This text started out as a lab-based text, is put together expose the
reader to the basic principles of computer hardware. In this book the
information and chapters have been presented to take account of the
needs of the curriculum for Computer hardware and to give ths
student a broader understanding of the basic concepts of computer
To aid the student's systematic understanding of the subject matter
as presented in this five chapter book, the book have been prepared
to consider; the basics of Principles of Systematic Fault Diagnosis as
presented in chapter one, chapter two considers Computer Modules
and Modems, chapter three exposes the reader to the basics of
computer Hardware Installation and Assembly, Peripherals and
Periphery Equipment is treated in chapter four and chapter five
introduces the reader to the Hardware Measurement Basics.
Upon completing this book, the student is expected to understand
and appreciate the basics of Computer Hardware. Hence, preparing
the reader for the advanced courses in computer hardware
installation, maintenance and repairs.
A.U Affiah

Chapter 1
Overview of computers
1.0 Introduction
Recent developments in computers, particularly with regard to the possibility of
developing artificial intelligence, have made a precise definition of computer a
difficult task. However, for our purpose we shall consider it as a device for
performing logical operations at a very high speed or as a machine which
processes given data to derive the required and useful information. During the
processing the computer has to perform various functions like
(i) Accepting Instructions & data from the user.
(ii) Performing various arithmetic and Logical operations as per Instructions
(iii) Presenting the Information or Output to the user.
The earliest computers were as large as a room. But thanks to continuous
technological advances over the last 60 years has made it possible to hold
some computers in the palm of our hand. Computers are found in businesses
and establishments, such as stores, restaurants, banks, airports, and homes,
where they are used to perform a large variety of functions. They are available
in a wide range of sizes, shapes, types, and speeds to meet user needs.
With regards to today’s computers, the “machine” part of the computer is called
the hardware, while the “programmable” part is called the software. Software
can be broken down into 3 main categories:
System Software: is designed to operate the computer’s hardware and to
provide and maintain a platform for running applications. (e.g., Windows,
MacOS, Linux, Unix, etc..)
Middleware: is a set of services that allows multiple processes running on one
or more machines to interact. Most often used to support and simplify complex
distributed applications. It can also allow data contained in one database to be
accessed through another. Middleware is sometimes called plumbing because
it connects two applications and passes data between them. (e.g., web servers,
application servers).
Application Software: is designed to help the user perform one or more
related specific tasks. Depending on the work for which it was designed, an
application can manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these
elements. (e.g., office suites, web browsers, video games, media players,

1.1 Measuring Computing Power
For physical machines, we can compare the power of different machines by
measuring the amount of mechanical work they can perform within a given
amount of time. This power can be captured with units like horsepower and watt.
Physical power is not a very useful measure of computing power, though, since
the amount of computing achieved for the same amount of energy varies
greatly. Energy is consumed when a computer operates, but consuming energy
is not the purpose of using a computer. Two properties that measure the power
of a computing machine are: How much information it can process and how fast
can it process the information.
Information: To understand information quantitatively, as something we can
measure, we need a more precise way to think about information. The
measurement of information is based on how what is known changes as a
result of obtaining the information. The primary unit of information is a bit . One
bit of information halves the amount of uncertainty. It is equivalent to answering
a “yes” or “no” question, where either answer is equally likely beforehand.
Before learning the answer, there were two possibilities; after learning the
answer, there is one. We call a question with two possible answers a binary
question. Since a bit can have two possible values, we often represent the
values as 0 and 1. For example, suppose we perform a fair coin toss but do not
reveal the result. Half of the time, the coin will land “heads”, and the other half of
the time the coin will land “tails”. Without knowing any more information, our
chances of guessing the correct answer are 1/2 . One bit of information would
be enough to convey either “heads” or “tails”; we can use 0 to represent “heads”
and 1 to represent “tails”. So, the amount of information in a coin toss is one bit.

Units of Information: One byte is defined as eight bits. Hence, one byte of
information corresponds to eight binary questions, and can distinguish among
2 (256) different values. For larger amounts of information, we use metric
prefixes, but instead of scaling by factors of 1000 they scale by factors of 2
(1024). Hence, one kilobyte is 1024 bytes; one megabyte is 2 (approximately
one million) bytes; one gigabyte is 2 (approximately one billion) bytes; and one
terabyte is 2 (approximately one trillion) bytes.
Representing Data: We can use sequences of bits to represent many kinds of
data. All we need to do is think of the right binary questions for which the bits give
answers that allow us to represent each possible value.

3) It is capable to generate the desired output in the desired form. Unlike humans. For these reasons. 5) Versatile :. If it all there are errors.2. 3) Reliable :. A powerful computer is capable of executing about 3 million calculations per second. it does each and every calculation with same speed and accuracy. but it is reliable only when the data. 7) Diligent :. 2) Accuracy :. 2) It performs basic Arithmetic and Logic operations on data as desired. the computers accuracy is consistently high enough which avoids any errors. the use of computers is spreading to a large number of spheres. therefore. 4) Storage Capacity :.2 Benefits. However.Once the instructions fed into computer it works automatically without any human intervention until the completion of execution of program until meets logical instructions to terminate the job.1. analyze.The output generated by the computer is very reliable.The computer perform three basic operations 1) It is capable to access and accept information through various input-output devices from the user. 6) Automation :. ranging from ATM machines to electronic cash registers to multimedia games. Computers also work at very high speeds and rarely make mistakes. characteristics and Limitations of a Computer Computers can store. which gives instructions are correct and reliable. and retrieve large amounts of information. 1) Speed :. which have capacity to store huge amounts of data and help the retrieval of data an easy task.The computer is able to process the date and give the output in fractions of seconds such that required information is given to the user on time enabling the user to take right decisions on right time. the monotony of repetitive work does not affect computers. they are due to errors in instructions given by the programmer. . which is passing as input to the computer and the program. computers can fail or produce faulty results if the instructions are incorrect or incomplete.The computer performance is consistent even to all extent of more than 10 million calculations.The computer has a provision to store large volumes of data in the small storage devices. 1.1 Characteristics of a computer The Characteristics which make computer indispensable are.In spite of its high speed of processing. they are a popular choice for performing many tasks.

2 Limitation of Computer The limitations of a computer is summarized as follows. they have to be instructed about each and every step which they have to perform 3) Computers cannot take decisions on its own. it requires set of instructions to be provided.1. they consume less power. I Generation : 1945 – 55 II Generation : 1955 – 65 III Generation : 1965 – 75 IV Generation : 1975 – 89 V Generation : 1989 to present First Generation (ENIAC . one has to program the computer to take an action if some conditional prevail. the vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors to arrive at 2nd generation of computers. There are totally five generations of computers till today. 4) Computers. memories and I/O units. . unlike humans cannot learn by experience. 1.3 The Computer Generations The development of computers has followed different steps in the terminology used and these steps of technological differences are called as GENERATIONS in computer terminology. Second Generation (Manufacturers – IBM 7030. 2) Computer are not intelligent. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors. else computer (Hardware) is waste. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data.2.Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701) The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. magnetic core for memory storage. Digital Data Corporation's PDP 1/5/8 Honeywell 400) With the development of Transistors and there use in circuits. 1) Computer does not work on itself. The size of transistors is much smaller when compared to vaccum tubes. generated less heat and faster and reliable.

The evolution of computers can be broadly classified as follows: Institutional computing era.. the third generation of computers came into existence. cost.. Advantage : The size of computers. These machines used IC's with large scale Integration (LSI). 2) The size & cost of computers come down drastically Fifth Generation (IBM notebooks.Advantages (1) Size of Computer has come down as well as power consumption. Advantages 1) These computers have high processing powers. Origin 2000. high reliability and very low power consumption. Each of these IC's consist of large number of chips in very small packages. IBM SP/2) These computers use optic fibre technology to handle Artificial Intelligence. 1. 68030. Personal computing era.4 Evolution of computers Computer technology has advanced to a point where you can connect your computer to a network of computers without even using a cable. 68040. heat generation and power consumption decreased to great extent. Apple II. This era was characterized by a few large and expensive computers that were used to meet the data processing requirements of large organizations. expert systems. (2) The Cost of Computer reduced. speed and reliability increased as compared to previous generation. government agencies. these computers have very processing speeds and are more reliable. SUN work stations. in the place of transistors. These computers are used Integrated Circuits (IC's) of silicon chips. PDP-8 Mini Computer from Digital Equipment Corporation) The development of silicon chips. Pentium PCs-Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core. Robotics etc...80286. Fourth Generation (Intel's 8088. and scientific and military establishments. PARAM 10000. This era was characterized by small and inexpensive microcomputers (commonly known as personal computers (PCs)) . Third Generation (System 360 Mainframe from IBM. low maintenance.80386. Motorola's 68000.80486 . CRAY I/2/X/MP etc) The Computers belonging to these generations used Integrated circuits with Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).

banks. 1. schools. various types of computers have evolved.that were used by individuals in small organizations. They can be classified as shown in figure 1. This era is characterized by networks of interconnected computers that organizations. . and homes use for communication and data storage and manipulation. They are used to perform tasks such as scientific calculations and data processing for large businesses. which has revolutionized the way people work and communicate. and manufacturers. and homes.1 Mainframe: A large and expensive multi-user computer on which hundreds of users can work simultaneously on the same data. With the progression of computer technology. This era is also be called the Internet era because it’s characterized by the development of Internet technology. schools. Interpersonal computing era.4.1 with the brief exploitations as follows: Figure 1. Mainframes have large data storage capacity and can process bulk data. insurance companies.1 Types of computers Various types of computers that have evolved over the last few decades.

Fujitsu (VP2000). Anupam by simulate airflow around an aircraft at different speeds and altitude. Eg. and processing tasks with complex requirements such as weather forecasting. Designer of a large bridge has to ensure that the bridge must be proper in various atmospheric conditions and pressures from wind. PARAM 10000 by C-DAC. reliability and cost effectiveness. biomedical applications.2 Supercomputer: A very fast computer that can process billions of instructions per second. · Meteorological centers use super computers for weather forecasting · In Biomedical research – atomic nuclear and plasma analysis – to study the structure of viruses such as that causing AIDS . Supercomputers are used to perform tasks that involve processing large amounts of data.Applications · Used to process large amount of data at very high speed such as in the case of Banks/ Insurance Companies/ Hospitals/ Railways…which need online processing of large number of transactions and requires massive data storage and processing capabilities · Used as controlling nodes in WANs (Wide Area Networks) · Used to mange large centralized databases 1. This helps in producing an effective aerodynamic design for superior performance · In Automobile industry – to do crash simulation of the design of an automobile before it is released for manufacturing – for better automobile design · In structural mechanics – to solve complex structural engineering problems to ensure safety. E.g. Hitachi (S820). NEC (SX20) analyze volumes of seismic data which are gathered during oil seeking explorations to identify areas where there is possibility of getting petroleum products inside the earth · In Aerospace industry .:. and aircraft design. velocity etc and under load conditions.CRAY Research : CRAY-1 & CRAY-2. PACE Series by DRDO Applications: · In petroleum industry .

entertainment etc.3 Minicomputer: A multi-user computer that can support 4 to 200 users simultaneously.4 Micro Computers: Microcomputers are tiny computers that can vary in size from a single chip to the size of a desktop model and uses a microprocessor as its central Processing Unit. The different models of microcomputers are given below:Personal computer (PC): A small.It has a processor and memory and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data. Wrist PC:. graphic designing. project management. statistical analysis.Very small in terms of size – can be folded and carried around – Monitor is made up of LCD and the keyboard and system units are contained in a single box. Note book or Lap Top:.Smallest type of microcomputer – can be worn on our wrist like a watch.:.1. teaching. PS/2 and Apple Macintosh Applications · Used in the field of desktop publishing. Modem etc) and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data. Minicomputers are used to perform tasks such as hospital administration and manufacturing processes. investment analysis.Smaller model of the microcomputer.4. E. They are designed to be used by only one person at a time. Palm Top:.g.:.4. N/W card.It has a processor and memory and a wireless modem .size is similar to that of a calculator – pocket size. Got all the facilities of a personal computer (HDD. Data processing for a medium sized organization · Used to control and monitor production processes · To analyze results of experiments in laboratories · Used as servers in LANs (Local Area Networks) 1. E. CDD.IBM PC. accounting.g.g. single-user computer that you can use to perform a variety of tasks. Sound card. The common examples of microcomputers are chips used in washing machines. TVs. ranging from maintaining household finances to managing the finances of a large company.Digital Equipments PDP 11/45 and VAX 11) Applications · These computers are used when the volume of processing is large for e. Cars and Note book/Personal computers.

Notebook: A computing device with the same processing power as a laptop but is much smaller. Unlike the earliest computers that occupied a lot of space. PCs are classified in two categories. and are easy to carry. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA): A handheld device originally designed as a personal organizer. Palmtops.2 shows some of the portable PCs available today with description as follows. a task list. PCs were developed in the early 1980s. can run on batteries. on the other hand. However. and a simple calculator. . built-in applications. Portable PCs. Figure 1. You can use palmtops only for limited. are small in size. such as Palm-Pilots.Personal computers The most popular type of computer in use today is the PC.2 Portable Pcs Laptop: A portable computer with the same computing power as a desktop. Figure 1. a date book. desktops and portables. desktops are too large and cumbersome to carry while traveling. Palmtop: A device that you can hold in the palm of your hand. the name). but weighs much less and has a built-in video screen. are among the smallest of all the portables. a memo pad. usually the size of a pocket calculator. desktops can be placed conveniently on a desk (hence. Today’s PCs are faster and smaller than those sold two decades ago. It has a screen on which a user can write with a special purpose pen. It includes a clock. Tablet PC: A computer that looks like a notebook. an address book.

Server A computer that makes programs and data available to a network of computers. The cost. This device is being developed and designed to act as an intelligent assistant. It also handles communication between interconnected computers. PCs are used to perform a diverse range of tasks. and reports • Maintaining large volumes of data • Managing numbers and performing calculations • Creating and manipulating graphics • Using multimedia and playing games • Representing data in the form of charts and graphs • Communicating through e-mail and instant messengers • Buying and selling items by using the Internet • Learning or researching various subjects and technologies by using the Internet and interactive CD-ROMss multi-user computers. schedules. speed and applications of the major classes of computer is illustrated below. for example: • Writing and editing documents. such as letters. Servers can also be used as multi-user computers.Wearable computer: A small personal computer that users can wear while operating. .

) 5. Monitor 11.3. System software 12. reliability and cost of computers have been changing over the years.4. The internal architecture of computers differs from one system model to another. performance. the computer we use today is totally different from its first make.1. We shall restrict our discussion to the Personal Computer. By size three types of Personal Computers are now available. The way present day motorcar differs from its original version. shape. A block diagram of the basic computer organization specifying different functional units is shown in figure 1.3 An exploded view of a modern desktop personal computer and peripherals 1. Optical disc drive 7. Scanner 2.g. Power supply 6. See figure 1. CPU (Microprocessor) 3. Figure 1. Motherboard 9. Primary storage (RAM) 4. Laptop. Printer Even though the size. The most commonly used computer nowadays is the Personal Computer. External hard disk 16. Mouse 15. Keyboard 14.5 Comp o n e n t s o f Pe r s o n a l Comp u t e r Computer technology has undergone profound changes since the first generation computer. the basic logical structure proposed by Von Neumann has not change. Desktop. Secondary storage (Hard disk) 8. they differ only in size and capacity as well as the addon features. supercomputers for high level multitasking precision jobs. Speakers 10. Expansion cards (graphics. etc. e. Application software 13. . and Palmtop or Notepad. Here the solid lines indicate the flow of instruction and data and the dotted lines represent the control exercised by the control unit. By configuration all three are more or less same. There are various types of computers for various purposes.

scanner etc. Finally the result is sent back to the outside through the output unit. There are two classes of memory devices :.Figure 1.Primary memory and Secondary memory. Data and programs must be in the primary memory for execution. The main memory is organized such that the contents of one word can be stored or retrieved in one basic operation. the corresponding letter or digit is automatically translated into its corresponding code and sent directly to either the memory or the processor. The information received is either stored in the memory for later reference or immediately used by the Arithmetic and Logic circuitry to perform the desired operation. The keyboard is wired so that whenever a key is pressed. track ball. Other kinds of input devices: Joy stick. Random Access Memory (RAM) . Primary memory (Main memory) Contains a large number of semiconductor cells each capable of storing one bit of information. Memory Unit: The memory unit stores program and data. E g. This memory is fast and expensive.10nS to 100nS. The number of bits in each word is called the word length and it may vary from 16 to 64 bits. This time is fixed and independent of the location. For accessing data.4 Block diagram of computer organization Input Unit: Input unit accepts coded information from human operators through electro mechanical devices such as the keyboard or from other computers over digital communication lines. mouse (pointing devices). These cells are processed in group of fixed size called words containing 'n' bits. The time required to access one word is called Memory Access Time . a distinct address is associated with each word location.

Output Unit This is the counter part of input unit. Compact Disk. For example: Suppose two numbers (operands) located in the main memory are to be added. displays and mechanical controllers which are much slower than the processor. Control Unit The operations of all the units are coordinated by the control unity (act as the nerve centre that sends control signal to other units). Access times to registers are 5 to 10 times faster than access time to memory. The control unit and ALU's are usually many times faster than other devices connected to a computer system. Video terminals (provides both input & output functions).Secondary storage They are used when large amount of data have to be stored (also when frequent access is not necessary) E.g. By selecting. The timing signal that governs the I/O transfers is generated by the Control Unit. interpreting and executing the program instructions the program instructions the control unit is able to maintain order and direct the operation of the entire system. graphic displays etc. Note that all operands may not reside in the main memory. Processor Unit This is the heart of the computer system is the Processor unit. Processor contains a number of high speed storage elements called Registers. Hard Disk. Output devices accept binary data from the computer . disk memories. Magnetic Tapes etc. Printer. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Most computer operations (Arithmetical and logical) are executed in ALU of the processor.g. It consists of Arithmetic and Logic Unit and Control Unit. Floppy Disk. The result is then stored in the memory or retained in the processor itself for immediate use. E. which may be used for temporary storage of frequently used operands. Each register can store one word of data. magnetic taped. sensors. Synchronization signals are also generated by the Control Unit. These operands are brought into arithmetic unit – actual addition is carried. .decodes it into original form and supplies this result to the outside world. This enabled a single processor to control a number of external devices such as video terminals.

e. the contents of the program counter are updated to hold the address of the next instruction to be executed. Figure 1. Memory Address Register (MAR): holds the address of the location to or from which data are to be transferred Memory Data Register (MDR): contains the data to be written into or read out of the address location. During the execution of an instruction. PC points to the next instruction that is to be fetched from the memory. n General Purpose Registers (R0 to Rn-1): Facilitates communication with the main memory. Most modern computers have 8 to 32 general purpose registers. Program Counter (PC): It contains the address of the instruction currently being executed.Internal Organization of Processor Processor contains a number of registers used for temporary storage of data other than ALU and Control circuitry illustrated in figure 1.5 Internal circuitry of the processor . Access to data in these registers is much faster than to data stored in memory locations because the registers are inside the processor. i.5 Instruction Register (IR): Holds the instruction that is currently being executed and its output is available to the control circuits which generate the timing signals that control the various processing elements involved in executing the instruction.

Now the instruction is ready to be decoded and executed.The steps involved during the processor operation is as follows: 1. When the interrupt-service routine is completed. 10. 6. then it is sent to the MDR. If the result is to be stored in the memory. Contents of the MDR are transferred to the IR. At some point during the execution of the current instruction. An interrupt is a request from an I/O device for service by the processor. the state of the processor is restored so that the normal program may be continued. As soon as the execution of the current instruction is completed. The address of the location where the result is to be stored is sent to the MAR and a Write cycle is initiated. The internal state of the processor at such moments (like the contents of the PC. the addressed word (in this case the first instruction) is read out of the memory and is loaded into the MDR 5. the general registers. the computer accepts data from input devices and sends data to output devices. Now the processor provides the requested service by executing an appropriate interrupt-service routine. Operands are read from the memory into the MDR and are transferred from MDR to the ALU. which are mainly of the following types: . For example. 7. Program is stored in the main memory 2. and some control information) are saved in memory locations. a sensing device in a computer controlled industrial process may detect a dangerous condition. 9. the contents of the PC are incremented so that the PC now points to the next instruction to be executed. After the access time. 12. ALU will perform the desired operation. Here the device raises an interrupt signal.5. Contents of the PC are transferred to the MAR and a Read Control signal sent to the memory 4. 11. 1. This is done by sending its address to the MAR and initiating a Read cycle. If the instruction involves an operation to be performed by the ALU. PC is set to point to the first instruction of the program 3.1 Hardware Means the physical parts of the computer. In addition to transferring data between the memory and the processor. the required operands are to be fetched from the memory (or CPU registers). a new instruction fetch may be started. 8.

which may be classified as follows: 1. and sometimes a Printer. or speakers. processing of information. Just as a physical desktop . usually through the internal Hard Disk or External disks. in Multi -media systems. Modem. Before you switch on a computer. Many other accessories may be fitted to the computer Joysticks. Language Software 3. the operating system automatically begins a process known as booting.6. etc. you must ensure that all the cables are connected to the appropriate sockets (referring to the manual is recommended). Utility Software It should be noted that these software are to be made according to the functions we desire the computer to perform. Other Accessories (optional) Looking at any personal computer system we usually see three things – the Computer inside a cabinet. a Key Board. Projector.6 Starting a computer Your computer must have an operating system installed before it can perform any task. the operating system (Windows XP for this course) displays a desktop. But before that we must note the basic physical configuration of a personal computer system. Software These are the structured information and commands. The basic of all these is the Operating System Software. and output of the results or processed information. Camera. Desktop components After you switch on the computer. When you switch on the system unit. as shown in figure 1. We shall make a brief description of these components.1. The Motherboard and the CPU – Processor Memory Chip 2. Speaker. a scanner. Next. Application Software 4. Disk Operating System Software 2. There are various types of software. you switch on the monitor and any other attached devices such as a printer. 1. which starts the computer. input of information. a mouse. Light pen. which can be fed into the computer. and even Sound Recorder. which consists of three stages of operations. a Video Monitor. Input output Device (and their Control Cards) 3. Information Storage Device (and their Control Cards) 4.

Icons are pictorial representations of the programs included in Windows XP. configure the computer. working with storage devices. the Windows XP desktop contains programs (also called applications) that you use to perform tasks such as creating and editing documents. or launch Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media) Notification area: Contains a clock and displays the status of specific programs and controls. It contains the Start button. Start button: Used to start applications. and the notification area. and shut down your computer Quick Launch toolbar: Used to display the desktop. Figure 1. The taskbar is located at the bottom of the screen.6 Sample of the windows XP desktop . You click an icon to start the application associated with it. the Quick Launch toolbar.contains the tools that you use to work. The Windows XP desktop contains icons and a taskbar. get help. The following describes these components. and printing documents. launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet).

(At the bottom of the screen. It contains the Start button. Observe the Start button .(A sample desktop is shown in figure 1. appears showing the current weekday and date. Click OK .) A message. Observe the arrow on the desktop . 5 Observe the taskbar .) It contains a clock that displays the time.The Windows XP desktop appears.Activity: Identifying the desktop components 1 Follow your instructor's directions to switch on your computer 2 Log on to Windows XP . called a ScreenTip.6. You use it for various activities such as selecting an icon on the desktop or starting an application. . get help. and the notification area.(If necessary.) You click the icons on this toolbar to launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet). 3 Observe the desktop . and set up (configure) and turn off your computer. display the desktop. or run Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media). Observe the Quick Launch toolbar .(On the notification area.) It contains icons of some commonly used Windows XP programs and a taskbar. the Quick Launch toolbar.) Follow your instructor's directions.) You use it to navigate within Windows XP.(In the lower-right corner of the screen on the taskbar. Observe the notification area .) You can use this button to start applications.You use icons to quickly start their associated applications.This arrow is referred to as the mouse pointer or simply. 4 Observe the icons . the pointer.(On the taskbar. 6 Point to the clock .(On the taskbar.


