiple attachments in a attachment field). EXIF (Exchangeable File Format). 4. ICO (Icon). 6. Instead open the table in the datasheet view. titled "Table 1. The dialog box lets you look through your directory for the file to be attached." . (For example. The document will open in the associated program. meaning the attachment control renders them without the need for additional software. JPE (Joint Photographic Experts Group).

apart from IP addresses.1 The Internet and World Wide Web.Chapter 8 Social Aspects of Computing 8. Mobile devices and Computer Supported Cooperative Work are used to introduce the social implications of remote. World Wide Web (Web) communications are transmitted via the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and e-mails via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). a unique numeric identifier that can be "static".e. enabling different types of Internet communications. i. to download a Web page. the Internet Protocol (IP). We will introduce some key technologies that will have a profound impact upon the way that we live and emphasize the complex social consequences that these technologies will have upon the way that we live. The Internet is a global network of many individual computer networks. For instance. For the purpose of understanding the central message we shall illustrate the social aspects of computing using the internet. a computer that offers Web pages for download is called an HTTP server or Web host. Every computer connected to the Internet has an IP address.. http://www. or both. depending . mobile devices and computer supported cooperative work. unchanging. teleworking and of the team based use of computers to coordinate group you need its Web address. To exchange e-mails. security and safety. all speaking the same computer language. client. For example. Safety is used to introduce the consequences of our increased reliance upon fallible programmers and their products. More sophisticated networking protocols may be "layered" on top of the IP protocol.g. Computers that offer files for download over the Internet are called servers or hosts. or may be "dynamically" assigned by your ISP. Any computer may be server. The Internet is used to introduce the social implications of a world population that is either 'information rich' or 'information poor' ('computer literate' or 'computer illiterate'?).g.0 Introduction This chapter is intended to introduce the social implications of computing technology. known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (e. These additional protocols use their own types of For example. both the sender and recipient need e-mail addresses (e. such that your computer's address changes with each new Internet session. user@emailprovider. 8. Security is used to introduce the technological and social threats posed by our reliance upon heavily interconnected systems.eff..

Switzerland. Hypertext links refer to other documents by their URLs. telephone systems were designed to carry the human voice rather than the binary. menus.g. On the WWW everything (documents. Telnet or news. These problems are being reduced by the introduction of digital networks. These can refer to local or remote resources accessible via FTP. However. digital signals of computer networks. For example. The amount of data in an Internet communication is measured in bytes. Following the widespread availability of web browsers and servers. . There are. that is non-digital. Communications to and from an Internet-connected computer occur through 65. The client program (known as a browser).on the communication. NCSA Mosaic. however. many areas of the world that are not covered by these facilities. use several different systems. Most clients and servers also support "forms" which allow the user to enter arbitrary text as well as selecting options from customizable menus and on/off switches. translate user request for information into the communications primitives that are necessary to transfer relevant data from remote servers. as well as those available via the http protocol used to transfer hypertext documents.536 different computer software "ports. many companies from about 1995 realized they could use the same software and protocols on their own private internal TCP/IP networks giving rise to the term "intranet"." Many networking protocols have been assigned to particular port numbers by the Internet Engineering Task Force. e. Netscape Navigator. Those areas that are covered. and these are only conventions The World Wide Web is an Internet client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva. A variety of client and server software is freely available. HTTP (Web) is assigned to port 80 and SMTP (e-mail) is assigned to port 25. Application or client programs. runs on the user's computer and provides two basic navigation operations: to follow a link or to send a query to a server. The only problems concern the reliability of the system. Gopher.2 Mobile Computing and Groupware Mobile computation can take place over larger distances using cellular and satellite telephone links. 8. indices) is represented to the user as a hypertext object in HTML format. called browsers. These systems use modems in the same way that many users use a modem to connect up over standard telephone networks. any port can be used for any application. Errors can be introduced because analogue.

