Preface

This text started out as a lab-based text, is put together expose the
reader to the basic principles of computer hardware. In this book the
information and chapters have been presented to take account of the
needs of the curriculum for Computer hardware and to give ths
student a broader understanding of the basic concepts of computer
hardware.
To aid the student's systematic understanding of the subject matter
as presented in this five chapter book, the book have been prepared
to consider; the basics of Principles of Systematic Fault Diagnosis as
presented in chapter one, chapter two considers Computer Modules
and Modems, chapter three exposes the reader to the basics of
computer Hardware Installation and Assembly, Peripherals and
Periphery Equipment is treated in chapter four and chapter five
introduces the reader to the Hardware Measurement Basics.
Upon completing this book, the student is expected to understand
and appreciate the basics of Computer Hardware. Hence, preparing
the reader for the advanced courses in computer hardware
installation, maintenance and repairs.
A.U Affiah
2013

Chapter 1
Overview of computers
1.0 Introduction
Recent developments in computers, particularly with regard to the possibility of
developing artificial intelligence, have made a precise definition of computer a
difficult task. However, for our purpose we shall consider it as a device for
performing logical operations at a very high speed or as a machine which
processes given data to derive the required and useful information. During the
processing the computer has to perform various functions like
(i) Accepting Instructions & data from the user.
(ii) Performing various arithmetic and Logical operations as per Instructions
given.
(iii) Presenting the Information or Output to the user.
The earliest computers were as large as a room. But thanks to continuous
technological advances over the last 60 years has made it possible to hold
some computers in the palm of our hand. Computers are found in businesses
and establishments, such as stores, restaurants, banks, airports, and homes,
where they are used to perform a large variety of functions. They are available
in a wide range of sizes, shapes, types, and speeds to meet user needs.
With regards to today’s computers, the “machine” part of the computer is called
the hardware, while the “programmable” part is called the software. Software
can be broken down into 3 main categories:
System Software: is designed to operate the computer’s hardware and to
provide and maintain a platform for running applications. (e.g., Windows,
MacOS, Linux, Unix, etc..)
Middleware: is a set of services that allows multiple processes running on one
or more machines to interact. Most often used to support and simplify complex
distributed applications. It can also allow data contained in one database to be
accessed through another. Middleware is sometimes called plumbing because
it connects two applications and passes data between them. (e.g., web servers,
application servers).
Application Software: is designed to help the user perform one or more
related specific tasks. Depending on the work for which it was designed, an
application can manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these
elements. (e.g., office suites, web browsers, video games, media players,
etc…)

1.1 Measuring Computing Power
For physical machines, we can compare the power of different machines by
measuring the amount of mechanical work they can perform within a given
amount of time. This power can be captured with units like horsepower and watt.
Physical power is not a very useful measure of computing power, though, since
the amount of computing achieved for the same amount of energy varies
greatly. Energy is consumed when a computer operates, but consuming energy
is not the purpose of using a computer. Two properties that measure the power
of a computing machine are: How much information it can process and how fast
can it process the information.
Information: To understand information quantitatively, as something we can
measure, we need a more precise way to think about information. The
measurement of information is based on how what is known changes as a
result of obtaining the information. The primary unit of information is a bit . One
bit of information halves the amount of uncertainty. It is equivalent to answering
a “yes” or “no” question, where either answer is equally likely beforehand.
Before learning the answer, there were two possibilities; after learning the
answer, there is one. We call a question with two possible answers a binary
question. Since a bit can have two possible values, we often represent the
values as 0 and 1. For example, suppose we perform a fair coin toss but do not
reveal the result. Half of the time, the coin will land “heads”, and the other half of
the time the coin will land “tails”. Without knowing any more information, our
chances of guessing the correct answer are 1/2 . One bit of information would
be enough to convey either “heads” or “tails”; we can use 0 to represent “heads”
and 1 to represent “tails”. So, the amount of information in a coin toss is one bit.

Units of Information: One byte is defined as eight bits. Hence, one byte of
information corresponds to eight binary questions, and can distinguish among
8
2 (256) different values. For larger amounts of information, we use metric
10
prefixes, but instead of scaling by factors of 1000 they scale by factors of 2
20
(1024). Hence, one kilobyte is 1024 bytes; one megabyte is 2 (approximately
30
one million) bytes; one gigabyte is 2 (approximately one billion) bytes; and one
40
terabyte is 2 (approximately one trillion) bytes.
Representing Data: We can use sequences of bits to represent many kinds of
data. All we need to do is think of the right binary questions for which the bits give
answers that allow us to represent each possible value.

2. which is passing as input to the computer and the program. . 2) Accuracy :. but it is reliable only when the data. they are due to errors in instructions given by the programmer. 3) Reliable :. A powerful computer is capable of executing about 3 million calculations per second.In spite of its high speed of processing.The computer performance is consistent even to all extent of more than 10 million calculations. 3) It is capable to generate the desired output in the desired form. 1) Speed :.The computer is able to process the date and give the output in fractions of seconds such that required information is given to the user on time enabling the user to take right decisions on right time. Unlike humans.1 Characteristics of a computer The Characteristics which make computer indispensable are.The output generated by the computer is very reliable. which gives instructions are correct and reliable. they are a popular choice for performing many tasks. However. Computers also work at very high speeds and rarely make mistakes. 2) It performs basic Arithmetic and Logic operations on data as desired. which have capacity to store huge amounts of data and help the retrieval of data an easy task. computers can fail or produce faulty results if the instructions are incorrect or incomplete.The computer perform three basic operations 1) It is capable to access and accept information through various input-output devices from the user. the computers accuracy is consistently high enough which avoids any errors. and retrieve large amounts of information. For these reasons. 4) Storage Capacity :. the monotony of repetitive work does not affect computers. characteristics and Limitations of a Computer Computers can store. 5) Versatile :. 1.The computer has a provision to store large volumes of data in the small storage devices. 6) Automation :.2 Benefits.1. ranging from ATM machines to electronic cash registers to multimedia games. 7) Diligent :. If it all there are errors. it does each and every calculation with same speed and accuracy. the use of computers is spreading to a large number of spheres. therefore. analyze.Once the instructions fed into computer it works automatically without any human intervention until the completion of execution of program until meets logical instructions to terminate the job.

2) Computer are not intelligent. one has to program the computer to take an action if some conditional prevail. 4) Computers.Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator EDSAC – Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator EDVAC – Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer IBM 701) The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. generated less heat and faster and reliable. 1) Computer does not work on itself. the vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors to arrive at 2nd generation of computers. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. else computer (Hardware) is waste. There are totally five generations of computers till today. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors.2 Limitation of Computer The limitations of a computer is summarized as follows. The size of transistors is much smaller when compared to vaccum tubes.3 The Computer Generations The development of computers has followed different steps in the terminology used and these steps of technological differences are called as GENERATIONS in computer terminology.1. they consume less power. magnetic core for memory storage. I Generation : 1945 – 55 II Generation : 1955 – 65 III Generation : 1965 – 75 IV Generation : 1975 – 89 V Generation : 1989 to present First Generation (ENIAC .2. Digital Data Corporation's PDP 1/5/8 Honeywell 400) With the development of Transistors and there use in circuits. unlike humans cannot learn by experience. they have to be instructed about each and every step which they have to perform 3) Computers cannot take decisions on its own. . memories and I/O units. 1. Second Generation (Manufacturers – IBM 7030. it requires set of instructions to be provided.

Third Generation (System 360 Mainframe from IBM. government agencies.. Motorola's 68000. Robotics etc. Advantages 1) These computers have high processing powers. cost. Each of these IC's consist of large number of chips in very small packages. high reliability and very low power consumption. Origin 2000. 2) The size & cost of computers come down drastically Fifth Generation (IBM notebooks. PDP-8 Mini Computer from Digital Equipment Corporation) The development of silicon chips. heat generation and power consumption decreased to great extent.80486 . Fourth Generation (Intel's 8088. these computers have very processing speeds and are more reliable.. This era was characterized by a few large and expensive computers that were used to meet the data processing requirements of large organizations. 68040.4 Evolution of computers Computer technology has advanced to a point where you can connect your computer to a network of computers without even using a cable. speed and reliability increased as compared to previous generation. The evolution of computers can be broadly classified as follows: Institutional computing era.. (2) The Cost of Computer reduced. Personal computing era.80286. SUN work stations. expert systems. Advantage : The size of computers. 68030. PARAM 10000. Pentium PCs-Pentium 1/2/3/4/Dual core/Quad core..80386. These computers are used Integrated Circuits (IC's) of silicon chips.Advantages (1) Size of Computer has come down as well as power consumption. These machines used IC's with large scale Integration (LSI). and scientific and military establishments. low maintenance. This era was characterized by small and inexpensive microcomputers (commonly known as personal computers (PCs)) . Apple II. in the place of transistors. 1. the third generation of computers came into existence. CRAY I/2/X/MP etc) The Computers belonging to these generations used Integrated circuits with Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). IBM SP/2) These computers use optic fibre technology to handle Artificial Intelligence.

that were used by individuals in small organizations. and homes.4. schools.1 Types of computers Various types of computers that have evolved over the last few decades. various types of computers have evolved. and manufacturers. This era is also be called the Internet era because it’s characterized by the development of Internet technology. .1 with the brief exploitations as follows: Figure 1. banks. They are used to perform tasks such as scientific calculations and data processing for large businesses. schools. This era is characterized by networks of interconnected computers that organizations. which has revolutionized the way people work and communicate. and homes use for communication and data storage and manipulation.1 Mainframe: A large and expensive multi-user computer on which hundreds of users can work simultaneously on the same data. insurance companies. Mainframes have large data storage capacity and can process bulk data. Interpersonal computing era. With the progression of computer technology. 1. They can be classified as shown in figure 1.

2 Supercomputer: A very fast computer that can process billions of instructions per second. Fujitsu (VP2000). Eg.:. PARAM 10000 by C-DAC. reliability and cost effectiveness.CRAY Research : CRAY-1 & CRAY-2.4.g.Applications · Used to process large amount of data at very high speed such as in the case of Banks/ Insurance Companies/ Hospitals/ Railways…which need online processing of large number of transactions and requires massive data storage and processing capabilities · Used as controlling nodes in WANs (Wide Area Networks) · Used to mange large centralized databases 1. Supercomputers are used to perform tasks that involve processing large amounts of data. and processing tasks with complex requirements such as weather forecasting. velocity etc and under load conditions. PACE Series by DRDO Applications: · In petroleum industry . Hitachi (S820). and aircraft design. biomedical applications. This helps in producing an effective aerodynamic design for superior performance · In Automobile industry – to do crash simulation of the design of an automobile before it is released for manufacturing – for better automobile design · In structural mechanics – to solve complex structural engineering problems to ensure safety. NEC (SX20).to analyze volumes of seismic data which are gathered during oil seeking explorations to identify areas where there is possibility of getting petroleum products inside the earth · In Aerospace industry . · Meteorological centers use super computers for weather forecasting · In Biomedical research – atomic nuclear and plasma analysis – to study the structure of viruses such as that causing AIDS . Designer of a large bridge has to ensure that the bridge must be proper in various atmospheric conditions and pressures from wind. Anupam by BARC.to simulate airflow around an aircraft at different speeds and altitude. E.

TVs. graphic designing. Modem etc) and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data. Data processing for a medium sized organization · Used to control and monitor production processes · To analyze results of experiments in laboratories · Used as servers in LANs (Local Area Networks) 1.g. single-user computer that you can use to perform a variety of tasks. The common examples of microcomputers are chips used in washing machines. statistical analysis.1.size is similar to that of a calculator – pocket size.3 Minicomputer: A multi-user computer that can support 4 to 200 users simultaneously.It has a processor and memory and a wireless modem . E. PS/2 and Apple Macintosh Applications · Used in the field of desktop publishing.Smallest type of microcomputer – can be worn on our wrist like a watch. Cars and Note book/Personal computers. They are designed to be used by only one person at a time. Minicomputers are used to perform tasks such as hospital administration and manufacturing processes.:. investment analysis. Sound card. E. ranging from maintaining household finances to managing the finances of a large company.It has a processor and memory and a special connection to connect to the desktop PC which can be used to transfer data.Very small in terms of size – can be folded and carried around – Monitor is made up of LCD and the keyboard and system units are contained in a single box.IBM PC.g. Note book or Lap Top:. Got all the facilities of a personal computer (HDD.:.Smaller model of the microcomputer.4 Micro Computers: Microcomputers are tiny computers that can vary in size from a single chip to the size of a desktop model and uses a microprocessor as its central Processing Unit.Digital Equipments PDP 11/45 and VAX 11) Applications · These computers are used when the volume of processing is large for e. Palm Top:. CDD. project management.4. entertainment etc. Wrist PC:. The different models of microcomputers are given below:Personal computer (PC): A small.4. accounting.g. N/W card. teaching.

Today’s PCs are faster and smaller than those sold two decades ago.2 Portable Pcs Laptop: A portable computer with the same computing power as a desktop. Unlike the earliest computers that occupied a lot of space. usually the size of a pocket calculator. such as Palm-Pilots. It includes a clock. desktops and portables. Notebook: A computing device with the same processing power as a laptop but is much smaller. Tablet PC: A computer that looks like a notebook. a task list. a memo pad. PCs were developed in the early 1980s. are among the smallest of all the portables.2 shows some of the portable PCs available today with description as follows. and are easy to carry. are small in size. Figure 1. can run on batteries. . Figure 1. but weighs much less and has a built-in video screen. the name). You can use palmtops only for limited. It has a screen on which a user can write with a special purpose pen. an address book. desktops can be placed conveniently on a desk (hence. PCs are classified in two categories. on the other hand. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA): A handheld device originally designed as a personal organizer. However. and a simple calculator. built-in applications. Palmtop: A device that you can hold in the palm of your hand. Portable PCs.Personal computers The most popular type of computer in use today is the PC. a date book. Palmtops. desktops are too large and cumbersome to carry while traveling.

for example: • Writing and editing documents. Servers can also be used as multi-user computers. speed and applications of the major classes of computer is illustrated below. It also handles communication between interconnected computers.Wearable computer: A small personal computer that users can wear while operating. such as letters. PCs are used to perform a diverse range of tasks. schedules. . and reports • Maintaining large volumes of data • Managing numbers and performing calculations • Creating and manipulating graphics • Using multimedia and playing games • Representing data in the form of charts and graphs • Communicating through e-mail and instant messengers • Buying and selling items by using the Internet • Learning or researching various subjects and technologies by using the Internet and interactive CD-ROMss multi-user computers. The cost. This device is being developed and designed to act as an intelligent assistant. Server A computer that makes programs and data available to a network of computers.

A block diagram of the basic computer organization specifying different functional units is shown in figure 1. performance. Secondary storage (Hard disk) 8.) 5. the computer we use today is totally different from its first make. reliability and cost of computers have been changing over the years. We shall restrict our discussion to the Personal Computer. Mouse 15.g. e. Optical disc drive 7. Keyboard 14. Printer Even though the size. shape. Motherboard 9. Desktop. .1.4. Here the solid lines indicate the flow of instruction and data and the dotted lines represent the control exercised by the control unit.3. There are various types of computers for various purposes. Laptop. the basic logical structure proposed by Von Neumann has not change. Primary storage (RAM) 4. supercomputers for high level multitasking precision jobs. CPU (Microprocessor) 3. System software 12. Expansion cards (graphics. The most commonly used computer nowadays is the Personal Computer. Application software 13.5 Comp o n e n t s o f Pe r s o n a l Comp u t e r Computer technology has undergone profound changes since the first generation computer. By size three types of Personal Computers are now available. External hard disk 16. Speakers 10. Scanner 2. By configuration all three are more or less same. they differ only in size and capacity as well as the addon features. See figure 1. Monitor 11. Figure 1. The way present day motorcar differs from its original version.3 An exploded view of a modern desktop personal computer and peripherals 1. and Palmtop or Notepad. The internal architecture of computers differs from one system model to another. Power supply 6. etc.

The main memory is organized such that the contents of one word can be stored or retrieved in one basic operation. the corresponding letter or digit is automatically translated into its corresponding code and sent directly to either the memory or the processor. Other kinds of input devices: Joy stick.Figure 1. mouse (pointing devices). This memory is fast and expensive. Primary memory (Main memory) Contains a large number of semiconductor cells each capable of storing one bit of information.Primary memory and Secondary memory. The information received is either stored in the memory for later reference or immediately used by the Arithmetic and Logic circuitry to perform the desired operation. For accessing data. There are two classes of memory devices :. These cells are processed in group of fixed size called words containing 'n' bits.4 Block diagram of computer organization Input Unit: Input unit accepts coded information from human operators through electro mechanical devices such as the keyboard or from other computers over digital communication lines. scanner etc. Finally the result is sent back to the outside through the output unit. track ball. Data and programs must be in the primary memory for execution. Memory Unit: The memory unit stores program and data. Random Access Memory (RAM) . a distinct address is associated with each word location. The time required to access one word is called Memory Access Time . E g. The number of bits in each word is called the word length and it may vary from 16 to 64 bits. This time is fixed and independent of the location. The keyboard is wired so that whenever a key is pressed.10nS to 100nS.

Magnetic Tapes etc. graphic displays etc. Video terminals (provides both input & output functions). sensors. Control Unit The operations of all the units are coordinated by the control unity (act as the nerve centre that sends control signal to other units). displays and mechanical controllers which are much slower than the processor. Synchronization signals are also generated by the Control Unit. The timing signal that governs the I/O transfers is generated by the Control Unit. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Most computer operations (Arithmetical and logical) are executed in ALU of the processor. magnetic taped. Floppy Disk. These operands are brought into arithmetic unit – actual addition is carried.g.decodes it into original form and supplies this result to the outside world. Hard Disk. Processor Unit This is the heart of the computer system is the Processor unit. interpreting and executing the program instructions the program instructions the control unit is able to maintain order and direct the operation of the entire system. By selecting. The control unit and ALU's are usually many times faster than other devices connected to a computer system. This enabled a single processor to control a number of external devices such as video terminals. It consists of Arithmetic and Logic Unit and Control Unit. Each register can store one word of data. .g. The result is then stored in the memory or retained in the processor itself for immediate use. Output devices accept binary data from the computer .Secondary storage They are used when large amount of data have to be stored (also when frequent access is not necessary) E. E. Printer. Output Unit This is the counter part of input unit. Compact Disk. disk memories. Access times to registers are 5 to 10 times faster than access time to memory. which may be used for temporary storage of frequently used operands. Processor contains a number of high speed storage elements called Registers. For example: Suppose two numbers (operands) located in the main memory are to be added. Note that all operands may not reside in the main memory.

5 Instruction Register (IR): Holds the instruction that is currently being executed and its output is available to the control circuits which generate the timing signals that control the various processing elements involved in executing the instruction. Program Counter (PC): It contains the address of the instruction currently being executed.5 Internal circuitry of the processor . i. Access to data in these registers is much faster than to data stored in memory locations because the registers are inside the processor.e. During the execution of an instruction. n General Purpose Registers (R0 to Rn-1): Facilitates communication with the main memory. the contents of the program counter are updated to hold the address of the next instruction to be executed. Most modern computers have 8 to 32 general purpose registers. PC points to the next instruction that is to be fetched from the memory. Memory Address Register (MAR): holds the address of the location to or from which data are to be transferred Memory Data Register (MDR): contains the data to be written into or read out of the address location.Internal Organization of Processor Processor contains a number of registers used for temporary storage of data other than ALU and Control circuitry illustrated in figure 1. Figure 1.

When the interrupt-service routine is completed.5. Here the device raises an interrupt signal. a new instruction fetch may be started. An interrupt is a request from an I/O device for service by the processor. ALU will perform the desired operation. The internal state of the processor at such moments (like the contents of the PC. the general registers. the required operands are to be fetched from the memory (or CPU registers). the computer accepts data from input devices and sends data to output devices. Now the processor provides the requested service by executing an appropriate interrupt-service routine. Contents of the PC are transferred to the MAR and a Read Control signal sent to the memory 4. the contents of the PC are incremented so that the PC now points to the next instruction to be executed. and some control information) are saved in memory locations. At some point during the execution of the current instruction. 12. Program is stored in the main memory 2. 9. As soon as the execution of the current instruction is completed. a sensing device in a computer controlled industrial process may detect a dangerous condition. 10.The steps involved during the processor operation is as follows: 1. 8. In addition to transferring data between the memory and the processor. After the access time. If the result is to be stored in the memory. For example. 6. This is done by sending its address to the MAR and initiating a Read cycle. which are mainly of the following types: .1 Hardware Means the physical parts of the computer. PC is set to point to the first instruction of the program 3. 7. the state of the processor is restored so that the normal program may be continued. If the instruction involves an operation to be performed by the ALU. Contents of the MDR are transferred to the IR. Now the instruction is ready to be decoded and executed. the addressed word (in this case the first instruction) is read out of the memory and is loaded into the MDR 5. Operands are read from the memory into the MDR and are transferred from MDR to the ALU. 11. 1. The address of the location where the result is to be stored is sent to the MAR and a Write cycle is initiated. then it is sent to the MDR.

Projector. input of information. 1. which may be classified as follows: 1. the operating system (Windows XP for this course) displays a desktop. Camera. and sometimes a Printer. a Key Board. as shown in figure 1. Software These are the structured information and commands. When you switch on the system unit. We shall make a brief description of these components. The basic of all these is the Operating System Software. etc. which consists of three stages of operations.6. and even Sound Recorder. usually through the internal Hard Disk or External disks. you switch on the monitor and any other attached devices such as a printer. Desktop components After you switch on the computer. Input output Device (and their Control Cards) 3. you must ensure that all the cables are connected to the appropriate sockets (referring to the manual is recommended). which starts the computer. in Multi -media systems. The Motherboard and the CPU – Processor Memory Chip 2. Modem. the operating system automatically begins a process known as booting. Next.6 Starting a computer Your computer must have an operating system installed before it can perform any task. a mouse. But before that we must note the basic physical configuration of a personal computer system. Language Software 3. There are various types of software. Utility Software It should be noted that these software are to be made according to the functions we desire the computer to perform. Speaker. processing of information. Light pen.1. Information Storage Device (and their Control Cards) 4. and output of the results or processed information. Disk Operating System Software 2. a scanner. a Video Monitor. which can be fed into the computer. Application Software 4. or speakers. Other Accessories (optional) Looking at any personal computer system we usually see three things – the Computer inside a cabinet. Just as a physical desktop . Before you switch on a computer. Many other accessories may be fitted to the computer Joysticks.

or launch Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media) Notification area: Contains a clock and displays the status of specific programs and controls. and printing documents.contains the tools that you use to work. Icons are pictorial representations of the programs included in Windows XP. You click an icon to start the application associated with it. the Quick Launch toolbar. the Windows XP desktop contains programs (also called applications) that you use to perform tasks such as creating and editing documents. working with storage devices. The Windows XP desktop contains icons and a taskbar. Start button: Used to start applications. configure the computer.6 Sample of the windows XP desktop . get help. launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet). The taskbar is located at the bottom of the screen. and shut down your computer Quick Launch toolbar: Used to display the desktop. and the notification area. Figure 1. The following describes these components. It contains the Start button.