Mac OS (and Darwin).Chapter 2 Concept of The Operating System 2. such as controlling and allocating memory. but are not limited to: disk access. such as application software. from personal computers to mainframes. This is the first layer of software loaded into memory when a system boots or starts up. including personal computers and mainframes. . and access to other hardware devices. However. facilitating networking. and Linux. controlling input and output devices.1 Introduction An operating system (OS) is a software program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. 2. as well as utility programs for tasks such as managing files and configuring the operating system. Modern general-purpose computers. but which the operating system distributor finds advantageous to supply with the operating system. software tools for managing the system and simplifying the use of hardware appeared very quickly afterwards. By the early 1960s. as well as mobile computers such as PDAs and mobile phones. and execution of jobs on batch processing systems. Examples were produced by UNIVAC and Control Data Corporation. Examples of operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows. commercial computer vendors were supplying quite extensive tools for streamlining the development.2 Concept of an operating system An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs. Commercially-supplied operating systems are present on virtually all modern devices described as computers. have an operating system to run other programs. memory management. task scheduling. The OS performs basic tasks. The kernel provides access to various common core services to all other system and application programs. Unix. An operating system is often distributed with tools for programs to display and manage a graphical user interface (although Windows and the Macintosh have these tools built into the operating system). They are also often distributed with application software that does not relate directly to the operating system's core function. and managing files. The first computers did not have operating systems. These services include. scheduling. The lowest level of any operating system is its kernel. prioritizing the processing of instructions. and gradually expanded in scope.

. what part of it are in use by whom. In technical terms. devices and information. Ÿ Keeps tracks of primary memory i. Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU. processors. it must in the main memory. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently. Ÿ Memory Management Ÿ Processor Management Ÿ Device Management Ÿ File Management Ÿ Security Ÿ Control over system performance Ÿ Job accounting Ÿ Error detecting aids Ÿ Coordination between other software and users Memory Management Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address. it is software which manages hardware. what part are not in use.e. Operating System does the following activities for memory management.1 shows the block diagram of an operating system. Figure an intermediary between users and computer hardware. Figure 2. So for a program to be executed.1 Block Diagram of the Operating System Some of important functions of an operating system is listed below.

Ÿ Keeps track of information. Ÿ De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required. Security By means of password and similar other techniques. The collective facilities are often known as file system. This function is called process scheduling. . Ÿ De-allocates devices. status etc. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller. OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. Ÿ Keeps tracks of all devices. Ÿ Decides who gets the resources. Ÿ File Management A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. Ÿ Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. Ÿ De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated. Device Management OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. Ÿ De-allocates the resources.Ÿ In multiprogramming. OS decides which process will get memory when and how much. uses. Operating System does the following activities for processor management. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. preventing unauthorized access to programs and data. Ÿ Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so. Operating System does the following activities for file management. Ÿ Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. location. Ÿ Allocates the device in the efficient way. Ÿ Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process. Processor Management In multiprogramming environment. Operating System does the following activities for device management. These directories may contain files and other directions. Ÿ Allocates the resources.

which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's v .produced a family of mainframe computers available in widely differing capacities and price points. The development of the IBM System/360 2. driving the development of operating systems. Coordination between other software and users Coordination and assignment of compilers. Time sharing allowed all of the users to have the illusion of having exclusive access to the machine. was an inspiration to a number of operating systems developed in the 1970s. error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids. OS/360 also contained another important advance: the development of the hard disk permanent storage device (which IBM called DASD). The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis. interpreters. traces. Error detecting aids Production of dumps. for which a single operating system OS/360 was planned (rather than developing ad-hoc programs for every individual model). notably Unix. applications written for the OS/360 can still be run on modern machines.Control over system performance Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system. minimalistic operating systems were developed. Another commercially-popular minicomputer operating system was VMS. several major concepts were developed. particularly. Job accounting Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users. One notable early operating system was CP/M. the Multics timesharing system was the most famous of a number of new operating systems developed to take advantage of the concept.3 Generations of Operating System Through the 1960s. assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems. This concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line was crucial for the success of System/360 and. 2. Another key development was the concept of time-sharing: the idea of sharing the resources of expensive computers amongst multiple computer users interacting in real time with the system. Multics. which was supported on many early microcomputers and was largely cloned in creating MS-DOS. in fact. IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system.

1 . AIX (IBM). and helped Unix and its variants become an important teaching and learning tool used in academic settings. as well as extensive GUI facilities.1-2008 or IEEE Std 1003. but not many. utilities. but typically more similar to Unix than Windows. Today. specifically the CPU. Apple rebuilt their operating system on top of a Unix core as Mac OS X. released in 2001. development environment. many with no direct connection to Windows or Unix. The major alternative throughout the 1980s in the microcomputer market was Mac OS. Issue 7 (also known as POSIX. Command line interface (or CLI) operating systems can operate using only the keyboard for input. The appropriate OS may depend on the hardware architecture. an operating system vendor must pay a licensing fee and annual trademark royalties to The Open Group. tied intimately to the Apple Macintosh computer. Modern OS's use a mouse for input with a graphical user interface (GUI) sometimes implemented as a shell. To use the Unix trademark. Officially licensed Unix operating systems (and their vendors) include OS X (Apple). By the 1990s. Unix was developed using a high-level programming language (C) instead of platform-specific assembly language. the robustness and flexibility of operating systems of larger computers became increasingly desirable. enabling its portability across multiple computer platforms. IRIX (SGI). with only Linux and BSD running on almost any CPU. most notably the Alpha.2008). Microsoft's response to this change was the development of Windows NT. the microcomputer had evolved to the point where. Solaris (Oracle). which served as the basis for Microsoft's entire operating system line starting in 1999. Windows NT has been ported to other CPUs. Unix-like OS is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems .1 Unix Unix (officially UNIX) is a registered trademark of The Open Group that refers to a family of computer operating systems and tools conforming to The Open Group Base Specification. and HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard). Mainframe computers and embedded systems use a variety of different operating systems.ersion of it was called IBM-DOS or PC-DOS). Unix also was developed as a self-contained software system. These key factors led to widespread use and further development in commercial settings. comprising the operating system. of which Linux and Mac OS X are becoming the major choices. and modifiable source code. Since the early 1990s the choice for personal computers has been largely limited to the Microsoft Windows family and the Unix-like family. 2.3. documentation. its successors making Microsoft one of the world's most profitable companies.

The original Unix operating system was developed at AT&T's Bell Labs research center in 1969. Inc. In 1993. Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks). smartphones..g. so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. they are dominated by Linux-based or Plan 9 clusters. These include a wide variety of Linux distributions (e. and CentOS) and several descendents of the Berkeley Software Distribution operating system (e.g. In the early days of microcomputing. and NetBSD). which a few years later sold the Unix trademark to the consortium that eventually became The Open Group. are commonly known as Unix-like systems. leading to the development of several Unix variants. Over the past several years. Operating systems that behave like Unix systems and provide similar utilities. scientific modeling and computer animation were once the province of SGI's IRIX.. free Unix systems have supplanted proprietary ones in most instances.3. Unix operating systems (and Unix-like variants) run on a wide variety of digital architectures. This component was only loaded if it was needed. AT&T sold the rights to the Unix operating system to Novell. disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sectorlevel. They are used heavily as server systems in business. and supercomputers. refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e. Red Hat Enterprise Linux. HP-UX. In some cases.g. and Microsoft's Xenix. the disk operating system component (or even the . and personal computers running versions or variants of Unix have become increasingly popular. AT&T licensed Unix to thirdparty vendors.. OpenBSD. most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform). including Berkeley Unix.. Otherwise. In recent years. Unix systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures. For instance. but do not conform to Unix specification or are not licensed by The Open Group.which resemble the original Unix. 2. FreeBSD. and are commonly used on web servers. mainframes.2 Disk operating system Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically). file systems for organizing files of all sorts). memory space was often limited. as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. AIX. Ubuntu. tablets. Today. In the 1970s and 1980s.

0 provides the same user interface as Windows 95.0. e. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT core that first took shape in OS/2 and borrowed from OpenVMS.COM and remain resident in memory at all times.. The benefit of this change is to speed . FORMAT. The first version of Windows NT (3. Some programs provide their own command processor.x. To change to drive C type C: as shown here: A:\>C: to get C:\> 2. which runs in kernel mode. another Microsoft operating system (the follow-on to Windows 3. with the same GUI as Windows 3. is an example of a DOS utility. a command processor and several utilities.x have been moved into the Windows NT Executive. The utilities are individual program files found on your DOS disk. The major architectural change is that several graphics components that ran in user mode as part of the Win32 subsystem in 3.1) was released in 1993.3 Microsoft Windows Operating System The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems originated as a graphical layer on top of the older MS-DOS environment for the IBM PC. a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. it usually resides there. The command processor is also a file you see on the disk. an entire family of operating systems was called DOS. The most notable external change is that NT 4. the desired default drive followed by a colon at the prompt. While part of DOS. Sometimes. Sometimes these utilities are called external commands (as opposed to internal commands which are included as part of the file COMMAND. On the PC compatible platform. NT 4.x.COM.0). and PowerPC architectures (some work was done to port it to the SPARC architecture). the program that formats blank disks. Windows runs on 32-bit and 64-bit Intel and AMD computers. After several versions of NT 3. although earlier versions also ran on the DEC Alpha.3. NT 3.operating system) was known as DOS. but once read into the computer's memory. Microsoft released NT 4. DOS consists of an input/output system.1 was a new 32-bit operating system with the ability to support older DOS and Windows applications as well as provide OS/2 support. and there are times when the command processor will be overwritten in memory by a program and have to be reloaded when the program stops executing. DIR and COPY).g. However.0 has essentially the same internal architecture as 3. An example is DOS/360. these files are not needed often enough to make it necessary or practical to keep them in the computer's RAM all the time. MIPS.1.

As of 2004. If such situation happened on Linux. Again. the underlying Executive and kernel architecture is fundamentally the same as in NT 4. In recent years. The potential drawback is that these graphics functions now have access to low-level system services. Also in 2001. Windows held a near-monopoly of around 90% of the worldwide desktop market share. One final general point to make about Windows 2000 is the distinction between Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 desktop.0. although this is thought to be dwindling due to the increase of interest focused on open source operating systems. known as Windows XP. Microsoft developed its operating system on a too large scale. known as Windows Server 2003.up the operation of these important functions. In 2003. which is a distributed directory service able to map names of arbitrary objects to any kind of information about those objects. This new OS has been constructed to be more intuitive and less distracting (no more annoying and unnecessary pop-ups notifying the user that there is a notification for the user). it would not be as . another desktop version of Windows was released. which could impact the reliability of the operating system. The central element of Windows 2000's new features is Active Directory. they are still of the best operating systems running on PCs. The Windows 7 and 8 OS provides many new tools and features that focus on improved productivity through improved usability. Products of Linux are cheap. but Server includes some services required to use as a network server. The emphasis in Windows 2000 is the addition of services and functions to support distributed processing. but new features have been added. called Windows 2000. Microsoft introduced a new server version. In essence. Microsoft introduced the next major upgrade. In 2001. The 64-bit versions of XP and Server 2003 are designed specifically for the 64-bit Intel Itanium hardware. both 32-bit and 64 bit versions are available. but they are not supported by so many kinds of software as Windows series are. windows 7 and windows 8 as new entrant into the market with excellent capabilities. a 64-bit version of XP was introduced. In 2000. Microsoft has spent significant marketing and R&D money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application. the kernel and executive architecture and services remain the same. Recently we have seen the vista. Both home PC and business workstation versions of XP are offered. Windows series are large. Advantages and Disadvantages of Windows Windows series are excellent products of Microsoft. Although some technology of Windows is not as good as UNIX. and are getting larger and larger.

They are only debugged by Microsoft itself. Ÿ Source codes of Windows are closed. The window is the one that opens when you click on My Computer. but more expensive than Linux. This is because the source code of Linux is open. The structure of this window is very similar to the others. Ÿ Windows series are not very expensive (only for home users on mature products). and they will be debugged by a much larger number of people.bad as such situation happening on Microsoft.2. All the windows have the same structure shown in figure 2. Ÿ Windows series are big. windows menu and tools. owned by Microsoft. Microsoft Windows series are not open-source. Ÿ Windows series are buggy. Ÿ Windows ME and earlier 9x versions are unstable and insecure. Ÿ Windows series are supported by most popular softwares. Ÿ Windows NT series after 2004 are stabler and securer.2 The Windows Structure . Figure 2. Ÿ Windows series are wide spread. Ÿ Windows series are usually not strong enough for high security.

3. If on a menu you find an option that contains three dots. If you want to open the menu related to that option. In no letter is underlined. For example. If on a menu an option appears with a small arrow pointing to the right it means that that option contains other options.) it means that the option needs more i . (for example Sharing and Security. The maximize button amplifies the size of the window to the whole screen The restore button restores the window to its original state. when we click on File as shown in figure 2.All the windows are formed by the sections explained as follows. you only need to maintain the option highlighted for a few seconds and the menu will appear.. The title bar contains the name of the program you are working with (Notepad) and in some cases the name of the opened document (aulaclic) also appears. In the top right corner we can find the minimize. maximize/restore. The close button closes the window. All the operations that the program allows us to do are located within the different menus of this bar. you need to press the Alt key plus the underlined letter of the menu you want to open. press Alt key. To open a menu with the keyboard. and close buttons.. The minimize button shrinks the window it turns it into a button located in the WindowsXP task bar. The menu bar has the program functions organized in menus. For example Alt+F opens the menu File. the different operations that can be performed with files are displayed.

By default Windows XP provides you with one desktop icon. applications. the Recycle Bin. files. Learn more about the Recycle Bin in a later lesson. then the programs running. The Start button allows you to open menus and start applications. Figure 2. Next we have the area for shortcuts. On this example Copy is lighter colored than Paste. On the bottom left corner there is the Start button. Ÿ Taskbar: primarily used to switch between open windows and applications. Ÿ Icons (or graphical pictures): represent applications.4 The Desk Top Task Bar The taskbar is the small blue bar you see at the bottom of your desktop. and other parts of the operating system. It as a workspace where you can access everything you need to operate your computer. the Internet. it' s the first screen that appears when the operating system has initialized.4 contains: Ÿ Start button: one of the most important tools you will use while working with Windows XP.nformation to be executed. etc. Learn more about using the Taskbar in a later lesson. If you find an option that is grey or lighter colored it means that it is not possible to select it at that moment. and lastly the notification area. normally a dialog box will open in which you can place that information. . The desktop shown in figure 2. The Desktop is the on-screen work area on which windows appear. such as system components. In our case it will be the Windows XP desktop.

5 The Start Menu If you select All Programs. Figure 2. The left side of the Start menu lists programs. The Start menu is your gateway to the applications that are on your computer. Pop-up menus like this are called cascading menus. for example). the Start menu appears. 3.The Start Button is the button through which we can access the entire breadth of options that Windows XP offers us. a small black triangle appears next to the name of the application or function. a menu similar to the one below will be displayed in figure 2. Click (or roll your mouse pointer over) All Programs. and the right side allows access to common Windows folders (My Documents. It also provides access to Help and Support. To explore the Start menu: 1. If a cascading menu is available. Click the Start button. a pop-up menu appears. When you click the Start button. Move the mouse pointer to each option. and Run. Search. and view the various cascading menus. . If we browse it.5. 2.

If you choose Log Off. documents. To turn off the computer: 1. Windows XP even enables you to log off the computer so someone else can log on without having to restart the computer. To exit the menus. 2.4. Click the Start menu and click Log Off. A computer accounts tracks each person's unique settings.6. Switch User allows someone else to log on to the computer. Figure 2. 5. you're taken to a Windows XP logon screen where you're prompted to enter your username and password. If you choose to Switch User. Windows XP allows everyone who uses your computer to have separate computer accounts. 3. your applications will continue to run in the background while the new user logs on. 5. be sure to turn off (or shut down) the computer correctly. Turn Off and Restart the Computer When you've finished using Windows XP. . The XP Log off pop up is shown in figure 2. many family members may use the same computer at home while several coworkers may be able to access your computer on a computer network. and email accounts. For example. In any case. A dialog box appears asking you if you want to Switch User or Log Off. Log off and Switch Users More than one person may use your computer. Move the mouse pointer to the right and view other cascading menus. your applications will close. 4.6 The Log off pop up To log off/switch users: 1. Click the Start menu. click outside the menu area or press Esc on your keyboard.

8. It is generally safest tor turn off or restart your computer using the methods above. Click Restart.7 Turning off the computer. Recycle Bin. 2. The process described above is illustrated in figure 2. 3. These icons appear on your desktop and with little arrow in the left corner. A dialog box opens. If you're experiencing computer problems or have installed something new. (a) (b) Figure 2. Click Turn Off Computer. Examples of object icons are My Computer. Click Turn Off. and Internet Explorer See figure 2. One type of icon is an object icon. Icons The small pictures on the desktop are called icons. Figure 2.7. 3.8 Computer Icons (a) My desktop and (b) microsoft word short cut Shortcut icons allow you to open an application quickly. These icons allow you to open files and programs on your computer. Click Turn Off Computer.2. you can simply restart your computer. Desktop shortcuts are . A dialog box opens. Click the Start menu. To restart the computer: 1.

. Windows Explorer will allow you to select several elements at the same time. without letting go. The name of the folder can be changed. Text appears identifying its name or contents. drag it. then let go of the left mouse button. Now we can view on the bottom right window a new folder that has the name New Folder. This can also be done with the mouse. Open the menu File.. Continue dragging until all the desired elements are within the frame. double-click the icon. You can add or delete shortcuts without affecting the programs on your computer. or hide the content of the folder selected. To select consecutive elements. Once we have the folder that we want open we will select it by clicking on the appropriate folder.. Place your mouse over the icon. Click on the first element and then click on the last element while keeping Shift key pressed. A frame should appear that shows the area that the frame encompasses.. it will subsequently name the new folders New Folder(1). This way any operation you perform will only apply to the selected file or folder. this will take care of retracting the folders displayed. To do this. select the option New and then select the option Folder. New Folder(2). In the event that it finds another folder with that same name. 2. To open a program using an icon: 1. To select several elements that are not consecutive. but we will see how to do that later on. Selecting Files To select a single file or folder you simply need to click on it. etc. If we click on the plus sign of a particular folder it will display and show all of the folders contained in it and the plus sign will become a minus sign -. This is the name that Windows gives new folders by default. 3.links to files and programs. click on the left of the first element (but not on it) and. Then. Select the first element and continue to select the desired elements while keeping the Ctrl key presse Creating and Deleting Folders To CREATE a folder we need to place the pointer where we want the folder to be. To open the folders that we have by clicking on the + located to the left of the folders. To realize an operation on several files or folders.

the contents of the folder will be displayed. first place the pointer on it.If you look at the two images below. we can go to the Edit menu and select Copy to Folder but select the item to copy First of all. See the . but instead of selecting a folder select the file you wish to delete. If we click on the + that appears on the left. The folder that is highlighted is the new folder that has just been created within the folder (a) (b) Figure 2. The settings can be changed so that it deletes it completely.9b is the image that it shows after a new folder has been created. click Make new folder. Figure 2. When we delete a folder or file. It works like Windows explorer.9 Creating a folder To Delete a folder.9a is the image that Windows explorer shows before creating a new folder and figure 2. Once the folder has been selected go to the Standard bar and click on or you can use Delete. To delete a file we follow the same steps to delete a folder. Once the folder has been selected. click on Copy. Copying Files or Folders Select the element to be copied and Click on Copy and it will open a dialog box titled Copy Items. The Recycle Bin is nothing more than a space reserved on the hard disk so that in case of having deleted any element it would be possible for us to retrieve it. write the name of the new folder and Click OK. you can clearly see how Windows explorer changes when a new folder is created. by default Windows will move it to the Recycle Bin. If we do not have this button on the tool bar. Search for the folder to which we will copy the selected element. In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to copy to.

then the name of the file or folder will be highlighted and with the pointer blinking inside the name box. Write the name of the new folder and click OK. click Move. or Edit --> Move to Folder which will open a new window titled Move Items. Ÿ Select Rename from the shortcut menu. Ÿ Click Enter or click outside the file or folder so that the changes take place. Ÿ In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to move the information to. When moving or copying an item. Figure 2. . You can also do this with Remane option from File menu.9 Coping files or folder Moving Files or Folder Ÿ Moving a file or folder means copying the element to the desired location and then deleting its original location. In this case Windows will ask if we want to substitute the existing file or folder by the new one. The following steps are very similar . Ÿ Search for the folder where the element are to be moved to. Ÿ Select the file or folder you want to move. its name can coincide with the name of a file or folder that is in the destination folder. Ÿ Write the new name. Changing a File or Folder Name Ÿ Select the file or folder that you want to change the name of.illustration in figure 2. Once the folder is selected. Ÿ With the right mouse button click on it. simply click Make New Folder. its entire content is also moved or copied.10 below. Ÿ Click on. When folder is moved or copied.

The dialog box you see might look different from the one shown here. . you might prefer to print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer.) Helps locate network printers. You can also choose to print something like a fax or a Microsoft XPS file. This opens the Print dialog box where you can change basic settings such as what printer to use or how many copies to print as shown in figure 2. This option is useful if you want to print something later.Printing a Document Printing in Windows is often as simple as clicking the File menu found in most programs. This option is useful in office settings or for home networks. see Print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer. and then clicking PRINT.prn file. see Install a printer. For more information.10. For more information about installing network printers. Figure 2. Allows you to save a document as a . (See XPS documents: frequently asked questions. depending on your software and printer.10 Printing Dialog The following explains the actions you can take and the results within printing Action Select Printer Find Printer Print to File Result Shows the available printers on your computer. but it doesn't always work with modern USB printers. If you have a USB printer.

at the top of the Firefox window. and 8. Ÿ In the standard Print window that opens. adjust settings for what you are about to print. where you can choose options such as paper size and layout.. Hit Print. . Click Selection to print only highlighted text or graphics. Tells Windows what to print. change whether background colors and images are printed. Print multiple copies of a document.11 for information on what settings can be changed. for example. And create an electronic copy of your file that you can save to disk. you can select Adobe PDF in almost any Windows OS application. Ÿ Click OK to start printing. 4. Select the Collate check box to print all pages in a document in order before printing additional copies. or picture. you can type 1. if necessary. Printing a Website We shall discuss printing web pages in Firefox. click on the Firefox button (File menu in Windows XP) and select Print.. page margins.Action Preferences Page Range Number of copies Result Opens the Printing Preferences dialog box. For example. To print part of a document. Printing to PDF Just select Print to create a PDF. and what to include on the printed pages' header and footer. Ÿ At the top of the Firefox window.. Click Current Page to print only what you see. go over to the Print menu (File menu in Windows XP). file. click on the Firefox button. Changing the page setup To change the orientation of the page that prints. 4. The Page Setup window will appear. and select Page Setup. If so. type 5–7 to print only pages 5 through 7. Some programs let you choose non-sequential pages too. From this point you can manipulate the printing process as discussed in the document printing section. Instead of a physical printer. See Print window settings in figure 2. 8 to print only pages 1. click Pages and then enter the page numbers separated by hyphens.

and the single arrows go to the next or previous page. click on the Firefox button.11. menu (File menu in Windows XP).10 Print window settings Print Preview To see how the web page you want to print will look when printed. You can also adjust the scaling and orientation as shown in figure 2. and select Print Preview. The Print Preview window allows you to change some of the options detailed above. at the top of the Firefox window.Figure 2. go over to the Print. Figure 2.11Margins and Header/ Footer . The double arrows take you to the first or last page. Access the Print window by clicking Print. or the Page Setup window by clicking Page Setup. Click on the arrows next to the Page: field to flip through the pages of the document.