Radio-based communication also suffers from: signal fade due to adverse atmospheric conditions. It can also include elements of groupware if they have to cooperate with their colleagues over the network. If the user moves from one cell to another then their 'calls' are passed between transceivers. users will continue to suffer the delays. unintentional electromagnetic interference. the area to be covered is divided into a number of cells. These enable groups of users to remotely log-in to their place of work. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks provide means of firing multimedia data at high speeds across local and wide are networks. There is a trade-off between the volume of information that a radio signal can carry and the distance that the signal will travel. Where communications infrastructure on the Internet supports relatively low quality video conferencing. humancomputer interaction. these systems avoid the irritations that can arise when three or more people try to communicate over the same phone line. Another class of systems supports teleworking. Teleworking can combine elements of mobile computation if the user is moving around the country as they work. In particular. There are multi-user conferencing systems. interference from other devices using the same channel and variable signal strength due to movement of the device. In the case of video conferencing systems. to full-blown video conferencing systems. In this system. Until such problems are addressed. Groupware refers to computer programs that are intended to help several different people work together on a common product.Cellular Architectures: Radio technology offers perhaps the most obvious means of connecting mobile devices. Groupware covers a vast range of computer applications: · Conferencing systems. Each cell has its own transceiver (transmitter-receiver). group text-editors even `virtual' universities. These systems range from simple messaging applications where textual messages may appear below the user's name. High frequency signals carry more information but are susceptible to interference and dispersion. delays may interrupt both images and sound. the intention is to reduce the problems that can arise during telephone conversations. Another term that is commonly used for these applications is CSCW systems (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). Low frequency signals carry less information but will travel over longer distances. They need not be physically present in their office. broken connections and interruptions that frustrate mobile. This approach exploits the cellular systems that currently support mobile 'phones. . there are important visual cues about who wants to talk next etc. In either case.

· Command and control systems. They help groups of programmers to develop code. The following can be done while surfing the net.· Multi-user text editors. the various operators must cooperate to preserve the safety of an application. When you think of the Internet. These systems enable groups of users to simultaneously edit the same document. Hypertext links these files together. you probably think of ". if two different groups have to work on different sections of a joint publication. If both groups can access the most recent version that the other group is working on then these problems may be avoided. Confusion would result if one user tried to shut-down a component while another tried to start it up and many more. they might provide information about the data types that must be used in two different areas of a program. Although many different browsers are available. When you launch your web browser a predefined web page appears. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox are by far the most popular. This is important. Online Learning etc. the web servers that host the information each have a unique numerical address. The World Wide Web as a vast collection of electronic files stored on millions of computers all around the world. The battle between the two browsers to . Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate the files. These are Computer-Aided Software Engineering systems. They may also help teams to work out where their colleagues are currently concentrating within a system. Using a web browser causes data to be stored on your computer and logs to be stored on the web servers you visit. without having to retype them. and frequently transmits unencrypted information. · CASE tools.3 Surfing the Web A website has one or more related web pages. Web Browsers: Web browsers are software on your machine that communicate with servers or hosts on the Internet. Job Hunt Online. for example. Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses so you can return to them quickly. Finding Cheaper Textbooks. Again. This page is referred to as the home page or start page." In order to locate online data. The alternative would be to send and re-send different drafts between the various sites. These applications include computer interfaces to systems on-board aircraft or within power generation systems. Each site would then be unsure about whether they had the most recent copy or whether it was `in the post'. enabling you to jump between them by clicking on a link. depending on how it is designed. Online Shopping. Web pages on a site are linked together through a system of hyperlinks. For example.