Observe the Start button . and the notification area.(In the lower-right corner of the screen on the taskbar. called a ScreenTip.(A sample desktop is shown in figure 1.) You use it to navigate within Windows XP. get help.(If necessary.(On the taskbar. Observe the notification area . 3 Observe the desktop .) A message.) You can use this button to start applications.This arrow is referred to as the mouse pointer or simply.) You click the icons on this toolbar to launch Internet Explorer (an application used to access the Internet).) Follow your instructor's directions. You use it for various activities such as selecting an icon on the desktop or starting an application.The Windows XP desktop appears. Observe the arrow on the desktop .(On the notification area. It contains the Start button. .) It contains icons of some commonly used Windows XP programs and a taskbar. 4 Observe the icons . or run Windows Media Player (an application used to play digital media).6. the Quick Launch toolbar. the pointer. display the desktop. appears showing the current weekday and date.You use icons to quickly start their associated applications. Click OK . 6 Point to the clock . Observe the Quick Launch toolbar . and set up (configure) and turn off your computer. 5 Observe the taskbar .Activity: Identifying the desktop components 1 Follow your instructor's directions to switch on your computer 2 Log on to Windows XP .(At the bottom of the screen.(On the taskbar.) It contains a clock that displays the time.

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but which the operating system distributor finds advantageous to supply with the operating system. Unix. 2. scheduling. The OS performs basic tasks. and gradually expanded in scope.Chapter 2 Concept of The Operating System 2. prioritizing the processing of instructions. and execution of jobs on batch processing systems. . The first computers did not have operating systems. memory management. as well as mobile computers such as PDAs and mobile phones. and managing files. An operating system is often distributed with tools for programs to display and manage a graphical user interface (although Windows and the Macintosh have these tools built into the operating system). such as controlling and allocating memory. These services include. and Linux. facilitating networking. This is the first layer of software loaded into memory when a system boots or starts up. task scheduling. The kernel provides access to various common core services to all other system and application programs. software tools for managing the system and simplifying the use of hardware appeared very quickly afterwards. They are also often distributed with application software that does not relate directly to the operating system's core function. have an operating system to run other programs. controlling input and output devices. such as application software. as well as utility programs for tasks such as managing files and configuring the operating system.2 Concept of an operating system An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs. including personal computers and mainframes. Modern general-purpose computers. The lowest level of any operating system is its kernel. and access to other hardware devices. but are not limited to: disk access.1 Introduction An operating system (OS) is a software program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. Mac OS (and Darwin). Examples were produced by UNIVAC and Control Data Corporation. from personal computers to mainframes. Commercially-supplied operating systems are present on virtually all modern devices described as computers. However. commercial computer vendors were supplying quite extensive tools for streamlining the development. Examples of operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows. By the early 1960s.

1 Block Diagram of the Operating System Some of important functions of an operating system is listed below. . processors. An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory. devices and information. In technical terms. Figure 2. Ÿ Keeps tracks of primary memory i.1 shows the block diagram of an operating system. it is software which manages hardware. So for a program to be executed. Ÿ Memory Management Ÿ Processor Management Ÿ Device Management Ÿ File Management Ÿ Security Ÿ Control over system performance Ÿ Job accounting Ÿ Error detecting aids Ÿ Coordination between other software and users Memory Management Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory.is an intermediary between users and computer hardware. what part are not in use. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address. it must in the main memory.e. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently. what part of it are in use by whom. Figure 2. Operating System does the following activities for memory management. Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU.

Ÿ Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. Ÿ Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process. location. status etc. . OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. Ÿ De-allocates the resources. Operating System does the following activities for device management. This function is called process scheduling. Ÿ De-allocates devices. Security By means of password and similar other techniques. These directories may contain files and other directions. Device Management OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. Operating System does the following activities for file management. Ÿ Decides who gets the resources. The collective facilities are often known as file system. Operating System does the following activities for processor management. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller. Ÿ Allocates the resources. Ÿ Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so. Ÿ De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required. Ÿ Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. Ÿ Keeps track of information. Processor Management In multiprogramming environment. Ÿ De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated. preventing unauthorized access to programs and data. Ÿ Allocates the device in the efficient way. Ÿ File Management A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. uses. OS decides which process will get memory when and how much.Ÿ In multiprogramming. Ÿ Keeps tracks of all devices. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller.

Control over system performance Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system. traces. Another key development was the concept of time-sharing: the idea of sharing the resources of expensive computers amongst multiple computer users interacting in real time with the system. The development of the IBM System/360 2. error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids.3 Generations of Operating System Through the 1960s. The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis. IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system. Error detecting aids Production of dumps. Multics. applications written for the OS/360 can still be run on modern machines. which was supported on many early microcomputers and was largely cloned in creating MS-DOS. 2. Another commercially-popular minicomputer operating system was VMS. in fact. This concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line was crucial for the success of System/360 and. One notable early operating system was CP/M. Job accounting Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users. driving the development of operating systems. the Multics timesharing system was the most famous of a number of new operating systems developed to take advantage of the concept. particularly.produced a family of mainframe computers available in widely differing capacities and price points. was an inspiration to a number of operating systems developed in the 1970s. Coordination between other software and users Coordination and assignment of compilers. minimalistic operating systems were developed. several major concepts were developed. assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems. interpreters. notably Unix. Time sharing allowed all of the users to have the illusion of having exclusive access to the machine. for which a single operating system OS/360 was planned (rather than developing ad-hoc programs for every individual model). OS/360 also contained another important advance: the development of the hard disk permanent storage device (which IBM called DASD). which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's v .

Apple rebuilt their operating system on top of a Unix core as Mac OS X.ersion of it was called IBM-DOS or PC-DOS). specifically the CPU.3. and helped Unix and its variants become an important teaching and learning tool used in academic settings. comprising the operating system. AIX (IBM). IRIX (SGI).1-2008 or IEEE Std 1003. Mainframe computers and embedded systems use a variety of different operating systems. but not many. These key factors led to widespread use and further development in commercial settings. and modifiable source code. Officially licensed Unix operating systems (and their vendors) include OS X (Apple). By the 1990s. 2. Command line interface (or CLI) operating systems can operate using only the keyboard for input. which served as the basis for Microsoft's entire operating system line starting in 1999. Solaris (Oracle). enabling its portability across multiple computer platforms. of which Linux and Mac OS X are becoming the major choices. but typically more similar to Unix than Windows. documentation. tied intimately to the Apple Macintosh computer. as well as extensive GUI facilities. an operating system vendor must pay a licensing fee and annual trademark royalties to The Open Group. Unix was developed using a high-level programming language (C) instead of platform-specific assembly language. many with no direct connection to Windows or Unix. The major alternative throughout the 1980s in the microcomputer market was Mac OS. Today. development environment. the robustness and flexibility of operating systems of larger computers became increasingly desirable. Microsoft's response to this change was the development of Windows NT. and HP-UX (Hewlett-Packard). the microcomputer had evolved to the point where. To use the Unix trademark. Unix also was developed as a self-contained software system. its successors making Microsoft one of the world's most profitable companies.1 . most notably the Alpha.2008). Since the early 1990s the choice for personal computers has been largely limited to the Microsoft Windows family and the Unix-like family. Windows NT has been ported to other CPUs.1 Unix Unix (officially UNIX) is a registered trademark of The Open Group that refers to a family of computer operating systems and tools conforming to The Open Group Base Specification. The appropriate OS may depend on the hardware architecture. Unix-like OS is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems . released in 2001. Issue 7 (also known as POSIX. with only Linux and BSD running on almost any CPU. Modern OS's use a mouse for input with a graphical user interface (GUI) sometimes implemented as a shell. utilities.

Inc. In 1993. Unix operating systems (and Unix-like variants) run on a wide variety of digital architectures. but do not conform to Unix specification or are not licensed by The Open Group. and supercomputers.2 Disk operating system Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically). Operating systems that behave like Unix systems and provide similar utilities. they are dominated by Linux-based or Plan 9 clusters. and CentOS) and several descendents of the Berkeley Software Distribution operating system (e. including Berkeley Unix.. Today. HP-UX. scientific modeling and computer animation were once the province of SGI's IRIX. disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sectorlevel. In some cases. the disk operating system component (or even the .which resemble the original Unix. Unix systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures.. AT&T sold the rights to the Unix operating system to Novell. and NetBSD). For instance. In recent years. They are used heavily as server systems in business. smartphones. The original Unix operating system was developed at AT&T's Bell Labs research center in 1969. which a few years later sold the Unix trademark to the consortium that eventually became The Open Group. memory space was often limited.. are commonly known as Unix-like systems. Over the past several years.g. This component was only loaded if it was needed.. Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks). In the 1970s and 1980s. Otherwise. 2. free Unix systems have supplanted proprietary ones in most instances. refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e. most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform). so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. leading to the development of several Unix variants. mainframes. and personal computers running versions or variants of Unix have become increasingly popular. and Microsoft's Xenix. file systems for organizing files of all sorts).g. and are commonly used on web servers.g. as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. In the early days of microcomputing. OpenBSD. AIX. Red Hat Enterprise Linux.3. Ubuntu. These include a wide variety of Linux distributions (e. FreeBSD. tablets. AT&T licensed Unix to thirdparty vendors.

an entire family of operating systems was called DOS. The utilities are individual program files found on your DOS disk.COM. An example is DOS/360. The benefit of this change is to speed .COM and remain resident in memory at all times. although earlier versions also ran on the DEC Alpha. The most notable external change is that NT 4. but once read into the computer's memory. NT 3. FORMAT.x have been moved into the Windows NT Executive.1. NT 4. these files are not needed often enough to make it necessary or practical to keep them in the computer's RAM all the time. However.. After several versions of NT 3. the program that formats blank disks.0). Sometimes. While part of DOS. it usually resides there. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT core that first took shape in OS/2 and borrowed from OpenVMS. e. To change to drive C type C: as shown here: A:\>C: to get C:\> 2.1) was released in 1993. with the same GUI as Windows 3. a command processor and several utilities. On the PC compatible platform.g.1 was a new 32-bit operating system with the ability to support older DOS and Windows applications as well as provide OS/2 support. The major architectural change is that several graphics components that ran in user mode as part of the Win32 subsystem in 3. which runs in kernel mode. DOS consists of an input/output system.x. Some programs provide their own command processor. The command processor is also a file you see on the disk. and PowerPC architectures (some work was done to port it to the SPARC architecture). Microsoft released NT 4. DIR and COPY).0. Windows runs on 32-bit and 64-bit Intel and AMD computers. a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. MIPS.0 provides the same user interface as Windows 95. is an example of a DOS utility.3.operating system) was known as DOS. and there are times when the command processor will be overwritten in memory by a program and have to be reloaded when the program stops executing. Sometimes these utilities are called external commands (as opposed to internal commands which are included as part of the file COMMAND.3 Microsoft Windows Operating System The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems originated as a graphical layer on top of the older MS-DOS environment for the IBM PC.0 has essentially the same internal architecture as 3. another Microsoft operating system (the follow-on to Windows 3. the desired default drive followed by a colon at the prompt. The first version of Windows NT (3.x.

Windows held a near-monopoly of around 90% of the worldwide desktop market share. The 64-bit versions of XP and Server 2003 are designed specifically for the 64-bit Intel Itanium hardware. known as Windows Server 2003. Microsoft developed its operating system on a too large scale. Advantages and Disadvantages of Windows Windows series are excellent products of Microsoft. Both home PC and business workstation versions of XP are offered. known as Windows XP. the underlying Executive and kernel architecture is fundamentally the same as in NT 4. windows 7 and windows 8 as new entrant into the market with excellent capabilities. and are getting larger and larger. The emphasis in Windows 2000 is the addition of services and functions to support distributed processing. but new features have been added. another desktop version of Windows was released. it would not be as . In 2003. If such situation happened on Linux. although this is thought to be dwindling due to the increase of interest focused on open source operating systems. Microsoft has spent significant marketing and R&D money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application. which is a distributed directory service able to map names of arbitrary objects to any kind of information about those objects. The central element of Windows 2000's new features is Active Directory. In recent years. Windows series are large. Although some technology of Windows is not as good as UNIX. Microsoft introduced the next major upgrade. In essence.0. The potential drawback is that these graphics functions now have access to low-level system services. Again. called Windows 2000. This new OS has been constructed to be more intuitive and less distracting (no more annoying and unnecessary pop-ups notifying the user that there is a notification for the user). Also in 2001. which could impact the reliability of the operating system. a 64-bit version of XP was introduced. As of 2004.up the operation of these important functions. Microsoft introduced a new server version. the kernel and executive architecture and services remain the same. The Windows 7 and 8 OS provides many new tools and features that focus on improved productivity through improved usability. Products of Linux are cheap. but Server includes some services required to use as a network server. In 2000. both 32-bit and 64 bit versions are available. but they are not supported by so many kinds of software as Windows series are. they are still of the best operating systems running on PCs. In 2001. One final general point to make about Windows 2000 is the distinction between Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 desktop. Recently we have seen the vista.

Figure 2. Ÿ Source codes of Windows are closed. Ÿ Windows series are usually not strong enough for high security. Ÿ Windows series are wide spread. owned by Microsoft. All the windows have the same structure shown in figure 2.bad as such situation happening on Microsoft. but more expensive than Linux. Ÿ Windows series are big.2. The window is the one that opens when you click on My Computer. and they will be debugged by a much larger number of people. Microsoft Windows series are not open-source. Ÿ Windows NT series after 2004 are stabler and securer. Ÿ Windows series are not very expensive (only for home users on mature products). This is because the source code of Linux is open. The structure of this window is very similar to the others. Ÿ Windows ME and earlier 9x versions are unstable and insecure.2 The Windows Structure . windows menu and tools. Ÿ Windows series are buggy. Ÿ Windows series are supported by most popular softwares. They are only debugged by Microsoft itself.

maximize/restore.. The close button closes the window. you only need to maintain the option highlighted for a few seconds and the menu will appear.. In the top right corner we can find the minimize.) it means that the option needs more i . you need to press the Alt key plus the underlined letter of the menu you want to open. All the operations that the program allows us to do are located within the different menus of this bar. The title bar contains the name of the program you are working with (Notepad) and in some cases the name of the opened document (aulaclic) also appears. In no letter is underlined. The maximize button amplifies the size of the window to the whole screen The restore button restores the window to its original state. If on a menu you find an option that contains three dots.All the windows are formed by the sections explained as follows. The menu bar has the program functions organized in menus.3. press Alt key. If on a menu an option appears with a small arrow pointing to the right it means that that option contains other options. The minimize button shrinks the window it turns it into a button located in the WindowsXP task bar. For example Alt+F opens the menu File. the different operations that can be performed with files are displayed. (for example Sharing and Security. and close buttons. If you want to open the menu related to that option. when we click on File as shown in figure 2. For example. To open a menu with the keyboard.

The Desktop is the on-screen work area on which windows appear. files. If you find an option that is grey or lighter colored it means that it is not possible to select it at that moment. it' s the first screen that appears when the operating system has initialized. the Internet. and lastly the notification area. The Start button allows you to open menus and start applications. Ÿ Taskbar: primarily used to switch between open windows and applications.nformation to be executed. then the programs running.4 contains: Ÿ Start button: one of the most important tools you will use while working with Windows XP. the Recycle Bin. The desktop shown in figure 2.4 The Desk Top Task Bar The taskbar is the small blue bar you see at the bottom of your desktop. In our case it will be the Windows XP desktop. . By default Windows XP provides you with one desktop icon. Learn more about the Recycle Bin in a later lesson. It as a workspace where you can access everything you need to operate your computer. Ÿ Icons (or graphical pictures): represent applications. On this example Copy is lighter colored than Paste. applications. On the bottom left corner there is the Start button. and other parts of the operating system. etc. normally a dialog box will open in which you can place that information. such as system components. Figure 2. Next we have the area for shortcuts. Learn more about using the Taskbar in a later lesson.

and view the various cascading menus. When you click the Start button. . To explore the Start menu: 1. Click (or roll your mouse pointer over) All Programs. If a cascading menu is available.5 The Start Menu If you select All Programs. a small black triangle appears next to the name of the application or function. 2. The left side of the Start menu lists programs. If we browse it. and the right side allows access to common Windows folders (My Documents. Pop-up menus like this are called cascading menus. for example). a menu similar to the one below will be displayed in figure 2. the Start menu appears. Figure 2. and Run. Search.5. 3. Move the mouse pointer to each option.The Start Button is the button through which we can access the entire breadth of options that Windows XP offers us. a pop-up menu appears. The Start menu is your gateway to the applications that are on your computer. Click the Start button. It also provides access to Help and Support.

your applications will continue to run in the background while the new user logs on. 5. be sure to turn off (or shut down) the computer correctly. Switch User allows someone else to log on to the computer. many family members may use the same computer at home while several coworkers may be able to access your computer on a computer network. . In any case. To exit the menus. To turn off the computer: 1. 3. 4. For example. The XP Log off pop up is shown in figure 2. click outside the menu area or press Esc on your keyboard.6 The Log off pop up To log off/switch users: 1. A dialog box appears asking you if you want to Switch User or Log Off. 2. Click the Start menu and click Log Off.4. and email accounts. Log off and Switch Users More than one person may use your computer. Figure 2. Windows XP even enables you to log off the computer so someone else can log on without having to restart the computer. If you choose Log Off. If you choose to Switch User. 5. Move the mouse pointer to the right and view other cascading menus.6. you're taken to a Windows XP logon screen where you're prompted to enter your username and password. Turn Off and Restart the Computer When you've finished using Windows XP. A computer accounts tracks each person's unique settings. Click the Start menu. your applications will close. documents. Windows XP allows everyone who uses your computer to have separate computer accounts.

Icons The small pictures on the desktop are called icons. Click the Start menu. Click Restart. To restart the computer: 1. It is generally safest tor turn off or restart your computer using the methods above. Desktop shortcuts are . Examples of object icons are My Computer.2.8 Computer Icons (a) My desktop and (b) microsoft word short cut Shortcut icons allow you to open an application quickly. One type of icon is an object icon. (a) (b) Figure 2. If you're experiencing computer problems or have installed something new. Click Turn Off Computer. 2. and Internet Explorer See figure 2. A dialog box opens. 3. Click Turn Off Computer. A dialog box opens. 3. Click Turn Off. Figure 2. These icons allow you to open files and programs on your computer.8. These icons appear on your desktop and with little arrow in the left corner.7 Turning off the computer.7. The process described above is illustrated in figure 2. Recycle Bin. you can simply restart your computer.

then let go of the left mouse button. select the option New and then select the option Folder. Text appears identifying its name or contents. 2. A frame should appear that shows the area that the frame encompasses. To select consecutive elements. Selecting Files To select a single file or folder you simply need to click on it. double-click the icon.. click on the left of the first element (but not on it) and.links to files and programs. This is the name that Windows gives new folders by default. Click on the first element and then click on the last element while keeping Shift key pressed. it will subsequently name the new folders New Folder(1). This way any operation you perform will only apply to the selected file or folder. To do this. Windows Explorer will allow you to select several elements at the same time. this will take care of retracting the folders displayed. Now we can view on the bottom right window a new folder that has the name New Folder. or hide the content of the folder selected. without letting go. To open a program using an icon: 1. but we will see how to do that later on. You can add or delete shortcuts without affecting the programs on your computer.. Place your mouse over the icon. Open the menu File. To realize an operation on several files or folders.. This can also be done with the mouse. Select the first element and continue to select the desired elements while keeping the Ctrl key presse Creating and Deleting Folders To CREATE a folder we need to place the pointer where we want the folder to be. Continue dragging until all the desired elements are within the frame. . Once we have the folder that we want open we will select it by clicking on the appropriate folder. To open the folders that we have by clicking on the + located to the left of the folders. New Folder(2). To select several elements that are not consecutive. The name of the folder can be changed. If we click on the plus sign of a particular folder it will display and show all of the folders contained in it and the plus sign will become a minus sign -. Then. etc. In the event that it finds another folder with that same name. 3. drag it.

by default Windows will move it to the Recycle Bin.If you look at the two images below. you can clearly see how Windows explorer changes when a new folder is created. but instead of selecting a folder select the file you wish to delete. Once the folder has been selected go to the Standard bar and click on or you can use Delete. click on Copy. The settings can be changed so that it deletes it completely. first place the pointer on it.9 Creating a folder To Delete a folder. It works like Windows explorer. The Recycle Bin is nothing more than a space reserved on the hard disk so that in case of having deleted any element it would be possible for us to retrieve it. To delete a file we follow the same steps to delete a folder. See the . The folder that is highlighted is the new folder that has just been created within the folder (a) (b) Figure 2.9a is the image that Windows explorer shows before creating a new folder and figure 2. Search for the folder to which we will copy the selected element. In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to copy to. Once the folder has been selected. the contents of the folder will be displayed. When we delete a folder or file.9b is the image that it shows after a new folder has been created. Copying Files or Folders Select the element to be copied and Click on Copy and it will open a dialog box titled Copy Items. If we do not have this button on the tool bar. If we click on the + that appears on the left. click Make new folder. write the name of the new folder and Click OK. we can go to the Edit menu and select Copy to Folder but select the item to copy First of all. Figure 2.