The top-left dropdown box's value appears at the top-left corner of the page. Ÿ Page # of #: Print the page number and the total number of pages. Ÿ URL: Print the web address of the page. Ÿ Page #: Print the page number. Ÿ Title: Print the title of the page.Margins: You can enter the width of the page margins for the top. bottom. Ÿ Date/ Time: Print the date and time when the page was printed. and right sides of the page separately. Headers & Footers: Use the dropdown menus to select what appears on the printed page. Ÿ Custom: Enter your own header or footer text. . Click OK to finish making changes and close the Page Setup window. Choose from: Ÿ Blank: Nothing will be printed. This can be used to show a company or organization name at the top or bottom of every printed page. the top-center dropdown box's value appears at the top-center portion of the page. left. and so on.

interactive activities. maps. and which function especially well together. The structure of software packages may be different for different kinds of packages. the information was complemented by numerous photos and illustrations. The difference between software tools & software packages should not be confused. For example an office suite incorporating word processing. timelines. Also called packaged software. 3. A tool is a single component of a software package that adds to the overall functionality of a program. An application program which is sold to the general public with all that should be necessary for it to work properly. For example a word processor could later be enhanced by installing a tool that allows you to manipulate pictures more efficiently within the program. This contrasts with custom software. extended by a purely declarative description of all elements. but there must be enough unique elements to be able to identify a certain kind of package. audio clips and videos.1 MS Encarta Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009 (in Spanish since the '97 version).000 items while its Spanish version. and communications programs. The entire program is the “package”. atlases and geographic tools to solve student assignments. The MS Encarta.000. data. which is designed to meet specific needs or circumstances. The encyclopedia was available on DVD-ROM or multiple CD-ROMs and also had limited availability (with ads) to their online content on the World Wide Web.0 Introduction A Software Package is a collection of modules. database.Chapter 3 The Concept of Software Packages 3. formatted documentation. Consider a word processor which most people use fairly regularly. including about 43. a runnable program. allowing an . and directories. It is a combination of application programs which are tailored to a given type of work. package or prepackaged software. the complete edition of Encarta Premium English containing over 62. In 2008. Many programs can be enhanced a later times by adding specific software tools. spreadsheet. presentation. while something like the word count would be considered a “tool”. Lotus SmartSuite and MS Office will be be explained in this chapter. The product of a software package is a library of compiled code objects. In addition to the encyclopedia entries. or all of the above.

the explosion of the Internet and encyclopedia sites such as Wikipedia gave users a free alternative to encyclopedias such as continues to be operated by Microsoft. In March 2009. but only in their English and French. the Dutch edition of the free content owned regional Winkler Prins in the Netherlands. The Japanese site closed down definitively on 31 December 2009. Italian. as consumers preferred to be able to make instant changes and updates to articles. is denominated Encarta Winkler Prins Encyclopedie. 2009. For example. Dutch. Web sites for all localized versions of MSN Encarta were closed (except Japan) on October 31.annual subscription to access more. German. Portuguese and Japanese. Encarta was a strong seller throughout the decade but its sales began to wane in the 2000s." Users can look up word definitions. Encarta Premium combines the resources of its award-winning encyclopedia with a variety of research and learning tools to deliver a complete reference resource for home or school use. Spanish. The Encarta Online Dictionary (dictionary. Microsoft changed its approach in 2005 to be more in line with Wiki-based sites. which was that there were differences between them. Microsoft continues to provide product support for Encarta users until 2012 or three years from the purchase of the 2009 edition of the encyclopedia. In 2011. Microsoft stopped selling its Encarta software in June of 2009. the Encarta brand exists only in Microsoft's online dictionary.0 (2008 & 2009) includes a wide range of tools and resources for students. . Despite discontinuing the software. rather than submit them and hope they were made. however. Microsoft announced the discontinuation of all existing stocks Encarta (CD and online version). It can help you with your math homework and your foreign language studies. The dictionary is one of many available on the Internet and carries the name "Encarta. search for synonyms in a thesaurus and learn different translations for words. Due to declining sales. and the Encarta website was available online only until the end of that year. Encarta's popularity suffered because of the convenience of userupdated websites such as Wikipedia. Microsoft edited and published editions of Encarta in different languages. Localized versions contain material licensed from local or national.msn. giving users the ability to send updates and other suggestions for Encarta articles to its editors. including English. French. the last edition of Encarta was released in 2009. Encarta Premium Microsoft Student with Encarta Premium 16. This idea did not succeed. At that time.

There are collection of videos from Discovery Channel and a new Visual Browser providing users with a rich and dynamic way to make learning fun. It includes templates and tutorials to help you do your homework in Microsoft Office. (a) (b) Figure 3.1.1 Encarta GUI .Comprehensive homework tools integrate homework project and research starters with the Dictionary & Thesaurus. The GUI for Encarta is shown in figure 3.

Videos include encyclopedic staples. including some from the Discovery Channel. along with time lines. preventing clutter.500 audio files let you hear music from around the world. The Home page lists subjects.Encarta's uncluttered layout makes it a snap to explore a variety of subjects.2. such as that of Grandmaster Flash. back and forward arrow buttons and the keyboard let you navigate. The function icons are sparse. Encarta Dictionaries Encarta Dictionaries help you find definitions of words. to quirky stuff such as "machine-shaped kaiser rolls. and virtual tours of landmarks. As with a Web browser. The definition appears on the Dictionary tab. . classical sitar melodies. such as Arts & Literature. or you can zero in on a particular topic through the search field as shown in figure 3. You can double-click a word to quickly find the definition in the dictionary. natural wonders." Encarta's 2. The Explore features encourage you to check out hundreds of videos. Figure 3. and excerpts from Beethoven's 9th Symphony. and the like.2 Encarta Layout Encarta's bright interface offers more blank space and pictures than Britannica's. such as the first moon landing. and a search field.

Maps (World Atlas) Encarta consists of the Encarta Encyclopedia as the flagship product. statistics. Encarta's Atlas pages include a Map Trek feature that walks you through basic facts about regions of the world. and more shown in figure 3. You can explore the World Atlas to find maps of many places. Map Customizer: Customize your view of a map by selecting the geographic features that you want to view. Map Customizer also lets you change the way maps are projected. night. Colors and symbols vary according to the map style. Geographic features vary according to the map style. Globe View is an orthographic projection of the world. Translations: Use to translate a word or phrase into another language. topography. See figure 3. Verb Conjugation: Use to conjugate verbs from foreign languages. which you can display by day. Next to the encyclopedia the World Atlas. Figure 3. Flat Map View is a flat Miller .3 for an illustration.Additional dictionary tools include: Thesaurus: Use to find synonyms and antonyms of words.4.3 Encrata world Atlas scren Some features of the atlas are: Map Legend: Explains the map symbols and colors.

4 Encarta's Map Trek feature cylindrical projection of the world. such as a map of climates. click a map style to the right. and working on everyday homework assignments. Parental controls are available for encarta dictionary to block inappropriate words. A statistical map is also available in the list of map styles. Learning Essentials Learning Essentials for Microsoft Office provides tutorials specifically created for student tasks such as writing reports. To view a different type of map. Encarta Kids offers articles. Encarta Kids Encarta Kids helps young students with homework and encourages them to learn in a fun and engaging way. . This is just a separate interface for Kids with filtered contents and more stylishly designed front end. multimedia.Figure 3. and interactive games specifically for ages 7 and up. Many types of maps are available. making presentations. It helps you get the most out of Microsoft Office in the least amount of time by providing Office templates with customized toolbars and project assistance to help you with your studies.

Equation Solver: Solve a single equation or system of equations. Unit Conversion Tool: Convert measurements in one system to a different system. and equations from a variety of mathematical and scientific disciplines. The Read Article button in the corner just sent us back to a write-up about ecosystems in general. For older children and adults who may not need such descriptive narrative.2 Lotus SmartSuite Lotus SmartSuite is an office productivity suite that includes Lotus 1-2-3. Lotus Approach. geometry. algebra. as the gateway to articles. statistics. Lotus SmartCenter. bright images invite you to wander. You can use it for basic math. and Lotus Word Pro. Encarta Kids is intuitive. Lotus FastSite. the picture of a dune links nowhere. angles. functions. The search field may eerily anticipate your query: Encarta knew by the time we typed "I H" that we were looking up the "I Have a Dream" speech by Dr. Graphing tab: Plot equations. Formulas and Equations: Find many widely used formulas. when you zero in on a topic. Triangle Solver: Calculate sides. trigonometry. This is a new software included with is Microsoft Math is a collection of tools to help you solve simple or complex math and science problems. chemistry. such as the Ecosystem menu's Sahara Desert. for instance. without an alphabetical list of subjects. if you up Hurricane Katrina you will find an impressive collection of articles. and more. calculus. inequalities. Lotus Freelance Graphics. photographs. and physics. chemistry. The science section's Environment page.Microsoft Encarta Kids 2007's big. physics. and other expressions. 3. Click an equation to plot it or solve it for a particular variable. geometry. the grown-up tools within Encarta Premium still emphasize text search and images. Lotus Organizer. Microsoft Math includes the following features: Calculator pad and Worksheet tab: Evaluate expressions and perform numeric calculations. and a timeline complete with political controversy and environmental damage Microsoft Math. and other information about triangles from known information that you provide. Martin Luther King. shows 28 pictures from Acid Rain to the Water Cycle. constants. Jr. including algebra. This latest version helps easily convert files from earlier versions of Lotus SmartSuite and other business applications including Microsoft Office Filters that exchange documents seamlessly to and .

the first thing you need to know is how to start Lotus 1-2-3. calculate. the word processor. for sorting. Word Pro and Microsoft Word. . and what directory to install them to. and analyze data. Review the online support for these programs at http://www-306. In Lotus 1-2-3. Spreadsheet Application The electronic spreadsheet application that is a part of Lotus SmartSuite that is used to organize. which consists of one or more worksheets. The Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window has several components through which you interact with the program. for letters. A worksheet consists of rows and columns that intersect to form cells.5 shows some of the common spreadsheet components. By default. or creating an accounting ledger for a company. When you start Lotus 1-2-3. spreadsheets are called worksheets or simply sheets. and any writing that you need done. features. The tasks that can be performed with it range from preparing a simple invoice to creating elaborate 3-D charts. or your own formatting by using the options on Word Pro menus. Cells contain various kinds of data that can be formatted. Combined with Lotus Notes and the Internet. tracking. Launch Word Pro. for questions or troubleshooting problems. a workbook comprises only one worksheet. You can also bring in tables or graphs from the other programs in SmartSuite to the document you are writing to give a visual of information. You can use Lotus 1-2-3.from Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel. Users can also create tables. Use the tools at on the menus to sort any way you want your data sorted. They also have information on transferring files to and from other word processing and database However. A 1-2-3 file is called a workbook. You can format your projects and documents using templates. The SmartSuite library can be downloaded for extra information and tutorials that you may need if you are new to the SmartSuite programs. or Freelance Graphics and PowerPoint. graphs and write short code to run data and information and export that into Word Pro to make up to date documents. Install the software following the onscreen directions for installation and read the prompts carefully so you can decide what programs. the spreadsheet program. and organizing. and made into charts. You can open an existing workbook or create a new workbook by using this dialog box. you will see the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box within the Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window. To Use Lotus' SmartSuite check your computer for hardware requirements against what is needed for SmartSuite. sorted. Figure 3. makes Lotus SmartSuite the industry's most complete suite for addressing the needs of both enterprise and individual users.

Lotus SmartSuite.6 Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box The 1-2-3 window has many components through which you can interact with or get information about the worksheet you are working on. Figure 3. You will see the Lotus SmartSuite 12-3 window showing the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box as shown in figure 3.7 shows some of these components. .Column Cell Row Figure 3. Lotus 1-2-3. click the Start button on the Windows desktop and then choose Programs.5 General spreadsheet components To start 1-2-3. figure 3.6.

Worksheet tab . Cell pointer .The menu bar displays all the menus available in Lotus 1-2-3. Scroll box . Edit line . It shows the name of the current worksheet. Status bar .The title bar displays the name of the workbook. The second part consists of the navigator and the function selector. Scroll bars . The first part is the selection indicator that displays the name of the current worksheet and the current cell. For example. .The SmartIcons bar contains buttons (called SmartIcons) for frequently used actions. which is A by default. the Edit menu contains all the commands needed to edit a workbook.The status bar appears at the bottom of the worksheet. It shows information about the ongoing activities.The vertical and horizontal scroll bars are also used to move through the worksheet.Title bar Menu bar Edit line Smart Icon bar Worksheet tab Scroll box Cell Scroll bars Status bar Figure 3.This line consists of three parts. The default name of a workbook is “Untitled. which displays the content of the current cell. The SmartIcons are alternatives to the commands available in the menus.7 Components of the 1-2-3 window The following gives the components in figure 3.7 and the description of each.” Menu bar .The worksheet tab appears above the worksheet. such as opening or saving a file. The last part is the contents box. Title bar .The scroll box can be used to move through the worksheet vertically and horizontally.The rectangular outline of the current cell. Each menu consists of a set of related commands. SmartIcons bar . It also contains various buttons to perform common tasks such as changing font style.

Figure 3.8. will appear next to the icon. whereas others move only your view of the worksheet (without moving the cell pointer). . 2 From the Look in box.8 A sample Open dialog box There are many techniques for moving around in a worksheet. 3 From the list of files. select the folder that contains the workbook you want to open. The current cell is where data you enter will appear. You can find out the function of a SmartIcon by pointing to it and waiting a moment. You can then choose a command by clicking its name. called bubble help. Open (or click the Open SmartIcon) to display the Open dialog box shown in figure 3. Keyboard shortcuts are shown next to the command names in the menu. a list of related commands appears below the menu. select the workbook you want to open and click Open (or double-click the workbook name). Some navigation techniques move the cell pointer.When you click a menu name. you simply click it. To use a SmartIcon. To open an existing workbook: 1 Choose File. The address of the current cell appears in the selection indicator on the edit line. A short description. The cell in which the cell pointer appears is the current cell. Opening and navigating a workbook To open a workbook in 1-2-3 use the menu commands or by click them Open SmartIcon.

Drag scroll box . When you choose Help.The following describes various techniques to navigate a worksheet and the corresponding effect. Press. the left arrow moves the cell pointer to the left. and Quick Demos. Getting Help The three ways to access Help when working with 1-2-3 includes choosing Help from the menu bar. Index. The 1-2-3 Help provides assistance on topics related to 1-2-3.Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the left. the Help Topics dialog box appears by default. Press .Moves the cell pointer one column to the right. left. depending on which side of the scroll bar you click.Moves the view of the worksheet one row or one column. examples.Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the right. procedures. .Moves the view of the worksheet one screen up. or right.HOME .SHIFT+TAB . For example the help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 is illustrated in figure 3. Closing a workbook There are various ways to close a workbook in 1-2-3 and these includes the following. Press . Click Help Topics to open the Help Topics: 1-2-3 Help dialog box. Similarly.Moves the view of worksheet quickly without moving the cell pointer. and Find. Does not move the cell pointer. Press .Moves the cell pointer up one row. Help contains overviews.TAB .END + ↓ . Press .Makes the cell active. the down arrow moves the cell pointer down one row. pressing F1 or clicking the Ask the Expert button on the status bar. Help Topics from the menu bar. They teach you about using 1-2-3. Quick Demos are demonstrations on specific help topics. Click scroll arrow . Similarly.↑ .Moves the cell pointer to the last row that contains data and precedes a blank cell. Click scroll bar .8. This dialog box contains three tabs: Contents. Press .→ .Moves the cell pointer to the rightmost cell that contains data and precedes a blank cell. Does not move the cell pointer. Press . Each tab provides a different interface for getting assistance.Moves the cell pointer to cell A1. down. technical details.END + → . Click cell .

you will be prompted to save changes. Ÿ Press Enter to confirm the entry.Figure 3. Entering and editing data To enter labels or numbers: Ÿ Click the cell where you want to enter the label or number. In 1-2-3. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the menu bar. Close. • Click the Control menu icon on the menu bar to open the Control menu and choose Close. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the title bar. Exit 1-2-3. Labels can contain text and numbers. When you close a workbook. • Click the Close button on the extreme right of the menu bar. On the work sheet if you do not want to continue working with 1-2-3. • Click the Close button on the title bar. .8 Help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 • Choose File. the data that begins with a letter or an apostrophe (’) is called label. • Click the Control menu icon on the title bar and choose Close. you can simply exit by using any of the following methods: • Choose File. Ÿ Type the label or number.

operator is used to subtract them. If you make an error while entering data in a cell. You can also use special formulas called functions to perform calculations such as determining the sum or average for a range of cells. 1-2-3 treats it as a number and does not append an apostrophe at the beginning. you will see the Confirm button and the Cancel button on the edit line as shown in figure 3. type the appropriate data. and press Enter.10 The edit line showing the Cancel and Confirm buttons Confirm an entry either by clicking the Confirm button or by pressing Enter to update the data in the cell. Entering and editing formulas An integral part of formulas are operators. • Click the contents box. . you first select the cell where you want the result to appear.When you begin an entry with a letter. or range names. Operators indicate the type of operation that a formula will perform. you can: • Double-click the cell. type the appropriate data. All 1-2-3 formulas begin with the equal to sign (=) or plus sign (+). a cell address. another formula. For example. if there are numbers in A2 and A3. and you want to add them and show the result in A4. A formula can refer to a value. For example. When you begin an entry with a digit.10. the + operator is used to add numbers and the . When the contents box is activated. To enter a formula. Then you type the formula in the selected cell. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. You can cancel an entry either by clicking the Cancel button or by pressing Esc to leave the entry in its original state. you would: Type = A2+A3 in A4 and Press Enter. Figure 3. Functions are built-in formulas that perform simple to complex calculations automatically. you can easily correct it at any point. • Press Delete to remove the contents of the current cell and then type the correct label or number. 1-2-3 automatically appends an apostrophe at the beginning. To make corrections. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. and press Enter. You can use numbers in calculations.

4 Click Save. . 4 Click the Confirm button. enter the name of the workbook. 5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have created the formula you want. 3 Edit the formula.11 Sample formula To enter a cell reference.12.The result will appear in A4. 2 Click the contents box. click the contents box. The shape of the pointer changes to a range selector. 4 Type the operator you want. 2 From the Save in list. 6 Press Enter.11. the formula will appear in the contents box. Figure 3.12 Editing Formula Saving and updating a workbook To save a workbook for the first time after creating it do the following. 1 Choose File. 2 Type + (to begin the formula). and then enter the edited formula. To edit a formula. Select the cell. 3 Select the cell for which you want to enter a reference. as shown in figure 3. If the cell is active. See figure 3. You can edit formulas as you would edit any other data. Figure 3. select the folder in which you want to save the workbook. 3 In the File name box. 1 Select the cell that you want to edit. 1 Select the cell in which you want to enter the formula. edit the formula. Save As to open the Save As dialog box.

the mode indicator shows “Ready” as shown in figure 3. A pop-up list appears when you click any of these buttons. The status bar also contains several buttons used to format texts and numbers in a workbook. Figure 3. . Use the Save As option to save a new workbook or to save an existing workbook with a different name.13 Save As dial box Formatting worksheets The status bar is located at the bottom of the 1-2-3 window and contains different buttons used for formatting. A simple Save As dial box is shown in figure 3. a list of point sizes appears. You use the Save option to update changes to a workbook under the same name and in the same location. you can change the size of the selected cells. you will lose all the changes that you have made.If you close a workbook without saving it. It changes every time you perform another action. By default. if you click the Point size button. or to save it to a different location. It displays the styles of the current selection and also shows the status of 1-2-3.14. By selecting a different size from the list. For example. The rightmost part of the status bar contains the mode indicator.13. giving you formatting options from which you can choose.

select the column. attributes.14 The Status bar To format text by using the InfoBox: 1 Select the cell or range you want to format. The changes you make are reflected instantly. B4. To change column widths: • Drag the column border. A noncontiguous range is a range in which all the cells are not adjacent. This automatically sizes the column to fit the widest data it contains. When you point to the border between two column headings. To do this. display the InfoBox. Range Properties to open the InfoBox. and alignment. Column widths and row heights Row heights will change automatically to accommodate the size of the data in a row. . 3 Click the Text Format tab. column widths will adjust automatically. • Double-click the column border. and the range C6. and click the Basic properties tab. The InfoBox consists of several tabs. 5 Close the InfoBox. As you drag. and color. the pointer takes the shape of a two-headed arrow. You can then drag the border to the left or right to decrease or increase the size of the column. point size. You can also click the Range Properties SmartIcon. and specify the size in the Width spinner control. select Width. For example.D7. select any other nonadjacent cells or ranges you want to add to the selection. Each tab contains a different category of properties. Under Column. but in most cases you will need to adjust column widths manually to make the columns fit the data you put in them.. such as color. To select a noncontiguous range: 1 Select the first cell or range. 2 Choose Range. an indicator appears showing the column width in characters. which are known as its properties. In some cases. • Set a specific column size in characters. 4 Select the desired font.Figure 3. 2 While holding down the Ctrl key. font. The Text Format tab shows the characteristics of the selected data. you might want to apply the same formatting to cells A1. size.

including dates. For example. You can also use the Number Format tab in the InfoBox to apply a wide variety of number formats. or center in a cell. Figure 3. select the number. the data you type could appear to the left. click the Number format button. To format a number. The Wrap text in cell checkbox folds the text that extends across columns. time. Figure 3.14 shows the alignment dial box. and scientific notation as shown in figure 3. Alignment Alignment refers to the place where data is positioned in a cell.14 InfoBox showing the Alignment tab Formatting numbers The Number format button on the status bar shows General by default.15 InfoBox showing the Number Format tab . right. currency. The Align across columns checkbox in the properties for InfoBox is used to center data over a range of cells (rather than within a single cell). Figure 3.The same methods work for changing row height. and then from the list select a format.15. within a single cell. You can set alignments either by using the Alignment tab in the InfoBox or by using the Alignment button in the status bar.

1 Select the data you want to include in the chart. including number formats without copying the data in the cells. 3 Select the cell or range to which you want to copy the formatting. 2 Click the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of the selection. specify the range of pages to print.16 The Print dial box Creating a chart To create a chart. Print. 1-2-3 displays the Print dialog box shown in figure 3.16. You can use the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of cells. You can also access the Preview window by using the Preview & Page Setup button. and the number of copies needed. Figure 3. Printing When you either click the Print SmartIcon or choose File. . The data should include all the values you want included in the chart. To use the Fast Format SmartIcon: 1 Select the cell or range from which you want to copy the formatting.Instead of repeating the same formatting you can simply copy the styles from one range of cells to another. the current sheet. as well as any labels that identify those values. Choose the printer to which you want to send the page. or a selected range. You can also specify printing the entire workbook.

you can format only the color of the fill and the line around it. Figure 3. Lotus1-2-3 plots the data in the selected range as a bar chart by default. • Select the element. • Choose a command from the Chart menu (the name of the command will vary depending on which element you selected). Create. For some elements. The pointer changes to a small bar chart. and click the Chart properties SmartIcon. Figure 3. • Double-click the element.17 Main elements of a chart Change chart elements There are three methods for formatting a chart element namely. but it is helpful to know some basic terms as you work with charts.17 shows a chart with labeled elements. The maximum number of series you canhave in a chart is 26. It makes working with charts intuitive. 3 Click the worksheet where you want the top left corner of the chart to appear.2 Choose Chart. you have various formatting choices. . Each row and column of data plotted on a chart represents a series. You can select a range that contains all the elements you need to create a basic chart. For other elements.



Dev Ÿ MS Office 2000 Ÿ MS Office XP Ÿ MS Office 2003 Ÿ MS Office 2007 Ÿ MS Office 2010 Ÿ MS Office 2013 The most of GUI and and Control features are common to all the applications of Microsoft Office. In simple words we can say that MS Office is a computer Programme/Software which is use to perform various office related tasks making files. creating tables. · Accounting – bookkeeping and accounting software for small businesses. This type of facility is often referred to as Object Linking and Embedding.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. making Presentation etc. In simple words its a virtual representation of all the tools you use in your Office. graphs. charts. MS Excel. The Versions are.3. create reports. you can insert part of an Excel spreadsheet in a word document. MS Publisher etc. database. These applications are intimately connected to each other meaning information can be shared among multiple applications. and voice chat. tables.4 MS Office Concept The word MS stands for MicroSoft (an American multinational software corporation who is the developer of Office).3 Ÿ MS Office95 Ÿ MS Office97 Std. Ÿ MS Office 1. and otherwise organize and present lists or other raw data.2 Ÿ MS Office 4. MS Office is a suite of productivity tools consisting of word processing. Some of the important application programs of MS Office suits include are : · Access – create databases. · Excel – create spreadsheets. Pro. spreadsheet. It comes as a combination of MS Word. MS Powerpoint. presentation and personal information. video. · Communicator – IM. typing letters. · Groove – software for group working. . drawing graphs.6 Ÿ MS Office 3.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. or you can use data from Outlook schedule to build a Power Point presentation. For example. manage large quantities of information. allows file sharing and collaborative work spaces.