IP Addresses: Whenever your browser fetches a page. Web servers usually see and retain a large amount of information about what you do when you surf to them. HTTPS is a more secure alternative to HTTP. 8. so downloading may take hours. the browser and operating system you are using. (2) that the page cannot be modified by third parties. the website to record the IP address of the computer you are using. (2) there is a lock icon in the corner of the browser. when you access a web page. HTTPS encrypts pages. ensure that you are using HTTPS. Check three indicators to ensure that you're at an HTTPS page: (1) the URL begins with https://. image or script from a website. you will undoubtedly encounter many different types of electronic file formats. If a site does not support HTTPS. HTTPS: Most sites on the web are accessed using the unencrypted HTTP protocol. can be very large. but also information that might identify you: your IP address.dominate the market has led to continuous improvements to the software. depending on the . You need to identify the file type to know whether it will work on your computer.1 Downloading data and Files: Almost everything you do on the Web is some form of downloading. do not send sensitive information to it. and (3) the URL/location bar is colored. and to track the state of a multi-step transaction such as a reservation or shopping cart purchase. HTTP is susceptible to eavesdropping. what that previous site/page was. your account if you are logged in to the site. Media files. especially full length movies. For instance. if you type any information into a form on a web page (such as a search engine).3. and even to intermediaries that might set out to modify the pages a browser is fetching. A web server must be configured to support HTTPS properly before you can use it. Cookies: Cookies are pieces of information that a web site can send to your browser Cookies are the most common mechanisms used to record the fact that a particular visitor has logged in to an account on a site. and attempts to ensure three things: (1) that third parties cannot see the contents of the page. the server will record not only what you sent it. As a result. it is not possible to block all cookies without losing the ability to log into many sites and perform transactions with others. and cookies that were created when you previously looked at pages on the site. When downloading content from the Web. For instance. (3) that the page was really sent by the web server listed in the URL bar. you are actually downloading a text document and all its associated graphics from a web server. If there is a site you are sending a sensitive information to. whether you followed a link from another web page to get to the page.

1.1 illustrates the typical steps messages might travel through.A series of installation screens directs you through the process. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and its free cousin GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG) are the standard tools for doing this. create a Temporary Files folder by opening Windows Explorer. click on the link to begin the download process.If you are really bored. verify. name it Temp files. 4. Close all programs that are running. then locate the Temp file folder on your hard drive and double-click to open it. To speed things up. encrypt and decrypt email messages. Follow these simple steps for downloading software. Click the Save button. although the tools for achieving this kind of end-to-end encryption are getting better and easier to use. except Windows Explorer. 2. Next.Once you locate the software you want to download. After the download is finished. plug-ins. The usual measures apply to managing the copies of emails (both sent and received) that are kept on your own machines. the transmission protocols used for those steps. you have to install the software. games or any other files from the Internet. New programs are usually installed in the Program files folder. click the Save button. 3. Major email clients such as Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla Thunderbird can be configured to work smoothly with encryption software. 5.After the software is installed. Email usually travels through a number of separate hops between the sender and receiver. and the available types of encryption for those steps. End-to-End Encryption of Specific Emails Encrypting emails all the way from the sender to the receiver has historically been difficult.speed of your connection. delete the file in your Temporary files folder to free up space on your hard drive 8. making it a simple matter of clicking a button to sign. Both of these programs can provide protection for your email in transit and also protect your stored data. transmits data over the network. Find the file you downloaded and double-click it. 6. Encrypt your drives and decide upon and follow an appropriate data deletion policy. highlighting your hard drive (typically the c: drive). and stores data on third party machines. Figure 7. then selecting File/New/Folder.If you do not already have one.4 Email The act of using email stores data on your machines. many large files are compressed. 7. you can watch the file as it downloads.First you will be asked if you want to save the file.When the folder appears. .

Copies of messages will also be scattered across computers controlled by the ISPs.1 Message route and transmission protocols Server-to-Server Encrypted Transit After you press "send". then there is a third party who obtains (and may store) copies of all of your emails. emails are typically relayed along a chain of SMTP mail servers before reaching their destination. This would commonly be an ISP. Storage by your Service Provider: If you do not run a personal mail server. an employer. Data Stored on Second. Make sure your email software is configured so that it deletes messages off of your ISP's . make sure it is encrypted POP or IMAP. In most cases.Figure 7. messages are passed between mail servers without encryption. Client-to-Mail Server Encryption If you use POP or IMAP to fetch your email.and Third-Party Machines There are two main reasons why your emails will be stored on computers controlled by third parties. ensure that you only access it using HTTPS rather than HTTP. But there is a standard called SMTP over TLS which allows encryption when the sending and receiving servers for a given hop of the chain support it. If your mail server doesn't support the encrypted version of that protocol. get your service provider or systems administrator to fix that. employers and webmail hosts of those you correspond with. or a webmail provider. You can use your mail client to look at the headers of any email you've received to see the chain of servers the message traveled along. If you use a webmail service.