9 Coping files or folder Moving Files or Folder Ÿ Moving a file or folder means copying the element to the desired location and then deleting its original location. its name can coincide with the name of a file or folder that is in the destination folder. Ÿ Select the file or folder you want to move. Ÿ Click Enter or click outside the file or folder so that the changes take place. simply click Make New Folder. its entire content is also moved or copied. Changing a File or Folder Name Ÿ Select the file or folder that you want to change the name of. When folder is moved or copied. You can also do this with Remane option from File menu. When moving or copying an item. click Move. or Edit --> Move to Folder which will open a new window titled Move Items. then the name of the file or folder will be highlighted and with the pointer blinking inside the name box. Figure 2. Once the folder is selected. Ÿ Select Rename from the shortcut menu. Write the name of the new folder and click OK. In this case Windows will ask if we want to substitute the existing file or folder by the new one. Ÿ Click on. Ÿ With the right mouse button click on it. The following steps are very similar . Ÿ Search for the folder where the element are to be moved to. . Ÿ Write the new name.10 below.illustration in figure 2. Ÿ In the case of not having the folder created to which we want to move the information to.

see Install a printer. depending on your software and printer. For more information.10. Figure 2. but it doesn't always work with modern USB printers.) Helps locate network printers. The dialog box you see might look different from the one shown here.prn file.10 Printing Dialog The following explains the actions you can take and the results within printing Action Select Printer Find Printer Print to File Result Shows the available printers on your computer. This opens the Print dialog box where you can change basic settings such as what printer to use or how many copies to print as shown in figure 2. see Print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer. This option is useful in office settings or for home networks. For more information about installing network printers. You can also choose to print something like a fax or a Microsoft XPS file. (See XPS documents: frequently asked questions.Printing a Document Printing in Windows is often as simple as clicking the File menu found in most programs. you might prefer to print to the Microsoft XPS Document Writer. and then clicking PRINT. Allows you to save a document as a . . This option is useful if you want to print something later. If you have a USB printer.

adjust settings for what you are about to print. And create an electronic copy of your file that you can save to disk. click Pages and then enter the page numbers separated by hyphens. for example. See Print window settings in figure 2. you can type 1. Changing the page setup To change the orientation of the page that prints. The Page Setup window will appear. where you can choose options such as paper size and layout. and 8. . click on the Firefox button. 4. file. click on the Firefox button (File menu in Windows XP) and select Print. Ÿ At the top of the Firefox window. Instead of a physical printer. if necessary. Click Current Page to print only what you see. and select Page Setup. 8 to print only pages 1..Action Preferences Page Range Number of copies Result Opens the Printing Preferences dialog box. and what to include on the printed pages' header and footer. Some programs let you choose non-sequential pages too. type 5–7 to print only pages 5 through 7. From this point you can manipulate the printing process as discussed in the document printing section.11 for information on what settings can be changed. Tells Windows what to print. change whether background colors and images are printed. Hit Print. For example. Printing to PDF Just select Print to create a PDF. Select the Collate check box to print all pages in a document in order before printing additional copies. or picture. Click Selection to print only highlighted text or graphics. Print multiple copies of a document. To print part of a document. Ÿ In the standard Print window that opens. Ÿ Click OK to start printing. you can select Adobe PDF in almost any Windows OS application.. If so. Printing a Website We shall discuss printing web pages in Firefox.. go over to the Print menu (File menu in Windows XP). at the top of the Firefox window. 4. page margins.

The Print Preview window allows you to change some of the options detailed above. and the single arrows go to the next or previous page. go over to the Print. The double arrows take you to the first or last page. Access the Print window by clicking Print. menu (File menu in Windows XP).11Margins and Header/ Footer . or the Page Setup window by clicking Page Setup. You can also adjust the scaling and orientation as shown in figure 2.Figure 2. Figure 2.10 Print window settings Print Preview To see how the web page you want to print will look when printed. at the top of the Firefox window. Click on the arrows next to the Page: field to flip through the pages of the document. and select Print Preview. click on the Firefox button.11.

the top-center dropdown box's value appears at the top-center portion of the page.Margins: You can enter the width of the page margins for the top. Choose from: Ÿ Blank: Nothing will be printed. Ÿ Date/ Time: Print the date and time when the page was printed. Ÿ Title: Print the title of the page. bottom. Ÿ URL: Print the web address of the page. and so on. Ÿ Custom: Enter your own header or footer text. Ÿ Page #: Print the page number. Headers & Footers: Use the dropdown menus to select what appears on the printed page. Ÿ Page # of #: Print the page number and the total number of pages. The top-left dropdown box's value appears at the top-left corner of the page. This can be used to show a company or organization name at the top or bottom of every printed page. . Click OK to finish making changes and close the Page Setup window. left. and right sides of the page separately.

the complete edition of Encarta Premium English containing over 62. timelines. The structure of software packages may be different for different kinds of packages. The product of a software package is a library of compiled code objects. Many programs can be enhanced a later times by adding specific software tools. audio clips and videos. package or prepackaged software. including about 43. Consider a word processor which most people use fairly regularly. and directories. while something like the word count would be considered a “tool”. and which function especially well together. For example a word processor could later be enhanced by installing a tool that allows you to manipulate pictures more efficiently within the program. presentation. formatted documentation. An application program which is sold to the general public with all that should be necessary for it to work properly. data.Chapter 3 The Concept of Software Packages 3.0 Introduction A Software Package is a collection of modules. which is designed to meet specific needs or circumstances.1 MS Encarta Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009 (in Spanish since the '97 version).000 items while its Spanish version. allowing an . The entire program is the “package”. a runnable program. and communications programs. Also called packaged software. extended by a purely declarative description of all elements. The difference between software tools & software packages should not be confused. 3. In 2008. interactive activities.000. This contrasts with custom software. It is a combination of application programs which are tailored to a given type of work. Lotus SmartSuite and MS Office will be be explained in this chapter. The MS Encarta. maps. or all of the above. A tool is a single component of a software package that adds to the overall functionality of a program. The encyclopedia was available on DVD-ROM or multiple CD-ROMs and also had limited availability (with ads) to their online content on the World Wide Web. For example an office suite incorporating word processing. but there must be enough unique elements to be able to identify a certain kind of package. database. the information was complemented by numerous photos and illustrations. atlases and geographic tools to solve student assignments. spreadsheet. In addition to the encyclopedia entries.

Encarta Premium combines the resources of its award-winning encyclopedia with a variety of research and learning tools to deliver a complete reference resource for home or school use. In March 2009. Spanish. is denominated Encarta Winkler Prins Encyclopedie. Microsoft stopped selling its Encarta software in June of 2009. Encarta was a strong seller throughout the decade but its sales began to wane in the 2000s. At that time. Microsoft changed its approach in 2005 to be more in line with Wiki-based sites. and the Encarta website was available online only until the end of that year. The dictionary is one of many available on the Internet and carries the name "Encarta. giving users the ability to send updates and other suggestions for Encarta articles to its editors. Microsoft announced the discontinuation of all existing stocks Encarta (CD and online version). Microsoft continues to provide product support for Encarta users until 2012 or three years from the purchase of the 2009 edition of the encyclopedia. rather than submit them and hope they were made. German. the Dutch edition of the free content owned regional Winkler Prins in the Netherlands. French. which was that there were differences between them. The Japanese site closed down definitively on 31 December 2009." Users can look up word definitions. The Encarta Online Dictionary (dictionary. Encarta Premium Microsoft Student with Encarta Premium 16. For example. the last edition of Encarta was released in 2009. Encarta's popularity suffered because of the convenience of userupdated websites such as Wikipedia. search for synonyms in a thesaurus and learn different translations for words. Localized versions contain material licensed from local or national. but only in their English and French. Microsoft edited and published editions of Encarta in different languages. the explosion of the Internet and encyclopedia sites such as Wikipedia gave users a free alternative to encyclopedias such as Encarta. Web sites for all localized versions of MSN Encarta were closed (except Japan) on October 31.msn. It can help you with your math homework and your foreign language studies.com) continues to be operated by Microsoft. This idea did not succeed. the Encarta brand exists only in Microsoft's online dictionary. however.annual subscription to access more. 2009. Dutch. Italian. Portuguese and Japanese. including English. Despite discontinuing the software. . as consumers preferred to be able to make instant changes and updates to articles. Due to declining sales. In 2011.0 (2008 & 2009) includes a wide range of tools and resources for students.

(a) (b) Figure 3. The GUI for Encarta is shown in figure 3. There are collection of videos from Discovery Channel and a new Visual Browser providing users with a rich and dynamic way to make learning fun.1. It includes templates and tutorials to help you do your homework in Microsoft Office.1 Encarta GUI .Comprehensive homework tools integrate homework project and research starters with the Dictionary & Thesaurus.

. The definition appears on the Dictionary tab. Encarta Dictionaries Encarta Dictionaries help you find definitions of words. and excerpts from Beethoven's 9th Symphony. back and forward arrow buttons and the keyboard let you navigate. As with a Web browser. Videos include encyclopedic staples. preventing clutter. such as Arts & Literature.2." Encarta's 2. The Home page lists subjects.500 audio files let you hear music from around the world.2 Encarta Layout Encarta's bright interface offers more blank space and pictures than Britannica's. or you can zero in on a particular topic through the search field as shown in figure 3. natural wonders. and virtual tours of landmarks. and the like. along with time lines. including some from the Discovery Channel. to quirky stuff such as "machine-shaped kaiser rolls. classical sitar melodies. You can double-click a word to quickly find the definition in the dictionary.Encarta's uncluttered layout makes it a snap to explore a variety of subjects. such as that of Grandmaster Flash. and a search field. The Explore features encourage you to check out hundreds of videos. such as the first moon landing. Figure 3. The function icons are sparse.

Encarta's Atlas pages include a Map Trek feature that walks you through basic facts about regions of the world.4. Maps (World Atlas) Encarta consists of the Encarta Encyclopedia as the flagship product. Verb Conjugation: Use to conjugate verbs from foreign languages. Figure 3. which you can display by day. Map Customizer: Customize your view of a map by selecting the geographic features that you want to view. Translations: Use to translate a word or phrase into another language. Map Customizer also lets you change the way maps are projected. statistics.Additional dictionary tools include: Thesaurus: Use to find synonyms and antonyms of words.3 Encrata world Atlas scren Some features of the atlas are: Map Legend: Explains the map symbols and colors. topography.3 for an illustration. Next to the encyclopedia the World Atlas. night. Flat Map View is a flat Miller . You can explore the World Atlas to find maps of many places. See figure 3. Colors and symbols vary according to the map style. and more shown in figure 3. Globe View is an orthographic projection of the world. Geographic features vary according to the map style.

click a map style to the right.4 Encarta's Map Trek feature cylindrical projection of the world. This is just a separate interface for Kids with filtered contents and more stylishly designed front end. Many types of maps are available. Encarta Kids offers articles. and interactive games specifically for ages 7 and up. making presentations. It helps you get the most out of Microsoft Office in the least amount of time by providing Office templates with customized toolbars and project assistance to help you with your studies. To view a different type of map. . A statistical map is also available in the list of map styles. Learning Essentials Learning Essentials for Microsoft Office provides tutorials specifically created for student tasks such as writing reports. such as a map of climates. Encarta Kids Encarta Kids helps young students with homework and encourages them to learn in a fun and engaging way.Figure 3. and working on everyday homework assignments. multimedia. Parental controls are available for encarta dictionary to block inappropriate words.

functions. without an alphabetical list of subjects. Equation Solver: Solve a single equation or system of equations. Encarta Kids is intuitive. You can use it for basic math. including algebra. Lotus SmartCenter. The science section's Environment page. inequalities. Lotus Approach. geometry. the picture of a dune links nowhere. bright images invite you to wander. as the gateway to articles. statistics. Lotus FastSite. physics.Microsoft Encarta Kids 2007's big. and other expressions. if you up Hurricane Katrina you will find an impressive collection of articles. the grown-up tools within Encarta Premium still emphasize text search and images. Graphing tab: Plot equations. chemistry. and physics. when you zero in on a topic.2 Lotus SmartSuite Lotus SmartSuite is an office productivity suite that includes Lotus 1-2-3. Lotus Organizer. Formulas and Equations: Find many widely used formulas. Microsoft Math includes the following features: Calculator pad and Worksheet tab: Evaluate expressions and perform numeric calculations. and equations from a variety of mathematical and scientific disciplines. photographs. The Read Article button in the corner just sent us back to a write-up about ecosystems in general. Triangle Solver: Calculate sides. shows 28 pictures from Acid Rain to the Water Cycle. Martin Luther King. Unit Conversion Tool: Convert measurements in one system to a different system. 3. Jr. angles. This is a new software included with is Microsoft Math is a collection of tools to help you solve simple or complex math and science problems. algebra. The search field may eerily anticipate your query: Encarta knew by the time we typed "I H" that we were looking up the "I Have a Dream" speech by Dr. Click an equation to plot it or solve it for a particular variable. such as the Ecosystem menu's Sahara Desert. geometry. trigonometry. chemistry. This latest version helps easily convert files from earlier versions of Lotus SmartSuite and other business applications including Microsoft Office Filters that exchange documents seamlessly to and . and other information about triangles from known information that you provide. and a timeline complete with political controversy and environmental damage Microsoft Math. Lotus Freelance Graphics. calculus. constants. for instance. and more. For older children and adults who may not need such descriptive narrative. and Lotus Word Pro.

spreadsheets are called worksheets or simply sheets. A 1-2-3 file is called a workbook. and any writing that you need done.ibm. Install the software following the onscreen directions for installation and read the prompts carefully so you can decide what programs. You can use Lotus 1-2-3. and made into charts. the word processor. the first thing you need to know is how to start Lotus 1-2-3. You can format your projects and documents using templates. Spreadsheet Application The electronic spreadsheet application that is a part of Lotus SmartSuite that is used to organize. the spreadsheet program. analyzed. features. . and what directory to install them to. Review the online support for these programs at http://www-306. You can open an existing workbook or create a new workbook by using this dialog box. To Use Lotus' SmartSuite check your computer for hardware requirements against what is needed for SmartSuite. Cells contain various kinds of data that can be formatted. In Lotus 1-2-3. By default. Combined with Lotus Notes and the Internet. tracking. However. or your own formatting by using the options on Word Pro menus.com/software/support/ for questions or troubleshooting problems. Users can also create tables. The Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window has several components through which you interact with the program. Figure 3. A worksheet consists of rows and columns that intersect to form cells.from Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Excel. or creating an accounting ledger for a company. Launch Word Pro. The tasks that can be performed with it range from preparing a simple invoice to creating elaborate 3-D charts. and organizing. sorted. for sorting. a workbook comprises only one worksheet.5 shows some of the common spreadsheet components. you will see the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box within the Lotus SmartSuite 1-2-3 window. which consists of one or more worksheets. Word Pro and Microsoft Word. or Freelance Graphics and PowerPoint. You can also bring in tables or graphs from the other programs in SmartSuite to the document you are writing to give a visual of information. makes Lotus SmartSuite the industry's most complete suite for addressing the needs of both enterprise and individual users. graphs and write short code to run data and information and export that into Word Pro to make up to date documents. calculate. Use the tools at on the menus to sort any way you want your data sorted. They also have information on transferring files to and from other word processing and database programs. and analyze data. When you start Lotus 1-2-3. The SmartSuite library can be downloaded for extra information and tutorials that you may need if you are new to the SmartSuite programs. for letters.

6.Column Cell Row Figure 3.5 General spreadsheet components To start 1-2-3. click the Start button on the Windows desktop and then choose Programs. Lotus 1-2-3. . You will see the Lotus SmartSuite 12-3 window showing the Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box as shown in figure 3. figure 3. Lotus SmartSuite.7 shows some of these components. Figure 3.6 Welcome to 1-2-3 dialog box The 1-2-3 window has many components through which you can interact with or get information about the worksheet you are working on.

the Edit menu contains all the commands needed to edit a workbook.The menu bar displays all the menus available in Lotus 1-2-3. Scroll bars .Title bar Menu bar Edit line Smart Icon bar Worksheet tab Scroll box Cell Scroll bars Status bar Figure 3.The status bar appears at the bottom of the worksheet. It shows information about the ongoing activities. Title bar . . For example. The last part is the contents box.This line consists of three parts.The title bar displays the name of the workbook. Status bar .The scroll box can be used to move through the worksheet vertically and horizontally.7 Components of the 1-2-3 window The following gives the components in figure 3. The default name of a workbook is “Untitled.7 and the description of each. Scroll box . Cell pointer .The worksheet tab appears above the worksheet.The SmartIcons bar contains buttons (called SmartIcons) for frequently used actions.The rectangular outline of the current cell. such as opening or saving a file. which displays the content of the current cell.” Menu bar . Edit line . The second part consists of the navigator and the function selector.The vertical and horizontal scroll bars are also used to move through the worksheet. SmartIcons bar . which is A by default. It shows the name of the current worksheet. The SmartIcons are alternatives to the commands available in the menus. It also contains various buttons to perform common tasks such as changing font style. The first part is the selection indicator that displays the name of the current worksheet and the current cell. Each menu consists of a set of related commands. Worksheet tab .

Open (or click the Open SmartIcon) to display the Open dialog box shown in figure 3. The current cell is where data you enter will appear. called bubble help. A short description. 2 From the Look in box. You can then choose a command by clicking its name. To open an existing workbook: 1 Choose File. you simply click it. whereas others move only your view of the worksheet (without moving the cell pointer). You can find out the function of a SmartIcon by pointing to it and waiting a moment. Opening and navigating a workbook To open a workbook in 1-2-3 use the menu commands or by click them Open SmartIcon.When you click a menu name. To use a SmartIcon.8. The cell in which the cell pointer appears is the current cell. The address of the current cell appears in the selection indicator on the edit line.8 A sample Open dialog box There are many techniques for moving around in a worksheet. . Keyboard shortcuts are shown next to the command names in the menu. Figure 3. select the workbook you want to open and click Open (or double-click the workbook name). a list of related commands appears below the menu. will appear next to the icon. 3 From the list of files. Some navigation techniques move the cell pointer. select the folder that contains the workbook you want to open.

END + ↓ . Help contains overviews.Moves the cell pointer one column to the right. the Help Topics dialog box appears by default.Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the left. Press .Moves the cell pointer up one row. For example the help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 is illustrated in figure 3. Index. Similarly.SHIFT+TAB . Similarly.→ .Moves the cell pointer to cell A1. Quick Demos are demonstrations on specific help topics. Does not move the cell pointer.Moves the cell pointer one screen width to the right. When you choose Help. procedures. Press . .END + → . and Quick Demos. the down arrow moves the cell pointer down one row.Moves the view of the worksheet one row or one column.Makes the cell active.Moves the view of worksheet quickly without moving the cell pointer. Help Topics from the menu bar. Does not move the cell pointer. Press .Moves the cell pointer to the last row that contains data and precedes a blank cell. Click scroll bar . down. Each tab provides a different interface for getting assistance. Drag scroll box . Getting Help The three ways to access Help when working with 1-2-3 includes choosing Help from the menu bar. Click cell .8. Click Help Topics to open the Help Topics: 1-2-3 Help dialog box. They teach you about using 1-2-3. examples. left. depending on which side of the scroll bar you click. and Find. Press . This dialog box contains three tabs: Contents. Press. Click scroll arrow . or right.Moves the cell pointer to the rightmost cell that contains data and precedes a blank cell. The 1-2-3 Help provides assistance on topics related to 1-2-3. pressing F1 or clicking the Ask the Expert button on the status bar.HOME . the left arrow moves the cell pointer to the left.↑ . Closing a workbook There are various ways to close a workbook in 1-2-3 and these includes the following.Moves the view of the worksheet one screen up. Press .TAB . Press .The following describes various techniques to navigate a worksheet and the corresponding effect. technical details.

Labels can contain text and numbers. Entering and editing data To enter labels or numbers: Ÿ Click the cell where you want to enter the label or number. Exit 1-2-3. • Click the Close button on the title bar. In 1-2-3. When you close a workbook. you will be prompted to save changes. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the title bar.8 Help window showing the topic Ending 1-2-3 • Choose File. • Click the Control menu icon on the title bar and choose Close. • Click the Control menu icon on the menu bar to open the Control menu and choose Close. . • Click the Close button on the extreme right of the menu bar. • Double-click the Control menu icon on the menu bar. you can simply exit by using any of the following methods: • Choose File.Figure 3. On the work sheet if you do not want to continue working with 1-2-3. Ÿ Press Enter to confirm the entry. Close. the data that begins with a letter or an apostrophe (’) is called label. Ÿ Type the label or number.

.When you begin an entry with a letter. you can easily correct it at any point. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. You can cancel an entry either by clicking the Cancel button or by pressing Esc to leave the entry in its original state. You can also use special formulas called functions to perform calculations such as determining the sum or average for a range of cells. For example. If you make an error while entering data in a cell. For example.10. All 1-2-3 formulas begin with the equal to sign (=) or plus sign (+). you can: • Double-click the cell. a cell address.operator is used to subtract them. you would: Type = A2+A3 in A4 and Press Enter. 1-2-3 treats it as a number and does not append an apostrophe at the beginning. and press Enter. or range names. Operators indicate the type of operation that a formula will perform. 1-2-3 automatically appends an apostrophe at the beginning. Entering and editing formulas An integral part of formulas are operators. To enter a formula. Figure 3. the + operator is used to add numbers and the . another formula. use the Backspace or Delete key to delete the existing label or number. you first select the cell where you want the result to appear. You can use numbers in calculations. if there are numbers in A2 and A3. • Click the contents box. you will see the Confirm button and the Cancel button on the edit line as shown in figure 3. type the appropriate data.10 The edit line showing the Cancel and Confirm buttons Confirm an entry either by clicking the Confirm button or by pressing Enter to update the data in the cell. • Press Delete to remove the contents of the current cell and then type the correct label or number. and you want to add them and show the result in A4. To make corrections. type the appropriate data. When you begin an entry with a digit. Then you type the formula in the selected cell. A formula can refer to a value. Functions are built-in formulas that perform simple to complex calculations automatically. and press Enter. When the contents box is activated.