· Visio – visualize information by creating diagrams. text and arrows. video. The Office Button . and format your work for better visual appeal. within each Ribbon are Groups. · Word – word processing software. etc) are called Tabs. · Outlook – email client that includes a calendar. and requires its own vocabulary.19. · OneNote – note-taking software that allows you to save text. brochures. posters. and task panes with a simpler system of interfaces optimized for efficiency and discoverability. the Design Tab). video. When selecting some Groups. toolbars. Page Layout. and other planning needs. and audio with pretty backgrounds! · Project – project management software that allows you to control workflows. budgets. Navigating the Workspace The Ribbon . See figure 3.The Office Button shown in figure 3.18 Figure 3. · PowerPoint – create slide show presentations with text. audio. and newsletters. flowcharts.18 Microsoft office work space The set-up of the ribbon differs greatly from the earlier editions of Word. a unique Tab will appear (for example. and bibliographies. located in the upper left hand corner contains such options as: .The Ribbon replaces the previous system of layered menus. images. · Publisher – create visual print materials such as fliers.· InfoPath – create and manage electronic forms for gathering information. used to create text documents like papers. and models with pictures. Tabs will differ depending on which Office program you are using. contact manager. schedules. and images in one place with full search capabilities.. outlines. Each of the words across the top (Home. Insert. and to do list. Tabs open a Ribbon.

20.20 Customizing the toolbar . right-click any frequently used action (such as Paste) and choose “Add to Quick Access Toolbar”. Figure 3. Figure 3.· Save · Save As · Print · New · Open · etc. To do this.19 The office button Customizing the Toolbar: The toolbar can be customized to include your favorite actions using the Quick Access Toolbar. See figure 3.

Some Basic Actions
Figure 3.21a Inserting break page

Figure 3.21b inserting pictures and graphics

Figure 3.21c inserting headers
and footers

Figure 3.21d track changing
(useful for group projects)

Figure 3.21e Spelling and
grammar check or word count
Figure 3.21 Basic actions
Figure 3.21 shows some basic actions using the ms word platform.

Some Basic Actions of the Microsoft PowerPoint is shown in figure 3.22

(a) Use the Home tab to change the slide
layout with the Layout button

(b) Use the Design tab to
change the colors and
background of your slides

( c) Custom Slide Show: choose which
slides to include in your presentation

(d) Practice your presentation and
automatically time how long to spend
on each slide using rehearse timings.

Microsoft Excel Basic Actions
An Excel file is called a workbook. A workbook can be made up of any number of
worksheets (up to a point, but the limit is very large). The worksheets are
organized into tabs at the bottom of the document as shown in figure 3.23a.

(a) Worksheets
(b) Cell
3.23 Excel worksheets and cells
These worksheets are composed of cells in which you can enter data.
You can use Functions to calculate information from your data (functions can be
found in the Formulas tab).

Figure 3.24 Calculating data information.
To insert charts into your worksheet use the insert tab. First highlight the data
you want to use, then choose the chart type from the Ribbon, shown in figure

Figure 3.25 Inserting a chart

When the chart is highlighted, use the Chart Tools tabs to change the design,
layout, or format of the chart as shown in figure 3.26.

Figure 3.26The chart tool



Since reprinting a paper is much easier than retyping it. The first word processors were basically computerized typewriters. Some may also include a "Word Count" option. and OpenOffice. and may be able to add headers. However. Some examples of word processing programs include Microsoft Word. you can open up the program by double-clicking it. which could then be printed by a printer. While all these features can be useful and fun to play with. include features to customize the style of the text. and entire papers. word processing programs have make revising text documents a much more efficient process.” The following is the screen that will be displayed after selecting the previous sequence of menu commands. . This is shown in figure 4. it is more commonly used to describe basic word processing programs with limited features Starting Microsoft Word To run Word on your computer click on. the typewriter evolved into a word processing or word processing program. Alternatively. and page numbers to each page. “Start menu” >> “All Programs” >> “Microsoft Office” >> “Microsoft Office Word 20XX. It also processes paragraphs. WordPerfect (Windows only). or an old fashioned green screen computer.Chapter 4 Word-processing Introduction In the 1970s. you can click anywhere within the text of a document and add or remove content. AppleWorks (Mac only). By using the mouse. the term "word processing" basically means creating a text document and using a computer and word processing software such as Word. change the page formatting. pages. however. if there is an icon of Microsoft Word available on your desktop (shaped like a square with a "W" in the middle).1. Modern word processing programs. A word processor. It processes words. which could be as simple as an electric typewriter with a small screen display. does exactly what the name implies. Today. footers. which did little more than place characters on a screen. which counts the words and characters within a document. The term "text editor" can also be used to refer to a word processing program. the most significant improvement over the typewriter is the word processor's ability to make changes to a document after it has been written.

word 2003 and (b). (a) (b) Figure 4.1 Steps for starting word Shown in figure 4.(a) Word 2003 (b) Word 2010 Figure 4. When Word is launched. here is a brief explanation of the Word window. word 2010. opens in Print Layout view.1 Microsoft Word default window . a new blank document.2 is the Microsoft Word default window for (a). Although window elements are fully explained in our Windows course. or default window.

View Buttons: The group of five buttons located to the left of the Zoom control. You can customize this toolbar based on your comfort. The zoom control consists of a slider that you can slide left or right to zoom in or out. The horizontal ruler appears just beneath the Ribbon and is used to set margins and tab stops. Title bar: This lies in the middle and at the top or the window.The following Descriptions holds for the MS-Word screen elements shown in figure 4. . Most people prefer this mode. Full Screen Reading view: This gives a full screen look of the document. headers and footers aren't shown. such as Internet Explorer. Page Layout are example of ribbon tabs. print a document. The vertical ruler appears on the left edge of the Word window and is used to gauge the vertical position of elements on the page. Insert. Rulers: Word has two rulers . and do other file-related operations. Draft view: This formats text as it appears on the printed page with a few exceptions. Quick Access Toolbar: This you will find just above the File tab and its purpose is to provide a convenient resting place for the Word most frequently used commands. Groups: They organize related commands. Title bar shows the program and document titles. For example group of commands related to fonts or or group of commands related to alignment etc. lets you switch among Word's various document views. which is the place to come when you need to open or save files. For example. . This provides nice tutorial on various subjects related to word. create new documents. Web Layout view: This shows how a document appears when viewed by a Web browser. each group name appears below the group on the Ribbon.2.s standard heading styles. Home. You can click it to check Backstage view. ile Tab: The File tab replaces the Office button from Word 2007. Commands: Commands appear within each group as mentioned above. and + buttons you can click to increase or decrease the zoom factor. Help: The Help Icon can be used to get word related help anytime you like. Ribbon: Word Ribbon contains commands organized in three components Tabs: They appear across the top of the Ribbon and contain groups of related commands.a horizontal ruler and a vertical ruler. Zoom Control: Zoom control lets you zoom in for a closer look at your text. Outline view: This lets you work with outlines established using Word. near the bottom of the screen. Print Layout view: This displays pages exactly as they will appear when printed.

this bar contains the total number of pages and words in the document.Links to the Microsoft Office Help feature 4.Used to view parts of the document. Clicking this button opens a dialog box or task pane that provides more options about the group.3 Creating a New Document .Document Area: The area where you type.3 below. Figure 4. Standard Toolbar . language etc.Contains a list of options to manage and customize documents. You can configure the status bar by right-clicking anywhere on it and by selecting or deselecting options from the provided list.Indicates the end of the document.Provides easy access to commonly used menus. Scroll bars . From left to right. Insertion Point .The location where the next character appears. go to File>New shown in figure 4. The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type. Status Bar: This displays document information as well as the insertion point location. Task Pane . Office Assistant .Contains buttons used for formatting.Contains shortcut buttons for the most popular commands. buttons and tools. Menu Bar . Formatting Toolbar . End-of-Document Marker .2 Creating a New Document To create a new document. Dialog Box Launcher: This appears as very small arrow in the lower-right corner of many groups on the Ribbon.

go to File>Open.Another option to open a new document is to customize your Quick Access Toolbar to display the New document icon New Document Icon. The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type. Find the folder where your existing file is. you are ready to start typing. Keep the mouse cursor at the text insertion point and start typing whatever text you would like to type. The document area is the area where you type your text. Click on the New document icon on the Quick Access toolbar and a new blank document will automatically open. To open an existing file. The dialog box will look similar to the dialog box for saving.2 Formatting Text The text can be formatted before it is typed into the document or edit existing text. Click on the Quick Access Toolbar list arrow and click New.4 show two word "Hello Word" text. Figure 4. The text appears to the left of the insertion point as it is typed. The icon will appear on the toolbar until you uncheck New. the orientation of the text on the page. The font style or size. After you create document. To change the text .4 Entering a text into the document area 4. Figure 4. and click Open. or the location of a block of text on the page can also be changed. highlight it.

In MS Word. Word processing applications come with a set of fonts. In microsoft Word 2010 choose the Home tab and click the Select button from the Editing group or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl A .formatting first you must highlight or select the block of text you wish to format. you may also go to Edit>Select All. (a) From home tab (b) From the dial box launcher Figure 4. apply the required formatting options that Microsoft Word provides. If you want the changes to apply to all text in your document.5 Opening the font dial box . you must first select(or highlight) the text you wish to change. The following diagrams reveal how to perform font changes from the home tab and the Font dialog box in Word. most attributes to text can be made by opening the Format>Font dialog box. To assist you user with selecting a font for an application. Click and drag the mouse over the text. style. size and color of text. size and color of text. It offers a nice preview window which shows you exactly how your text will look before you apply the changes. Microsoft Windows provides the Font dialog box. Changing font. style. Before changing font. Once you have selected the text you would like to format.5a below. The Edit>Undo feature can take you back a step if you are not comfortable with a change made. we have figure 4. From the home tab of word 2010. To select the text of the whole document.

Figure 4. 3. 6. Open Word. Click the Format menu. click the dialog box launcher button located on the bottom right-hand corner of the Font group.From the Font Dialog Box shown in figure 4. The Font dialog box will appear and you can edit your font settings. 5. 4. this button text has been changed to Set as Default. Confirm. style. See figure 4.5b. 2. Click the Default button.Once the font dialog opens. press the Default button when you are done. Select the font. . In Word 2010. change the default properties you wish. Click OK.6 the font dial box For the older Versions of Microsoft Word 1. In Word 2007.6. and color you wish you use by default.

Select the text that you want to change to a bold font. Text Alignment There are four types of paragraph alignment are available in Microsoft Word left-aligned. and justified shown in figure 4. Click the Font Color button triangle to display a list of colors.7 Changing font colors If the color of your choice is not displayed. Select any of the colors available by simply clicking over it. right-aligned. If you click at the left portion of the Font Color button. See figure 4. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Left button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + L keys. Align left: A paragraph's text will be said left aligned if it is aligned with left margin. 2. Try to move your mouse pointer over different colors and you will see text color will change automatically. but the font color can be changed to any of the color which one can imagine. Figure 4.Change Font Colors: By default any typed text comes in black color. centered. . then already selected color will be applied to the text.7. use the More Colors option to display color pallet box which allows the select of any color from range of millions of colors. so you would have to click over small triangle to display a list of colors. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. This is very simple to change text color by following two simple steps: 1.8.

Align center: A paragraph's text will be said center aligned if it is in the center of the left and right margins.8 Text alignment and justification . Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text right aligned. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text center aligned. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text justify aligned. Align Right: A paragraph's text will be said right aligned if it is aligned with right margin. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Center button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + E keys. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Justify button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + J keys. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Right button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + R keys. Justify Aligned Text: A paragraph's text will be said justify aligned if it is aligned with both left and right margins. (a) Align left \ (b) Align center ( c) Align right (d) Justify align Figure 4.

9. justify low. justify. justify high and justify medium. Following are the simple steps to create either bulleted list or numbered list. 2. Click the Bullet Button triangle to display a list of bullets you want to assign to the list. Any of the numbering style available can be selected by simply clicking over it. Creating a List This is very simple to convert a list of lines into a bulleted or numbered list. . You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. 3.9 The bullet buttons 1.Clicking the Justify button displays four options. You can select any of the bullet style available by simply clicking over it. To create a list with numbers. Figure 4. You need to select only justify option. click the Numbering Button triangle instead of bullet button to display a list of numbers to assign to the list. medium creates a bit more space and high creates maximum space between two words to justify the text. Select a list of text to which you want to assign bullets or numbers. Difference between these options is that low justify creates little space between two words. See figure 4.

Click Before spinner to increase or decrease the space before the selected paragraph. 2. Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing and click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher available on Home tab.11. Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing. Finally click OK button to apply the changes. This action is shown in figure 4. Similar way click After spinner to increase or decrease the space after the selected paragraph. The distance between two paragraphs can be set using the following simple steps. 1. You can select any of the option available by simply clicking over it. Click the Line and Paragraph Spacing Button triangle to display a list of options to adjust space between the lines. .10 Adjusting spacing between document lines 1.Lines and Spacing Following are the simple steps to adjust spacing between two lines of the document.10 Figure 4. See figure 4. 2. You can use any of the text selection method to select the paragraph(s).

To cut. Cut: Use this when you want to move a bit of text from one place to another in your document. right hand mouse click and Drag `n' Drop. You can use the toolbar buttons. It will delete the original text when you have completed the action by Pasting Copy: This will copy the selected text. your . quick keys. leaving the original text in it's original place Paste: This deposits the text you have Cut or Copied wherever your cursor is situated. Copy. the Edit Menu. If you do not select the text first.11 Spacing between Paragraphs Cut.Figure 4. There are several ways to Cut. you must first select some text. copy. and paste text. and Paste commands. Click and drag your mouse over the text you wish to cut or copy. Copy and Paste. and paste text. copy. Text can be moved around in a document by using the Cut.

12. Paste features will be grayed out and unusable in your Edit menu as shown below. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. See figure 4. Copy & Paste Operation: Copy operation will just copy the content from its original place and create a duplicate copy of the content at the desired location without deleting the text from it's the original location. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. Ÿ Using Ctrl + c Keys: After selecting a text. just press Ctrl + c keys to copy the selected content in clipboard. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. . The various options available to copy the selected text is as follows.12 Copy and paste operation Step (3): Finally click at the place where you want to copy selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the copied content at the desired location. The following is the procedure to copy the content in word: 1. Ÿ Using Ribbon Copy Button: After selecting a text. just click this option to copy the selected content in clipboard. 2.Cut. you can use copy button available at the ribbon to copy the selected content in clipboard. Copy. it will display copy option. Figure 4.

To copy and paste or cut and paste content form one document to another document just copy or cut the desired content from one document and go into another document where you want to paste the content and use mentioned step to paste the content. 3. To add header and footer in a word document. just click this option to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Header and Footer buttons appear on the Ribbon and a Close Header and Footer button will also appear at the top-right corner. There are various options available to cut the selected text and put it in clipboard.13b. .12. it will display cut option.Cut & Paste Operation: Cut operation will cut the content from its original place and move the content from its original location to a new desired location. Ÿ Using Ctrl + x Keys: After selecting a text. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. Ÿ Using Ribbon Cut Button: After selecting a text. the document title. These are. it will be applied to the document in editable mode and the text in the document domain will appear dimmed. 2.13a. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to add first. 2. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. See figure 4. Following is the procedure to move the content in word: 1. 1. Formatting Pages Headers and Footers: Headers (appears at the top of every page) and footers (footer appears at the bottom of every page) are parts of a document that contain special information such as page numbers and the total number of pages. Once any of the headers is selected. See figure 4. any photo etc. Clicking on the Header button will display a list of built-in Headers from where any can be chosen from. Refer to figure 4. company logo. Click the Insert tab. just press Ctrl + x keys to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Finally click at the place where you want to move the selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the content at the new location. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods. you can use cut button available at the ribbon to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content.

& time In various circumstances. date. 1. Edit the document header and once done. and page number may not appear as you might think until printing or unless you are in the Print Preview mode. 2.13 Header and footer illustration 3. These things can be inserted through the Header/Footer dialog box. and it will apply it to all your pages automatically. Note that the date. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to edit. or the time into your document. . Click on it and word will display editable header 3. Headers and footers allow you to add uniform content to the very top and very bottom of each page of your document. Click the Insert tab. To edit an existing Header and Footer of a document do the following. Clicking the Header button will display a list of options including Edit Header option. you might need to insert page numbers. time. One way to check to see your resulting header and/or footer attributes is by going to Print Preview. Type the information required in the document header and click Close Header and Footer to come out of header insertion mode. click Close Header and Footer to come out of header edit mode.(a) (b) Figure 4. Consequently. Page numbers. this feature is intended to be used as a tool for a multi-page document. The fundamental idea behing the header and footer is that you only have to enter the information one time. a date. This will vary depending on the word processing application.

14a. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. bottom. This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. The following are the simple steps to change the page orientation of a word document. bottom. Change Page Orientation Page Orientation is useful when you print your pages. click the Insert tab. Finally select of the page number styles which is desired. current position etc. 1. Just click this option and it will delete your all the page numbers set in your document. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. 2. After this step enter in Page Footer modification mode and click Close Header and Footer button to come out of footer edit mode.14b. . This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. 3. Moving the mouse pointer over the available options displays further styles of page numbers to be displayed as shown in figure 4. By default Microsoft Word shows a page in portrait orientation and in this case page width is less than page height and page will be 8.5 inches. current position etc and at the bottom you will have Remove Page Numbers option. You can change page orientation from portrait to landscape orientation in which case page width will be more than page height and page will be 11 inches x 8. See figure 4. (a) (b) Figure 4.5 inches x 11 inches. Click the Insert tab.The following are the simple steps to add page numbers in a word document.13 Adding page numbers To remove page numbers.

Figure 4. Create a Table: 1. This will display a simple grid shown below. Click the square representing the lower-right corner of your table.1. and click Orientation button available in the Page Setup group. Click the Insert tab. Usually top row in the table is kept as a table header and can be used to put some informative instruction. Tables A table is a structure of vertical columns and horizontal rows with a cell at every intersection. Click any of the options you want to set to orientation. To create a table apply the following procedures. By default. You can make your table having desired number of rows and columns as per figure 4. and you can format the table in any way you want.14. Open a word document for which you want to change the orientation.14 Layout tab showing page orientation options 4. which will . This will display an Option Menu having both the options (Portrait & Landscape) to be selected as shown in figure 4. and click Table button. orientation will be Portrait Orientation 2. it makes a table in the table which appears in the document. 2. Click the Page Layout tab. When you move your mouse over the grid cells.15a. Each cell can contain text or graphics.

16 Adding Formula to a document. which is =SUM(LEFT) in our case. find average of numbers. starting with A for the first column. and so on. a formula can be used based on the requirement. Click the Layout tab and then click Formula button which will display a Formula Dialog Box which will suggest a default formula. You can select a number format using Number Format List Box to display the result or you can change the formula using Formula List Box. There is a long list of formulas from which. Word cell formula can bee constructed. The cell . Thus. the third cell in the fourth row is C4. Word formulas use a reference system to refer to individual table cells. and so on. or find the largest or smallest number in table cells you specify. Each column is identified by a letter. B for the second column.16. You can repeat the procedure to have sum of other two rows as well. the first cell in the first row is A1. Figure 4. Click in a cell that should contain the sum of a rows. See figure 4. The following are useful points in constructing word cell formula.Microsoft Word allows the use of mathematical formula in table cells which can be used to add numbers. Click OK to apply the formula. The following are the simple steps to add formula in a table cell available in word document. After the letter comes the row number. 2. 1. 3.

(a) (b) Figure 4. 1. 1. 2. 2.15b. To Move a Table with-in the same word document. Click over the small Cross Icon which will select the whole table.15 Creating the table 3. When you move your mouse over any of the styles. As soon as you bring your mouse pointer inside the table. . use Cut button or simply press Ctrl + X keys to cut the table from its original location. a small Cross Icon will appear at the top-left corner of the table. If you want to have fancy table. Click the Layout tab. To Delete a Table from a word document. 3. just click over the built-in table style and you will see that selected style has been applied on your table. To select any of the styles.create a actual table in the document and goes in table design mode giving lots of options to work with table as per figure 4. Click Table Styles button to display a gallery of table styles. Click anywhere in the table you want to delete. and click Delete Table option under the Delete Table Button to delete complete table from the document along with its content. Bring the mouse pointer over the table which you want to move. Once table is selected. it shows real time preview of your actual table. Bring your insertion point at the location where you want to move the table and use Paste button or simply press Ctrl + C keys to paste the table at the new location.

Look for the copyright statements before using images. such as A3. The place where you begin creating a mailmerge can appear in various menus. Inserting images can be one way to use integrative applications. and directly from other artists will require some type of citation depending on how you plan to use it. BELOW. referring to all cells in the column below the current cell. you need to designate which database you want to merge with. A single cell reference. format it. and insert an image. and merge the documents. often as a selected image. /. you can insert them into your own word processor. attach it to a data source. Find your Insert feature. CDROM's. Integration: Inserting images. You should also wrap text around the image. it will appear in your word processing document. Once you find it and choose it. . Most images from the Internet. In order to create a mailmerge document. This is a critical difference. Often times it will be located under File>Insert. such as A4:A9 or C5:C13 A series of individual cells. Inline means that it is fixed between the text where it appears with very limited modification.B4. %. You may have to browse through folders or directories until you find it. within it. Be sure to follow copyright law and work within the Fair Use Guidelines if you use an image you did not create. there might be a separate menu item Insert Clip Art which will automatically take you to the folder filled with the application's library of art. referring to all cells in the column above the current cell. Floating means it can be modified and relocated more easily. *. The following procedure describes how to create a form letter. referring to all cells in the row to the left of the current cell RIGHT. LEFT. specific fields or pieces of information from a database.references and description is as follows. It will either be inline or floating. -. Integration: Mail Merge A mail merge is when you create a word processing document that has. If you want to insert clip art.C5 ABOVE. Clip art libraries that come with your software package need no citation. such as B3 or F7 A range of cells. If you create or find images through other applications and save them to a folder on your harddrive. referring to all cells in the row to the right of the current cell You can also construct simple math expressions. There should be a feature within your menus called Insert or Insert Image. A window will pop up that will allow you to find the folder with your collected images. such as B3+B5*10 by using simple mathematical operators +.

17 Mailmerge steps .1. Figure 4. click Start Mail Merge.17a (a) (b) ( c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 4. On the Mailings tab. and then click Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard.

Ÿ Start from a template: Select one of the ready-to-use mail merge templates. Add fields to your document. To preview. click Letters. 4. 3. Preview and complete the merge.17b. Ÿ In the Mail Merge task pane. click Next: Select recipients. For example.17d. Method 1: Use an existing data source Method 2: Use names from a Microsoft Outlook Contacts List Method 3: Create a database of names and addresses 5. making sure that there are no mistakes. select Type a New List to begin creating.17e. 7. This will allow you to add any specific information that you had included in your data file. You can also search for a specific recipient. Ÿ Start from existing document: Open an existing document to use as your mail merge main document. Think of a “field” as that information that is unique to each letter.17c. If you have not yet created this information. Indicate the records you want to include by checking or un-checking the subsequent box as shown in figure 4. exclude a recipient or edit the entire recipient list. Select the starting document Click one of the following options: Ÿ Use the current document: Use the currently open document as your main document. Choose a document type. and can be found in your Outlook contacts or in an existing file as shown in figure 4.2. In the Mail Merge task pane. you are telling Word to use a specific set of variable information for your merge. You could also choose More Items. Use one of the following methods to attach the main document to the data source shown in figure 4. The information that you want to merge into your documents will be stored in the data source. it might be the address of each recipient. 8. . This will allow you to send letters to a group of people and personalize the results of the letter that each person receives. Select recipients When you open or create a data source by using the Mail Merge Wizard. Connect to the data source. Ÿ Click Next: Starting document. After previewing the merged information. See figure 4. 6. you can scroll through each merged document.

click next and your merge will be complete. . You can print. save all or save just a portion of the document you created. transmit.