Once you've opened and read the email and then returned to the inbox. you can find out what they've written by opening it.1 Opening and Sending Emails and Attachments When you receive an email from friends or family. delete messages immediately after reading them. it may take months before the message is really deleted. although other email applications will follow very similar steps. 8. almost every email you send and receive will be stored in at least one other place. or send them by some means other than email. The content of PGP/GnuPG encrypted emails will not be accessible through these third parties. For security use PGP to encrypt those messages. are the best ways of mitigating these risks. . or using end-to-end encryption for sensitive communications. Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an email 1: Log into your Gmail account so that you are on the dashboard (main page) of your account. Running your own mail server with an encrypted drive. The one towards the left shows who the email is from. although the email headers (such as the To: and Subject: lines) will be. those you communicate with could be subject to subpoenas or requests from law enforcement to decrypt your correspondence. regardless of the practices and procedures you follow. IMAP or webmail leaves copies of messages on the server. Keep in mind that with major webmail services.4. and you'll find the time and date when each one was received in the right-hand column. the one in the centre gives the subject of each email. This guide explains how to open an email in a Gmail account. non-bold text. copies might be made on their ISP or firm's mail or backup servers. Therefore. 2: Go to your inbox. 4: Once you've identified an email you wish to open. Storage by Those You Correspond With: Most people and organizations save all of the email they send and receive. In addition to the personal machine of the person you sent/received the message to/from. 5: You can now read the content of the email and reply if you wish by clicking on the arrow at the top right hand of the email for reply or by clicking Reply underneath the message. arranged in columns.mail server after it downloads them by using POP to fetch your mail. the read email will be displayed in normal. click on the line that shows the information about that email. 3: The inbox shows a list of emails received. this information will appear as bold text in the list. just like opening an envelope to read a letter. Be aware that even if you use PGP. If you haven't opened and read an email. If you use webmail or IMAP.

'Save' or 'Cancel' the download. Once the document has been downloaded. type in the first recipient's email address. 2: Click Compose from the dashboard options. type in the email address of the recipient. 3: Another box will pop up asking if you want to 'Open'. click Download. . Adding an email address to the 'Cc' field means that that person will receive a copy of the email and all the other recipients will see their email address. like a heading. 5: Click Back to Inbox to go back to your list of received emails. 4: To include someone else in the email to 'keep them in the loop'. 5: The subject field allows you to give the recipient an idea of the topic of your email. Step 7: Type your message in the main body field of your email. How to open an attachment Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an attachment 1: An email with an attachment will have a paperclip icon next to it to show that there is something attached to the received mail. which will open another field. To download. colour and size using the formatting icons. to separate this address from the next email address. If an email address is put into the 'Bcc' field. Then type a comma and make a space. click on the Cc or Bcc. You can change the font style. 'Cc' means 'carbon copy' and 'Bcc' means 'blind carbon copy'. To send to multiple recipients. Click on the icon 2: The email will open up with the attachment shown at the bottom and you will be offered two options: view the attachment via an internet page or download the attachment to your computer. or open the folder to which the document has been saved by clicking Open folder. you may be offered another dialogue box with further options: open the document itself by clicking Open. In the 'To' box.6: When you've finished reading your email. 3: A new blank email will open up. You can also create bullet points and check the spelling of your email. Type in the second address and continue. Click Save. click back to inbox icon to close the email and go back to the list of emails in your inbox. 4: Find a place to save your document and download it to your computer. inserting a comma and a space between each subsequent address. the person will get a copy of the email but no other recipient will see that address. 6: Email text can be formatted in a similar way to text in a word document. How to send an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to send an email 1: Log in to your Gmail account. Step 8: Click Send. in the 'To' address box.