5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have created the formula you want. as shown in figure 3.11 Sample formula To enter a cell reference. select the folder in which you want to save the workbook. edit the formula. 2 From the Save in list.11. 4 Click the Confirm button. 1 Select the cell in which you want to enter the formula. 4 Click Save. .12 Editing Formula Saving and updating a workbook To save a workbook for the first time after creating it do the following. 2 Click the contents box. If the cell is active. Figure 3. 4 Type the operator you want. 1 Select the cell that you want to edit. You can edit formulas as you would edit any other data. 3 Select the cell for which you want to enter a reference.The result will appear in A4. The shape of the pointer changes to a range selector. and then enter the edited formula. 1 Choose File. click the contents box. Figure 3. the formula will appear in the contents box. 6 Press Enter. 2 Type + (to begin the formula). 3 Edit the formula.12. To edit a formula. Select the cell. Save As to open the Save As dialog box. enter the name of the workbook. See figure 3. 3 In the File name box.

giving you formatting options from which you can choose.14. The rightmost part of the status bar contains the mode indicator. You use the Save option to update changes to a workbook under the same name and in the same location.If you close a workbook without saving it. The status bar also contains several buttons used to format texts and numbers in a workbook. It changes every time you perform another action. By default. A simple Save As dial box is shown in figure 3. It displays the styles of the current selection and also shows the status of 1-2-3. By selecting a different size from the list. a list of point sizes appears. you will lose all the changes that you have made. or to save it to a different location. Figure 3. if you click the Point size button. the mode indicator shows “Ready” as shown in figure 3.13. you can change the size of the selected cells. A pop-up list appears when you click any of these buttons. .13 Save As dial box Formatting worksheets The status bar is located at the bottom of the 1-2-3 window and contains different buttons used for formatting. Use the Save As option to save a new workbook or to save an existing workbook with a different name. For example.

4 Select the desired font. select the column. select any other nonadjacent cells or ranges you want to add to the selection. which are known as its properties. and click the Basic properties tab. display the InfoBox. The changes you make are reflected instantly.Figure 3. To do this. • Set a specific column size in characters. the pointer takes the shape of a two-headed arrow. Column widths and row heights Row heights will change automatically to accommodate the size of the data in a row. Under Column. size. select Width. and the range C6. You can also click the Range Properties SmartIcon. As you drag. you might want to apply the same formatting to cells A1. . font. column widths will adjust automatically. Range Properties to open the InfoBox. When you point to the border between two column headings. and alignment. To select a noncontiguous range: 1 Select the first cell or range.D7. • Double-click the column border. This automatically sizes the column to fit the widest data it contains. 2 Choose Range. In some cases. point size.14 The Status bar To format text by using the InfoBox: 1 Select the cell or range you want to format. such as color. but in most cases you will need to adjust column widths manually to make the columns fit the data you put in them.. For example. A noncontiguous range is a range in which all the cells are not adjacent. The Text Format tab shows the characteristics of the selected data. To change column widths: • Drag the column border. You can then drag the border to the left or right to decrease or increase the size of the column. B4. attributes. 3 Click the Text Format tab. and specify the size in the Width spinner control. 5 Close the InfoBox. Each tab contains a different category of properties. The InfoBox consists of several tabs. 2 While holding down the Ctrl key. an indicator appears showing the column width in characters. and color.

click the Number format button. time.14 shows the alignment dial box. Figure 3. including dates. You can also use the Number Format tab in the InfoBox to apply a wide variety of number formats. currency. To format a number. right. Figure 3.15. within a single cell. or center in a cell. select the number.15 InfoBox showing the Number Format tab . and then from the list select a format. the data you type could appear to the left. Alignment Alignment refers to the place where data is positioned in a cell.14 InfoBox showing the Alignment tab Formatting numbers The Number format button on the status bar shows General by default. The Align across columns checkbox in the properties for InfoBox is used to center data over a range of cells (rather than within a single cell).The same methods work for changing row height. and scientific notation as shown in figure 3. For example. You can set alignments either by using the Alignment tab in the InfoBox or by using the Alignment button in the status bar. Figure 3. The Wrap text in cell checkbox folds the text that extends across columns.

1 Select the data you want to include in the chart. .16 The Print dial box Creating a chart To create a chart. 1-2-3 displays the Print dialog box shown in figure 3. the current sheet.Instead of repeating the same formatting you can simply copy the styles from one range of cells to another. 2 Click the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of the selection. Print.16. 3 Select the cell or range to which you want to copy the formatting. and the number of copies needed. You can also access the Preview window by using the Preview & Page Setup button. or a selected range. Printing When you either click the Print SmartIcon or choose File. The data should include all the values you want included in the chart. You can use the Fast Format SmartIcon to copy the formatting of cells. You can also specify printing the entire workbook. as well as any labels that identify those values. Figure 3. including number formats without copying the data in the cells. Choose the printer to which you want to send the page. specify the range of pages to print. To use the Fast Format SmartIcon: 1 Select the cell or range from which you want to copy the formatting.

The maximum number of series you canhave in a chart is 26. .2 Choose Chart. It makes working with charts intuitive. you can format only the color of the fill and the line around it. Lotus1-2-3 plots the data in the selected range as a bar chart by default. You can select a range that contains all the elements you need to create a basic chart. Each row and column of data plotted on a chart represents a series. The pointer changes to a small bar chart. but it is helpful to know some basic terms as you work with charts. For other elements. • Choose a command from the Chart menu (the name of the command will vary depending on which element you selected). Figure 3. Figure 3. and click the Chart properties SmartIcon. 3 Click the worksheet where you want the top left corner of the chart to appear. For some elements. you have various formatting choices. • Double-click the element. • Select the element.17 Main elements of a chart Change chart elements There are three methods for formatting a chart element namely.17 shows a chart with labeled elements. Create.

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The Versions are. MS Office is a suite of productivity tools consisting of word processing. making Presentation etc. It comes as a combination of MS Word. MS Excel. you can insert part of an Excel spreadsheet in a word document.4 MS Office Concept The word MS stands for MicroSoft (an American multinational software corporation who is the developer of Office). allows file sharing and collaborative work spaces. · Accounting – bookkeeping and accounting software for small businesses. creating tables. Dev Ÿ MS Office 2000 Ÿ MS Office XP Ÿ MS Office 2003 Ÿ MS Office 2007 Ÿ MS Office 2010 Ÿ MS Office 2013 The most of GUI and and Control features are common to all the applications of Microsoft Office. video. MS Powerpoint. In simple words its a virtual representation of all the tools you use in your Office. These applications are intimately connected to each other meaning information can be shared among multiple applications. database. typing letters.3.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. MS Publisher etc. Ÿ MS Office 1. Pro. In simple words we can say that MS Office is a computer Programme/Software which is use to perform various office related tasks making files.3 Ÿ MS Office95 Ÿ MS Office97 Std. manage large quantities of information. spreadsheet. presentation and personal information. or you can use data from Outlook schedule to build a Power Point presentation. and otherwise organize and present lists or other raw data. drawing graphs. Some of the important application programs of MS Office suits include are : · Access – create databases. · Groove – software for group working. · Communicator – IM.6 Ÿ MS Office 3. and voice chat.2 Ÿ MS Office 4. graphs.0 Ÿ MS Office 4. This type of facility is often referred to as Object Linking and Embedding. . For example. charts. tables. · Excel – create spreadsheets. create reports.

18 Figure 3.19. and task panes with a simpler system of interfaces optimized for efficiency and discoverability. the Design Tab). images. video. · Visio – visualize information by creating diagrams. Tabs will differ depending on which Office program you are using. Navigating the Workspace The Ribbon . See figure 3.18 Microsoft office work space The set-up of the ribbon differs greatly from the earlier editions of Word. used to create text documents like papers. · PowerPoint – create slide show presentations with text. · Outlook – email client that includes a calendar. Tabs open a Ribbon. and requires its own vocabulary. · OneNote – note-taking software that allows you to save text.The Office Button shown in figure 3. and audio with pretty backgrounds! · Project – project management software that allows you to control workflows.. within each Ribbon are Groups. and images in one place with full search capabilities. budgets. video. Each of the words across the top (Home. etc) are called Tabs. and bibliographies.· InfoPath – create and manage electronic forms for gathering information. located in the upper left hand corner contains such options as: .The Ribbon replaces the previous system of layered menus. and models with pictures. The Office Button . and newsletters. · Publisher – create visual print materials such as fliers. posters. contact manager. and other planning needs. · Word – word processing software. audio. outlines. When selecting some Groups. brochures. and format your work for better visual appeal. a unique Tab will appear (for example. text and arrows. toolbars. Page Layout. schedules. and to do list. Insert. flowcharts.

· Save · Save As · Print · New · Open · etc. See figure 3. right-click any frequently used action (such as Paste) and choose “Add to Quick Access Toolbar”. Figure 3.20. Figure 3. To do this.20 Customizing the toolbar .19 The office button Customizing the Toolbar: The toolbar can be customized to include your favorite actions using the Quick Access Toolbar.

Some Basic Actions
Figure 3.21a Inserting break page

Figure 3.21b inserting pictures and graphics

Figure 3.21c inserting headers
and footers

Figure 3.21d track changing
(useful for group projects)

Figure 3.21e Spelling and
grammar check or word count
Figure 3.21 Basic actions
Figure 3.21 shows some basic actions using the ms word platform.

Some Basic Actions of the Microsoft PowerPoint is shown in figure 3.22
below.

(a) Use the Home tab to change the slide
layout with the Layout button

(b) Use the Design tab to
change the colors and
background of your slides

( c) Custom Slide Show: choose which
slides to include in your presentation

(d) Practice your presentation and
automatically time how long to spend
on each slide using rehearse timings.

Microsoft Excel Basic Actions
An Excel file is called a workbook. A workbook can be made up of any number of
worksheets (up to a point, but the limit is very large). The worksheets are
organized into tabs at the bottom of the document as shown in figure 3.23a.

(a) Worksheets
(b) Cell
3.23 Excel worksheets and cells
These worksheets are composed of cells in which you can enter data.
You can use Functions to calculate information from your data (functions can be
found in the Formulas tab).

Figure 3.24 Calculating data information.
To insert charts into your worksheet use the insert tab. First highlight the data
you want to use, then choose the chart type from the Ribbon, shown in figure
3.25.

Figure 3.25 Inserting a chart

When the chart is highlighted, use the Chart Tools tabs to change the design,
layout, or format of the chart as shown in figure 3.26.

Figure 3.26The chart tool

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which did little more than place characters on a screen. the typewriter evolved into a word processing system. Modern word processing programs. footers. A word processor.org. change the page formatting. and entire papers. However. however. you can open up the program by double-clicking it. “Start menu” >> “All Programs” >> “Microsoft Office” >> “Microsoft Office Word 20XX. Today. It processes words. Some may also include a "Word Count" option. This is shown in figure 4. and may be able to add headers.Chapter 4 Word-processing Introduction In the 1970s. word processing programs have make revising text documents a much more efficient process. The term "text editor" can also be used to refer to a word processing program. WordPerfect (Windows only). .1. and page numbers to each page. include features to customize the style of the text. Alternatively. Some examples of word processing programs include Microsoft Word. pages. It also processes paragraphs. if there is an icon of Microsoft Word available on your desktop (shaped like a square with a "W" in the middle). and OpenOffice. which could then be printed by a printer. or word processing program. While all these features can be useful and fun to play with.” The following is the screen that will be displayed after selecting the previous sequence of menu commands. By using the mouse. the most significant improvement over the typewriter is the word processor's ability to make changes to a document after it has been written. you can click anywhere within the text of a document and add or remove content. it is more commonly used to describe basic word processing programs with limited features Starting Microsoft Word To run Word on your computer click on. Since reprinting a paper is much easier than retyping it. does exactly what the name implies. which counts the words and characters within a document. which could be as simple as an electric typewriter with a small screen display. The first word processors were basically computerized typewriters. or an old fashioned green screen computer. the term "word processing" basically means creating a text document and using a computer and word processing software such as Word. AppleWorks (Mac only).

a new blank document. Although window elements are fully explained in our Windows course.1 Microsoft Word default window . When Word is launched. word 2010. (a) (b) Figure 4. opens in Print Layout view.(a) Word 2003 (b) Word 2010 Figure 4.1 Steps for starting word Shown in figure 4. or default window. here is a brief explanation of the Word window.2 is the Microsoft Word default window for (a). word 2003 and (b).

Most people prefer this mode. Groups: They organize related commands. . For example group of commands related to fonts or or group of commands related to alignment etc. and do other file-related operations. You can click it to check Backstage view. Insert. such as Internet Explorer. .2. Draft view: This formats text as it appears on the printed page with a few exceptions. Full Screen Reading view: This gives a full screen look of the document. Outline view: This lets you work with outlines established using Word.The following Descriptions holds for the MS-Word screen elements shown in figure 4. Print Layout view: This displays pages exactly as they will appear when printed. which is the place to come when you need to open or save files. Quick Access Toolbar: This you will find just above the File tab and its purpose is to provide a convenient resting place for the Word most frequently used commands. lets you switch among Word's various document views. The vertical ruler appears on the left edge of the Word window and is used to gauge the vertical position of elements on the page. Zoom Control: Zoom control lets you zoom in for a closer look at your text. ile Tab: The File tab replaces the Office button from Word 2007. Ribbon: Word Ribbon contains commands organized in three components Tabs: They appear across the top of the Ribbon and contain groups of related commands. headers and footers aren't shown. Help: The Help Icon can be used to get word related help anytime you like.s standard heading styles. print a document. each group name appears below the group on the Ribbon. create new documents. Commands: Commands appear within each group as mentioned above. You can customize this toolbar based on your comfort. View Buttons: The group of five buttons located to the left of the Zoom control. Web Layout view: This shows how a document appears when viewed by a Web browser. Title bar shows the program and document titles. Rulers: Word has two rulers . and + buttons you can click to increase or decrease the zoom factor. near the bottom of the screen. Title bar: This lies in the middle and at the top or the window. The horizontal ruler appears just beneath the Ribbon and is used to set margins and tab stops. This provides nice tutorial on various subjects related to word. Page Layout are example of ribbon tabs. Home. For example.a horizontal ruler and a vertical ruler. The zoom control consists of a slider that you can slide left or right to zoom in or out.

buttons and tools. You can configure the status bar by right-clicking anywhere on it and by selecting or deselecting options from the provided list. Insertion Point . Office Assistant .The location where the next character appears. Dialog Box Launcher: This appears as very small arrow in the lower-right corner of many groups on the Ribbon. Task Pane . this bar contains the total number of pages and words in the document.2 Creating a New Document To create a new document. Figure 4.Used to view parts of the document. Formatting Toolbar . Clicking this button opens a dialog box or task pane that provides more options about the group. Menu Bar . End-of-Document Marker .Contains buttons used for formatting.Document Area: The area where you type. language etc. Status Bar: This displays document information as well as the insertion point location.3 Creating a New Document .Links to the Microsoft Office Help feature 4.Indicates the end of the document. go to File>New shown in figure 4.Contains a list of options to manage and customize documents. The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type.3 below.Contains shortcut buttons for the most popular commands. From left to right.Provides easy access to commonly used menus. Scroll bars . Standard Toolbar .

The text appears to the left of the insertion point as it is typed.2 Formatting Text The text can be formatted before it is typed into the document or edit existing text. To open an existing file. Click on the Quick Access Toolbar list arrow and click New. The font style or size.4 Entering a text into the document area 4. After you create document. Click on the New document icon on the Quick Access toolbar and a new blank document will automatically open. The document area is the area where you type your text. The flashing vertical bar is called the insertion point and it represents the location where text will appear when you type. you are ready to start typing.Another option to open a new document is to customize your Quick Access Toolbar to display the New document icon New Document Icon. Keep the mouse cursor at the text insertion point and start typing whatever text you would like to type. Find the folder where your existing file is. or the location of a block of text on the page can also be changed. Figure 4. The dialog box will look similar to the dialog box for saving. go to File>Open. Figure 4.4 show two word "Hello Word" text. highlight it. The icon will appear on the toolbar until you uncheck New. To change the text . the orientation of the text on the page. and click Open.

The following diagrams reveal how to perform font changes from the home tab and the Font dialog box in Word. Changing font. To assist you user with selecting a font for an application. It offers a nice preview window which shows you exactly how your text will look before you apply the changes. The Edit>Undo feature can take you back a step if you are not comfortable with a change made. Before changing font. style. In MS Word. you may also go to Edit>Select All. size and color of text. In microsoft Word 2010 choose the Home tab and click the Select button from the Editing group or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl A . you must first select(or highlight) the text you wish to change. To select the text of the whole document. we have figure 4. size and color of text. If you want the changes to apply to all text in your document. From the home tab of word 2010. Microsoft Windows provides the Font dialog box.5a below. (a) From home tab (b) From the dial box launcher Figure 4.formatting first you must highlight or select the block of text you wish to format.5 Opening the font dial box . style. Click and drag the mouse over the text. most attributes to text can be made by opening the Format>Font dialog box. Word processing applications come with a set of fonts. Once you have selected the text you would like to format. apply the required formatting options that Microsoft Word provides.

Click the Default button. and color you wish you use by default. change the default properties you wish.5b. Select the font. 3.6. 5. press the Default button when you are done. Click OK. In Word 2007. this button text has been changed to Set as Default. 6. 2. click the dialog box launcher button located on the bottom right-hand corner of the Font group.From the Font Dialog Box shown in figure 4. 4. See figure 4. . Confirm. Click the Format menu. The Font dialog box will appear and you can edit your font settings.Once the font dialog opens. Open Word. Figure 4. In Word 2010. style.6 the font dial box For the older Versions of Microsoft Word 1.

centered. Text Alignment There are four types of paragraph alignment are available in Microsoft Word left-aligned. Select any of the colors available by simply clicking over it.7. Try to move your mouse pointer over different colors and you will see text color will change automatically.Change Font Colors: By default any typed text comes in black color. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Left button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + L keys. use the More Colors option to display color pallet box which allows the select of any color from range of millions of colors. and justified shown in figure 4. . If you click at the left portion of the Font Color button. Select the text that you want to change to a bold font. but the font color can be changed to any of the color which one can imagine. then already selected color will be applied to the text. See figure 4. This is very simple to change text color by following two simple steps: 1. right-aligned. 2. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text.7 Changing font colors If the color of your choice is not displayed. Click the Font Color button triangle to display a list of colors. so you would have to click over small triangle to display a list of colors. Figure 4. Align left: A paragraph's text will be said left aligned if it is aligned with left margin.8.

Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Justify button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + J keys.Align center: A paragraph's text will be said center aligned if it is in the center of the left and right margins. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text right aligned. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Center button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + E keys. Click anywhere on the paragraph you want to align and click Align Text Right button available on Home tab or simply press Ctrl + R keys. Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text justify aligned. Align Right: A paragraph's text will be said right aligned if it is aligned with right margin. Justify Aligned Text: A paragraph's text will be said justify aligned if it is aligned with both left and right margins.8 Text alignment and justification . Here is a simple procedure to make a paragraph text center aligned. (a) Align left \ (b) Align center ( c) Align right (d) Justify align Figure 4.

9 The bullet buttons 1. To create a list with numbers. justify. Following are the simple steps to create either bulleted list or numbered list. medium creates a bit more space and high creates maximum space between two words to justify the text. 2. Any of the numbering style available can be selected by simply clicking over it. click the Numbering Button triangle instead of bullet button to display a list of numbers to assign to the list. Select a list of text to which you want to assign bullets or numbers. Difference between these options is that low justify creates little space between two words. justify low.9. justify high and justify medium. See figure 4. Creating a List This is very simple to convert a list of lines into a bulleted or numbered list. You need to select only justify option. .Clicking the Justify button displays four options. You can use any of the text selection method to select the text. 3. You can select any of the bullet style available by simply clicking over it. Click the Bullet Button triangle to display a list of bullets you want to assign to the list. Figure 4.

1.10 Figure 4. Finally click OK button to apply the changes. Click the Line and Paragraph Spacing Button triangle to display a list of options to adjust space between the lines.11. Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing. Click Before spinner to increase or decrease the space before the selected paragraph.10 Adjusting spacing between document lines 1. See figure 4. 2. 2.Lines and Spacing Following are the simple steps to adjust spacing between two lines of the document. Similar way click After spinner to increase or decrease the space after the selected paragraph. The distance between two paragraphs can be set using the following simple steps. You can select any of the option available by simply clicking over it. You can use any of the text selection method to select the paragraph(s). Select the paragraph or paragraphs for which you want to define spacing and click the Paragraph Dialog Box Launcher available on Home tab. This action is shown in figure 4. .

right hand mouse click and Drag `n' Drop. Cut: Use this when you want to move a bit of text from one place to another in your document. Copy. copy. Text can be moved around in a document by using the Cut. your .Figure 4. To cut. Copy and Paste. If you do not select the text first. and paste text. and paste text. copy. and Paste commands. you must first select some text.11 Spacing between Paragraphs Cut. You can use the toolbar buttons. Click and drag your mouse over the text you wish to cut or copy. the Edit Menu. There are several ways to Cut. quick keys. It will delete the original text when you have completed the action by Pasting Copy: This will copy the selected text. leaving the original text in it's original place Paste: This deposits the text you have Cut or Copied wherever your cursor is situated.

See figure 4. The various options available to copy the selected text is as follows. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. . Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. it will display copy option. Ÿ Using Ribbon Copy Button: After selecting a text.12 Copy and paste operation Step (3): Finally click at the place where you want to copy selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the copied content at the desired location. Copy. just press Ctrl + c keys to copy the selected content in clipboard. Paste features will be grayed out and unusable in your Edit menu as shown below. Copy & Paste Operation: Copy operation will just copy the content from its original place and create a duplicate copy of the content at the desired location without deleting the text from it's the original location. you can use copy button available at the ribbon to copy the selected content in clipboard.12. The following is the procedure to copy the content in word: 1. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. Ÿ Using Ctrl + c Keys: After selecting a text. Figure 4. just click this option to copy the selected content in clipboard.Cut. 2.