CorelDRAW is ideal for creating drawings.7. You can modify an object without affecting the image quality. When you save raster images.13. After a vector image is converted to a bitmap. their edges appear rough and jagged.1Features of the soft wares CorelDRAW differentiates itself from its competitors in a number of ways: The first is its positioning as a graphics suite.9. 5. When you enlarge raster images.11. which increases the file size. symbol or image is referred to as an object. Each component created in a drawing such as a line. and color. The images you create by using CorelDRAW are by default.8. text. vector images.10. you need to create them as vector images. The bitmap becomes a distorted image with jagged edges. it becomes a raster image. This graphics application is used to design advertisements. curve. Raster images are bitmapped images composed of pixels. 15 and 16. on any platform. cards. The CorelDRAW application is a part of CorelDRAW Graphics Suite.14. CorelDRAW is one of the most powerful and versatile illustration programs on the market today. size. brochures. A vector program defines a line of pixels and treats them as a single object. To add special effects to a vector image in CorelDRAW. Each object in a drawing stores its own attributes. logos. in which objects are created and modified again and again while designing. color and size of each pixel. such as logos with smooth and precise edges. A pixel is the smallest unit of composition in an image. An artwork developed in CorelDRAW is referred to as a drawing. You can alter the size of vector images without making their edges rough or jagged.12. Images are displayed on the computer screen as pixels. This process of conversion is called rasterizing. How the program treats the pixels is determined by whether the image is defined as a vector or a bitmap. A bitmap file defines the position. for print or for the Web. These images consist of lines and curves that are defined by mathematical objects called vectors. the information contained in each pixel is stored separately. rather than just a vector graphics . There are different versions of Corel draw like versions 5. such as shape. you convert the image into a bitmap.Chapter 5 Corel Draw 5.6.0 Introduction CorelDRAW is a vector illustration program. position. When you want sharp images. newsletters and so on. Vector images are ideal for Web pages because they download faster than the raster images.

You can also press Ctrl + O to open the Open Drawing dialog box. 1. 3 Select the file. Useful for creating and editing multi-article Newsletters. It also allows a laser to cut out any drawings. you can apply commands to the active drawing window only. Click on CorelDraw Icon (wait for some seconds for program to launch) To open an existing drawing: 1 Choose File.1 shows a sample CorelDRAW window with the various components identified. to open the Open Drawing dialog box. The rectangle in the center of the drawing window is the drawing page where you. Multipage documents are easy to create and edit One of the useful features for single and multi-page documents is the ability to create linked text boxes across documents that can be resized and moved while the text itself resets and flows through the boxes. A full range of editing tools allow the user to adjust contrast. When you launch CorelDRAW. add special effects such as vignettes and special borders to bitmaps. select the required file format. Click on Corel Graphic suites (sub-menu list appears) 4. Although more than one drawing window can be opened. 2 From the Look in list. Booklets. etc. Drawing page. Point on All Programs 3. . Click on Start Button 2. To Launch CorelDraw. a new window called Drawing window opens. The CorelDRAW interface contains various components. This window contains a Drawing page in which you create or modify your drawings.program. the application window opens containing a drawing window. Brochures. The CorelDraw Window provides a work area where you can create and modify a job. Some Element Present in CorelDraw Environment are described as follows. create your drawing. select a folder that contains the files.Corel DRAW is capable of handling multiple pages along with multiple master layers. change the format from RGB to CMYK. toolbars. Title Bar: It is the first bar in the screen of any opened application. 1. Figure 5. It gives information about the program which you are working on and also the name used in saving the document. such as a Drawing window. 4 Click Open. color balance. When you open a drawing in CorelDRAW. and toolbox. Open. The Tools present enable you to carry out series of designs. From the Files of type list.

they include. 7. When clicked on.Figure 5. File. Control Menu Box: It is located at the title bar. down. and orientation of a page and also the width/height of an object. Layout. the orientation Portrait or Landscape etc 6. Each menu has its own function. it contains command like: close. Arrange. maximize. undo/redo. 5. 4. Standard bar: Tools present in the standard bar enables us to save. Effect. restore. Menu bar: CorelDraw as a program has Eleven (11) menus. sub-menu list appears. minimize. And also with the help of the property bar we can also set our paper size. 8. View. Edit. Tools Window and Help menu. and right. 3. Any design done in the drawing window should be . This area represents the portion of your drawing that will print. the opened programs automatically goes to the task bar. Scroll bar: The scroll bar (horizontal and vertical scroll) enables to view unseen object by scrolling up. Property Bar: It gives us information about the Width/Height. Bitmap. Printable page: The Printable Page Area is the rectangular shape located at the center of the drawing window. paper size. left. zoom etc. Texts.1 The Screen (Window) of CorelDraw 2. Close: To exit a particular window Maximize/Restore: To increase and decrease a window (opened program) Minimize: When you minimize. The Rule: The rule (horizontal and vertical rule) enables us to measure.

drawing/designing in CorelDraw will be difficult. it houses any opened programmed/minimize window. Flyouts are described following the Tool Overview. Task bar: The task bar is located in line with the Start button. you can fill or outline an object. 11. or tool options and are explained below in the order they appear on the default screen. Status bar: The Status bar is located immediately after the task bar (at the top of the task bar) it gives you information about the currently highlighted object and also guideline on how to carryout some processes. 14. Also through the start button. Tools Bar: The tools bar of CorelDraw enables us to carryout certain designs and also helps us to beautify our work. 9. 12.placed in the printable page. Drawing Window: The drawing window is the large white area of the screen where you find the Printable page. 5. Without the tools present in CorelDraw. . 13. Start Button: The start button enables us to view programs. Pick tool etc. Any drawing or designed processed in the drawing window must be brought to the printable page. Example of the tools bar is the Text tool.2 Tools and Flyouts The Toolbox is located in the left portion of the window and contains all the drawing and editing tools necessary to create objects for an illustration. Flyouts contain additional tools. a program can be launched. Colour Palette: With the help of the colour palette. Tools containing a small triangle in the corner produce a Flyout. 10.


They are activated by holding down the tool button with the mouse. but rather a reference. Flyouts are used by CorelDRAW to display additional tools. The table below is not meant to be a comprehensive look at each tool Flyout. .Flyouts Tool buttons containing a small triangle in the lower right corner display Flyouts.

you can dock them to any part of the window.Dockers are placed into the interface or “docked” as are Tool Bars or the Property Bar. Once floating. . See figure 5. (a) Floating mode (b) Flyout mode Figure 5. click the arrow button . To dock the Flyout or return the toolbar to its original location. Dockers can also float or be closed so only the tabs show. Docking a docker attaches it to the edge of the application window. click the X button at the top comer. and list boxes. place your cursor over the area at the end of the bar that resembles two ribbed bumps or gray lines. so it can be easily moved around. and drag to position the pointer on the edge of the drawing window. All tools on the Flyout will be displayed so you can easily access them.3. click on the closing X in the upper right-hand corner. options.Toolbars and Flyouts can be made to float. You can also collapse dockers to save screen space. such as command buttons. To close a docker. They are accessed by clicking on the tabs at the right of the working window. double click on the title bar of the floating Flyout. to collapse or expand a docker. Unlocking a docker detaches it from other parts of the workspace. Below is the Interactive Tool Flyout in floating mode and in Flyout mode. To dock a floating docker.2 Flyouts Dockers Dockers display the same types of controls as a dialog box. Dockers can be either docked or floating. click the docker's title bar. To float a Toolbar or a Flyout. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the bar out to the main window of the program. To return the Flyout to its original location.

go to the Windows menu →Dockers. The table following explains the different dockers and their functions..3 Dockers at the top comer. To access the Dockers. .Floating dockers Examples of other dockers Figure 5.


Figure 5. By dragging to one of the shades of the first color. you can choose a shade of a color quickly and apply it to a line or fill an object . When the Zoom Tool on the Toolbox is selected.Color Palettes The colorful row of boxes on the right of the screen is the Color Palette. When you hold down a chip on the color palette. DRAW gives you several options for zooming into your object or out as shown in the table below. DRAW comes with 18 color systems and gives you the ability to create your own palette. The palette can be floated or parked. the Property Bar displays the following options.3 Color palette The Zoom Property Bar This help to get a closer detail or make small adjustments.3. . a box with shades of that color displays. Shown in figure 5. or the Color Palette Browser Docker. You may have several palettes open at once. The type of palette can be changed with the Windows menu.

5. Values for the magnification settings can be selected from the list. 6. you can enhance the magnification and be more precise by zooming to a specific area. 3. This will change the display to show you the whole page. 7. Go to the Standard Toolbar and select the Zoom Levels list (the box showing the % of magnifications). Go to the Toolbox and select the Zoom Tool (F2). Release the mouse.Zooming 1. You can also zoom in by dragging the Zoom Tool around a specific area. Click in an area. Press the F3 key on your keyboard. This shortcut zooms out to the previous view each time you press it. or typed in as needed. The mouse cursor changes to the magnifying glass with the plus sign. Click and drag diagonally to create a zoom marquee. . 4. You have just gotten closer to the drawing. By dragging the Zoom Tool around an area. Place the tool icon to the upper right of the Bluebonnet. The Property Bar also displays the tools described above. 2. 8. Select To Page (Shift + F4).

We will use a CD with 120mm diameter to show our illustration.Illustration of tool function Take a look at the screenshots below to get an overview of some of the basic tools. (a) Tool screen 1 .

(b) Tool screen 2 .

( c) Tool screen 3 .

There is a rectangle on the screen with a drop shadow behind it. You should also “zero” your rulers by clicking on the corner where the 2 rulers meet and dragging it to the corner of the page (see figure 5. The "Always shows the Welcome screen at launch" will pop up.5). Figure 5. just below the “file” menu. . At the upper left side there is a drop down that might say “letter” or “broadsheet” or “custom”.5). To create a new document you can do file>new or ctrl-N or you can click on the icon in the extreme upper left corner of the window. Keep in mind that the horizontal ruler increases to the right but the vertical ruler increases in the up direction.5). (1) Leave the "Make this the default Windows screen page" checked so a new document will always by default come up. In this dialog box you can set the name of the document and various other things but for now just say “OK”. Once you've specified the file name you can use ctrl-S or click on the disk icon at the top of the page or use file>save.4 Default Plate / Document Size When you first open CorelDraw there may be one or more dialog boxes which you probably want to just close.Creating Drawings When you first open up CorelDraw you are presented with a default screen that gives you a number of options. Pull it down and select “custom” (see figure 5. This will cause a dialog box (see figure 5. This is the document. To save a document you can use file->save as. Next to that pull-down there are 2 boxes with horizontal and vertical dimensions of the page. Typically we want a new document to come up. If you want to save a different file type you would use file->save as and use the “save as type” pull down to select what type of file you want. This means that all the locations on the page have a negative Y value.

Figure 5. the second file will be named Graphic 2. to open the New From Template dialog box. 2 Select any template from the given list of templates. each file has a default name. you can set or modify the Drawing page using the options such as size. and background. choose File. layout. orientation. a blank page. To create a blank drawing. New From Template.5 Dialog box and rulers In CorelDRAW drawings are created by using an existing drawing. After creating a drawing. You can also press Ctrl + N or click the New button on the standard toolbar to open a new drawing. When you use a template. When you create a drawing. a blank Drawing page appears. New. . When you create drawings in CorelDRAW. or a template. A blank page appears with default settings. 3 Click OK. To create a drawing from a template: 1 Choose File. and so on. a Drawing page with pre-designed elements and placeholders appears. You can see the preview on the right of the dialog box. The first file will be named Graphic 1.

Drawing Straight Lines Step 1 Click on the freehand tool to activate it Click on a specified area and drag to draw a line Step 2 Click on Freehand tool Hold your Ctrl Key on the keyboard Click and drag at the same time Click to end Step 3 Click on Pen Tool Point your mouse to the area in the window Click and drag then Double click to end Drawing a Rectangle. Square. E. CorelDraw. texts are required for decoration and also for information. The Artistic Text: The artistic text is use for special effect while designing. Drag to draw a perfect square Drawing a Rectangle Click on your rectangle tool (F6) Hold your Shift Key. Theme etc. . while Information text called Paragraph text The difference between the two is the amount of text that will be entered. Drag to draw from the center Drawing a Circle/Sphere using the Ellipse tool Step 1 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Ctrl Key Drag to draw a perfect circle Step 2 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Shift key Drag to draw a sphere Skewing and Rotating An Object You may decide to rotate an object or distort its perspective by skewing it. constitutions. Sphere and Circle Click on your Rectangular Tool (F6) Hold your Ctrl key.Drawing Lines The Freehand tool and the Pen tool are used frequently while drawing line(s). Below is a rotated object. Skewing: Skewing simple means to slant or twist an object from it definite shape to be at an angle. It is added in a frame because of its length. toast etc. Adding A Text In CorelDraw.g. The Paragraphing Text: The paragraphing text is used when creating a large amount of text. Address. are example of the Artistic text. Decoration text in CorelDraw is known as Artistic test. Rotating: Rotating simply means revolving/turning an object from on angle to another. Features.

click on the lower right hand corner of the tool button (where there is a little black triangle) and select the option you want. Selecting An Object The selection tool is the very first tool in the tool bar on the left (see figure 5.6 shows a complex star created Figure 5. use the box tool (F6 and the 7th tool on the left hand tool bar). The polygon tool will let you do spirals or stars.6 shows the selection tool . To access the various options for each tool. Or the ellipse tool (F7 and the 8th tool). Or the polygon tools (F8 and the 9th tool). Or the freehand tool (F5 and the 6th tool).Making Shapes (Box/Circle/Freehand/Polygon) To create some kind of object.6 shows a complex star created.7). Figure 5. Figure 5.

It helps if you click on an edge. You can now use the fill and outline tools (the “outline pen” is the 15th tool on the left. One caveat: if there are multiple objects and some are in front of some others the program will select the object that's in front. For example. it looks like a pen nib.8).It has a rectangular picker and a freehand picker but most of the time you will simply click on an object. In those cases you can use the “Object Manager” (tool->object manager) to get the exact object you want. the fill tool is the 16th. it looks like a bucket) to set the fill and outline parameters(see figure 5. if you select two things together the "trace" options in the bitmap menu will not be available. Figure 5.8 The fill and outline tool drop box . Fill and Outline Select the object you created. When you select something. there are different options for objects and text and bitmaps and nothing selected. all the menus change based on what is selected.

You can also fill with a pattern or a texture or use “postscript fill” which allows for parametrized patterns. The outline tool allows you to set the outline width and color or to remove the outline altogether. In CorelDraw all those are converted to a bitmap. You can apply various filters and other effects to a bitmap which you can not do to an object. On your computer it may be a “jpeg” or a “tiff” or a “png” or a “gif” or any of a whole collection of other types.8 Converting Objects to Bitmaps . If you set it to “no fill” it will be transparent. If you set it to “uniform fill” it will just be one color.The fill tool allows you to set the fill pattern and color of your object. Objects will generally look better even if you generated the object from a bitmap. Figure 5. especially if you change their size. If you use “fountain fill” you can make a gradient of colors. Bitmaps and Objects A bitmap is a collection of pixels in a rectangular shape. But bitmaps always look kind of funky. An object is a collection of curves that are defined in such a way that they can scale well.

2 From the Save in list. • Click the Close Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar. After saving a drawing for the first time. To print a drawing. If you have an object (perhaps some text or a complex set of shapes you have created) you can convert it to a bit map by selecting it and then the Bitmap->Convert to bitmap menu option (see figure 4. To do so. you want to save them for further use. it can be closed. Preview and print drawings: To print an already saved drawing. Here. A window opens. To close a drawing. Close Print Preview. select the required format. you can print the drawing. The default extension for files created in CorelDRAW is . Save As. 4 From the Save as type list. 5 Click Save. To save a drawing: 1 Choose File. Save. Print.cdr. To return to the drawing. To preview a drawing. and Close Drawings Drawings can be saved for reuse. Print Preview. Save. to open the Save Drawing dialog box. you can click Yes to save and close the . When you close a drawing after making changes to it. choose File. After saving or printing the drawing. you are prompted to save the file. • Click the Close button in the upper right corner of the print preview window. it is a good idea to preview it first. you’ll need to close it.CorelDRAW format. You can also press Ctrl + S to update a drawing. You can also press Ctrl + Shift + S to open the Save Drawing dialog box. To save the changes. The Print dialog box appears.8). Print. you can: • Choose File. Close or click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the Drawing window. It can also be printed. Be sure to have everything you want converted selected when you do that. you might need to make some changes in it. you need to update your drawing. you’ll use the CDR . select the folder in which you want to save the file. Click Print to print with the default settings. choose File. specify the name of the file. 3 In the File name box. After previewing. choose File.There are a wide variety of things you can do to objects that are quite distinct from what you can do to bitmaps. Close drawings and CorelDRAW: When you complete a drawing. which displays the preview of the Drawing page. If you are working on an existing file. Saving drawings: When you create designs and drawings. choose File.

* Select CalendarWizard and click Run. the Calendar Wizard by default generates a calendar in the active project. and click All to include all months of the year or enable the check boxes for corresponding months to create calendars for one or more months. To do so. * Choose a language In the Calendar language area. You can also close multiple drawings simultaneously. If you want to customize your page size disable the Create Calendar in. Click on Holidays if you want to add special dates and events. Exit. a n d m a r g i n s . You can also press Alt + F4 or click the Close button on the CorelDRAW window. Applications 1. you need to save the file by using the options in the Save Drawing dialog box. and choose from 20 different style layout and create single or multiple page calendars automatically. choose File Close All. d i m e n s i o n s .> Play. To create a calendar the following steps should be applied. You can personalize and customize your calendar dates and specify calendar elements. * Click Generate . choose File. * Based on the project's orientation and page size.file. Then specify the month. You can use the Calendar Wizard. and the n a m e o f t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t i n t h e . If you are working on a new file. * Select a year from the Year list box In the Calendar date area. and specify calendar o r i e n t a t i o n . Go to Tools -> Visual Basic. date. This will display dialog box for the CorelDRAW Visual Basic for Applications Macros. a n d c l i c k A d d / M o d i f y. * Select a layout style from the Layout box. Creating a Calender CorelDRAW enables you to create calendars easily and quickly. To close CorelDRAW.

Creating a Zenith Bank Logo * Click on the Text tool * Type Z in Capital Letter while the caps lock is on * Increase the font size to 150 and font type Arial Black * Still Highlighted click on Arrange Menu * Click on convert to curve (Ctrl Q) * Click on your shape tool to activate the node. Notice 10 nodes * Delete node by double clicking on the node or click once and press delete on the keyboard. 6.2. 7. * Delete nodes 4. 3. * Click on your Arrange menu while object is highlighted * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list) click on Scale to activate scale and mirror tab * Click on Mirror boxes H & V to activate * Click on Apply to Duplicate * Use your arrow key to create gap between each half * Close the Transformation dialog box * Fill the first half with Blue and the second with Red. 9 we now have half of the logo remaining. 8. Designing The NNPC Logo * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle * Draw a rectangle vertically across the circle * Highlight the Rectangle * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list appears) * Click on Rotate to activate the rotate tab type 25 on the angle tab * Click on Apply to Duplicate until rectangle fills the circle * Close the transformation box * Highlight the angles and the circle (Ctrl A) * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on shaping (sub-menu list appears) then click on "Weld to" and click on the centre of Object to weld .

Designing a Lipton Label * Click on the Ellipse tool * Hold your Shift key to draw a sphere * Click on the rectangle tool and draw a rectangle horizontally across the sphere * Highlight the both and click on your Arrange Menu * Click on Align and Distribute (Align and Distribute dialog box appears) * Click on Center Horizontal and Vertical * Click on Apply * Click on Arrange Menu again * Click on Shaping (sub-menu list surfaces) click on "Weld to" * Make a duplicate from the original object * Click on your text tool and type LIPTON TEA and colour with deep yellow .* Apply yellow color to the object * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle. apply green colour to it * Create another circle and place inside the first circle and colour with red * Place the both circle in the weld object by using the Align and Distribution * Click on Arrange menu while objects is highlighted * Click on Align and Distribute (align & Distribute dialog box appears) * Click center horizontal and vertical * click on Apply 4.



2. A spreadsheet is a computer program or a document produced by such a program that we can use for arithmetic computations. Once a template is chosen. These computations ultimately convert that quantitative data into information. (c) corporate budgeting. Note that these steps along with Figure 5. Click the Microsoft Office folder on the Start menu.1 Opening Microsoft Excel To begin Microsoft Excel 2007. To begin Excel 2010 application the following steps will be applied. Go to Start > All Programs > Applications > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Excel (see figure 5. Excel is a tool that allows you to enter quantitative data into an electronic spreadsheet to apply one or many mathematical computations. (a) Managing data records like name list (b) Analysis through pivot tables. From here a dialog box with various different templates will appear on the screen that you can choose from. 4. This will open the list of Microsoft Office applications. When opened a new spreadsheet will pop up on the screen.1a). organizing and manipulating data. if this does not happen click on the Office Icon > New. Click the Microsoft Excel 2010 option. This will start the Excel application. Click the Start button on the lower left corner of your computer screen. 5. The information produced in Excel can be used to make decisions in both professional and personal contexts.Chapter 6 Excel Introduction MS Excel stands for MicroSoft's spreadsheet programme that is used for storing. click Create. A spreadsheet offers major advantages over the use of a hand calculator just as a word processing program offers many advantages over typewriting. (e) inventory management . . which is very similar to the Windows Vista operating system.1b "Start Menu" relate to the Windows 7 operating system. (d) creating forms and consolidating results. 3. 1. Excel is used for a large number of functions. Some of the functions for which Excel is widely used includes. Click the All Programs arrow at the bottom left of the Start menu. (f) Breakeven analysis.

dialog boxes and mouse support. Analysis Features • The windows interface includes windows. extracting and sorting functions. pull down menus. • Worksheets can be printed horizontally or vertically.1 Starting Excel Excel incorporates all the user-friendly features of Windows. Linking of worksheets. Presentation Features • Individual cells and chart text can be formatted to any font and font size supported by Windows. • Variations in font size. scaling and symbols to charts. • Permits the user to add. the analysis and presentation features. Excel will assign a file name to the workbook. a blank workbook will open on your screen. edit. • Supports on screen databases with querying. A workbook is an Excel file that contains one or more worksheets (sometimes referred to as spreadsheets). style and alignment control can be determined. • Full featured graphing and charting facilities. delete and find database records. text. pattern. such as . • The user can add legends. • Repetitive tasks can be automated with MS-Excel. Like most of the Windows application in Excel you can minimize or maximize worksheets.(a) Starting Excel 2007 (b) Starting Excel 2010 Figure 5. Once Excel is started. Easy to use macros and user defined functions. There are two main features of MS-Excel .

Book1. which shows you what information is stored in a cell. To add extra buttons. This name will change when you save your work in a file. Excel has given your work a name. which has a series of tabs under which different commands are grouped. click on the down arrow on the right and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar. This replaces the menu and toolbar system in previous versions of Excel. depending on how many new workbooks are opened. Below the Ribbon is the command line.Book1.2 "Blank Workbook" shows a blank workbook after starting Excel. • Click on the Start button. When you point to a button. To its right is the Formula Bar. Figure 5. and so on. • Select Program menu. which can comprise a set of related data and chart sheets. which only has three buttons on it by default – Save. Book3. All the commands now appear as buttons (pictures) on this Ribbon. . To the right of this is the Quick Access Toolbar.2 "Blank Workbook" To Get started with worksheet the following steps apply. telling you what that button does. the Office Button appears. Use this to Open or Print your files. at which time you will be asked to supply a real name. Maximize and Close buttons. a tool-tip appears. Book2. The next section down the screen is called the Ribbon. A blank worksheet labeled Sheet 1 will be displayed and ready for use. In the top left corner of the screen. Undo and Redo. • Select Excel icon from the icon list. The area on the left (showing the characters A1) is the Name Box. On the far right are the usual Minimize. Moving right. Figure 5.