3: Once your new email is open. 5: Browse through your Windows folders until you reach the document you want to attach to your email. 4: Click where it says Attach a file to attach a file. 2: Click Compose. 3: Peruse the inbox for emails to be deleted. you can retrieve it from the 'Drafts' folder by clicking Drafts and then clicking the correct item in the 'Drafts' folder list. This will add the document as an attachment to your email. Then put a title for your email in the 'Subject' box and type your message. 7: To send your email. then following the same steps. Highlight this by clicking on it and then click Open. Finish the email and click Send as normal. When you decide that you are ready to send it.5 Security and Privacy Security is becoming an increasing concern for computer users. type your recipient's email address in the 'To' field. 5:The selected email will be deleted. click Send How to delete an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to delete an email 1: Log into your email account. You can also delete an email by opening it and then clicking the delete icon. 8. the threats posed by malicious and criminal activities are increasing. In all areas of computer use. A number of reasons can be identified for this rising threat. Alternatively. How to email a document Follow these step-by-step instructions to email a document 1: Log in to your email account so that you are on the dashboard (front page) of your mail account. 2: Go to your inbox. These range from the increasing interconnection of the world's computers to the increasing technological sophistication of the general population. The increasing interconnection of the world's computer networks is a an issue . 6: You can tell that your document has been attached to you email by its file name appearing in blue text at the bottom of the compose window. click the 'select' box to the far left of the each email so that a tick appears in the box 4: Click the delete icon. Step 10: Click Save Now at the top of the email to save the unfinished email to your 'Drafts' folder. you can reply to an email that you've received by double-clicking on it in your list of received emails.Step 9: The email you've sent will now be stored in the 'Sent Mail' folder on your Gmail dashboard.

in downloads from the internet. The basic types of viruses are Worm Viruses: Worm viruses are self-contained programs that remain hidden and propagate via email or duplication. particular those that have been burnt on a computer infected by viruses. What a particular virus will do to your computer depends on how it was programmed when created. it can be transmitted by email. Viruses can find their way onto the computer in many different ways. Computer viruses can cause very serious damage to the computer's program and data files. computer viruses attach themselves to a host. mouse or keyboard.2 E-mail Viruses Email is probably the most common method for spreading viruses. Trojan viruses: Trojan viruses pretend to be other software. through network connections. particular when operating system files are deleted. such as the hard drive. While this may cause the monitor to stop working properly. which is then forwarded on in email or other files. 8. Plain text email messages normally do not spread viruses. causing the computer to become unstable. video drivers to be deleted or the operating system to stop running. by floppy disks or by CDs. usually a program file. Trojan viruses pretend to be a legitimate piece of software. as well as affect the computers hardware. However. it replicates itself. deleting files and re-writing system files. Like biological viruses. modify existing software so that when run. Macro viruses: Macro viruses tend to attack data files. They do not attack the computer's hardware.because more and more companies are connecting to the Internet. like word documents and spreadsheets. some viruses will attack the files that operate your computer's hardware. hence their name as in the Trojan Horse. From there. All of this increases the stakes for malicious and criminal users. like the monitor.5. making your operating system run strangely or even corrupt it all together. causing hard drives to reformat. 8. causing you to loose files or cause your word or excel software to not work properly. Most email viruses are . or a file in the computer's operating system. viruses only attack files in the computer.5. but in reality can attack your hard drives. data file. the legitimate program spawns copies of the virus. Boot viruses: Boot viruses attack the boot sectors on your hard drive and interfere with your computer's basic operation.1 Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage or disrupt the normal functions of your computer and its files. spreading the infection to other files.

3 Minimising Exposure to Viruses The best way to minimize the chances of getting a virus infection is to be pro active and follow some basic steps we have outlined below. you may receive "Virus Warning" emails. • Make sure that you regularly up date your anti virus software definitions. If you use an email client to check your email. or in email messages containing embedded executable code. 8. can result in damage to your computer. while seeming to alert you to a real virus treat. • Try to use an email client for checking your email which does not automatically execute or opens attachment . like hotmail or yahoo. To protect yourself against email viruses it is important that you do not open attachments from senders you don't know. These emails. • Make sure that you regularly scan your computer for viruses using your antivirus software. sent on by well meaning people. it will normally require your computer to executive some code. if followed. avoid clients that automatically open attachments Virus Hoaxes: From time to time. For a virus contained in an email message to attack your computer. If you receive a message warning you about viruses. it is recommended that: • you do not forward the email. like open an attachment or open a html link embedded in the message. • you do not follow the instructions contained in the email or forward the email to others. • Scan floppy disks before opening them. In some cases such messages contain instructions that. Virus hoaxes are typically alerts that are passed on by naive users who think they are helping people out. and back up their claims with references to credible sources.spread via attachments to email messages. • Do not open emails or email attachments that have been sent by a strange person or organization. • Virus scan any new programs or other files that may contain executable files before you run or open them. The reality is that most of these warnings are designed to cause fear or simple confuse people. and offers an update service. or come from a free email source. Make sure the software you select is compatible with your computer's operating system. more often than not are merely hoaxes.5. Purchase and Install anti-virus software. • you ignore all such emails unless they are clearly from an authoritative source.