To copy and paste or cut and paste content form one document to another document just copy or cut the desired content from one document and go into another document where you want to paste the content and use mentioned step to paste the content. 2. any photo etc.Cut & Paste Operation: Cut operation will cut the content from its original place and move the content from its original location to a new desired location.13b. To add header and footer in a word document.12. Ÿ Using Ribbon Cut Button: After selecting a text. Formatting Pages Headers and Footers: Headers (appears at the top of every page) and footers (footer appears at the bottom of every page) are parts of a document that contain special information such as page numbers and the total number of pages. Header and Footer buttons appear on the Ribbon and a Close Header and Footer button will also appear at the top-right corner. just click this option to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. it will be applied to the document in editable mode and the text in the document domain will appear dimmed. Finally click at the place where you want to move the selected text and use either of these two simple options: Ÿ Using Ribbon Paste Button: Just click paste button available at the ribbon to paste the content at the new location. 3. it will display cut option. There are various options available to cut the selected text and put it in clipboard. just press Ctrl + x keys to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Ÿ Using Ctrl + x Keys: After selecting a text. Refer to figure 4. the document title. 1. . company logo. See figure 4. 2. Ÿ Using Mouse Right Click: If right click on the selected text. Click the Insert tab. you can use cut button available at the ribbon to cut the selected content and keep it in clipboard. Select a portion of the text using any of the text selection methods.13a. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to add first. These are. Clicking on the Header button will display a list of built-in Headers from where any can be chosen from. Just press Ctrl + v keys to paste the content at the new location. Once any of the headers is selected. See figure 4. Ÿ Using Ctrl + v Keys: This is simplest way of pasting the content. Following is the procedure to move the content in word: 1.

The fundamental idea behing the header and footer is that you only have to enter the information one time. 1. and it will apply it to all your pages automatically. Type the information required in the document header and click Close Header and Footer to come out of header insertion mode. Page numbers. or the time into your document. Click on it and word will display editable header 3.13 Header and footer illustration 3.(a) (b) Figure 4. To edit an existing Header and Footer of a document do the following. Edit the document header and once done. This will vary depending on the word processing application. Consequently. click Close Header and Footer to come out of header edit mode. this feature is intended to be used as a tool for a multi-page document. and page number may not appear as you might think until printing or unless you are in the Print Preview mode. . & time In various circumstances. Clicking the Header button will display a list of options including Edit Header option. One way to check to see your resulting header and/or footer attributes is by going to Print Preview. date. time. 2. and click either Header button or Footer button whatever you want to edit. Note that the date. Click the Insert tab. Headers and footers allow you to add uniform content to the very top and very bottom of each page of your document. a date. These things can be inserted through the Header/Footer dialog box. you might need to insert page numbers.

The following are the simple steps to add page numbers in a word document.14b.5 inches x 11 inches. (a) (b) Figure 4. current position etc. By default Microsoft Word shows a page in portrait orientation and in this case page width is less than page height and page will be 8. bottom. Finally select of the page number styles which is desired. bottom. 3. 1. This will display a list of options to display page number at the top.14a.13 Adding page numbers To remove page numbers. . Change Page Orientation Page Orientation is useful when you print your pages. See figure 4. click the Insert tab. This will display a list of options to display page number at the top. Click the Insert tab. 2. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. and click Page Number button available in header and footer section. The following are the simple steps to change the page orientation of a word document. Just click this option and it will delete your all the page numbers set in your document. After this step enter in Page Footer modification mode and click Close Header and Footer button to come out of footer edit mode. Moving the mouse pointer over the available options displays further styles of page numbers to be displayed as shown in figure 4.5 inches. You can change page orientation from portrait to landscape orientation in which case page width will be more than page height and page will be 11 inches x 8. current position etc and at the bottom you will have Remove Page Numbers option.

This will display a simple grid shown below. To create a table apply the following procedures. When you move your mouse over the grid cells.1. and you can format the table in any way you want. Usually top row in the table is kept as a table header and can be used to put some informative instruction. Click any of the options you want to set to orientation. and click Table button. By default. Click the Page Layout tab. 2. orientation will be Portrait Orientation 2. and click Orientation button available in the Page Setup group. Figure 4. Tables A table is a structure of vertical columns and horizontal rows with a cell at every intersection.14 Layout tab showing page orientation options 4. This will display an Option Menu having both the options (Portrait & Landscape) to be selected as shown in figure 4. Open a word document for which you want to change the orientation. Click the Insert tab.14.15a. Click the square representing the lower-right corner of your table. Create a Table: 1. which will . it makes a table in the table which appears in the document. Each cell can contain text or graphics. You can make your table having desired number of rows and columns as per figure 4.

Figure 4. 2. There is a long list of formulas from which. The following are useful points in constructing word cell formula. 1. Click the Layout tab and then click Formula button which will display a Formula Dialog Box which will suggest a default formula. the first cell in the first row is A1. which is =SUM(LEFT) in our case. and so on. or find the largest or smallest number in table cells you specify. the third cell in the fourth row is C4. find average of numbers. 3.Microsoft Word allows the use of mathematical formula in table cells which can be used to add numbers. Click in a cell that should contain the sum of a rows. Thus. and so on.16. Each column is identified by a letter. See figure 4. starting with A for the first column. a formula can be used based on the requirement. The cell . Word formulas use a reference system to refer to individual table cells. The following are the simple steps to add formula in a table cell available in word document. You can select a number format using Number Format List Box to display the result or you can change the formula using Formula List Box. After the letter comes the row number.16 Adding Formula to a document. B for the second column. You can repeat the procedure to have sum of other two rows as well. Word cell formula can bee constructed. Click OK to apply the formula.

1. Click anywhere in the table you want to delete. As soon as you bring your mouse pointer inside the table. Click Table Styles button to display a gallery of table styles. 2. just click over the built-in table style and you will see that selected style has been applied on your table. Bring the mouse pointer over the table which you want to move. Bring your insertion point at the location where you want to move the table and use Paste button or simply press Ctrl + C keys to paste the table at the new location. it shows real time preview of your actual table.15b. .15 Creating the table 3. and click Delete Table option under the Delete Table Button to delete complete table from the document along with its content. When you move your mouse over any of the styles.create a actual table in the document and goes in table design mode giving lots of options to work with table as per figure 4. To select any of the styles. To Delete a Table from a word document. Click the Layout tab. 2. If you want to have fancy table. Once table is selected. To Move a Table with-in the same word document. a small Cross Icon will appear at the top-left corner of the table. use Cut button or simply press Ctrl + X keys to cut the table from its original location. Click over the small Cross Icon which will select the whole table. 3. (a) (b) Figure 4. 1.

CDROM's. This is a critical difference. -. Inline means that it is fixed between the text where it appears with very limited modification. specific fields or pieces of information from a database. There should be a feature within your menus called Insert or Insert Image. Look for the copyright statements before using images. Be sure to follow copyright law and work within the Fair Use Guidelines if you use an image you did not create. It will either be inline or floating. %. Find your Insert feature. referring to all cells in the row to the right of the current cell You can also construct simple math expressions. often as a selected image. attach it to a data source. You should also wrap text around the image. A window will pop up that will allow you to find the folder with your collected images. Floating means it can be modified and relocated more easily. A single cell reference. you can insert them into your own word processor. Inserting images can be one way to use integrative applications.C5 ABOVE. You may have to browse through folders or directories until you find it. referring to all cells in the column below the current cell. and merge the documents. Once you find it and choose it.references and description is as follows. Most images from the Internet. /. such as A3. If you create or find images through other applications and save them to a folder on your harddrive. If you want to insert clip art. Clip art libraries that come with your software package need no citation. *. and insert an image. it will appear in your word processing document. you need to designate which database you want to merge with. there might be a separate menu item Insert Clip Art which will automatically take you to the folder filled with the application's library of art. The place where you begin creating a mailmerge can appear in various menus. BELOW. . referring to all cells in the column above the current cell. within it. such as B3 or F7 A range of cells. format it. such as B3+B5*10 by using simple mathematical operators +.B4. The following procedure describes how to create a form letter. referring to all cells in the row to the left of the current cell RIGHT. In order to create a mailmerge document. Integration: Mail Merge A mail merge is when you create a word processing document that has. LEFT. and directly from other artists will require some type of citation depending on how you plan to use it. Integration: Inserting images. such as A4:A9 or C5:C13 A series of individual cells. Often times it will be located under File>Insert.

and then click Step by Step Mail Merge Wizard. On the Mailings tab. click Start Mail Merge. Figure 4.1.17a (a) (b) ( c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 4.17 Mailmerge steps .

it might be the address of each recipient. Ÿ Start from a template: Select one of the ready-to-use mail merge templates. 3. Indicate the records you want to include by checking or un-checking the subsequent box as shown in figure 4. 7. Ÿ Start from existing document: Open an existing document to use as your mail merge main document. See figure 4. Preview and complete the merge. To preview. Think of a “field” as that information that is unique to each letter.17d. you are telling Word to use a specific set of variable information for your merge. Add fields to your document. Choose a document type. The information that you want to merge into your documents will be stored in the data source. If you have not yet created this information.17c. For example. Ÿ Click Next: Starting document. You can also search for a specific recipient. you can scroll through each merged document. and can be found in your Outlook contacts or in an existing file as shown in figure 4. In the Mail Merge task pane. . 6.17e. click Next: Select recipients. Use one of the following methods to attach the main document to the data source shown in figure 4. Connect to the data source. This will allow you to add any specific information that you had included in your data file. making sure that there are no mistakes. click Letters. exclude a recipient or edit the entire recipient list. Method 1: Use an existing data source Method 2: Use names from a Microsoft Outlook Contacts List Method 3: Create a database of names and addresses 5.17b. Ÿ In the Mail Merge task pane. select Type a New List to begin creating. Select the starting document Click one of the following options: Ÿ Use the current document: Use the currently open document as your main document. You could also choose More Items. Select recipients When you open or create a data source by using the Mail Merge Wizard. 8. After previewing the merged information. 4.2. This will allow you to send letters to a group of people and personalize the results of the letter that each person receives.

save all or save just a portion of the document you created.click next and your merge will be complete. You can print. . transmit.

0 Introduction CorelDRAW is a vector illustration program. Each object in a drawing stores its own attributes. You can alter the size of vector images without making their edges rough or jagged. The CorelDRAW application is a part of CorelDRAW Graphics Suite. cards. which increases the file size. brochures. 15 and 16. symbol or image is referred to as an object. You can modify an object without affecting the image quality. When you enlarge raster images. logos. CorelDRAW is ideal for creating drawings.7. This process of conversion is called rasterizing. the information contained in each pixel is stored separately. When you want sharp images. it becomes a raster image. Vector images are ideal for Web pages because they download faster than the raster images.11. A bitmap file defines the position. curve.14. such as shape. on any platform. Raster images are bitmapped images composed of pixels. A vector program defines a line of pixels and treats them as a single object. vector images.6. CorelDRAW is one of the most powerful and versatile illustration programs on the market today. you need to create them as vector images. text. you convert the image into a bitmap.9. size. such as logos with smooth and precise edges. When you save raster images. Each component created in a drawing such as a line. their edges appear rough and jagged. for print or for the Web. color and size of each pixel. in which objects are created and modified again and again while designing. This graphics application is used to design advertisements.13. rather than just a vector graphics . After a vector image is converted to a bitmap.1Features of the soft wares CorelDRAW differentiates itself from its competitors in a number of ways: The first is its positioning as a graphics suite.Chapter 5 Corel Draw 5. The bitmap becomes a distorted image with jagged edges. How the program treats the pixels is determined by whether the image is defined as a vector or a bitmap.12. 5. There are different versions of Corel draw like versions 5. and color. position. An artwork developed in CorelDRAW is referred to as a drawing. To add special effects to a vector image in CorelDRAW. Images are displayed on the computer screen as pixels. A pixel is the smallest unit of composition in an image.8. newsletters and so on. These images consist of lines and curves that are defined by mathematical objects called vectors. The images you create by using CorelDRAW are by default.10.

Multipage documents are easy to create and edit One of the useful features for single and multi-page documents is the ability to create linked text boxes across documents that can be resized and moved while the text itself resets and flows through the boxes. This window contains a Drawing page in which you create or modify your drawings. 3 Select the file. You can also press Ctrl + O to open the Open Drawing dialog box. a new window called Drawing window opens. From the Files of type list. It also allows a laser to cut out any drawings. the application window opens containing a drawing window. Click on Corel Graphic suites (sub-menu list appears) 4. 1. create your drawing. It gives information about the program which you are working on and also the name used in saving the document. Open.1 shows a sample CorelDRAW window with the various components identified. Click on CorelDraw Icon (wait for some seconds for program to launch) To open an existing drawing: 1 Choose File.Corel DRAW is capable of handling multiple pages along with multiple master layers. When you launch CorelDRAW. When you open a drawing in CorelDRAW. Some Element Present in CorelDraw Environment are described as follows. Title Bar: It is the first bar in the screen of any opened application. 1. The CorelDRAW interface contains various components. select the required file format. The CorelDraw Window provides a work area where you can create and modify a job. select a folder that contains the files. Point on All Programs 3. you can apply commands to the active drawing window only. add special effects such as vignettes and special borders to bitmaps. Booklets. and toolbox. A full range of editing tools allow the user to adjust contrast. The rectangle in the center of the drawing window is the drawing page where you. Brochures. such as a Drawing window.program. 4 Click Open. . 2 From the Look in list. Drawing page. change the format from RGB to CMYK. Figure 5. toolbars. Click on Start Button 2. to open the Open Drawing dialog box. To Launch CorelDraw. color balance. The Tools present enable you to carry out series of designs. Useful for creating and editing multi-article Newsletters. Although more than one drawing window can be opened. etc.

Close: To exit a particular window Maximize/Restore: To increase and decrease a window (opened program) Minimize: When you minimize. And also with the help of the property bar we can also set our paper size. the opened programs automatically goes to the task bar. and right. Edit. Menu bar: CorelDraw as a program has Eleven (11) menus. This area represents the portion of your drawing that will print. zoom etc. Layout. Standard bar: Tools present in the standard bar enables us to save. they include. Effect. View. down. Texts. restore. 7. Scroll bar: The scroll bar (horizontal and vertical scroll) enables to view unseen object by scrolling up. and orientation of a page and also the width/height of an object. undo/redo. Bitmap. When clicked on. File. 5. Printable page: The Printable Page Area is the rectangular shape located at the center of the drawing window. Any design done in the drawing window should be . sub-menu list appears. maximize. Tools Window and Help menu. it contains command like: close. Control Menu Box: It is located at the title bar. 3. Property Bar: It gives us information about the Width/Height. paper size. 8.Figure 5. the orientation Portrait or Landscape etc 6. Each menu has its own function. minimize. Arrange.1 The Screen (Window) of CorelDraw 2. left. The Rule: The rule (horizontal and vertical rule) enables us to measure. 4.

it houses any opened programmed/minimize window. Status bar: The Status bar is located immediately after the task bar (at the top of the task bar) it gives you information about the currently highlighted object and also guideline on how to carryout some processes. Colour Palette: With the help of the colour palette. Task bar: The task bar is located in line with the Start button. 5. 13. Start Button: The start button enables us to view programs. a program can be launched. Example of the tools bar is the Text tool. 10. 12. Drawing Window: The drawing window is the large white area of the screen where you find the Printable page. Flyouts are described following the Tool Overview.2 Tools and Flyouts The Toolbox is located in the left portion of the window and contains all the drawing and editing tools necessary to create objects for an illustration. you can fill or outline an object. . Pick tool etc. 14. Flyouts contain additional tools. or tool options and are explained below in the order they appear on the default screen. 9. 11. Any drawing or designed processed in the drawing window must be brought to the printable page. Tools containing a small triangle in the corner produce a Flyout. Also through the start button.placed in the printable page. drawing/designing in CorelDraw will be difficult. Without the tools present in CorelDraw. Tools Bar: The tools bar of CorelDraw enables us to carryout certain designs and also helps us to beautify our work.

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. Flyouts are used by CorelDRAW to display additional tools. They are activated by holding down the tool button with the mouse.Flyouts Tool buttons containing a small triangle in the lower right corner display Flyouts. The table below is not meant to be a comprehensive look at each tool Flyout. but rather a reference.

To dock a floating docker. and list boxes. To dock the Flyout or return the toolbar to its original location. Unlocking a docker detaches it from other parts of the workspace. so it can be easily moved around. Below is the Interactive Tool Flyout in floating mode and in Flyout mode. you can dock them to any part of the window. click on the closing X in the upper right-hand corner. place your cursor over the area at the end of the bar that resembles two ribbed bumps or gray lines. See figure 5. such as command buttons. double click on the title bar of the floating Flyout. All tools on the Flyout will be displayed so you can easily access them. Dockers can be either docked or floating. and drag to position the pointer on the edge of the drawing window. Dockers can also float or be closed so only the tabs show. To float a Toolbar or a Flyout. options.Dockers are placed into the interface or “docked” as are Tool Bars or the Property Bar. click the X button at the top comer. click the docker's title bar. To return the Flyout to its original location. Docking a docker attaches it to the edge of the application window. To close a docker. . You can also collapse dockers to save screen space. to collapse or expand a docker. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the bar out to the main window of the program.3. They are accessed by clicking on the tabs at the right of the working window.Toolbars and Flyouts can be made to float.2 Flyouts Dockers Dockers display the same types of controls as a dialog box. (a) Floating mode (b) Flyout mode Figure 5. click the arrow button . Once floating.

go to the Windows menu →Dockers.Floating dockers Examples of other dockers Figure 5. . To access the Dockers.. The table following explains the different dockers and their functions.3 Dockers at the top comer.

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The type of palette can be changed with the Windows menu. you can choose a shade of a color quickly and apply it to a line or fill an object . Shown in figure 5. DRAW gives you several options for zooming into your object or out as shown in the table below. You may have several palettes open at once. the Property Bar displays the following options.3. When you hold down a chip on the color palette.3 Color palette The Zoom Property Bar This help to get a closer detail or make small adjustments. . The palette can be floated or parked. Figure 5. By dragging to one of the shades of the first color.Color Palettes The colorful row of boxes on the right of the screen is the Color Palette. When the Zoom Tool on the Toolbox is selected. DRAW comes with 18 color systems and gives you the ability to create your own palette. or the Color Palette Browser Docker. a box with shades of that color displays.

Zooming 1. This will change the display to show you the whole page. The Property Bar also displays the tools described above. Click and drag diagonally to create a zoom marquee. . This shortcut zooms out to the previous view each time you press it. Values for the magnification settings can be selected from the list. Go to the Standard Toolbar and select the Zoom Levels list (the box showing the % of magnifications). 5. you can enhance the magnification and be more precise by zooming to a specific area. 3. 8. Go to the Toolbox and select the Zoom Tool (F2). The mouse cursor changes to the magnifying glass with the plus sign. 2. You can also zoom in by dragging the Zoom Tool around a specific area. Place the tool icon to the upper right of the Bluebonnet. or typed in as needed. 6. Click in an area. 4. Select To Page (Shift + F4). 7. Press the F3 key on your keyboard. By dragging the Zoom Tool around an area. Release the mouse. You have just gotten closer to the drawing.

Illustration of tool function Take a look at the screenshots below to get an overview of some of the basic tools. We will use a CD with 120mm diameter to show our illustration. (a) Tool screen 1 .

(b) Tool screen 2 .

( c) Tool screen 3 .

This is the document. To save a document you can use file->save as. You should also “zero” your rulers by clicking on the corner where the 2 rulers meet and dragging it to the corner of the page (see figure 5. Next to that pull-down there are 2 boxes with horizontal and vertical dimensions of the page. This will cause a dialog box (see figure 5. At the upper left side there is a drop down that might say “letter” or “broadsheet” or “custom”.5). (1) Leave the "Make this the default Windows screen page" checked so a new document will always by default come up. The "Always shows the Welcome screen at launch" will pop up.5). Figure 5. Keep in mind that the horizontal ruler increases to the right but the vertical ruler increases in the up direction. Once you've specified the file name you can use ctrl-S or click on the disk icon at the top of the page or use file>save.5).Creating Drawings When you first open up CorelDraw you are presented with a default screen that gives you a number of options. If you want to save a different file type you would use file->save as and use the “save as type” pull down to select what type of file you want. To create a new document you can do file>new or ctrl-N or you can click on the icon in the extreme upper left corner of the window. Pull it down and select “custom” (see figure 5. . In this dialog box you can set the name of the document and various other things but for now just say “OK”. There is a rectangle on the screen with a drop shadow behind it. Typically we want a new document to come up. just below the “file” menu.4 Default Plate / Document Size When you first open CorelDraw there may be one or more dialog boxes which you probably want to just close. This means that all the locations on the page have a negative Y value.

3 Click OK. a blank page. a Drawing page with pre-designed elements and placeholders appears. layout. .Figure 5. choose File. After creating a drawing. each file has a default name. or a template. orientation. When you create a drawing. To create a drawing from a template: 1 Choose File. to open the New From Template dialog box. You can see the preview on the right of the dialog box. The first file will be named Graphic 1. To create a blank drawing. A blank page appears with default settings. the second file will be named Graphic 2. and background. When you use a template. and so on. 2 Select any template from the given list of templates. You can also press Ctrl + N or click the New button on the standard toolbar to open a new drawing. you can set or modify the Drawing page using the options such as size. New. When you create drawings in CorelDRAW. New From Template.5 Dialog box and rulers In CorelDRAW drawings are created by using an existing drawing. a blank Drawing page appears.