This can have several different shapes. You are currently using Sheet1 of Book1. Down the right of the screen is the scroll bar. Navigating Worksheets Data are entered and managed in an Excel worksheet. and letters across the top denoting columns. Within the cells it appears as an outlined cross.3 Activating a Cell Location . Figure 5. The cell in the top left corner is A1 (the intersection of column A and row 1) and is currently the active cell. Each cell in an Excel worksheet contains an address. which is defined by a column letter followed by a row number. as denoted by the sheet tab at the bottom. The worksheet contains several rectangles called cells for entering numeric and nonnumeric data. with its identity shown in the Name Box. denoting rows. Any information you type is stored in the active cell. appears to the right of the sheet tabs. This is denoted by a darker border. The following steps explain how to navigate through an Excel worksheet. while the column letter and row number are shown with an orange-brown background. for moving left and right. Each intersection of a row and column is known as a cell and has a unique name. The worksheet has numbers down the side. The mouse cursor should also be visible. A horizontal scroll bar. some of which you will be meeting later in the course.The main body of the screen contains the worksheet. which is used for moving up and down your work.

Click the Sheet3 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet. as shown in Figure 1. This is referred to as a cell range and is documented as follows: A1:D5. and the second cell is the lower right corner of the range.4 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". This is how you open a worksheet within a workbook.5 "Activating a Cell Location". 2. Figure 5.6 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". Check to make sure column letter D and row number 5 are highlighted in orange. Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse pointer back to cell D5. The first cell is the top left corner of the range. 7. . Release the left mouse button. Any two cell locations separated by a colon are known as a cell range. as shown in Figure 5. 5. 3. You should see several cells highlighted.1. Place your mouse pointer over cell D5 and left click. 4.4 Highlighting a Range of Cells 6. Click the Sheet1 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet to return to the worksheet shown in Figure 1. Move the mouse pointer to cell A1.

The File Tab The Office button in the 2010 version has been replaced with the File tab on the far left side of the Ribbon. and the number of worksheets that appear in new workbooks.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" to see the image of your worksheet on the right side of the window. Figure 5. font size. The File tab is also known as the Backstage view of the workbook. which gives you access to settings such as the default font style.11 "Excel Options Window" shows the Excel Options window. . It contains a variety of features and commands related to the workbook that is currently open. You must click the Info button highlighted in green in Figure 5. To leave the Backstage view and return to the worksheet.5 File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook Included in the File tab are the default settings for the Excel application that can be accessed and modified by clicking the Options button. 5. Figure 1. new workbooks. or workbooks stored in other locations on your computer or network.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" shows the options available in the File tab or Backstage view. click any tab on the Ribbon or click the image of the worksheet on the right side of the window.

2. Enter the data from the keyboard. 1. in its current configuration.6 Excel Options Window Data Entry in Worksheet To enter the data in a worksheet. Activate the cell by moving the MS-Excel cursor (rectangular box) or by clicking with the left mouse button. including · Text data: typically consisting of words or phrases. typically used for explanation (e. can display. typically not used in arithmetic. operators of . functions. Note we may enter more text than a cell. A formula typically starts with the “=” character and may involve a variety of symbols that may be cell references.g. Data may be entered into the cells of a worksheet in many types. holding down the left mouse button. · Numeric constants may be entered as text is entered. the following steps are to be followed. row or column headers). Lock the data by pressing the Enter key.. and dragging to the desired width or height. We can stretch or shrink a column or row by placing the mouse cursor at the right edge of a column margin header or the bottom edge of a row margin header. · Formulas are used to describe a calculation whose value is to be displayed in the cell.Figure 5. These values are typically used in arithmetic. 3.

As data is entered into a cell location. and constants (numeric. such as plus sign or minus sign or other operators in a cell to produce a new value from existing values. the data typed appears in the Formula Bar.7 Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data . The Formula Bar can be used for entering data into cells as well as for editing data that already exists in a cell. 3. Example: To get the sum of cell B4 and B5 in cell B15 4. Type the formula =B4+B5 then press enter key. Editing Data Data that has been entered in a cell can be changed by double clicking the cell location or using the Formula Bar. A simple formula combines constant values with operators. the formula “=C2-B2” instructs the cell in which it appears to display the result of taking the value in C2 and subtracting the value in B2. To enter formula in a cell: 1. Place the cursor in cell B15 5. Place the cursor in the cell where you want to write the formula 2. Write the formula starting with equal (=) sign and then press enter key. text. etc). The following steps provide an example of entering and then editing data that has been entered into a cell location: Figure 5.arithmetic. as well as “cell ranges”. For example.

You can also find a number of these actions in the menus or use shortcuts to apply formatting. Click the number format icon in the toolbar or click the Format menu and hover over “Number”. Click cell A15. click the wrap text icon in the toolbar. Select the range of cells you'd like to format or modify. select the cells that you want to format. 5. This will enter the change into the cell. dates or currencies in a spreadsheet. Click the checkmark to the left of the Formula Bar (see Figure 5. On the Home tab. 2. patterns. and allow the text to get clipped off in a cell if it is too long. Move the cursor to the end of the abbreviation Tot and left click. To turn text wrapping back on. Move the mouse pointer up to the Formula Bar. and thickness • Align text • Merge cells horizontally in selected rows • Wrap text To save time on many of these formatting actions. To wrap text automatically. use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Y to repeat the last action you took in your spreadsheet. 2.7 "Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data"). it will wrap onto a second line in the cell. In a worksheet. You can hover over an icon on the toolbar to see a description of what that option can do. 3. Type the letters al to complete the word Total. . 6. If text extends past the length of the cell in your spreadsheet. 2. Here are the main formatting options: • Change the number. Select the format you'd like to apply to the range of cells Wrap text: Text within a cell is wrapped by default in work sheets. Type the abbreviation Tot and press the ENTER key. 4. You will see the pointer turn into a cursor.1. in the Alignment group. click Wrap Text. date or currency format • Format cell contents • Change font size • Add bold or strikethrough • Change color of the text or a background color • Add borders and adjust border colors. 3. 1. Format data in a range of cells Data can be formatted in a variety of ways using the options in the toolbar. To format or change the format of numbers. follow these steps: 1. If you want to turn this feature off. Activate cell A15 in the Sheet1 worksheet. simply click the icon again.

Copy allows you to leave the original selection where it is and insert a copy elsewhere. and Paste: The Cut. This allows you to edit certain pieces of information within the cells instead of replacing all of the data. Cut will actually remove the selection from the original location and allow it to be placed somewhere else. You may change an entry within a cell two different ways: • Click the cell one time and begin typing. To get to the Format Cells dialog box select the cells you wish to change then go toHome Tab > Format > Format Cells. A box will appear on the screen with six different tab options (see figure 5. Alignment: This allows you to change the horizontal and vertical alignment of the text within each cell. • Go to Home Tab > Paste (CTRL + V) to be able to paste your information. Explanations of the basic options in the format dialog box are bulleted below.8). Paste is used to insert data that has been cut or copied. color. . This border indicates that it is a selected cell. Formatting Cells: There are various different options that can be changed to format the spreadsheets cells differently. • Go to the Home Tab > Copy (CTRL + C) or Home Tab > Cut (CTRL + X). When changing the format within cells you must select the cells that you wish to format. to move data from other spreadsheets into new spreadsheets. Font: Gives the option to change the size. • Double click the cell and a cursor will appear inside.Formatting: Working With Cells Cells are an important part of any project being used in Microsoft Excel. You may then begin typing in the data for that cell. a black border will appear around the cell. Copy. Border: Gives the option to change the design of the border around or through the cells. Cut. The new information will replace any information that was previously entered. Number: Allows you to change the measurement in which your data is used. To enter data into a cell simply click once inside of the desired cell. • Click the location where the information should be placed. and effects. Copy and Paste features of Excel can be used to change the data within the spreadsheet. style. The text within the cells and the control of the text within the cells can be changed as well. and to save the time of re-entering information in a spreadsheet. Cells hold all of the data that is being used to create the spreadsheet or workbook. To Cut or Copy: • Highlight the data or text by selecting the cells that they are held within.

Figure 5. Formatting Rows and Columns Height . Formatting Cells To format a row or column go to Home Tab > Row Height (or Column Height). The drop down menu will show these options Figure 5. unhidden) or autofit. The cell or cells that are going to be formatted need to be selected before doing this.9. When changing the row or column visibility (hidden. then choose which height you are going to use (Figure 9).8.Figure 5.9. you will go to the Home Tab and click Format.

Adding Rows and Columns When adding a row or column you are inserting a blank row or column next to the already entered data. The column will automatically be place on the spreadsheet and any data to the right of the new column will be moved more to the right. Figure 5. Before you can add a Row you have to select the way place the new row (Rows are on the left hand side of the spreadsheet) once the row is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that is chosen. Inserting Rows Before you can add a Column select a column on the spreadsheet that is located in the area that you want to enter the new column.10).10. (Columns are on the top part of the spreadsheet. The row will automatically be placed on the spreadsheet and any data that was selected in the original row will be moved down below the new row.11).) Once the column is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that you chose.11. To insert a column go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Column (Figure 5. Inserting Columns . To insert the row you have to go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Rows (Figure 5. Figure 5.

3."TEST") put in cell A11 then anywhere between A1 through A10 that has the word test would be counted as 1. if you wanted to get the average for cells A1 to A30. So a good example of the syntax would be =IF(A1="". =IF(*) The syntax of the IF statement are =IF(CELL="VALUE" . Formula examples = will create a cell equal to another. The if statement can. For example. of course. this would make any cell besides cell A1 say "BLANK" if a1 had nothing within it. * Using the colon (:) will allow you to get a range of cells for a formula."NOT BLANK")."ELSE PRINT OR DO THIS"). if you had =COUNTIF(A1:A10. * If a function is being performed the math formula or cells being dealt with are surrounded in parentheses. 2. become a lot more complicated but can be reduced if following the above structure. if you were to put =A1 in B1 what ever was in A1 would automatically be put in B1. You could also create a formula that would make one cell equal to more than one value. so if you had 5 cells that had the word test A11 would say 5. . For example. 4. =MEDIAN(A1:A7) Find the median of the values of cells A1 through A7. you would type: =AVERAGE(A1:A30) =COUNTIF(X:X. four is the median for 1.Formulas and Functions Formulas are what helped make spreadsheets so popular."PRINT OR DO THIS"."*") Count the cells that have a certain value. For example. For example. 7. you can have instantaneous calculations whenever changing any information in cells the formula is looking at. and "NOT BLANK" if any information was within it. For example. * All spreadsheet formulas begin with = * After the equal symbol either the cell or formula function is entered. * The function tells the spreadsheet what kind of formula it's dealing with. =AVERAGE(X:X) Display the average amount between cells. 5. if you have a first name in cell A1 and a last name in cell B1. By creating formulas. you could put in cell A2 =A1&" "&B1 which would put cell A1 in with B1 with a space between. 6."BLANK".

4. subtract.B1:B6) which only adds the values B1:B6 if the word "test" was put somewhere in between A1:A6. or divide values in cells. =SUM(A1/A2) Divide cells A1 and A2. etc. to enter the date. it would only add the value in B1 because TEST is in A1. if cells A1 through A6 had 2. =VLOOKUP(X. or vlookup formula allows you to search and find related valuesfor returned results.A2. you would get the value of 2 because each number is going up by 2. =SUMIF(X:X.6.8.A5) Adds cells A1. so A1 * A2 * A3. =SUM(A2-A1) Subtract cell A2 from A1. but had numbers in B1 through B6.12 and you entered formula =TREND(A1:A6) in a different cell."*"X:X) Perform the SUM function only if there is a specified value in the first selected cells. If you want to enter a date that doesn't change hold down CTRL and . . This value will change to reflect the current date each time you open your spreadsheet.=MIN/MAX(X:X) Multiples multiple cells together. =TODAY() Would print out the current date in the cell entered.X:X. =SUM(A1. =SUM(X:X) The most commonly used function to add. See our lookup definition for a complete definition and full details on this formula.10. =SUM(A1:A5) Add cells A1 through A5. =SUM(A1*A2) Multiply cells A1 and A2. A2. multiple. and A5. Below are some examples. =TREND(X:X) To find the common value of cell. For example.X. =SUM(A1+A2) Add the cells A1 and A2.X) The lookup. hlookup. For example =Product(A1:A30) would multiple all cells together. So if you put TEST (not case sensitive) in A1. An example of this would be =SUMIF(A1:A6."TEST".

12a marked 1. type = . etc).Creating Formulas Formulas are used to process numerical data in a worksheet (eg: to calculate a bank account balance . To create the required formula in C2. The following elements gan be used to create a formula: Numeric values. tax calculations. Excel immediately adds the contents of cells A2 and B2 and displays the result in C2. type + . Example: Create a formula in cell C2 to add the contents of cells A2 and B2.). left click in B2. left click in C2. See figure 5. motor vehicle running costs. and we must similarly adapt Excel formulas to meet these demands (calculating expenses. : etc). left click in A2. Excel functions (more than 200 available). (a) inserting formula (a) Adding C2 and A2 Figure 5. * To include numerical values and operators in a formula. monitoring revenues. then type = . * To create a formula in a cell. . and Operators ( + . type these from the keyboard. * To include cell addresses in a formula. left click in the cell.* / ( ) . etc. * To include functions in a formula. then press the <Enter> key. Enter numbers in A2 and B2 (eg: 13 and 6). left click on the required cell or drag across the required cells. select the required function from those displayed when you click the down arrow ( ▼ ) next to the Functions box.12 Including functions in a formula. Cell addresses. Modifying a formula in Excel Demands change over time in every occupation.

A3. the lowest number. Understanding Functions Functions are prewritten formulas. There are two types of reference operators: range and union. Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. you can use the SUM function to add. the highest number.13: 1. such as finding an average. A2. C2. *.e. Filling Cells. B2. After revising the formula. such as +. Click on the cell. For example. and a count of the number of items in a list. -. C1. A2. . Simply add + 10 to the end of the formula. A range reference: refers to all the cells between and including the reference. B8 to B10. The reference A7. Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. 2. The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1.B8:B10.10 refers to cells A7.13 Modifying Formula To modify a formula in Excel apply the following steps using figure 5. press the Enter key and the revised formula is saved. and the formula in cell D3 is immediately calculated. to which the formula applies. Using Reference Operators To use functions. or /. i. The reference A1:C3 includes cells A1. We click on the field and we can modify it using the familiar text cursor that appears. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators. and C3. B1. you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations.C9. you need to understand reference operators. When using a function. A union reference: includes two or more references. range references. Creating Excel Functions. This displays the formula in the formula field. and A3. using the mouse. 3. and Printing By using functions. C9 and the number 10. B3. cell D3. A union reference consists of two or more numbers.Figure 5. A range reference consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon. or cell addresses separated by a comma.

14. For example. Parentheses enclose the arguments. the Auto-Complete list appears. 1. 13. * Specify the function name . * Enclose arguments within parentheses . A1. and B2:C7 are the arguments.A1. 7. After typing the first letter of a function name.B2:C7) In this function: The equal sign begins the function. Type 12 in cell B1. appears . Press Enter. Press Enter. Here is an example of a function: =SUM(2.remember the following: * Use an equal sign to begin a formula . Excel will complete the function name and enter the first parenthesis. Arguments are values on which you want to perform the calculation. 3. 5. 2. 2. 8. arguments specify the numbers or cells you want to add. SUM is the name of the function. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4. Type 24 in cell B3.13. The sum of cells B1 to B3. Press Enter. double-click on an item in the Auto-Complete list to completes the entry quickly.14 SUM function Follow the steps below to apply the sum function. Commas separate the arguments. 6. Example 2 The SUM function adds argument values shown in figure 5. Open Microsoft Excel. Press Enter. 4. * Use a comma to separate arguments. Type 27 in cell B2. 9. which is 63. Figure 5.

The Function Arguments dialog box appears as shown in figure 5. appears. The sum of cells C1 to C3. 12. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box. 2. 1. Type 150 in cell C1.15 Function dialog Steps 11 and 12 describes figure 5. 9. 5.15. The Insert Function dialog box appears. 1. Move to cell A4. Click Sum in the Select A Function box. Click the Insert Function button. 4. 7. Figure 5. 2. Type 65 in cell C3.15 as indicated with the encircled numbers. 10. Type 85 in cell C2. Click Top and Double Bottom Border. 3. Choose the Home tab. 8. 11 Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field. 6. Press Enter. if it does not automatically appear. Choose the Formulas tab. Click the down arrow next to the Borders button . .16 illustrates the formatting. Figure 5. 4. Press Enter. 5. Type the word Sum. Click OK. 6.Enter the following also. Click OK. Select cells B4 to C4. 3. To format the worksheet follow the following steps . which is 300.

2. Type Min. The lowest number in the series. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7. which is 12. appears. Move to cell A6. Lowest number: 1. appears. 4. Press Enter. The average of cells B1 to B3. Press Enter. Type = MIN(B1:B3). 3. . highest number and number count do the following. To determine the lowest. 3. 2. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6. Figure 5.Figure 5. Move to cell A7.17. Type Average.16 Formatting the work sheet To calculating the average use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers as illustrated in figure 5.17 Calculating average The following steps apply. 5. which is 21. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3). 1. 4.

3. Type Count. 5. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9. The highest number in the series. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8. To count the numbers in a series of numbers. 1. 2. use the count function to count the number of numbers in a series as follows. appears. 2. Choose the Home tab.Highest Number: Use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers as follows. 1. Figure 5. 4. Type = MAX(B1:B3). 3. Click the down arrow next to the AutoSum button The three operations described above is illustrated in figure 5. Move to cell A8. Type Max.18. Press Enter. which is 27.18 Min. 4. 5. Max and count operation . Move to cell A9.

19 Cell selection From figure 5. The following steps and figures explains this. We are now going to graph Force vs Acceleration to illustrate data graphing. · Chart should appear · In the design tab under chart layout · Choose layout From figure 5.19.Graphing Data Graphing data is important because it allows us to visualize the relationship between the data and calculated values.21 · In the graph double click on chart title and change it to "Force vs Acceleration” · Double click on the x axis title and change it to "Acceleration (m/s2) Note: To superscript the 2 you need to click on the home tab of the main menu and then expand the Font Box so that you can check the superscript box. · · · · Select cells D8 through E17 as shown in figure 5. Select the insert tab from the top of the excel window In the chart box click on Scatter Choose Scater with Markers Only Figure 5.20. .

21 Format trendline .20 Appearance of layout · Double click on the y axis title and change it to "Force (kg m/s2) Note: Again superscript the 2. · Add a trendline by right clicking on one of the data points and choosing "Add Trendline" In the add trandline window Figure 5.Figure 5.

23a · Choose format axis · Under the axis Options in figure 5. right click on the "y-axis" as shown in figure 5.22. · Select "New Sheet · it "Force vs Acceleration" · Click OK Figure 5. · click on one of the x axis values and then select "Add Major Gridlines" · If you wanted to paste this into a word document you could copy and past the graph from here to the word document.22 Placing the chart Formatting the axis · In the new window.23b · Change Major units to fixed · Change the value to 5 · Click close . Figure 5.Copying or placing the chart · Click on the trendline equation text box and move it to the upper right hand corner of the graph window. If you are going to print the graph as its own page do the following : · Right click in the lower left hand corner and select "Move Chart. · Right click on the legend on the right hand side of the graph and select delete.

Launch Excel . and scatter.If Excel is already open on your workstation open a new .23 Formatting the axis Creating Charts Charts are used to display series of numeric data in a graphical format to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationship between different series of data. after you choose Column Chart . Select a chart type by choosing an option from the Insert tab's Chart group. bar. To create a line chart. On the Insert tab there are a variety of chart types to choose from. pie. After you choose a chart type.(a) Format axis drop box (b) Axis options Figure 5. start by entering the numeric data for the chart on a worksheet. line. or a pyramid chart. For example. As you roll your mouse pointer over each option. execute the following steps. Then plot that data into a chart by selecting the chart type that you want to use on the Office Fluent Ribbon (Insert tab. To create a chart in Excel. a three-dimensional chart. The basic procedure for creating a chart is the same no matter what type of chart you choose. such as column. or bar. As the data is changed. 1. a cone chart. There are further sub-types within each of these categories. a cylinder chart. Charts group). Excel supplies a brief description of each chart sub-type. choose a chart sub-type. line. column. area. the chart will automatically update. you can choose to have your chart represented as a two-dimensional chart.

There are three ways to do that. click hold the mouse button down and drag to cell B7. If your worksheet looks like the one above. Highlight data to be graphed. That is done by going to the Insert menu and selecting Chart. Select the Chart Wizard. only the names of fruit and the numbers. · Go to the Standard toolbar. put your cursor in call A2. See figure 5. 5. · Go to the File menu. Highlighted data should look like what we have in table 2. You can also click on the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. Select New. Click on the New Workbook button. · Use a keyboard combination: on a Windows computer use Ctrl + N. Enter the data to be graphed. I selected pie . Table 1 Raw Data 3. Table 2 Highlighted Data 4.Excel workbook. Do not include the row with heading titles. For this activity. 2.24. We will use the data in table 1. From the Chart Wizard box that opens select Chart type.

· Select Finish and Chart Wizard puts your completed chart on the spreadsheet. Figure 5. click and hold your mouse pointer down on the Press and Hold button to see what the data looks like in the chart type selected. Another chart type can be selected.25 . Shown in figure 5.Figure 4.25.24 Chart wizard After selecting the Chart type. After selecting the chart type two options will be available: · Select Next and let Chart Wizard show you a series of options to make changes to your chart.

click the same box at the end to restore the window.” Notice where the cursor is located in the dialog box above. The Data range displayed below is read "all cells from A2 to B7. make changes on the legend.The second step taken by Chart Wizard is to verify the range of data being used for this chart. If the data range should be changed. When you are finished. It is pointing to the small box at the end of the line where the Data range is displayed. or make changes on the data labels. Figure 5.27. Figure 5.26 Chart options Select Next to move to the final dialog box which allows you to see the chart as a new sheet or place it on one of the sheets in your workbook as shown in figure 5.26. The dialog box shrinks allowing you to see your entire spreadsheet. You can edit the data range in this small window. Select Next to go to the dialog box in figure 5.27 Chart Location . This box allows you to add a title to the chart. click on the box the cursor is pointing to.

23 Inserting Header and Footer 1.23 Figure 5. . right.Create Headers and Footers A header is text that appears at the top of every page of your printed worksheet. Your worksheet changes to Page Layout view and the Design context tab appears. Type your name. Excel moves to the footer area. and center. You can type in your header or footer or you can use predefined headers and footers. 2. Click the Header & Footer button in the Text group. When you print your document. 5. 7. 6. Page Layout view structures your worksheet so that you can easily change the format of your document. To insert Headers and Footers as shown in figure 5. You use the Go To Header and Go To Footer buttons on the Design tab to move between the header and footer areas of your worksheet. 3. the Design context tab appears and Excel changes to Page Layout view. When you click the Header & Footer button. where you place your information determines whether it appears on the left. Click Page Number in the Header & Footer Elements group. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page of your printed worksheet. Click the left side of the Header area. or center of the printed page. right. 4. Choose the Insert tab. A context tab is a tab that only appears when you need it. Both the header and footer areas are divided into three sections: left. Click the Go To Footer button. Click the right side of the header area. Excel will place your name in the upper-left corner. When you choose a Header or Footer from the Header & Footer Elements group. When you print your document. Excel will place the page number in the upper-right corner.

To return to Excel. Dotted lines appear on your screen. and then click Quick Print in the Preview and Print the Document pane. you can use the Next Page and Previous Page buttons to move forward and backward through your document. You can click and drag the margin markers to increase or decrease the size of your margins. The Print Preview option can be to print. Among other things. The Print dialog box appears when the print button is clicked. If you click the Page Setup button while in Print Preview mode. Portrait is the default option. top. which is the default page size in Excel. Printing The simplest way to print is to click the Office button. Margins define the amount of white space that appears on the top. set your page orientation. you will see margin lines on your document. you can see onscreen how your printed document will look when you print it. Set Print Options There are many print options. Paper comes in a variety of sizes. the longest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. highlight Print on the menu that appears. If you print in Portrait. Most business correspondence uses 8 1/2 by 11 paper. If you check the Show Margins check box. enter the page numbers in the From and To fields. 7. If you are not using 8 1/2 by 11 paper. you can use the Size option on the Page Layout tab to change the Size setting.6. left. bottom. you can set page settings such as centering your data on the page. Click the path to your document. When using Print Preview. The dotted lines indicate the right. You can enter the number of copies you want to print in the Number of Copies field. You set print options on the Page Layout tab. Click the Footer button. click the Close Print Preview button. . you can set your margins. left. the shortest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. A menu appears. and select your paper size. Excel will place the path to your document at the bottom of every printed page. and your document prints. and right edges of your document. such as paper sized 8 1/2 by 11. If your document is several pages long. is longer on one edge than it is on the other. There are two page orientations: portrait and landscape. Paper. The Margin option on the Page Layout tab provides several standard margin sizes from which you can choose. To print specific pages. and bottom edges of your printed pages. If you print in Landscape. You can choose to print the entire worksheet or specific pages.