whether for business or personal use. There are fines and penalties for being out of compliance. meaning having more licenses installed than you have entitlements for. but they can be challenging due to widespread theft associated with counterfeiting and trafficking of pirated goods. businesses. musicians and authors. Many criminal software pirates also make extra money by being paid to distribute malware with their products. We will attempt to explain them as follows. Despite persistent rumors to the contrary this is in fact illegal. have severe ramifications. The exclusive rights and legal protections of IP come in the form of copyrights. Respecting intellectual property rights laws benefits everyone. Any discs they burn for you or email attachment sent to you should be treated . trademarks and patents. artists. selling.Intellectual Property. When you purchase software. creates job opportunities.5. protects honest workers from losing their jobs to criminals. downloading. or installing multiple copies onto personal or work computers. stimulates technological progress. That license is what tells you how many times you can install the software. Obtaining software this way entails all same risks as dealing with criminals for any other reason along with the risk that the software will not be operational and you will not be entitled to any support. you are pirating. These protections encourage innovation and creativity. This can be done by copying. sharing. you are actually purchasing a license to use it. Criminal and Counterfeit: This is where processional criminals sell unsuspecting victims goods that appear genuine but are not.4 Software Piracy Piracy is the mislicensing. 8. Casual copiers are statistically more likely to have PCs infected with malware. not the actual software. It strengthens economies. Software piracy is the unauthorized copying or distribution of copyrighted software. Your unwitting involvement in such activities may also leave you open to threats and blackmail. Casual Copying: This is where a friend or colleague gives you a copy of an application. There are different kinds of piracy and risk associated with them. This malware can be used to spy on you to steal identity information and passwords and to secretly use your computer for other criminal activities such sending spam. unauthorized reproduction and illegal distribution of an item or product. If you make more copies of the software than the license permits. and gives customers the genuine software experience they deserve while protecting them from becoming victims. so it is important to read it. Piracy & License Compliance Intellectual property (IP) represents original creative works and innovations belonging to inventors. distributing illegal images and video or decrypting stolen passwords and credit card codes.

with that in mind. As proof of purchase is often required for technical support
you will not be able to benefit from free technical support and critical upgrades.
P2P or Filesharing: This is where pirated applications are uploaded to a
global network where anyone can download a copy of them. Malware
distribution and Identity Theft are major criminal operations and P2P networks
are an ideal way for them to distribute their dangerous software. Very often
files downloaded from such networks will pass all security checks because
they look like normal software.
8.5.5 Software License Compliance
Compliance is either a state of being in accordance with established
guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so.
Software, for example, may be developed in compliance with specifications
created by some standards body, such as the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and may be distributed in compliance with the
vendor's licensing agreement. In the legal system, compliance usually refers
to behavior in accordance with legislation. Licence compliance is operating
within the terms and conditions that apply on the license that is purchased.
Software compliance is being able to demonstrate that you have the correct
number of licenses paid for and accounted for on your systems compared and
matched to what you have installed.
Software license compliance and being compliant means;
* Knowing what software you have installed
* Knowing what software licenses you have purchased
* Knowing that your installations do not exceed your license purchases
* Knowing what software is being used
* Knowing the details of your software license usage rights & restrictions
* Maintaining compliance while significantly reducing overall software costs
8.6 Protection Mechanisms
The increasing range of attacks that can be made against computer systems
must be countered by a relatively small number of protection mechanisms. We
shall consider some of the protection mechanisms in this section.
8.6.1 Encryption
Encryption is a technique that uses math to transform information in a way that
makes it unreadable to anyone except those with special knowledge, usually
referred to as a "key." Encryption provides a very strong technical protection
against many kinds of threats and this protection is often easy to obtain. Users
can protect their data against attack by encrypting it. This involves turning any