The Artistic Text: The artistic text is use for special effect while designing. Theme etc. Features. Below is a rotated object. are example of the Artistic text. E.g. while Information text called Paragraph text The difference between the two is the amount of text that will be entered. It is added in a frame because of its length. Decoration text in CorelDraw is known as Artistic test. The Paragraphing Text: The paragraphing text is used when creating a large amount of text. Sphere and Circle Click on your Rectangular Tool (F6) Hold your Ctrl key. Skewing: Skewing simple means to slant or twist an object from it definite shape to be at an angle. Square. Adding A Text In CorelDraw. Drag to draw a perfect square Drawing a Rectangle Click on your rectangle tool (F6) Hold your Shift Key.Drawing Lines The Freehand tool and the Pen tool are used frequently while drawing line(s). texts are required for decoration and also for information. . constitutions. Drawing Straight Lines Step 1 Click on the freehand tool to activate it Click on a specified area and drag to draw a line Step 2 Click on Freehand tool Hold your Ctrl Key on the keyboard Click and drag at the same time Click to end Step 3 Click on Pen Tool Point your mouse to the area in the window Click and drag then Double click to end Drawing a Rectangle. CorelDraw. Address. Drag to draw from the center Drawing a Circle/Sphere using the Ellipse tool Step 1 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Ctrl Key Drag to draw a perfect circle Step 2 Click on Ellipse tool (F7) Hold your Shift key Drag to draw a sphere Skewing and Rotating An Object You may decide to rotate an object or distort its perspective by skewing it. Rotating: Rotating simply means revolving/turning an object from on angle to another. toast etc.

use the box tool (F6 and the 7th tool on the left hand tool bar).6 shows the selection tool . Figure 5. click on the lower right hand corner of the tool button (where there is a little black triangle) and select the option you want.6 shows a complex star created.6 shows a complex star created Figure 5. The polygon tool will let you do spirals or stars. Or the polygon tools (F8 and the 9th tool). Figure 5.Making Shapes (Box/Circle/Freehand/Polygon) To create some kind of object. Or the ellipse tool (F7 and the 8th tool). To access the various options for each tool. Selecting An Object The selection tool is the very first tool in the tool bar on the left (see figure 5.7). Or the freehand tool (F5 and the 6th tool).

Fill and Outline Select the object you created. For example. One caveat: if there are multiple objects and some are in front of some others the program will select the object that's in front. there are different options for objects and text and bitmaps and nothing selected. it looks like a bucket) to set the fill and outline parameters(see figure 5. It helps if you click on an edge.8). it looks like a pen nib. When you select something.It has a rectangular picker and a freehand picker but most of the time you will simply click on an object. Figure 5. In those cases you can use the “Object Manager” (tool->object manager) to get the exact object you want. if you select two things together the "trace" options in the bitmap menu will not be available. You can now use the fill and outline tools (the “outline pen” is the 15th tool on the left. the fill tool is the 16th.8 The fill and outline tool drop box . all the menus change based on what is selected.

On your computer it may be a “jpeg” or a “tiff” or a “png” or a “gif” or any of a whole collection of other types. But bitmaps always look kind of funky. If you use “fountain fill” you can make a gradient of colors. You can apply various filters and other effects to a bitmap which you can not do to an object. In CorelDraw all those are converted to a bitmap.The fill tool allows you to set the fill pattern and color of your object. If you set it to “no fill” it will be transparent. especially if you change their size. You can also fill with a pattern or a texture or use “postscript fill” which allows for parametrized patterns. An object is a collection of curves that are defined in such a way that they can scale well. Objects will generally look better even if you generated the object from a bitmap. Bitmaps and Objects A bitmap is a collection of pixels in a rectangular shape. If you set it to “uniform fill” it will just be one color. Figure 5.8 Converting Objects to Bitmaps . The outline tool allows you to set the outline width and color or to remove the outline altogether.

It can also be printed. 2 From the Save in list. After saving or printing the drawing. you’ll use the CDR . A window opens. you might need to make some changes in it. you are prompted to save the file. If you have an object (perhaps some text or a complex set of shapes you have created) you can convert it to a bit map by selecting it and then the Bitmap->Convert to bitmap menu option (see figure 4. you need to update your drawing. Click Print to print with the default settings. choose File. you can: • Choose File. you want to save them for further use.There are a wide variety of things you can do to objects that are quite distinct from what you can do to bitmaps. To save a drawing: 1 Choose File. To close a drawing. choose File. 3 In the File name box. To return to the drawing. After previewing. To do so. Save As. Print. specify the name of the file. it can be closed. choose File. choose File. You can also press Ctrl + Shift + S to open the Save Drawing dialog box. and Close Drawings Drawings can be saved for reuse. To print a drawing.CorelDRAW format. select the folder in which you want to save the file. • Click the Close Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar. Save. you can click Yes to save and close the .8). Here. Be sure to have everything you want converted selected when you do that. The Print dialog box appears. Close drawings and CorelDRAW: When you complete a drawing. Save. Print Preview. If you are working on an existing file. to open the Save Drawing dialog box. 4 From the Save as type list. Close Print Preview.cdr. you can print the drawing. You can also press Ctrl + S to update a drawing. which displays the preview of the Drawing page. Print. select the required format. Preview and print drawings: To print an already saved drawing. When you close a drawing after making changes to it. To preview a drawing. 5 Click Save. To save the changes. Saving drawings: When you create designs and drawings. it is a good idea to preview it first. The default extension for files created in CorelDRAW is . you’ll need to close it. After saving a drawing for the first time. • Click the Close button in the upper right corner of the print preview window. Close or click the Close button in the upper-right corner of the Drawing window.

* Click Generate . and the n a m e o f t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t i n t h e . This will display dialog box for the CorelDRAW Visual Basic for Applications Macros. * Based on the project's orientation and page size. If you are working on a new file. You can personalize and customize your calendar dates and specify calendar elements. choose File Close All. * Choose a language In the Calendar language area. To do so. and specify calendar o r i e n t a t i o n . * Select a layout style from the Layout box. you need to save the file by using the options in the Save Drawing dialog box. To close CorelDRAW. Exit. a n d m a r g i n s . To create a calendar the following steps should be applied. and choose from 20 different style layout and create single or multiple page calendars automatically. You can use the Calendar Wizard. * Select CalendarWizard and click Run. a n d c l i c k A d d / M o d i f y.file. and click All to include all months of the year or enable the check boxes for corresponding months to create calendars for one or more months. the Calendar Wizard by default generates a calendar in the active project. If you want to customize your page size disable the Create Calendar in. Click on Holidays if you want to add special dates and events. Creating a Calender CorelDRAW enables you to create calendars easily and quickly. Applications 1. Then specify the month. choose File. You can also press Alt + F4 or click the Close button on the CorelDRAW window. d i m e n s i o n s . Go to Tools -> Visual Basic. * Select a year from the Year list box In the Calendar date area.> Play. You can also close multiple drawings simultaneously. date.

7. Notice 10 nodes * Delete node by double clicking on the node or click once and press delete on the keyboard. 3. 9 we now have half of the logo remaining.2. 8. * Delete nodes 4. * Click on your Arrange menu while object is highlighted * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list) click on Scale to activate scale and mirror tab * Click on Mirror boxes H & V to activate * Click on Apply to Duplicate * Use your arrow key to create gap between each half * Close the Transformation dialog box * Fill the first half with Blue and the second with Red. Designing The NNPC Logo * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle * Draw a rectangle vertically across the circle * Highlight the Rectangle * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on Transformation (sub-menu list appears) * Click on Rotate to activate the rotate tab type 25 on the angle tab * Click on Apply to Duplicate until rectangle fills the circle * Close the transformation box * Highlight the angles and the circle (Ctrl A) * Click on Arrange Menu * Click on shaping (sub-menu list appears) then click on "Weld to" and click on the centre of Object to weld . Creating a Zenith Bank Logo * Click on the Text tool * Type Z in Capital Letter while the caps lock is on * Increase the font size to 150 and font type Arial Black * Still Highlighted click on Arrange Menu * Click on convert to curve (Ctrl Q) * Click on your shape tool to activate the node. 6.

apply green colour to it * Create another circle and place inside the first circle and colour with red * Place the both circle in the weld object by using the Align and Distribution * Click on Arrange menu while objects is highlighted * Click on Align and Distribute (align & Distribute dialog box appears) * Click center horizontal and vertical * click on Apply 4.* Apply yellow color to the object * Click on your Ellipse tool to draw a perfect circle. Designing a Lipton Label * Click on the Ellipse tool * Hold your Shift key to draw a sphere * Click on the rectangle tool and draw a rectangle horizontally across the sphere * Highlight the both and click on your Arrange Menu * Click on Align and Distribute (Align and Distribute dialog box appears) * Click on Center Horizontal and Vertical * Click on Apply * Click on Arrange Menu again * Click on Shaping (sub-menu list surfaces) click on "Weld to" * Make a duplicate from the original object * Click on your text tool and type LIPTON TEA and colour with deep yellow .

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1a). From here a dialog box with various different templates will appear on the screen that you can choose from. This will open the list of Microsoft Office applications. (e) inventory management . This will start the Excel application. The information produced in Excel can be used to make decisions in both professional and personal contexts. 3. 2. Click the Microsoft Office folder on the Start menu. Excel is a tool that allows you to enter quantitative data into an electronic spreadsheet to apply one or many mathematical computations. Click the All Programs arrow at the bottom left of the Start menu. Some of the functions for which Excel is widely used includes. click Create. To begin Excel 2010 application the following steps will be applied. Note that these steps along with Figure 5. These computations ultimately convert that quantitative data into information.1 Opening Microsoft Excel To begin Microsoft Excel 2007.1b "Start Menu" relate to the Windows 7 operating system. 4. .Chapter 6 Excel Introduction MS Excel stands for MicroSoft's spreadsheet programme that is used for storing. which is very similar to the Windows Vista operating system. Once a template is chosen. if this does not happen click on the Office Icon > New. (f) Breakeven analysis. When opened a new spreadsheet will pop up on the screen. A spreadsheet is a computer program or a document produced by such a program that we can use for arithmetic computations. (c) corporate budgeting. organizing and manipulating data. Go to Start > All Programs > Applications > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Excel (see figure 5. (d) creating forms and consolidating results. Excel is used for a large number of functions. Click the Start button on the lower left corner of your computer screen. (a) Managing data records like name list (b) Analysis through pivot tables. A spreadsheet offers major advantages over the use of a hand calculator just as a word processing program offers many advantages over typewriting. Click the Microsoft Excel 2010 option. 1. 5.

the analysis and presentation features. pull down menus. text.1 Starting Excel Excel incorporates all the user-friendly features of Windows. dialog boxes and mouse support. a blank workbook will open on your screen. edit. Excel will assign a file name to the workbook. A workbook is an Excel file that contains one or more worksheets (sometimes referred to as spreadsheets). Analysis Features • The windows interface includes windows. • Repetitive tasks can be automated with MS-Excel. Once Excel is started. • Supports on screen databases with querying.(a) Starting Excel 2007 (b) Starting Excel 2010 Figure 5. delete and find database records. • Variations in font size. Presentation Features • Individual cells and chart text can be formatted to any font and font size supported by Windows. Linking of worksheets. • Permits the user to add. • Full featured graphing and charting facilities. scaling and symbols to charts. Easy to use macros and user defined functions. such as . • The user can add legends. extracting and sorting functions. pattern. • Worksheets can be printed horizontally or vertically. style and alignment control can be determined. There are two main features of MS-Excel . Like most of the Windows application in Excel you can minimize or maximize worksheets.

which only has three buttons on it by default – Save. telling you what that button does. which shows you what information is stored in a cell. To the right of this is the Quick Access Toolbar. • Click on the Start button. • Select Program menu. • Select Excel icon from the icon list. Book3. Below the Ribbon is the command line. which has a series of tabs under which different commands are grouped. In the top left corner of the screen. This name will change when you save your work in a file. Excel has given your work a name. Maximize and Close buttons. Use this to Open or Print your files. click on the down arrow on the right and choose Customize Quick Access Toolbar. Figure 5. Book2.2 "Blank Workbook" shows a blank workbook after starting Excel. To add extra buttons. which can comprise a set of related data and chart sheets. at which time you will be asked to supply a real name. and so on. To its right is the Formula Bar.2 "Blank Workbook" To Get started with worksheet the following steps apply. This replaces the menu and toolbar system in previous versions of Excel. depending on how many new workbooks are opened. A blank worksheet labeled Sheet 1 will be displayed and ready for use. All the commands now appear as buttons (pictures) on this Ribbon. The next section down the screen is called the Ribbon.Book1. . Moving right. When you point to a button. Book1. a tool-tip appears. The area on the left (showing the characters A1) is the Name Box. On the far right are the usual Minimize. Undo and Redo. Figure 5. the Office Button appears.

The mouse cursor should also be visible. some of which you will be meeting later in the course. A horizontal scroll bar. appears to the right of the sheet tabs. Each intersection of a row and column is known as a cell and has a unique name.3 Activating a Cell Location . Each cell in an Excel worksheet contains an address. while the column letter and row number are shown with an orange-brown background.The main body of the screen contains the worksheet. You are currently using Sheet1 of Book1. Navigating Worksheets Data are entered and managed in an Excel worksheet. denoting rows. and letters across the top denoting columns. with its identity shown in the Name Box. The worksheet has numbers down the side. The cell in the top left corner is A1 (the intersection of column A and row 1) and is currently the active cell. Any information you type is stored in the active cell. which is defined by a column letter followed by a row number. The worksheet contains several rectangles called cells for entering numeric and nonnumeric data. for moving left and right. This can have several different shapes. The following steps explain how to navigate through an Excel worksheet. Down the right of the screen is the scroll bar. Within the cells it appears as an outlined cross. Figure 5. as denoted by the sheet tab at the bottom. This is denoted by a darker border. which is used for moving up and down your work.

4. Move the mouse pointer to cell A1. The first cell is the top left corner of the range. 2. 5. Any two cell locations separated by a colon are known as a cell range. Figure 5. This is referred to as a cell range and is documented as follows: A1:D5. You should see several cells highlighted. Click and hold the left mouse button and drag the mouse pointer back to cell D5.4 Highlighting a Range of Cells 6. This is how you open a worksheet within a workbook. and the second cell is the lower right corner of the range.5 "Activating a Cell Location". Place your mouse pointer over cell D5 and left click. Release the left mouse button.4 "Highlighting a Range of Cells". as shown in Figure 5. Click the Sheet1 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet to return to the worksheet shown in Figure 1. 3. 7. Check to make sure column letter D and row number 5 are highlighted in orange.1. Click the Sheet3 worksheet tab at the bottom of the worksheet. as shown in Figure 1. .6 "Highlighting a Range of Cells".

. font size.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" shows the options available in the File tab or Backstage view. The File tab is also known as the Backstage view of the workbook. To leave the Backstage view and return to the worksheet. click any tab on the Ribbon or click the image of the worksheet on the right side of the window. which gives you access to settings such as the default font style. new workbooks.The File Tab The Office button in the 2010 version has been replaced with the File tab on the far left side of the Ribbon.5 "File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook" to see the image of your worksheet on the right side of the window. Figure 5. You must click the Info button highlighted in green in Figure 5. or workbooks stored in other locations on your computer or network. and the number of worksheets that appear in new workbooks. It contains a variety of features and commands related to the workbook that is currently open. 5.11 "Excel Options Window" shows the Excel Options window. Figure 1.5 File Tab or Backstage View of a Workbook Included in the File tab are the default settings for the Excel application that can be accessed and modified by clicking the Options button.

typically not used in arithmetic. Lock the data by pressing the Enter key. 3. functions. typically used for explanation (e. holding down the left mouse button. including · Text data: typically consisting of words or phrases. 1.. the following steps are to be followed. A formula typically starts with the “=” character and may involve a variety of symbols that may be cell references. We can stretch or shrink a column or row by placing the mouse cursor at the right edge of a column margin header or the bottom edge of a row margin header. operators of . Note we may enter more text than a cell. and dragging to the desired width or height. row or column headers).g.6 Excel Options Window Data Entry in Worksheet To enter the data in a worksheet. can display. 2. Activate the cell by moving the MS-Excel cursor (rectangular box) or by clicking with the left mouse button. Enter the data from the keyboard. in its current configuration. Data may be entered into the cells of a worksheet in many types.Figure 5. These values are typically used in arithmetic. · Formulas are used to describe a calculation whose value is to be displayed in the cell. · Numeric constants may be entered as text is entered.

Place the cursor in the cell where you want to write the formula 2.arithmetic. Type the formula =B4+B5 then press enter key.7 Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data . Write the formula starting with equal (=) sign and then press enter key. For example. To enter formula in a cell: 1. such as plus sign or minus sign or other operators in a cell to produce a new value from existing values. The following steps provide an example of entering and then editing data that has been entered into a cell location: Figure 5. As data is entered into a cell location. and constants (numeric. A simple formula combines constant values with operators. Editing Data Data that has been entered in a cell can be changed by double clicking the cell location or using the Formula Bar. etc). The Formula Bar can be used for entering data into cells as well as for editing data that already exists in a cell. the formula “=C2-B2” instructs the cell in which it appears to display the result of taking the value in C2 and subtracting the value in B2. text. as well as “cell ranges”. Place the cursor in cell B15 5. Example: To get the sum of cell B4 and B5 in cell B15 4. the data typed appears in the Formula Bar. 3.

Activate cell A15 in the Sheet1 worksheet. and thickness • Align text • Merge cells horizontally in selected rows • Wrap text To save time on many of these formatting actions. If text extends past the length of the cell in your spreadsheet. select the cells that you want to format. Click the number format icon in the toolbar or click the Format menu and hover over “Number”. To turn text wrapping back on. You can hover over an icon on the toolbar to see a description of what that option can do. If you want to turn this feature off. 2. it will wrap onto a second line in the cell. Type the letters al to complete the word Total. follow these steps: 1. Here are the main formatting options: • Change the number. 2. Select the range of cells you'd like to format or modify. To wrap text automatically. 3. 2. To format or change the format of numbers. and allow the text to get clipped off in a cell if it is too long. Select the format you'd like to apply to the range of cells Wrap text: Text within a cell is wrapped by default in work sheets. This will enter the change into the cell. simply click the icon again. 3. patterns. use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Y to repeat the last action you took in your spreadsheet. You will see the pointer turn into a cursor. Format data in a range of cells Data can be formatted in a variety of ways using the options in the toolbar. . In a worksheet. Type the abbreviation Tot and press the ENTER key. Move the mouse pointer up to the Formula Bar. Move the cursor to the end of the abbreviation Tot and left click.7 "Using the Formula Bar to Edit and Enter Data"). 6.1. 1. Click the checkmark to the left of the Formula Bar (see Figure 5. 4. in the Alignment group. click Wrap Text. On the Home tab. date or currency format • Format cell contents • Change font size • Add bold or strikethrough • Change color of the text or a background color • Add borders and adjust border colors. You can also find a number of these actions in the menus or use shortcuts to apply formatting. dates or currencies in a spreadsheet. Click cell A15. click the wrap text icon in the toolbar. 5.

Explanations of the basic options in the format dialog box are bulleted below. Alignment: This allows you to change the horizontal and vertical alignment of the text within each cell. Number: Allows you to change the measurement in which your data is used. Copy and Paste features of Excel can be used to change the data within the spreadsheet. Cut. color. Copy allows you to leave the original selection where it is and insert a copy elsewhere. Cut will actually remove the selection from the original location and allow it to be placed somewhere else. Font: Gives the option to change the size. style. and effects. To Cut or Copy: • Highlight the data or text by selecting the cells that they are held within. A box will appear on the screen with six different tab options (see figure 5. Cells hold all of the data that is being used to create the spreadsheet or workbook. . Formatting Cells: There are various different options that can be changed to format the spreadsheets cells differently. You may change an entry within a cell two different ways: • Click the cell one time and begin typing. • Go to Home Tab > Paste (CTRL + V) to be able to paste your information. and to save the time of re-entering information in a spreadsheet. You may then begin typing in the data for that cell. Paste is used to insert data that has been cut or copied.8). To enter data into a cell simply click once inside of the desired cell. to move data from other spreadsheets into new spreadsheets. • Click the location where the information should be placed. The text within the cells and the control of the text within the cells can be changed as well. and Paste: The Cut. To get to the Format Cells dialog box select the cells you wish to change then go toHome Tab > Format > Format Cells. The new information will replace any information that was previously entered.Formatting: Working With Cells Cells are an important part of any project being used in Microsoft Excel. • Go to the Home Tab > Copy (CTRL + C) or Home Tab > Cut (CTRL + X). When changing the format within cells you must select the cells that you wish to format. Border: Gives the option to change the design of the border around or through the cells. • Double click the cell and a cursor will appear inside. This border indicates that it is a selected cell. a black border will appear around the cell. Copy. This allows you to edit certain pieces of information within the cells instead of replacing all of the data.

Formatting Rows and Columns Height . The cell or cells that are going to be formatted need to be selected before doing this.8. then choose which height you are going to use (Figure 9).9. you will go to the Home Tab and click Format. When changing the row or column visibility (hidden. Formatting Cells To format a row or column go to Home Tab > Row Height (or Column Height).9. unhidden) or autofit. Figure 5. The drop down menu will show these options Figure 5.Figure 5.

Figure 5. Inserting Columns .) Once the column is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that you chose.Adding Rows and Columns When adding a row or column you are inserting a blank row or column next to the already entered data. To insert the row you have to go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Rows (Figure 5. Figure 5. Inserting Rows Before you can add a Column select a column on the spreadsheet that is located in the area that you want to enter the new column. The row will automatically be placed on the spreadsheet and any data that was selected in the original row will be moved down below the new row. Before you can add a Row you have to select the way place the new row (Rows are on the left hand side of the spreadsheet) once the row is selected it is going to highlight the entire row that is chosen.11.11). (Columns are on the top part of the spreadsheet. The column will automatically be place on the spreadsheet and any data to the right of the new column will be moved more to the right. To insert a column go to Home Tab > Insert > Insert Sheet Column (Figure 5.10).10.

"*") Count the cells that have a certain value. . =IF(*) The syntax of the IF statement are =IF(CELL="VALUE" . For example. Formula examples = will create a cell equal to another."PRINT OR DO THIS". 5. For example. become a lot more complicated but can be reduced if following the above structure. You could also create a formula that would make one cell equal to more than one value. For example."TEST") put in cell A11 then anywhere between A1 through A10 that has the word test would be counted as 1. For example. 2.Formulas and Functions Formulas are what helped make spreadsheets so popular. By creating formulas."NOT BLANK"). you would type: =AVERAGE(A1:A30) =COUNTIF(X:X. if you were to put =A1 in B1 what ever was in A1 would automatically be put in B1. if you have a first name in cell A1 and a last name in cell B1. you could put in cell A2 =A1&" "&B1 which would put cell A1 in with B1 with a space between. this would make any cell besides cell A1 say "BLANK" if a1 had nothing within it."ELSE PRINT OR DO THIS"). =MEDIAN(A1:A7) Find the median of the values of cells A1 through A7. 3. So a good example of the syntax would be =IF(A1="". and "NOT BLANK" if any information was within it. if you had =COUNTIF(A1:A10. you can have instantaneous calculations whenever changing any information in cells the formula is looking at. The if statement can. four is the median for 1. if you wanted to get the average for cells A1 to A30. 4. so if you had 5 cells that had the word test A11 would say 5. 7. * All spreadsheet formulas begin with = * After the equal symbol either the cell or formula function is entered. * The function tells the spreadsheet what kind of formula it's dealing with. =AVERAGE(X:X) Display the average amount between cells."BLANK". 6. * Using the colon (:) will allow you to get a range of cells for a formula. * If a function is being performed the math formula or cells being dealt with are surrounded in parentheses. For example. of course.