Chapter 7
Microsoft Access
7.1 Introduction
The value any database can provide is to store related information in one
place, and then let you connect various different things (sometimes called
"entities" in database) together. Microsoft Access is an information
management tool that helps in the storage of information for reference,
reporting, and analysis. Microsoft Access helps in analyzing large amounts of
information, and manage related data more efficiently than Microsoft Excel or
other spreadsheet applications. Microsoft Access works in the same manner
any database does, by storing related information together, and letting you
create connections (commonly called relationships) between different things.
The relationships between two different things in MSAccess can be as simple
as a contact at a customer and the customer itself or complex. Data is stored
in Microsoft Access tables likened to a mini-spreadsheets that store only one
type of thing. A table can have many fields likened to the columns in
spreadsheet. Each field in a table can be set up to allow or prevent users from
entering certain information, for example, you could say one field only accepts
dates, another can only allow a user to enter a numeric value, while another
lets them enter anything they want. Once you have the MS Access tables,
fields, and relationships set up, you can create data entry forms that use those
tables to store your information and later create reports with the data. Some
of the major benefits to using a database are:
Fewer errors and inconsistencies: Maintaining one version of the truth for the
things you need to track minimizes the potential for duplication, errors, and
inconsistent values.
Higher productivity: When working in database you need only change a single
record and all other related things in the database will automatically "see" the
Security and Control: Databases provide a central location to store, secure,
and control your data. Microsoft Access includes the ability to encrypt and
password protect database files.
Better Decisions and Insight: Perhaps most importantly, a single source of
truth in a standardized format means you can gain better insight and make
better decisions by reporting and analyzing your data in a database.
7.2 Features of MS Access
Microsoft Access is a database and, more specifically, a relational database.

Access has an .mdb extension by default, although this has changed in
Access 2007 where the extension is now an accdb extension. Early versions
of Access cannot read accdb extensions but Microsoft Access 2007 can read
and change earlier versions of Access. The Microsoft® Access Database is
made up of 7 major components namely the tables, relationships, queries,
forms, reports, macros and modules.The following gives a quick overview of
each component.
Tables: The tables are the backbone and the storage container of the data
entered into the database. If the tables are not set up correctly, with the correct
relationships, then the database may be slow, gives the wrong results or not
react the way we want it to. Queries, forms, etc. are usually based on a table.
The tables that contain data look a bit like a table in Microsoft® Word or a
Microsoft® Excel Spreadsheet, when opened. They have columns and rows
as does a table in Microsoft® Word and an Excel worksheet. Each of the
columns will have a field name at the top and each of the rows will represent a
Relationships: Relationships are the bonds you build between the tables.
They join tables that have associated elements. To do this there is a field in
each table, which is linked to each other, and have the same values.
Queries: These the means of manipulating the data to display in a form or a
report. Queries can sort, calculate, group, filter, join tables, update data,
delete data, etc. Their power is immense. The Microsoft® Access database
query language is SQL (Structured Query Language). The need to know SQL
is not required in the early stages of learning Access. Microsoft® Access
writes the SQL for you, after you tell it what you want, in the Design view of the
queries window.
Forms: Forms are the primary interface through which the users of the
database enter data. The person who enters the data will interact with forms
regularly. The programmer can set the forms to show only the data required.
By using queries, properties, macros and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications),
the ability to add, edit and delete data can also be set. Forms can be set up and
developed to reflect the use they will be required for.
Reports: Reports are the results of the manipulation of the data you have
entered into the database. Unlike forms, they cannot be edited. Reports are
intended to be used to output data to another device or application, i.e. printer,
fax, Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel.
Macros: Macros are an automatic way for Access to carry out a series of
actions for the database. Access gives you a selection of actions that are

A field only has 1 datatype. the list is almost endless. Advanced users of Microsoft® Access tend to use VBA instead of Macros. Example) StudentDatabase. FieldName) Student LastName Datatype) Text . Modules: Modules are the basis of the programming language that supports Microsoft® Access. Tables usually contain multiple fields. Example #1) Student LastName Example #2) Student FirstName Datatypes: Datatypes are the properties of each field.mdb Table: A table is a collection of data about a specific topic. etc. run queries.carried out in the order you enter. There can be multiple tables in a database. The module window is where you can write and store Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). change values of a field.3 Microsoft Access Hierarchy Description Microsoft Access is a powerful program to create and manage your databases. Figure 6. Macros can open forms.1Database hierarchy Database File: This is your main file that encompasses the entire database and that is saved to your hard-drive or floppy disk. Example #1) Students Example #2) Teachers Field: Fields are the different categories within a Table. 7. Figure 6.1 shows the Hierarchy that Microsoft Access uses in breaking down a database. run other Macros.

nevertheless. which is part of the Microsoft Office Professional suite. Figure 6. Different version of Windows comes with different version of the Windows Office suite. type the file name My First Database.2b. follow the sequence Start/All Programs/Microsoft Office/Microsoft Access. 2. However. select Blank Database.2a shows Office 2003 labels. in the File Name field.3 Creating a Database . the basics remain the same. The screen is likely to differ in detail from the office 2010 in Figure 6. you will see slight variations in the labeling of the MS Office components.4 Starting MS Access The first step is to start the MS Access DBMS software. To start Microsoft Access.7. The sequence is the same for all MS Office versions. Under the Blank Database section. (a) Office 2003 (b) Office 2010 Figure 6. After opening the Access application. Figure 6.2 Starting MS Access Creating a New Database 1. For example.

This new feature of Access 07 is the replacement for the . emailing. and closing a database.3. Access Options assists you in customizing the Access environment.4 The work area The Access Interface consists of various tools: Office Button: Located in the top left corner of the office window frame. this button displays a set of commands for creating a new database. saving. but can be moved below the ribbon. A list of the most recently viewed documents allows quick access to databases you are currently working on. Ribbon: Contains task-specific commands grouped together under command tabs. It remains visible at all times. printing. it resides above the ribbon. publishing. managing. By default.5 Access User Interface access user interface is shown in figure 6. Figure 6. opening. reducing the need to search for the proper command tab. Click on the Create button 7. Quick Access Toolbar: The Quick Access Toolbar can be customized to hold your most frequently used commands.4.

and reports because each object uses the fields and records from a table as the basis for its output. The intersection of a field and a record is a data cell where information relevant to that particular field for that particular record is entered. At the top of figure 6. The Table Design option provides the most control over the design of the table. Security features cause the message bar to appear below the ribbon when you open a database outside of a trusted location. Creating a table is always the precursor to other objects such as queries. Scroll Lock. the frame can be customized to show additional features such as database views. the Table Design option which creates a table in the design view where the field attributes are displayed. A table consists of fields and records. MS Office Window Frame: Located at the bottom of the user interface. or by using the Table Templates option which allows the user to create a table based on predefined designs. The default Objects selection is Tables and that the default table format is Create table in Design view. queries. using the Table option which creates the table and directly displays the blank fields. Enable the full content if you are sure the database is virus-free. forms. When you click the Create button the Access 2007 screen will change to the image in figure 6. Dialog Box Launcher: Miniature buttons found on command tabs provides additional commands and tools associated with the group. 7. fields can always be modified after the table is created.4 with Tabs and Ribbons that automatically appear for the area in the Access work area. Caps Lock. . Regardless of which method is used. Navigation Pane: Displays database objects such as tables.4 the Table Tools and Datasheet Tabs appears. The Window Frame was previously known as the status bar. There are three ways to create a table. forms. The user can assign names to fields and specify a property of each data type accordingly. and reports. or Num Lock.former menus and toolbars. Can be customized to display objects by various groupings.6 Creating the Tables Tables The basic building block of a database is the table.

If field names are not assigned. Assuming we want to create or design a new Table.6).Provide a name in the Table Name box and then click the OK button. Click the Table Design button in the Tables group (see Figure 6.5. When you click the View button the Datasheet and Design View dropbox will appear. Access assigns the default name a field number. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. Unlike a table created using the Table option.4 Tabs and Ribbons The Ribbon below these Tabs is composed of Groups of selections to assist in creating the Table. 2. Figure 6. . Figure 6. To create a table using the Table Design option: 1. A Save As menu screen will appear similar to figure 6. On the left of the Table Tools-Datasheet Tab/Ribbon is the View button. our selection will be the Design View selection.5 Table Name A table created using the Table Design gives the user the most control over the design of a database. Field names are usually assigned first and then the field properties are specified in the Field Properties pane. tables created with the Table Design option do not have an "ID" field.

3. It allows a user to explain or describe the type of information entered in the field.6 Table Design View Window The Table Design View window is split into two panes. 2. Field descriptions are entered by clicking inside the Description text box for a specific field. and field descriptions. The default data type is Text. Use the rows and columns to enter field names. As you enter data. Other Ways to Add a New Record: If the New record row is in view. Using the Description column is optional.Figure 6. 1. The Datasheet View window is useful for entering. 2. Click a field in the new record and enter data as desired. Press the [enter] key and the Data Type text box will become active. data types. the Datasheet View can be used to manage information entered into the table. After creating a table. To quickly move between fields in a record. 6. simply click in that row. Access automatically saves the information as you enter it. The top pane is the Design Grid pane. 1. editing. Click the New Record button on the Record Navigation bar. or deleting records. The record selector jumps to the blank row at the end of the table and the blinking insertion point appears in the first column. To add a record. . Designate the Data Type for each field by clicking the Data Type drop-down arrow and selecting the type from the drop-down menu. The bottom pane is the Field Properties pane. Press <Tab> or <Shift> + <Tab> keys. Double click inside the Field Name text box and enter the desired field name.

7 Queries A query is a request to select specific information from a table(s). Click the Home tab on the Ribbon.8). A query can be used to specify desired fields and criteria to display information from a table. or other queries. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. and whether a field is displayed when the query is run. . Click the Yes button. If the table related to a query is deleted (intentionally or unintentionally) the query will no longer function. The Query Design window consists of top and bottom pane. criteria to retrieve the desired information. Click the field you want to edit and make the changes. related tables. Creating a query in Design View: gives the user control over the design of the query including adding or deleting criteria to selected records and sorting results in the record set. Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. To delete records that you no longer need from a table. they hold or save the criteria used to select the data from the table(s). This section will demonstrate how to create a query using the Design View or the Simple Query Wizard. display specific information. The top pane displays the table(s) used in the query.7). Queries do not hold any data. More than one table can be selected. Press the <Delete> key.To edit a record. click the Delete button in the Records group and click the Yes button. sort parameters in the query (ascending or descending order). 2. Queries can be used to analyze data. 7. Queries are different from tables even though the interfaces of tables and queries are very similar to each other. The Design View window opens in the Object Display Area along with the Show Table dialog box (see Figure 6. A table must exist before a query or any other database object can be created. The bottom pane specifies the fields used in the query. 1. and serve as the basis for forms or reports. To create a simple query using the Query Design window: 1. Click the Query Design button in the Other group (see Figure 6. Other Ways to Delete a Record: Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. 2.

Figure 6. See figure 6. Type "CA" in the text box for the "State/Province" field. The fields are added to the bottom pane. Figure 6. This sets the criteria for the query.9 Setting query criteria . Double click the column names to use in the query.Figure 5. Each column will drop into the query design grid.7 'Query Design' Selection Select the table to use in the query and then click the 'Add' button.8 Table dialog box 3. 4. For example let us extract all customers in the state of 'CA'.9.

11 Returned Records 6.11). Click the YES button to save the query. 7.10 Run' button on the Ribbon 3 records have been returned for the state of 'CA' (see Figure 6. Enter a name for the query in the QUERY NAME text box. The query will execute according to the criteria entered and the results will be displayed in the Object Display Area . Only records for classes that meet on CA criteria will be displayed. Figure 6.12) 8. Removing the criteria from the query grid would return all records Figure 6. 'Run' button Figure 6. Click the RUN button in the Results group(see figure 6. If the query has not been named. a warning box will open. Close the query by clicking the Close button in the query window of the Object Display Area.12 Save As dialog box 'Run' butto . The Save As dialog box opens (See figure 6.5.10).

13 Form created using Form Tool . When creating a form. forms cannot be created without a pre-existing table. which eliminates the need to scroll to display all the fields in a table. All fields for one record can be viewed at the same time.8 Forms Forms can be used to view and edit data in a record. it is important to remember that a table is the basis for all objects including forms.12). 2. Figure 6. The Form Tool uses all of the fields in the data source and arranges them automatically on a form. To create a form using the Form Tool: 1. Forms can also be used to present data in a more attractive and efficient format than a datasheet and also to display data from related tables. A new form containing all of the fields from the table will open in the Object Display Area(See figure 6. Figure 6.12). All of the information in a record will be displayed on the form. Forms can be created from either the Form Design window or by using the Form Tool. 3.7. Creating a form using the form tool: The Form Tool is the quickest way to create a form in Access. Click the Form button in the Forms group (see Figure 6. Select the table that will be the basis for the form in the Object Display Area.12 Form groups Forms created using the Form Tool will contain the Record Navigation Control identical to those found on a table. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon.

2. Click on a table in the navigation pane. There are two basic formats for reports: columnar and tabular. At the Ribbon make sure the 'Create' tab is selected (See figure 6. Reports provide a means to display and summarize the data in tables or queries. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar.15 Figure 6. 2. 1. 7.14a). The information from the tables and/or queries can also be arranged so that the report may be utilized as an invoice. Click the OK button. The Save As dialog box opens. . The columnar report orients field names to the left and their values to the right as in a column form. or for formatting and printing mailing labels. the Design View or with the Report Wizard. At the reports section click on the item called 'Report Wizard' as shown in figure 6.15 The Report Wizard. Enter a name for the form in the text box.14b).To save the form: 1. A Report can be created using the Report Tool. Figure 51 is an example of a report in tabular format. Here we click on the 'Customers' table and it becomes highlighted (See figure 6. Reports can include headers and footers in which subtotals and totals can be calculated and displayed. To create a report. presentation. order form.9 Reports A report can be created based on either a table or query object(s). (a) Navigation Plane (b) Create Tab Figure 6.14 Navigation plane and the Create Tab on the Ribbon 3. The tabular report looks similar to the format of tables with the field names listed at the top and their values beneath the field names. 3.

or style) can be changed by clicking the button until the appropriate dialog box opens and making the changes. Using the Print Preview feature can avoid wasting time and paper by viewing the draft version of the report. The item will move to the box on the right. and Print Preview. fields selected.9.. The options available in the Print menu of the Office Button include Print which opens the Print dialog box(See figure 6. Select the table or query to base the report on. You can also use the arrow keys to move fields between the two boxes.17a) and allows the user to change printer settings. Table/Query Fields Figure 6. Quick Print. Printing options in Access are accessed by clicking the Office Button and hovering the mouse over the Print button to display the options available. Print Preview opens with one page of the document sized to fit in the window. layout. data source. which sends the entire report to the printer without opening the Print dialog box. which allows the user to view the report in final form before printing.16. Click the 'Finish' button.e.4. grouping. The Print Preview feature displays the pages as they will appear when printed. Click the button to complete the report. sorting. it is best to preview the report to see how the text appears on each page. The . 5. In the left box double click the field you wish to show on the report. The report will open in the Object Display Area 7.16 Query to base report Any aspect of the report (i. See figure 6.1 Printing Reports The report can be printed after it is created. Access prints the report using the formatting and margin settings. Previewing a report: Before printing.

2. 5.10 Setting the Relationships between Tables A Relationship is how you tell the program that a piece of information means the same thing in more than one table. Open the report to be printed.(a) (b) ( c) (d) Figure 6.17b). 7.17c). Setting the relationship up in Access is very important. Click the Office Button. select the Preview tab of the Ribbon. 4. Click the Close Print Preview button in the Preview group (see Figure 6. To exit Print Preview. 3.17a.17 Printing a Report located at the bottom right corner of the interface (see Figure 6. Relationships are created using a Primary Key from one table and linking it to a related field in another table (now called a Foreign Key). To use Print Preview: 1. Contacts should have a relationship to Reservations because they both contain the field ContactID). Table relationships can be created between two tables as long as they have a common field (in the example database. 6. The Zoom slider control is present only when the report is open. . Once a relationship is established you can view information from both tables at the same time by creating a query. Click the Print Preview option in figure 6. Hover the mouse over the Print button to display the printing options (see Figure 58).

3.Access 2007 allows for several different types of relationships. Click on the SHOW TABLE button. Make sure that your tables are closed and that you are at the database screen. Click on the RELATIONSHIPS button in the datasheets ribbon. 1. These include: One to One One to Many Many to Many The relationship type you will come across most frequently. Select one of the desired tables in the relationship and click on ADD. Click on CLOSE. is the One to Many relationship. 2. Repeat for each table involved in a relationship that you need to set up. and the one created in our bookstore scenario. (The show table window appears automatically if no relationships have been defined. .) 4. To create a relationship between tables the following steps applies.

In the Show Table window.5. The Customers table should appear in the Relationships field: 7. . 9. The Employees table should appear in the Relationships field: 8. double-click Employees. Double-click Order Details. Double-click Orders.

click the Close button. 11.10. In the Show Tables window. Double-click Products. The Relationships field should now look like this: .

Make any changes to the dialog box and click OK. Click once on the line connecting the two tables. The line will become bold. including all kinds of Office files and binary objects. You can have more than one file attached to a record. memo. 3. Individual files cannot be more than 256 MB though. The new data type attachment however. Open the Relationships window. 7. The OLE data type is still available. Double-click on the line connecting the two tables. etc. 3. Open the Relationships window. The complete list of data types available to define a field in a table in Access 2007 now include text. numbers.To Edit Relationships 1. A field created with this data type can have up to 2 GB storage allocated. and you can use it the old manner. is the right type for storing images. To Delete Relationships 1. Press [DELETE] on the keyboard. 2. 2.11 Adding Images to Access Access 2007 introduced a data type called "attachment". It can store documents. date/time.18 Attachment Dialog Box . The hyperlink data type allows for storage of hyperlinks and the field can be a solution for the indirect method discussed previously. Figure 6.

Click "Create From File" and select to "Browse" for your file. This brings up a sub-menu. 4. Double click the attachments field and the attachments dialog box in figure 6. 5. Viewing attachments also does not need the use of a form. JPEG. TIF (Tagged Image File Format). titled "Table 1. Click "OK. PNG (Portable Network Graphics). EXIF (Exchangeable File Format). meaning the attachment control renders them without the need for additional software. Office Access 2007 supports the following graphic file formats natively. To add attachments to a table. Open Access 2007. name it and set the data type as "attachment"." A new window opens with your "Insert Object" options. (For example. ICON. TIFF. Right-click on any empty field on your database. Select "Insert Object. The dialog box lets you look through your directory for the file to be attached. Click ''Datasheet View" on the top toolbar so that you return to your normal view. WMF (Windows Metafile) and EMF (Enhanced Metafile) To attach an image file to an access database appy the following steps. RLE (Run Length Encoded Bitmap). for the field the image will be in. JPE (Joint Photographic Experts Group). JPG. title it "Images. and double click the specific icon of the attachment (as there can be multiple attachments in a attachment field).18 appears. Instead open the table in the datasheet view. Use the drop-down menu in the "Data Type" column to select "OLE Object.") 3." . Type a field name. Simply open the table. 1. DIB (Device Independent Bitmap)." That is how you insert a file into Access. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format). ICO (Icon). remember to create a field for the same." You will see a single table. Select the image file that you want to add. Change your view to "Design View" by clicking the "Design View" button on the top bar of Access 2007.Whenever you need a field that can hold images and other attachments." 2. go to the right record. BMP (Windows Bitmap). select "New. you do not need a data entry form. If you are starting a new database file. 6. The document will open in the associated program.

Every computer connected to the Internet has an IP address. For instance. These additional protocols use their own types of addresses. such that your computer's address changes with each new Internet session. Mobile devices and Computer Supported Cooperative Work are used to introduce the social implications of remote. Any computer may be server.. or may be "dynamically" assigned by your ISP. For example. apart from IP addresses. unchanging. World Wide Web (Web) communications are transmitted via the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and e-mails via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). depending . The Internet is a global network of many individual computer networks. or both. http://www. user@emailprovider. 8. you need its Web address.Chapter 8 Social Aspects of Computing Safety is used to introduce the consequences of our increased reliance upon fallible programmers and their products. to download a Web page. Computers that offer files for download over the Internet are called servers or hosts. To exchange e-mails.0 Introduction This chapter is intended to introduce the social implications of computing technology. both the sender and recipient need e-mail addresses (e.. i. For example. client.g. the Internet Protocol (IP). mobile devices and computer supported cooperative work. security and safety. a computer that offers Web pages for download is called an HTTP server or Web host.eff. a unique numeric identifier that can be "static". We will introduce some key technologies that will have a profound impact upon the way that we live and emphasize the complex social consequences that these technologies will have upon the way that we live. enabling different types of Internet communications. all speaking the same computer language.1 The Internet and World Wide Web. For the purpose of understanding the central message we shall illustrate the social aspects of computing using the internet. known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (e. teleworking and of the team based use of computers to coordinate group activities. Security is used to introduce the technological and social threats posed by our reliance upon heavily interconnected systems. More sophisticated networking protocols may be "layered" on top of the IP The Internet is used to introduce the social implications of a world population that is either 'information rich' or 'information poor' ('computer literate' or 'computer illiterate'?).