message into a coded form that the intruder cannot read. Encryption is
conceptually similar to the "secret codes", the idea is to take a normal humanreadable message (often called the plaintext message) and transform it into
an incomprehensible format that can only become comprehensible again to
someone with secret knowledge:
Plaintext message + Encryption algorithm + Key = Scrambled message
Decryption algorithm + Key + Scrambled message = Plaintext Message
A simple encryption system would be to change each letter in your message to
a set number of letters later in the alphabet. The specific number of spaces
you move down the alphabet for each letter is the secret key. If the key is two, A
becomes C, B becomes D, C becomes E, etc. Using that encryption system,
the plaintext message "INSECURE" would become "KPUGEWTG.” There
are various different approaches to encryption;
· secret key encryption: In this approach, you have an algorithm which hides
the message. in order to decode any file, you need a key to extract the original
message. For example, if you take the position of any character in the
alphabet and add two positions to it you can get a coded message. A -> C, B ->
D, C -> E, D -> F and so on. In order to decode this message you need to know
the system that was used and you also need to know the key, that is that you
must more the characters two places to the left to get the original message. If
you moved the characters four places or five places the whole thing would fail.
· public key encryption: Basically, you have two keys. One is used to
encrypt the message. anyone can have this as a means of sending you a
secret. You also devise an algorithm which means that nobody else can
decode the message without another second key that is kept secret. This will
be covered in more detail in third and fourth year courses.
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are a very powerful and general tool that can
be used to encrypt all of the communications between participating
computers. VPNs can be used to improve the privacy and security of protocols
that are not encrypted (or not securely encrypted) by default. The biggest
catch with VPNs is that all of the computers participating in them must be
running the same VPN software, and must be correctly configured to
communicate with each other. In general, this means that deploying a VPN is
a non-trivial task requiring significant systems administration time.
Organizations that need to arrange secure access to intranet web servers, file
servers, print servers and similar facilities should deploy VPNs.
8.6.2 Digital Signature
A digital signature is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate

the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and
possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that
has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures are easily transportable,
cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is
encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender's
identity and that the message arrived intact. Assume that you have a public
key system. Instead of keeping the key that you use to decode a message
secret, keep the key that you use to encode the message a secret. this means
that you can give everyone the key that you need to decode a message but
only one person will know how to encode a message so that the decryption will
work. Because only one person can correctly encode the data, this system is
like adding a signature to a message, recipients know its from you because
only you know how to encode the data.
8.7 Access control
Ultimately, the security of most systems depends upon associating lists of
privileges with either users or system resources. For example, when you logon you typically give a password. This then sets all of your privileges with the
system. If you are a member of the support staff then you will be able to do
more things than a member of academic staff. This technique is known as a
capability based approach
8.7.1 Unauthorized Access
This is when a person who does not have permission to connect to or use a
system gains entry in a manner unintended by the system owner. The popular
term for this is “Hacking”. Nobody wants that someone access to his/her
system in unauthorized way. To secure your computer and prevent any
unauthorized access from other people or software programs we can use the
1. Operating system and software patches and updates:There is no such
thing as perfect software, often a software program may have several issues
and could potentially have security vulnerabilities that can leave your
computer open to attacks that compromise your computer and your data.
Software patches, updates, and drivers are made available, often for free, to
consumers to help keep a software program and operating systems running
properly and secure. If the program you are using does not have any type of
method of checking for updates on its own it is up to you to verify the program
is up-to-date. Often this can be done by visiting the web site of the developer
who created the program. A listing of third-party companies and links to each

Passwords: Make sure a password has been set on computer. Get a hardware or software firewall: We highly recommend all users have some type of firewall solution. admin or no password will allow easy access to your computer or your Internet account * Change passwords often. Default passwords such as password. add numbers or other characters to the password to make it more difficult to guess. It is recommended at least once every few months. * When creating a password. root. for example: 1mypassword23!. 3. * Create a BIOS password. There are two types of firewall's your computer and/or network can have. * Do not use sticky notes around your computer to write down passwords. . 2.of their pages can be found on our third-party support page. Instead use a password manager. Hardware firewall: A hardware firewall is a hardware device that is connected to your network. Software firewall: A software firewall is a software program that you install on your computer that helps protect that computer from unauthorized incoming and outgoing data. Often many home users who have a home network use their network router as a firewall solution.

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