X. =SUM(A1.B1:B6) which only adds the values B1:B6 if the word "test" was put somewhere in between A1:A6. This value will change to reflect the current date each time you open your spreadsheet. =TREND(X:X) To find the common value of cell. For example =Product(A1:A30) would multiple all cells together. but had numbers in B1 through B6. multiple. =SUM(A1*A2) Multiply cells A1 and A2. So if you put TEST (not case sensitive) in A1."TEST"."*"X:X) Perform the SUM function only if there is a specified value in the first selected cells.12 and you entered formula =TREND(A1:A6) in a different cell.A2. to enter the date. For example.8.6. .X:X. See our lookup definition for a complete definition and full details on this formula. =SUM(X:X) The most commonly used function to add. =SUM(A1:A5) Add cells A1 through A5. A2.A5) Adds cells A1. you would get the value of 2 because each number is going up by 2. =SUM(A2-A1) Subtract cell A2 from A1. so A1 * A2 * A3. subtract. or vlookup formula allows you to search and find related valuesfor returned results.=MIN/MAX(X:X) Multiples multiple cells together. =VLOOKUP(X.10. =SUM(A1+A2) Add the cells A1 and A2. if cells A1 through A6 had 2. =TODAY() Would print out the current date in the cell entered. and A5. =SUM(A1/A2) Divide cells A1 and A2.4. If you want to enter a date that doesn't change hold down CTRL and . Below are some examples.X) The lookup. An example of this would be =SUMIF(A1:A6. it would only add the value in B1 because TEST is in A1. etc. hlookup. =SUMIF(X:X. or divide values in cells.

(a) inserting formula (a) Adding C2 and A2 Figure 5.* / ( ) .Creating Formulas Formulas are used to process numerical data in a worksheet (eg: to calculate a bank account balance . and we must similarly adapt Excel formulas to meet these demands (calculating expenses. etc.12a marked 1. monitoring revenues. Modifying a formula in Excel Demands change over time in every occupation. * To include cell addresses in a formula.). * To include functions in a formula. then press the <Enter> key. then type = . type + . tax calculations.12 Including functions in a formula. and Operators ( + . See figure 5. left click on the required cell or drag across the required cells. Enter numbers in A2 and B2 (eg: 13 and 6). Example: Create a formula in cell C2 to add the contents of cells A2 and B2. left click in B2. Excel immediately adds the contents of cells A2 and B2 and displays the result in C2. The following elements gan be used to create a formula: Numeric values. To create the required formula in C2. Cell addresses. select the required function from those displayed when you click the down arrow ( ▼ ) next to the Functions box. . * To create a formula in a cell. type = . Excel functions (more than 200 available). left click in the cell. etc). type these from the keyboard. * To include numerical values and operators in a formula. left click in A2. : etc). left click in C2. motor vehicle running costs.

The reference A1:A3 includes cells A1. Microsoft Excel has many functions that you can use. *. Reference operators refer to a cell or a group of cells. to which the formula applies. This displays the formula in the formula field. A union reference: includes two or more references. Filling Cells.Figure 5. A2. you can use the SUM function to add. B2. B3. and C3.e. Simply add + 10 to the end of the formula. B8 to B10. range references. and a count of the number of items in a list. and the formula in cell D3 is immediately calculated. A3. -. Understanding Functions Functions are prewritten formulas.B8:B10. such as finding an average. and Printing By using functions. A union reference consists of two or more numbers. The reference A1:C3 includes cells A1. C1. you need to understand reference operators. press the Enter key and the revised formula is saved. A range reference: refers to all the cells between and including the reference. using the mouse. C9 and the number 10. A2. or cell addresses separated by a comma. such as +. B1. When using a function.13: 1.10 refers to cells A7. After revising the formula. There are two types of reference operators: range and union. or /. you can quickly and easily make many useful calculations. i. For example. The reference A7.13 Modifying Formula To modify a formula in Excel apply the following steps using figure 5. 2. the lowest number. We click on the field and we can modify it using the familiar text cursor that appears.C9. Click on the cell. Creating Excel Functions. cell D3. Using Reference Operators To use functions. the highest number. . Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators. 3. A range reference consists of two cell addresses separated by a colon. C2. and A3.

appears . 7. 13. 4.14 SUM function Follow the steps below to apply the sum function. 5. 9. 8. Parentheses enclose the arguments. Excel will complete the function name and enter the first parenthesis. 2. A1. 1. Arguments are values on which you want to perform the calculation. 3. * Enclose arguments within parentheses . Press Enter. Press Enter. Here is an example of a function: =SUM(2. Type =SUM(B1:B3) in cell A4. Figure 5. and B2:C7 are the arguments. Type 27 in cell B2.14. After typing the first letter of a function name. 6. Example 2 The SUM function adds argument values shown in figure 5. Type 12 in cell B1. The sum of cells B1 to B3.remember the following: * Use an equal sign to begin a formula . Open Microsoft Excel. arguments specify the numbers or cells you want to add.13. * Use a comma to separate arguments. double-click on an item in the Auto-Complete list to completes the entry quickly. Press Enter. SUM is the name of the function. Commas separate the arguments. 2.B2:C7) In this function: The equal sign begins the function. Type 24 in cell B3. the Auto-Complete list appears.A1. For example. * Specify the function name . which is 63. Press Enter.

The sum of cells C1 to C3. 6. 5.15 as indicated with the encircled numbers. Figure 5. The Function Arguments dialog box appears as shown in figure 5. 2. Select cells B4 to C4. 10. Figure 5. Choose the Formulas tab. . Click OK. 5. Press Enter.16 illustrates the formatting. Type 85 in cell C2. Click the down arrow next to the Borders button .15 Function dialog Steps 11 and 12 describes figure 5. Choose the Home tab. 1. 3. if it does not automatically appear. Click Sum in the Select A Function box. Type the word Sum. Type 65 in cell C3. To format the worksheet follow the following steps . 7. 4. 12.15. appears.Enter the following also. Press Enter. 11 Type C1:C3 in the Number1 field. 9. Click the Insert Function button. 3. Type 150 in cell C1. 2. The Insert Function dialog box appears. Move to cell A4. Click Top and Double Bottom Border. Click OK. Choose Math & Trig in the Or Select A Category box. 1. 8. 4. 6. which is 300.

Figure 5. Figure 5. The average of cells B1 to B3.17. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B7.16 Formatting the work sheet To calculating the average use the AVERAGE function to calculate the average of a series of numbers as illustrated in figure 5. 3. Type = MIN(B1:B3). which is 21. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B6. 3. 4. Move to cell A6. 2. Move to cell A7. Press Enter. Type =AVERAGE(B1:B3). 2. which is 12. Type Min. appears. The lowest number in the series.17 Calculating average The following steps apply. 1. Press Enter. highest number and number count do the following. Lowest number: 1. 5. . appears. Type Average. To determine the lowest. 4.

which is 27. Click the down arrow next to the AutoSum button The three operations described above is illustrated in figure 5. 3. Move to cell A8. 5. 4. use the count function to count the number of numbers in a series as follows.Highest Number: Use the MAX function to find the highest number in a series of numbers as follows. Move to cell A9. Type = MAX(B1:B3). Press the right arrow key to move to cell B8. Max and count operation .18 Min. 4. The highest number in the series. Type Count. Figure 5. 5. To count the numbers in a series of numbers. 3. 2. Press the right arrow key to move to cell B9. 2. Press Enter. 1. Choose the Home tab. Type Max. appears. 1.18.

· · · · Select cells D8 through E17 as shown in figure 5. Select the insert tab from the top of the excel window In the chart box click on Scatter Choose Scater with Markers Only Figure 5.21 · In the graph double click on chart title and change it to "Force vs Acceleration” · Double click on the x axis title and change it to "Acceleration (m/s2) Note: To superscript the 2 you need to click on the home tab of the main menu and then expand the Font Box so that you can check the superscript box.20.Graphing Data Graphing data is important because it allows us to visualize the relationship between the data and calculated values. .19. The following steps and figures explains this. · Chart should appear · In the design tab under chart layout · Choose layout From figure 5.19 Cell selection From figure 5. We are now going to graph Force vs Acceleration to illustrate data graphing.

· Add a trendline by right clicking on one of the data points and choosing "Add Trendline" In the add trandline window Figure 5.20 Appearance of layout · Double click on the y axis title and change it to "Force (kg m/s2) Note: Again superscript the 2.21 Format trendline .Figure 5.

· Right click on the legend on the right hand side of the graph and select delete.22. If you are going to print the graph as its own page do the following : · Right click in the lower left hand corner and select "Move Chart.22 Placing the chart Formatting the axis · In the new window.23b · Change Major units to fixed · Change the value to 5 · Click close . right click on the "y-axis" as shown in figure 5.23a · Choose format axis · Under the axis Options in figure 5. · click on one of the x axis values and then select "Add Major Gridlines" · If you wanted to paste this into a word document you could copy and past the graph from here to the word document.Copying or placing the chart · Click on the trendline equation text box and move it to the upper right hand corner of the graph window. · Select "New Sheet · it "Force vs Acceleration" · Click OK Figure 5. Figure 5.

the chart will automatically update. a cylinder chart.If Excel is already open on your workstation open a new . To create a chart in Excel. On the Insert tab there are a variety of chart types to choose from. line. or bar. Charts group). 1. As the data is changed. After you choose a chart type. column. Then plot that data into a chart by selecting the chart type that you want to use on the Office Fluent Ribbon (Insert tab.(a) Format axis drop box (b) Axis options Figure 5. start by entering the numeric data for the chart on a worksheet. a three-dimensional chart. execute the following steps. There are further sub-types within each of these categories. such as column. Launch Excel . Select a chart type by choosing an option from the Insert tab's Chart group. and scatter. you can choose to have your chart represented as a two-dimensional chart. a cone chart. area. line.23 Formatting the axis Creating Charts Charts are used to display series of numeric data in a graphical format to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationship between different series of data. Excel supplies a brief description of each chart sub-type. To create a line chart. As you roll your mouse pointer over each option. bar. For example. The basic procedure for creating a chart is the same no matter what type of chart you choose. pie. after you choose Column Chart . choose a chart sub-type. or a pyramid chart.

You can also click on the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. From the Chart Wizard box that opens select Chart type. Select New. That is done by going to the Insert menu and selecting Chart. I selected pie .Excel workbook. · Go to the Standard toolbar. We will use the data in table 1. Highlighted data should look like what we have in table 2. If your worksheet looks like the one above. There are three ways to do that. Highlight data to be graphed. Table 2 Highlighted Data 4. 2. For this activity. Select the Chart Wizard. · Use a keyboard combination: on a Windows computer use Ctrl + N. 5. only the names of fruit and the numbers. Enter the data to be graphed. Do not include the row with heading titles. · Go to the File menu. Table 1 Raw Data 3. put your cursor in call A2. See figure 5. click hold the mouse button down and drag to cell B7.24. Click on the New Workbook button.

Shown in figure 5.Figure 4.25. · Select Finish and Chart Wizard puts your completed chart on the spreadsheet. Figure 5. click and hold your mouse pointer down on the Press and Hold button to see what the data looks like in the chart type selected.25 .24 Chart wizard After selecting the Chart type. Another chart type can be selected. After selecting the chart type two options will be available: · Select Next and let Chart Wizard show you a series of options to make changes to your chart.

click the same box at the end to restore the window.26 Chart options Select Next to move to the final dialog box which allows you to see the chart as a new sheet or place it on one of the sheets in your workbook as shown in figure 5. The dialog box shrinks allowing you to see your entire spreadsheet. click on the box the cursor is pointing to.The second step taken by Chart Wizard is to verify the range of data being used for this chart. When you are finished.26.27 Chart Location . make changes on the legend. The Data range displayed below is read "all cells from A2 to B7. It is pointing to the small box at the end of the line where the Data range is displayed. You can edit the data range in this small window. Select Next to go to the dialog box in figure 5. or make changes on the data labels.” Notice where the cursor is located in the dialog box above. If the data range should be changed. This box allows you to add a title to the chart.27. Figure 5. Figure 5.

23 Figure 5. right. You use the Go To Header and Go To Footer buttons on the Design tab to move between the header and footer areas of your worksheet. 6. You can type in your header or footer or you can use predefined headers and footers. A context tab is a tab that only appears when you need it. 4.Create Headers and Footers A header is text that appears at the top of every page of your printed worksheet. the Design context tab appears and Excel changes to Page Layout view. 2. Page Layout view structures your worksheet so that you can easily change the format of your document. Excel will place the page number in the upper-right corner. or center of the printed page. When you click the Header & Footer button. Click Page Number in the Header & Footer Elements group. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page of your printed worksheet. . When you print your document. 7. Click the Go To Footer button. Both the header and footer areas are divided into three sections: left. When you print your document. Excel moves to the footer area. To insert Headers and Footers as shown in figure 5. Your worksheet changes to Page Layout view and the Design context tab appears. Excel will place your name in the upper-left corner. Click the Header & Footer button in the Text group. right. where you place your information determines whether it appears on the left.23 Inserting Header and Footer 1. and center. When you choose a Header or Footer from the Header & Footer Elements group. Type your name. 3. Choose the Insert tab. Click the right side of the header area. Click the left side of the Header area. 5.

you can use the Next Page and Previous Page buttons to move forward and backward through your document. left. If you print in Portrait. Paper. Printing The simplest way to print is to click the Office button. If you check the Show Margins check box. you can set page settings such as centering your data on the page. Margins define the amount of white space that appears on the top. Among other things. Most business correspondence uses 8 1/2 by 11 paper. Portrait is the default option. and your document prints. The Margin option on the Page Layout tab provides several standard margin sizes from which you can choose. such as paper sized 8 1/2 by 11. and right edges of your document. you can set your margins. . Dotted lines appear on your screen. The dotted lines indicate the right. Excel will place the path to your document at the bottom of every printed page. the shortest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. and select your paper size. The Print dialog box appears when the print button is clicked. You can click and drag the margin markers to increase or decrease the size of your margins. Click the Footer button.6. you will see margin lines on your document. If you are not using 8 1/2 by 11 paper. When using Print Preview. You set print options on the Page Layout tab. To return to Excel. To print specific pages. bottom. The Print Preview option can be to print. Set Print Options There are many print options. which is the default page size in Excel. left. and bottom edges of your printed pages. If your document is several pages long. and then click Quick Print in the Preview and Print the Document pane. top. You can enter the number of copies you want to print in the Number of Copies field. you can use the Size option on the Page Layout tab to change the Size setting. highlight Print on the menu that appears. If you click the Page Setup button while in Print Preview mode. If you print in Landscape. enter the page numbers in the From and To fields. is longer on one edge than it is on the other. There are two page orientations: portrait and landscape. Click the path to your document. 7. the longest edge of the paper becomes the top of the page. You can choose to print the entire worksheet or specific pages. you can see onscreen how your printed document will look when you print it. set your page orientation. A menu appears. Paper comes in a variety of sizes. click the Close Print Preview button.

Chapter 7
Microsoft Access
7.1 Introduction
The value any database can provide is to store related information in one
place, and then let you connect various different things (sometimes called
"entities" in database) together. Microsoft Access is an information
management tool that helps in the storage of information for reference,
reporting, and analysis. Microsoft Access helps in analyzing large amounts of
information, and manage related data more efficiently than Microsoft Excel or
other spreadsheet applications. Microsoft Access works in the same manner
any database does, by storing related information together, and letting you
create connections (commonly called relationships) between different things.
The relationships between two different things in MSAccess can be as simple
as a contact at a customer and the customer itself or complex. Data is stored
in Microsoft Access tables likened to a mini-spreadsheets that store only one
type of thing. A table can have many fields likened to the columns in
spreadsheet. Each field in a table can be set up to allow or prevent users from
entering certain information, for example, you could say one field only accepts
dates, another can only allow a user to enter a numeric value, while another
lets them enter anything they want. Once you have the MS Access tables,
fields, and relationships set up, you can create data entry forms that use those
tables to store your information and later create reports with the data. Some
of the major benefits to using a database are:
Fewer errors and inconsistencies: Maintaining one version of the truth for the
things you need to track minimizes the potential for duplication, errors, and
inconsistent values.
Higher productivity: When working in database you need only change a single
record and all other related things in the database will automatically "see" the
change.
Security and Control: Databases provide a central location to store, secure,
and control your data. Microsoft Access includes the ability to encrypt and
password protect database files.
Better Decisions and Insight: Perhaps most importantly, a single source of
truth in a standardized format means you can gain better insight and make
better decisions by reporting and analyzing your data in a database.
7.2 Features of MS Access
Microsoft Access is a database and, more specifically, a relational database.

Access has an .mdb extension by default, although this has changed in
Access 2007 where the extension is now an accdb extension. Early versions
of Access cannot read accdb extensions but Microsoft Access 2007 can read
and change earlier versions of Access. The Microsoft® Access Database is
made up of 7 major components namely the tables, relationships, queries,
forms, reports, macros and modules.The following gives a quick overview of
each component.
Tables: The tables are the backbone and the storage container of the data
entered into the database. If the tables are not set up correctly, with the correct
relationships, then the database may be slow, gives the wrong results or not
react the way we want it to. Queries, forms, etc. are usually based on a table.
The tables that contain data look a bit like a table in Microsoft® Word or a
Microsoft® Excel Spreadsheet, when opened. They have columns and rows
as does a table in Microsoft® Word and an Excel worksheet. Each of the
columns will have a field name at the top and each of the rows will represent a
record.
Relationships: Relationships are the bonds you build between the tables.
They join tables that have associated elements. To do this there is a field in
each table, which is linked to each other, and have the same values.
Queries: These the means of manipulating the data to display in a form or a
report. Queries can sort, calculate, group, filter, join tables, update data,
delete data, etc. Their power is immense. The Microsoft® Access database
query language is SQL (Structured Query Language). The need to know SQL
is not required in the early stages of learning Access. Microsoft® Access
writes the SQL for you, after you tell it what you want, in the Design view of the
queries window.
Forms: Forms are the primary interface through which the users of the
database enter data. The person who enters the data will interact with forms
regularly. The programmer can set the forms to show only the data required.
By using queries, properties, macros and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications),
the ability to add, edit and delete data can also be set. Forms can be set up and
developed to reflect the use they will be required for.
Reports: Reports are the results of the manipulation of the data you have
entered into the database. Unlike forms, they cannot be edited. Reports are
intended to be used to output data to another device or application, i.e. printer,
fax, Microsoft® Word or Microsoft® Excel.
Macros: Macros are an automatic way for Access to carry out a series of
actions for the database. Access gives you a selection of actions that are

Example #1) Student LastName Example #2) Student FirstName Datatypes: Datatypes are the properties of each field. Example) StudentDatabase. Advanced users of Microsoft® Access tend to use VBA instead of Macros. The module window is where you can write and store Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Tables usually contain multiple fields. There can be multiple tables in a database. run queries. Figure 6.carried out in the order you enter. Figure 6. Example #1) Students Example #2) Teachers Field: Fields are the different categories within a Table. FieldName) Student LastName Datatype) Text . run other Macros. etc. change values of a field.3 Microsoft Access Hierarchy Description Microsoft Access is a powerful program to create and manage your databases. 7.1 shows the Hierarchy that Microsoft Access uses in breaking down a database.mdb Table: A table is a collection of data about a specific topic.1Database hierarchy Database File: This is your main file that encompasses the entire database and that is saved to your hard-drive or floppy disk. Modules: Modules are the basis of the programming language that supports Microsoft® Access. A field only has 1 datatype. Macros can open forms. the list is almost endless.

you will see slight variations in the labeling of the MS Office components. After opening the Access application. However. Under the Blank Database section. which is part of the Microsoft Office Professional suite. The sequence is the same for all MS Office versions. Figure 6. Different version of Windows comes with different version of the Windows Office suite. The screen is likely to differ in detail from the office 2010 in Figure 6.2a shows Office 2003 labels. (a) Office 2003 (b) Office 2010 Figure 6.2 Starting MS Access Creating a New Database 1. To start Microsoft Access. Figure 6. the basics remain the same. 2.7. in the File Name field. nevertheless. select Blank Database. For example.3 Creating a Database .2b. follow the sequence Start/All Programs/Microsoft Office/Microsoft Access. type the file name My First Database.4 Starting MS Access The first step is to start the MS Access DBMS software.

Figure 6. publishing. Ribbon: Contains task-specific commands grouped together under command tabs.3. Click on the Create button 7. A list of the most recently viewed documents allows quick access to databases you are currently working on.4 The work area The Access Interface consists of various tools: Office Button: Located in the top left corner of the office window frame. this button displays a set of commands for creating a new database. saving. This new feature of Access 07 is the replacement for the . printing. reducing the need to search for the proper command tab. It remains visible at all times. it resides above the ribbon. By default. managing. but can be moved below the ribbon. Access Options assists you in customizing the Access environment. and closing a database. opening.5 Access User Interface access user interface is shown in figure 6. emailing. Quick Access Toolbar: The Quick Access Toolbar can be customized to hold your most frequently used commands.4.