2 Mobile Computing and Groupware Mobile computation can take place over larger distances using cellular and satellite telephone links. many areas of the world that are not covered by these facilities. any port can be used for any application. that is non-digital. Telnet or news. telephone systems were designed to carry the human voice rather than the binary. These can refer to local or remote resources accessible via FTP. use several different systems. However. Hypertext links refer to other documents by their URLs. indices) is represented to the user as a hypertext object in HTML format. Those areas that are covered. For example. menus. These systems use modems in the same way that many users use a modem to connect up over standard telephone networks. Most clients and servers also support "forms" which allow the user to enter arbitrary text as well as selecting options from customizable menus and on/off switches.g. runs on the user's computer and provides two basic navigation operations: to follow a link or to send a query to a server." Many networking protocols have been assigned to particular port numbers by the Internet Engineering Task Force. Communications to and from an Internet-connected computer occur through 65. called browsers. Errors can be introduced because analogue. These problems are being reduced by the introduction of digital networks. Switzerland. translate user request for information into the communications primitives that are necessary to transfer relevant data from remote servers.536 different computer software "ports. many companies from about 1995 realized they could use the same software and protocols on their own private internal TCP/IP networks giving rise to the term "intranet". 8. The only problems concern the reliability of the system.on the communication. Netscape Navigator. . Application or client programs. The amount of data in an Internet communication is measured in bytes. On the WWW everything (documents. and these are only conventions The World Wide Web is an Internet client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva. however. Following the widespread availability of web browsers and servers. Gopher. A variety of client and server software is freely available. HTTP (Web) is assigned to port 80 and SMTP (e-mail) is assigned to port 25. e. There are. NCSA Mosaic. as well as those available via the http protocol used to transfer hypertext documents. The client program (known as a browser). digital signals of computer networks.

these systems avoid the irritations that can arise when three or more people try to communicate over the same phone line. These systems range from simple messaging applications where textual messages may appear below the user's name. These enable groups of users to remotely log-in to their place of work. Low frequency signals carry less information but will travel over longer distances. Where communications infrastructure on the Internet supports relatively low quality video conferencing. In particular. Each cell has its own transceiver (transmitter-receiver). There are multi-user conferencing systems. Teleworking can combine elements of mobile computation if the user is moving around the country as they work. delays may interrupt both images and sound. interference from other devices using the same channel and variable signal strength due to movement of the device. Radio-based communication also suffers from: signal fade due to adverse atmospheric conditions. the intention is to reduce the problems that can arise during telephone conversations. In either case. Groupware covers a vast range of computer applications: · Conferencing systems. If the user moves from one cell to another then their 'calls' are passed between transceivers. unintentional electromagnetic interference. Another class of systems supports teleworking. group text-editors even `virtual' universities. the area to be covered is divided into a number of cells. Groupware refers to computer programs that are intended to help several different people work together on a common product.Cellular Architectures: Radio technology offers perhaps the most obvious means of connecting mobile devices. there are important visual cues about who wants to talk next etc. humancomputer interaction. They need not be physically present in their office. In the case of video conferencing systems. In this system. This approach exploits the cellular systems that currently support mobile 'phones. . users will continue to suffer the delays. There is a trade-off between the volume of information that a radio signal can carry and the distance that the signal will travel. Until such problems are addressed. Another term that is commonly used for these applications is CSCW systems (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). broken connections and interruptions that frustrate mobile. It can also include elements of groupware if they have to cooperate with their colleagues over the network. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks provide means of firing multimedia data at high speeds across local and wide are networks. to full-blown video conferencing systems. High frequency signals carry more information but are susceptible to interference and dispersion.

and frequently transmits unencrypted information. Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate the files. 8. depending on how it is designed. These are Computer-Aided Software Engineering systems. Finding Cheaper Textbooks. · CASE tools. Job Hunt Online. if two different groups have to work on different sections of a joint publication. When you think of the Internet. The following can be done while surfing the net. the web servers that host the information each have a unique numerical address. · Command and control systems. These applications include computer interfaces to systems on-board aircraft or within power generation systems. for example. These systems enable groups of users to simultaneously edit the same document. Using a web browser causes data to be stored on your computer and logs to be stored on the web servers you visit. Web pages on a site are linked together through a system of hyperlinks. This page is referred to as the home page or start page. They help groups of programmers to develop code. the various operators must cooperate to preserve the safety of an application. They may also help teams to work out where their colleagues are currently concentrating within a system. you probably think of ". Online Learning etc. If both groups can access the most recent version that the other group is working on then these problems may be avoided. they might provide information about the data types that must be used in two different areas of a program. Although many different browsers are available. enabling you to jump between them by clicking on a link. Confusion would result if one user tried to shut-down a component while another tried to start it up and many more.3 Surfing the Web A website has one or more related web pages. This is important. Again. The World Wide Web as a vast collection of electronic files stored on millions of computers all around the world. Hypertext links these files without having to retype them. Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses so you can return to them quickly. The alternative would be to send and re-send different drafts between the various sites." In order to locate online data. Web Browsers: Web browsers are software on your machine that communicate with servers or hosts on the Internet. For example. When you launch your web browser a predefined web page appears. Online Shopping.· Multi-user text editors. The battle between the two browsers to . Each site would then be unsure about whether they had the most recent copy or whether it was `in the post'. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox are by far the most popular.

HTTPS is a more secure alternative to HTTP. whether you followed a link from another web page to get to the page. When downloading content from the Web. can be very large. the server will record not only what you sent it. your account if you are logged in to the site. you are actually downloading a text document and all its associated graphics from a web server. and even to intermediaries that might set out to modify the pages a browser is fetching. For instance. image or script from a website. and (3) the URL/location bar is colored.3. depending on the . ensure that you are using HTTPS. HTTPS: Most sites on the web are accessed using the unencrypted HTTP protocol. If a site does not support HTTPS. You need to identify the file type to know whether it will work on your computer. IP Addresses: Whenever your browser fetches a page. it is not possible to block all cookies without losing the ability to log into many sites and perform transactions with others. if you type any information into a form on a web page (such as a search engine). (2) that the page cannot be modified by third parties. especially full length movies. As a result. so downloading may take hours. (2) there is a lock icon in the corner of the browser. and cookies that were created when you previously looked at pages on the site. Check three indicators to ensure that you're at an HTTPS page: (1) the URL begins with https://. but also information that might identify you: your IP address. do not send sensitive information to it. the website to record the IP address of the computer you are using. If there is a site you are sending a sensitive information to. when you access a web page. HTTPS encrypts pages. A web server must be configured to support HTTPS properly before you can use it.1 Downloading data and Files: Almost everything you do on the Web is some form of downloading.dominate the market has led to continuous improvements to the software. (3) that the page was really sent by the web server listed in the URL bar. the browser and operating system you are using. and to track the state of a multi-step transaction such as a reservation or shopping cart purchase. Media files. you will undoubtedly encounter many different types of electronic file formats. 8. Web servers usually see and retain a large amount of information about what you do when you surf to them. For instance. Cookies: Cookies are pieces of information that a web site can send to your browser Cookies are the most common mechanisms used to record the fact that a particular visitor has logged in to an account on a site. what that previous site/page was. and attempts to ensure three things: (1) that third parties cannot see the contents of the page. HTTP is susceptible to eavesdropping.

click on the link to begin the download process. Find the file you downloaded and double-click it.speed of your connection. and the available types of encryption for those steps. New programs are usually installed in the Program files folder.If you are really bored.A series of installation screens directs you through the process. click the Save button. plug-ins. 4. To speed things up. After the download is finished. . making it a simple matter of clicking a button to sign. Email usually travels through a number of separate hops between the sender and receiver.First you will be asked if you want to save the file. Both of these programs can provide protection for your email in transit and also protect your stored data. Close all programs that are running. Click the Save button. games or any other files from the Internet. End-to-End Encryption of Specific Emails Encrypting emails all the way from the sender to the receiver has historically been difficult. encrypt and decrypt email messages. Major email clients such as Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla Thunderbird can be configured to work smoothly with encryption software. Figure 7. and stores data on third party machines. 7.4 Email The act of using email stores data on your machines. although the tools for achieving this kind of end-to-end encryption are getting better and easier to use. 5.Once you locate the software you want to download.After the software is installed. 2. you have to install the software. The usual measures apply to managing the copies of emails (both sent and received) that are kept on your own machines. then locate the Temp file folder on your hard drive and double-click to open it.When the folder appears. you can watch the file as it downloads. delete the file in your Temporary files folder to free up space on your hard drive 8. except Windows Explorer.1 illustrates the typical steps messages might travel through.If you do not already have one. many large files are compressed. Follow these simple steps for downloading software. transmits data over the network. then selecting File/New/Folder. create a Temporary Files folder by opening Windows Explorer. Next. highlighting your hard drive (typically the c: drive). Encrypt your drives and decide upon and follow an appropriate data deletion policy. verify. 1. 6. 3. name it Temp files. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and its free cousin GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG) are the standard tools for doing this. the transmission protocols used for those steps.

Figure 7. messages are passed between mail servers without encryption. emails are typically relayed along a chain of SMTP mail servers before reaching their destination. make sure it is encrypted POP or IMAP. ensure that you only access it using HTTPS rather than HTTP. You can use your mail client to look at the headers of any email you've received to see the chain of servers the message traveled along. If you use a webmail service. Storage by your Service Provider: If you do not run a personal mail server. Copies of messages will also be scattered across computers controlled by the ISPs. an employer. employers and webmail hosts of those you correspond with. If your mail server doesn't support the encrypted version of that protocol. get your service provider or systems administrator to fix that.1 Message route and transmission protocols Server-to-Server Encrypted Transit After you press "send". Client-to-Mail Server Encryption If you use POP or IMAP to fetch your email. Make sure your email software is configured so that it deletes messages off of your ISP's .and Third-Party Machines There are two main reasons why your emails will be stored on computers controlled by third parties. Data Stored on Second. But there is a standard called SMTP over TLS which allows encryption when the sending and receiving servers for a given hop of the chain support it. or a webmail provider. then there is a third party who obtains (and may store) copies of all of your emails. This would commonly be an ISP. In most cases.

The content of PGP/GnuPG encrypted emails will not be accessible through these third parties. This guide explains how to open an email in a Gmail account. just like opening an envelope to read a letter. In addition to the personal machine of the person you sent/received the message to/from. or send them by some means other than email. For security use PGP to encrypt those messages. click on the line that shows the information about that email. delete messages immediately after reading them. it may take months before the message is really deleted. If you haven't opened and read an email. . 4: Once you've identified an email you wish to open. this information will appear as bold text in the list. Keep in mind that with major webmail services. Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an email 1: Log into your Gmail account so that you are on the dashboard (main page) of your account. those you communicate with could be subject to subpoenas or requests from law enforcement to decrypt your correspondence. If you use webmail or IMAP.mail server after it downloads them by using POP to fetch your mail. are the best ways of mitigating these risks. the read email will be displayed in normal. 3: The inbox shows a list of emails received. almost every email you send and receive will be stored in at least one other place. 8. 2: Go to your inbox. you can find out what they've written by opening it. The one towards the left shows who the email is from. Storage by Those You Correspond With: Most people and organizations save all of the email they send and receive. Once you've opened and read the email and then returned to the inbox. regardless of the practices and procedures you follow. Running your own mail server with an encrypted drive.4. the one in the centre gives the subject of each email. although the email headers (such as the To: and Subject: lines) will be. Therefore. 5: You can now read the content of the email and reply if you wish by clicking on the arrow at the top right hand of the email for reply or by clicking Reply underneath the message. Be aware that even if you use PGP. or using end-to-end encryption for sensitive communications.1 Opening and Sending Emails and Attachments When you receive an email from friends or family. IMAP or webmail leaves copies of messages on the server. non-bold text. and you'll find the time and date when each one was received in the right-hand column. copies might be made on their ISP or firm's mail or backup servers. although other email applications will follow very similar steps. arranged in columns.

which will open another field. Type in the second address and continue. 4: To include someone else in the email to 'keep them in the loop'. To download. 'Cc' means 'carbon copy' and 'Bcc' means 'blind carbon copy'. like a heading. you may be offered another dialogue box with further options: open the document itself by clicking Open. type in the first recipient's email address. . Step 7: Type your message in the main body field of your email. colour and size using the formatting icons. 3: Another box will pop up asking if you want to 'Open'. 'Save' or 'Cancel' the download. Step 8: Click Send. 3: A new blank email will open up. Then type a comma and make a space. How to open an attachment Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an attachment 1: An email with an attachment will have a paperclip icon next to it to show that there is something attached to the received mail. the person will get a copy of the email but no other recipient will see that address. Click Save. 4: Find a place to save your document and download it to your computer. Once the document has been downloaded. If an email address is put into the 'Bcc' field. to separate this address from the next email address. How to send an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to send an email 1: Log in to your Gmail account. Adding an email address to the 'Cc' field means that that person will receive a copy of the email and all the other recipients will see their email address. To send to multiple recipients. You can also create bullet points and check the spelling of your email. Click on the icon 2: The email will open up with the attachment shown at the bottom and you will be offered two options: view the attachment via an internet page or download the attachment to your computer. 6: Email text can be formatted in a similar way to text in a word document. 2: Click Compose from the dashboard options. click back to inbox icon to close the email and go back to the list of emails in your inbox. inserting a comma and a space between each subsequent address. or open the folder to which the document has been saved by clicking Open folder. In the 'To' box. You can change the font style. type in the email address of the recipient. click Download. 5: The subject field allows you to give the recipient an idea of the topic of your email. 5: Click Back to Inbox to go back to your list of received emails. in the 'To' address box. click on the Cc or Bcc.6: When you've finished reading your email.

How to email a document Follow these step-by-step instructions to email a document 1: Log in to your email account so that you are on the dashboard (front page) of your mail account. the threats posed by malicious and criminal activities are increasing. 7: To send your email. A number of reasons can be identified for this rising threat. When you decide that you are ready to send it. 5:The selected email will be deleted. 8. Finish the email and click Send as normal. Step 10: Click Save Now at the top of the email to save the unfinished email to your 'Drafts' folder. You can also delete an email by opening it and then clicking the delete icon. 4: Click where it says Attach a file to attach a file. then following the same steps. These range from the increasing interconnection of the world's computers to the increasing technological sophistication of the general population. This will add the document as an attachment to your email. 2: Go to your inbox. 6: You can tell that your document has been attached to you email by its file name appearing in blue text at the bottom of the compose window. click the 'select' box to the far left of the each email so that a tick appears in the box 4: Click the delete icon.5 Security and Privacy Security is becoming an increasing concern for computer users. In all areas of computer use. 5: Browse through your Windows folders until you reach the document you want to attach to your email. Alternatively. 3: Peruse the inbox for emails to be deleted. you can retrieve it from the 'Drafts' folder by clicking Drafts and then clicking the correct item in the 'Drafts' folder list.Step 9: The email you've sent will now be stored in the 'Sent Mail' folder on your Gmail dashboard. 3: Once your new email is open. click Send How to delete an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to delete an email 1: Log into your email account. Then put a title for your email in the 'Subject' box and type your message. The increasing interconnection of the world's computer networks is a an issue . type your recipient's email address in the 'To' field. Highlight this by clicking on it and then click Open. you can reply to an email that you've received by double-clicking on it in your list of received emails. 2: Click Compose.

5. causing hard drives to reformat. Trojan viruses: Trojan viruses pretend to be other software. data file. deleting files and re-writing system files. mouse or keyboard. Computer viruses can cause very serious damage to the computer's program and data files. causing the computer to become unstable. Boot viruses: Boot viruses attack the boot sectors on your hard drive and interfere with your computer's basic operation. video drivers to be deleted or the operating system to stop running. by floppy disks or by CDs. However. computer viruses attach themselves to a host. While this may cause the monitor to stop working properly. All of this increases the stakes for malicious and criminal users. but in reality can attack your hard drives. Like biological viruses. What a particular virus will do to your computer depends on how it was programmed when created. spreading the infection to other files.5.2 E-mail Viruses Email is probably the most common method for spreading viruses.1 Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage or disrupt the normal functions of your computer and its files. it replicates itself. making your operating system run strangely or even corrupt it all together. particular when operating system files are deleted. Plain text email messages normally do not spread viruses. hence their name as in the Trojan Horse. Macro viruses: Macro viruses tend to attack data files. the legitimate program spawns copies of the virus. some viruses will attack the files that operate your computer's hardware. like word documents and spreadsheets. causing you to loose files or cause your word or excel software to not work properly. or a file in the computer's operating system. 8. Most email viruses are . in downloads from the internet. modify existing software so that when run. viruses only attack files in the computer. Trojan viruses pretend to be a legitimate piece of software. particular those that have been burnt on a computer infected by viruses. 8. it can be transmitted by email. as well as affect the computers hardware. through network connections. usually a program file. which is then forwarded on in email or other files. like the monitor.because more and more companies are connecting to the Internet. From there. such as the hard drive. The basic types of viruses are Worm Viruses: Worm viruses are self-contained programs that remain hidden and propagate via email or duplication. Viruses can find their way onto the computer in many different ways. They do not attack the computer's hardware.

sent on by well meaning people. or come from a free email source. can result in damage to your computer. For a virus contained in an email message to attack your computer. it is recommended that: • you do not forward the email. In some cases such messages contain instructions that.3 Minimising Exposure to Viruses The best way to minimize the chances of getting a virus infection is to be pro active and follow some basic steps we have outlined below.spread via attachments to email messages. Virus hoaxes are typically alerts that are passed on by naive users who think they are helping people out. while seeming to alert you to a real virus treat. 8. Purchase and Install anti-virus software. • Try to use an email client for checking your email which does not automatically execute or opens attachment . • Scan floppy disks before opening them. or in email messages containing embedded executable code. and offers an update service. • you do not follow the instructions contained in the email or forward the email to others. If you use an email client to check your email. and back up their claims with references to credible sources.5. you may receive "Virus Warning" emails. avoid clients that automatically open attachments Virus Hoaxes: From time to time. To protect yourself against email viruses it is important that you do not open attachments from senders you don't know. • Virus scan any new programs or other files that may contain executable files before you run or open them. it will normally require your computer to executive some code. If you receive a message warning you about viruses. like hotmail or yahoo. more often than not are merely hoaxes. • you ignore all such emails unless they are clearly from an authoritative source. if followed. These emails. • Make sure that you regularly up date your anti virus software definitions. • Do not open emails or email attachments that have been sent by a strange person or organization. The reality is that most of these warnings are designed to cause fear or simple confuse people. Make sure the software you select is compatible with your computer's operating system. like open an attachment or open a html link embedded in the message. • Make sure that you regularly scan your computer for viruses using your antivirus software.

Intellectual Property. If you make more copies of the software than the license permits.4 Software Piracy Piracy is the mislicensing. When you purchase software. Your unwitting involvement in such activities may also leave you open to threats and blackmail. It strengthens economies. Respecting intellectual property rights laws benefits everyone. musicians and authors. Obtaining software this way entails all same risks as dealing with criminals for any other reason along with the risk that the software will not be operational and you will not be entitled to any support. That license is what tells you how many times you can install the software. 8. not the actual software. or installing multiple copies onto personal or work computers. Many criminal software pirates also make extra money by being paid to distribute malware with their products. and gives customers the genuine software experience they deserve while protecting them from becoming victims. unauthorized reproduction and illegal distribution of an item or product. downloading. The exclusive rights and legal protections of IP come in the form of copyrights. meaning having more licenses installed than you have entitlements for.5. Despite persistent rumors to the contrary this is in fact illegal. businesses. distributing illegal images and video or decrypting stolen passwords and credit card codes. Software piracy is the unauthorized copying or distribution of copyrighted software. whether for business or personal use. Casual copiers are statistically more likely to have PCs infected with malware. This can be done by copying. Criminal and Counterfeit: This is where processional criminals sell unsuspecting victims goods that appear genuine but are not. you are pirating. stimulates technological progress. you are actually purchasing a license to use it. protects honest workers from losing their jobs to criminals. Any discs they burn for you or email attachment sent to you should be treated . There are fines and penalties for being out of compliance. Casual Copying: This is where a friend or colleague gives you a copy of an application. selling. trademarks and patents. creates job opportunities. but they can be challenging due to widespread theft associated with counterfeiting and trafficking of pirated goods. Piracy & License Compliance Intellectual property (IP) represents original creative works and innovations belonging to inventors. artists. We will attempt to explain them as follows. sharing. There are different kinds of piracy and risk associated with them. This malware can be used to spy on you to steal identity information and passwords and to secretly use your computer for other criminal activities such sending spam. These protections encourage innovation and creativity. so it is important to read it. have severe ramifications.

with that in mind. As proof of purchase is often required for technical support
you will not be able to benefit from free technical support and critical upgrades.
P2P or Filesharing: This is where pirated applications are uploaded to a
global network where anyone can download a copy of them. Malware
distribution and Identity Theft are major criminal operations and P2P networks
are an ideal way for them to distribute their dangerous software. Very often
files downloaded from such networks will pass all security checks because
they look like normal software.
8.5.5 Software License Compliance
Compliance is either a state of being in accordance with established
guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so.
Software, for example, may be developed in compliance with specifications
created by some standards body, such as the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and may be distributed in compliance with the
vendor's licensing agreement. In the legal system, compliance usually refers
to behavior in accordance with legislation. Licence compliance is operating
within the terms and conditions that apply on the license that is purchased.
Software compliance is being able to demonstrate that you have the correct
number of licenses paid for and accounted for on your systems compared and
matched to what you have installed.
Software license compliance and being compliant means;
* Knowing what software you have installed
* Knowing what software licenses you have purchased
* Knowing that your installations do not exceed your license purchases
* Knowing what software is being used
* Knowing the details of your software license usage rights & restrictions
* Maintaining compliance while significantly reducing overall software costs
8.6 Protection Mechanisms
The increasing range of attacks that can be made against computer systems
must be countered by a relatively small number of protection mechanisms. We
shall consider some of the protection mechanisms in this section.
8.6.1 Encryption
Encryption is a technique that uses math to transform information in a way that
makes it unreadable to anyone except those with special knowledge, usually
referred to as a "key." Encryption provides a very strong technical protection
against many kinds of threats and this protection is often easy to obtain. Users
can protect their data against attack by encrypting it. This involves turning any

message into a coded form that the intruder cannot read. Encryption is
conceptually similar to the "secret codes", the idea is to take a normal humanreadable message (often called the plaintext message) and transform it into
an incomprehensible format that can only become comprehensible again to
someone with secret knowledge:
Plaintext message + Encryption algorithm + Key = Scrambled message
Decryption algorithm + Key + Scrambled message = Plaintext Message
A simple encryption system would be to change each letter in your message to
a set number of letters later in the alphabet. The specific number of spaces
you move down the alphabet for each letter is the secret key. If the key is two, A
becomes C, B becomes D, C becomes E, etc. Using that encryption system,
the plaintext message "INSECURE" would become "KPUGEWTG.” There
are various different approaches to encryption;
· secret key encryption: In this approach, you have an algorithm which hides
the message. in order to decode any file, you need a key to extract the original
message. For example, if you take the position of any character in the
alphabet and add two positions to it you can get a coded message. A -> C, B ->
D, C -> E, D -> F and so on. In order to decode this message you need to know
the system that was used and you also need to know the key, that is that you
must more the characters two places to the left to get the original message. If
you moved the characters four places or five places the whole thing would fail.
· public key encryption: Basically, you have two keys. One is used to
encrypt the message. anyone can have this as a means of sending you a
secret. You also devise an algorithm which means that nobody else can
decode the message without another second key that is kept secret. This will
be covered in more detail in third and fourth year courses.
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are a very powerful and general tool that can
be used to encrypt all of the communications between participating
computers. VPNs can be used to improve the privacy and security of protocols
that are not encrypted (or not securely encrypted) by default. The biggest
catch with VPNs is that all of the computers participating in them must be
running the same VPN software, and must be correctly configured to
communicate with each other. In general, this means that deploying a VPN is
a non-trivial task requiring significant systems administration time.
Organizations that need to arrange secure access to intranet web servers, file
servers, print servers and similar facilities should deploy VPNs.
8.6.2 Digital Signature
A digital signature is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate

the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and
possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that
has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures are easily transportable,
cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is
encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender's
identity and that the message arrived intact. Assume that you have a public
key system. Instead of keeping the key that you use to decode a message
secret, keep the key that you use to encode the message a secret. this means
that you can give everyone the key that you need to decode a message but
only one person will know how to encode a message so that the decryption will
work. Because only one person can correctly encode the data, this system is
like adding a signature to a message, recipients know its from you because
only you know how to encode the data.
8.7 Access control
Ultimately, the security of most systems depends upon associating lists of
privileges with either users or system resources. For example, when you logon you typically give a password. This then sets all of your privileges with the
system. If you are a member of the support staff then you will be able to do
more things than a member of academic staff. This technique is known as a
capability based approach
8.7.1 Unauthorized Access
This is when a person who does not have permission to connect to or use a
system gains entry in a manner unintended by the system owner. The popular
term for this is “Hacking”. Nobody wants that someone access to his/her
system in unauthorized way. To secure your computer and prevent any
unauthorized access from other people or software programs we can use the
1. Operating system and software patches and updates:There is no such
thing as perfect software, often a software program may have several issues
and could potentially have security vulnerabilities that can leave your
computer open to attacks that compromise your computer and your data.
Software patches, updates, and drivers are made available, often for free, to
consumers to help keep a software program and operating systems running
properly and secure. If the program you are using does not have any type of
method of checking for updates on its own it is up to you to verify the program
is up-to-date. Often this can be done by visiting the web site of the developer
who created the program. A listing of third-party companies and links to each

* When creating a password. There are two types of firewall's your computer and/or network can have. admin or no password will allow easy access to your computer or your Internet account * Change passwords often. . Passwords: Make sure a password has been set on computer. 2. root. Often many home users who have a home network use their network router as a firewall solution. Hardware firewall: A hardware firewall is a hardware device that is connected to your network. Get a hardware or software firewall: We highly recommend all users have some type of firewall solution. Default passwords such as password. Instead use a password manager. * Do not use sticky notes around your computer to write down passwords. 3. Software firewall: A software firewall is a software program that you install on your computer that helps protect that computer from unauthorized incoming and outgoing data. for example: 1mypassword23!. add numbers or other characters to the password to make it more difficult to guess.of their pages can be found on our third-party support page. * Create a BIOS password. It is recommended at least once every few months.