Scroll Lock. or by using the Table Templates option which allows the user to create a table based on predefined designs. the Table Design option which creates a table in the design view where the field attributes are displayed. Can be customized to display objects by various groupings. At the top of figure 6. MS Office Window Frame: Located at the bottom of the user interface. When you click the Create button the Access 2007 screen will change to the image in figure 6. Regardless of which method is used. The Window Frame was previously known as the status bar.4 the Table Tools and Datasheet Tabs appears. Security features cause the message bar to appear below the ribbon when you open a database outside of a trusted location. There are three ways to create a table. . or Num Lock. Enable the full content if you are sure the database is virus-free. the frame can be customized to show additional features such as database views. Dialog Box Launcher: Miniature buttons found on command tabs provides additional commands and tools associated with the group. Creating a table is always the precursor to other objects such as queries.former menus and toolbars. Navigation Pane: Displays database objects such as tables. The intersection of a field and a record is a data cell where information relevant to that particular field for that particular record is entered. The Table Design option provides the most control over the design of the table.4 with Tabs and Ribbons that automatically appear for the area in the Access work area. forms. and reports because each object uses the fields and records from a table as the basis for its output. fields can always be modified after the table is created. using the Table option which creates the table and directly displays the blank fields. queries. forms. and reports.6 Creating the Tables Tables The basic building block of a database is the table. The user can assign names to fields and specify a property of each data type accordingly. Caps Lock. A table consists of fields and records. 7. The default Objects selection is Tables and that the default table format is Create table in Design view.

Figure 6. tables created with the Table Design option do not have an "ID" field. . Field names are usually assigned first and then the field properties are specified in the Field Properties pane.Provide a name in the Table Name box and then click the OK button. To create a table using the Table Design option: 1.5. Unlike a table created using the Table option. 2. On the left of the Table Tools-Datasheet Tab/Ribbon is the View button. If field names are not assigned.6). A Save As menu screen will appear similar to figure 6. Click the Table Design button in the Tables group (see Figure 6. Assuming we want to create or design a new Table. our selection will be the Design View selection. When you click the View button the Datasheet and Design View dropbox will appear. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. Figure 6.4 Tabs and Ribbons The Ribbon below these Tabs is composed of Groups of selections to assist in creating the Table.5 Table Name A table created using the Table Design gives the user the most control over the design of a database. Access assigns the default name a field number.

1. Click a field in the new record and enter data as desired. 2. As you enter data. Designate the Data Type for each field by clicking the Data Type drop-down arrow and selecting the type from the drop-down menu. or deleting records. 3. To quickly move between fields in a record. 2.Figure 6. Access automatically saves the information as you enter it. and field descriptions. 6. The Datasheet View window is useful for entering. Using the Description column is optional. The record selector jumps to the blank row at the end of the table and the blinking insertion point appears in the first column. It allows a user to explain or describe the type of information entered in the field. The top pane is the Design Grid pane.6 Table Design View Window The Table Design View window is split into two panes. The bottom pane is the Field Properties pane. . The default data type is Text. Press the [enter] key and the Data Type text box will become active. Use the rows and columns to enter field names. data types. simply click in that row. After creating a table. Double click inside the Field Name text box and enter the desired field name. 1. Other Ways to Add a New Record: If the New record row is in view. Field descriptions are entered by clicking inside the Description text box for a specific field. editing. Press <Tab> or <Shift> + <Tab> keys. To add a record. Click the New Record button on the Record Navigation bar. the Datasheet View can be used to manage information entered into the table.

Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. related tables. Other Ways to Delete a Record: Click the record selector next to the record you want to delete. and serve as the basis for forms or reports. The Design View window opens in the Object Display Area along with the Show Table dialog box (see Figure 6. 7.7 Queries A query is a request to select specific information from a table(s). This section will demonstrate how to create a query using the Design View or the Simple Query Wizard. The bottom pane specifies the fields used in the query. Click the Home tab on the Ribbon.8). and whether a field is displayed when the query is run. Queries do not hold any data. or other queries. display specific information. click the Delete button in the Records group and click the Yes button. . Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. criteria to retrieve the desired information. More than one table can be selected.7). If the table related to a query is deleted (intentionally or unintentionally) the query will no longer function. A query can be used to specify desired fields and criteria to display information from a table. Queries can be used to analyze data. 2. Click the field you want to edit and make the changes. The top pane displays the table(s) used in the query. they hold or save the criteria used to select the data from the table(s). Queries are different from tables even though the interfaces of tables and queries are very similar to each other. To delete records that you no longer need from a table.To edit a record. sort parameters in the query (ascending or descending order). Press the <Delete> key. Click the Yes button. 1. The Query Design window consists of top and bottom pane. A table must exist before a query or any other database object can be created. To create a simple query using the Query Design window: 1. 2. Click the Query Design button in the Other group (see Figure 6. Creating a query in Design View: gives the user control over the design of the query including adding or deleting criteria to selected records and sorting results in the record set.

Each column will drop into the query design grid. The fields are added to the bottom pane.9 Setting query criteria .9. This sets the criteria for the query. Double click the column names to use in the query.7 'Query Design' Selection Select the table to use in the query and then click the 'Add' button.8 Table dialog box 3. For example let us extract all customers in the state of 'CA'. Figure 6. Type "CA" in the text box for the "State/Province" field. 4.Figure 5. Figure 6. See figure 6.

11 Returned Records 6.5.12 Save As dialog box 'Run' butto .12) 8. The Save As dialog box opens (See figure 6. If the query has not been named.10 Run' button on the Ribbon 3 records have been returned for the state of 'CA' (see Figure 6. Click the YES button to save the query. a warning box will open. Figure 6.10).11). Enter a name for the query in the QUERY NAME text box. The query will execute according to the criteria entered and the results will be displayed in the Object Display Area . 'Run' button Figure 6. 7. Removing the criteria from the query grid would return all records Figure 6. Close the query by clicking the Close button in the query window of the Object Display Area. Only records for classes that meet on CA criteria will be displayed. Click the RUN button in the Results group(see figure 6.

A new form containing all of the fields from the table will open in the Object Display Area(See figure 6. All fields for one record can be viewed at the same time. To create a form using the Form Tool: 1.12 Form groups Forms created using the Form Tool will contain the Record Navigation Control identical to those found on a table. Forms can be created from either the Form Design window or by using the Form Tool.13 Form created using Form Tool . Creating a form using the form tool: The Form Tool is the quickest way to create a form in Access. When creating a form.8 Forms Forms can be used to view and edit data in a record. Click the Form button in the Forms group (see Figure 6. All of the information in a record will be displayed on the form. Select the table that will be the basis for the form in the Object Display Area. Figure 6.12). The Form Tool uses all of the fields in the data source and arranges them automatically on a form. Select the Create tab on the Ribbon. Figure 6. Forms can also be used to present data in a more attractive and efficient format than a datasheet and also to display data from related tables. which eliminates the need to scroll to display all the fields in a table.12). 3.7. 2. forms cannot be created without a pre-existing table. it is important to remember that a table is the basis for all objects including forms.

7.14 Navigation plane and the Create Tab on the Ribbon 3.To save the form: 1.15 The Report Wizard. At the Ribbon make sure the 'Create' tab is selected (See figure 6. 2. 2. Figure 51 is an example of a report in tabular format. To create a report. The information from the tables and/or queries can also be arranged so that the report may be utilized as an invoice. There are two basic formats for reports: columnar and tabular. or for formatting and printing mailing labels. Reports provide a means to display and summarize the data in tables or queries. Click on a table in the navigation pane. 1. Click the Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar. order form. Click the OK button. A Report can be created using the Report Tool. At the reports section click on the item called 'Report Wizard' as shown in figure 6.9 Reports A report can be created based on either a table or query object(s). Here we click on the 'Customers' table and it becomes highlighted (See figure 6.15 Figure 6.14a). The Save As dialog box opens. . 3. The columnar report orients field names to the left and their values to the right as in a column form. the Design View or with the Report Wizard. Enter a name for the form in the text box. The tabular report looks similar to the format of tables with the field names listed at the top and their values beneath the field names. presentation. Reports can include headers and footers in which subtotals and totals can be calculated and displayed.14b). (a) Navigation Plane (b) Create Tab Figure 6.

You can also use the arrow keys to move fields between the two boxes. The Print Preview feature displays the pages as they will appear when printed. Printing options in Access are accessed by clicking the Office Button and hovering the mouse over the Print button to display the options available.e. sorting. which sends the entire report to the printer without opening the Print dialog box. Table/Query Fields Figure 6. Quick Print. In the left box double click the field you wish to show on the report. Click the button to complete the report. The report will open in the Object Display Area 7.4. grouping. data source.17a) and allows the user to change printer settings. The item will move to the box on the right. Access prints the report using the formatting and margin settings. The . it is best to preview the report to see how the text appears on each page.16 Query to base report Any aspect of the report (i.. fields selected.1 Printing Reports The report can be printed after it is created. See figure 6.16. Select the table or query to base the report on. The options available in the Print menu of the Office Button include Print which opens the Print dialog box(See figure 6. Click the 'Finish' button. Print Preview opens with one page of the document sized to fit in the window. 5.9. Previewing a report: Before printing. and Print Preview. Using the Print Preview feature can avoid wasting time and paper by viewing the draft version of the report. layout. or style) can be changed by clicking the button until the appropriate dialog box opens and making the changes. which allows the user to view the report in final form before printing.

Table relationships can be created between two tables as long as they have a common field (in the example database. 4. select the Preview tab of the Ribbon. To exit Print Preview. Once a relationship is established you can view information from both tables at the same time by creating a query. Open the report to be printed. 5.17 Printing a Report located at the bottom right corner of the interface (see Figure 6.17c). Click the Office Button. The Zoom slider control is present only when the report is open.17b).17a. To use Print Preview: 1. 6. Setting the relationship up in Access is very important.10 Setting the Relationships between Tables A Relationship is how you tell the program that a piece of information means the same thing in more than one table. 7. Click the Close Print Preview button in the Preview group (see Figure 6. Contacts should have a relationship to Reservations because they both contain the field ContactID). Hover the mouse over the Print button to display the printing options (see Figure 58). Relationships are created using a Primary Key from one table and linking it to a related field in another table (now called a Foreign Key). . Click the Print Preview option in figure 6. 2.(a) (b) ( c) (d) Figure 6. 3.

Select one of the desired tables in the relationship and click on ADD. Click on CLOSE. 3. 1. Click on the SHOW TABLE button.) 4. Repeat for each table involved in a relationship that you need to set up. and the one created in our bookstore scenario. is the One to Many relationship. (The show table window appears automatically if no relationships have been defined. These include: One to One One to Many Many to Many The relationship type you will come across most frequently. . To create a relationship between tables the following steps applies. 2. Click on the RELATIONSHIPS button in the datasheets ribbon. Make sure that your tables are closed and that you are at the database screen.Access 2007 allows for several different types of relationships.

double-click Employees. The Employees table should appear in the Relationships field: 8. 9. The Customers table should appear in the Relationships field: 7. In the Show Table window. .5. Double-click Order Details. Double-click Orders.

Double-click Products. In the Show Tables window. click the Close button. 11. The Relationships field should now look like this: .10.

3. The OLE data type is still available. 3. 7. Click once on the line connecting the two tables. The hyperlink data type allows for storage of hyperlinks and the field can be a solution for the indirect method discussed previously. Open the Relationships window.To Edit Relationships 1. The new data type attachment however. date/time. etc. It can store documents. To Delete Relationships 1. The complete list of data types available to define a field in a table in Access 2007 now include text.11 Adding Images to Access Access 2007 introduced a data type called "attachment". including all kinds of Office files and binary objects. You can have more than one file attached to a record.18 Attachment Dialog Box . Figure 6. Open the Relationships window. 2. A field created with this data type can have up to 2 GB storage allocated. Make any changes to the dialog box and click OK. Double-click on the line connecting the two tables. 2. The line will become bold. Individual files cannot be more than 256 MB though. is the right type for storing images. Press [DELETE] on the keyboard. memo. numbers. and you can use it the old manner.

The document will open in the associated program. Click ''Datasheet View" on the top toolbar so that you return to your normal view. (For example. 5. and double click the specific icon of the attachment (as there can be multiple attachments in a attachment field). If you are starting a new database file.18 appears. Select "Insert Object. Type a field name." . WMF (Windows Metafile) and EMF (Enhanced Metafile) To attach an image file to an access database appy the following steps. TIF (Tagged Image File Format). EXIF (Exchangeable File Format). go to the right record. Click "OK. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format). ICO (Icon)." That is how you insert a file into Access. Click "Create From File" and select to "Browse" for your file. The dialog box lets you look through your directory for the file to be attached.Whenever you need a field that can hold images and other attachments. This brings up a sub-menu. 1. Double click the attachments field and the attachments dialog box in figure 6. DIB (Device Independent Bitmap). for the field the image will be in. you do not need a data entry form. RLE (Run Length Encoded Bitmap). Right-click on any empty field on your database. TIFF. 6. ICON." A new window opens with your "Insert Object" options. BMP (Windows Bitmap). Viewing attachments also does not need the use of a form.") 3. name it and set the data type as "attachment". Office Access 2007 supports the following graphic file formats natively. Instead open the table in the datasheet view. JPEG. select "New. Select the image file that you want to add." You will see a single table. 4. meaning the attachment control renders them without the need for additional software. titled "Table 1. title it "Images. Change your view to "Design View" by clicking the "Design View" button on the top bar of Access 2007. Simply open the table. Open Access 2007. JPG. Use the drop-down menu in the "Data Type" column to select "OLE Object. JPE (Joint Photographic Experts Group). PNG (Portable Network Graphics)." 2. remember to create a field for the same. To add attachments to a table.

g. a unique numeric identifier that can be "static". client. such that your computer's address changes with each new Internet session.org). user@emailprovider. The Internet is a global network of many individual computer networks. For instance. http://www. depending . apart from IP addresses. Every computer connected to the Internet has an IP address. For example. To exchange e-mails. security and safety. all speaking the same computer language. known as a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (e. unchanging. the Internet Protocol (IP). i.com). both the sender and recipient need e-mail addresses (e. teleworking and of the team based use of computers to coordinate group activities. World Wide Web (Web) communications are transmitted via the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and e-mails via the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). 8.g.. The Internet is used to introduce the social implications of a world population that is either 'information rich' or 'information poor' ('computer literate' or 'computer illiterate'?).1 The Internet and World Wide Web. Security is used to introduce the technological and social threats posed by our reliance upon heavily interconnected systems.. Any computer may be server.eff. or may be "dynamically" assigned by your ISP. enabling different types of Internet communications. or both. These additional protocols use their own types of addresses. For example. Computers that offer files for download over the Internet are called servers or hosts. Mobile devices and Computer Supported Cooperative Work are used to introduce the social implications of remote. a computer that offers Web pages for download is called an HTTP server or Web host.e. Safety is used to introduce the consequences of our increased reliance upon fallible programmers and their products. to download a Web page. you need its Web address. For the purpose of understanding the central message we shall illustrate the social aspects of computing using the internet. mobile devices and computer supported cooperative work.0 Introduction This chapter is intended to introduce the social implications of computing technology. We will introduce some key technologies that will have a profound impact upon the way that we live and emphasize the complex social consequences that these technologies will have upon the way that we live. More sophisticated networking protocols may be "layered" on top of the IP protocol.Chapter 8 Social Aspects of Computing 8.

many companies from about 1995 realized they could use the same software and protocols on their own private internal TCP/IP networks giving rise to the term "intranet". The only problems concern the reliability of the system. many areas of the world that are not covered by these facilities. Following the widespread availability of web browsers and servers. runs on the user's computer and provides two basic navigation operations: to follow a link or to send a query to a server. any port can be used for any application. Hypertext links refer to other documents by their URLs. 8.on the communication. Switzerland. Gopher. Telnet or news. Application or client programs. A variety of client and server software is freely available. NCSA Mosaic. These systems use modems in the same way that many users use a modem to connect up over standard telephone networks. The client program (known as a browser). The amount of data in an Internet communication is measured in bytes.g. There are. digital signals of computer networks. Those areas that are covered. use several different systems. However. and these are only conventions The World Wide Web is an Internet client-server hypertext distributed information retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva. Most clients and servers also support "forms" which allow the user to enter arbitrary text as well as selecting options from customizable menus and on/off switches. Errors can be introduced because analogue. that is non-digital. however. as well as those available via the http protocol used to transfer hypertext documents. .536 different computer software "ports. translate user request for information into the communications primitives that are necessary to transfer relevant data from remote servers. Netscape Navigator. menus. e. Communications to and from an Internet-connected computer occur through 65.2 Mobile Computing and Groupware Mobile computation can take place over larger distances using cellular and satellite telephone links. called browsers. These can refer to local or remote resources accessible via FTP. telephone systems were designed to carry the human voice rather than the binary. These problems are being reduced by the introduction of digital networks. indices) is represented to the user as a hypertext object in HTML format. HTTP (Web) is assigned to port 80 and SMTP (e-mail) is assigned to port 25. For example." Many networking protocols have been assigned to particular port numbers by the Internet Engineering Task Force. On the WWW everything (documents.

humancomputer interaction. In either case. Groupware covers a vast range of computer applications: · Conferencing systems. High frequency signals carry more information but are susceptible to interference and dispersion. Each cell has its own transceiver (transmitter-receiver). Where communications infrastructure on the Internet supports relatively low quality video conferencing. Another term that is commonly used for these applications is CSCW systems (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). unintentional electromagnetic interference. Teleworking can combine elements of mobile computation if the user is moving around the country as they work.Cellular Architectures: Radio technology offers perhaps the most obvious means of connecting mobile devices. delays may interrupt both images and sound. . these systems avoid the irritations that can arise when three or more people try to communicate over the same phone line. the intention is to reduce the problems that can arise during telephone conversations. These enable groups of users to remotely log-in to their place of work. Another class of systems supports teleworking. It can also include elements of groupware if they have to cooperate with their colleagues over the network. There is a trade-off between the volume of information that a radio signal can carry and the distance that the signal will travel. They need not be physically present in their office. interference from other devices using the same channel and variable signal strength due to movement of the device. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks provide means of firing multimedia data at high speeds across local and wide are networks. These systems range from simple messaging applications where textual messages may appear below the user's name. If the user moves from one cell to another then their 'calls' are passed between transceivers. the area to be covered is divided into a number of cells. In the case of video conferencing systems. there are important visual cues about who wants to talk next etc. Radio-based communication also suffers from: signal fade due to adverse atmospheric conditions. In this system. group text-editors even `virtual' universities. broken connections and interruptions that frustrate mobile. Low frequency signals carry less information but will travel over longer distances. There are multi-user conferencing systems. This approach exploits the cellular systems that currently support mobile 'phones. to full-blown video conferencing systems. Until such problems are addressed. In particular. Groupware refers to computer programs that are intended to help several different people work together on a common product. users will continue to suffer the delays.

The battle between the two browsers to . They may also help teams to work out where their colleagues are currently concentrating within a system.· Multi-user text editors. Using a web browser causes data to be stored on your computer and logs to be stored on the web servers you visit. If both groups can access the most recent version that the other group is working on then these problems may be avoided. you probably think of ". The World Wide Web as a vast collection of electronic files stored on millions of computers all around the world. The following can be done while surfing the net. the various operators must cooperate to preserve the safety of an application. When you launch your web browser a predefined web page appears. for example. For example. They help groups of programmers to develop code. depending on how it is designed. This page is referred to as the home page or start page. This is important. These applications include computer interfaces to systems on-board aircraft or within power generation systems. Web Browsers: Web browsers are software on your machine that communicate with servers or hosts on the Internet. Online Learning etc.com. Each site would then be unsure about whether they had the most recent copy or whether it was `in the post'." In order to locate online data. Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses so you can return to them quickly. These are Computer-Aided Software Engineering systems. they might provide information about the data types that must be used in two different areas of a program.3 Surfing the Web A website has one or more related web pages. without having to retype them. Confusion would result if one user tried to shut-down a component while another tried to start it up and many more. Hypertext links these files together. When you think of the Internet. Although many different browsers are available. and frequently transmits unencrypted information. Online Shopping. · CASE tools. Again. Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate the files. Finding Cheaper Textbooks. the web servers that host the information each have a unique numerical address. These systems enable groups of users to simultaneously edit the same document. Job Hunt Online. Web pages on a site are linked together through a system of hyperlinks. enabling you to jump between them by clicking on a link. if two different groups have to work on different sections of a joint publication. The alternative would be to send and re-send different drafts between the various sites. 8. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox are by far the most popular. · Command and control systems.

HTTPS is a more secure alternative to HTTP. and to track the state of a multi-step transaction such as a reservation or shopping cart purchase. Check three indicators to ensure that you're at an HTTPS page: (1) the URL begins with https://. the server will record not only what you sent it.3. HTTP is susceptible to eavesdropping. the website to record the IP address of the computer you are using. especially full length movies. For instance. HTTPS: Most sites on the web are accessed using the unencrypted HTTP protocol.dominate the market has led to continuous improvements to the software. When downloading content from the Web. If a site does not support HTTPS. and cookies that were created when you previously looked at pages on the site. A web server must be configured to support HTTPS properly before you can use it. you are actually downloading a text document and all its associated graphics from a web server. when you access a web page. and even to intermediaries that might set out to modify the pages a browser is fetching. but also information that might identify you: your IP address. and (3) the URL/location bar is colored. the browser and operating system you are using. it is not possible to block all cookies without losing the ability to log into many sites and perform transactions with others. Media files. your account if you are logged in to the site. what that previous site/page was.1 Downloading data and Files: Almost everything you do on the Web is some form of downloading. so downloading may take hours. For instance. do not send sensitive information to it. You need to identify the file type to know whether it will work on your computer. As a result. can be very large. Cookies: Cookies are pieces of information that a web site can send to your browser Cookies are the most common mechanisms used to record the fact that a particular visitor has logged in to an account on a site. (3) that the page was really sent by the web server listed in the URL bar. (2) there is a lock icon in the corner of the browser. (2) that the page cannot be modified by third parties. image or script from a website. and attempts to ensure three things: (1) that third parties cannot see the contents of the page. If there is a site you are sending a sensitive information to. 8. you will undoubtedly encounter many different types of electronic file formats. if you type any information into a form on a web page (such as a search engine). Web servers usually see and retain a large amount of information about what you do when you surf to them. ensure that you are using HTTPS. whether you followed a link from another web page to get to the page. HTTPS encrypts pages. IP Addresses: Whenever your browser fetches a page. depending on the .

Figure 7.1 illustrates the typical steps messages might travel through. 4. you have to install the software. verify. Close all programs that are running. 7. create a Temporary Files folder by opening Windows Explorer. and stores data on third party machines. name it Temp files.Once you locate the software you want to download. click the Save button.When the folder appears. games or any other files from the Internet. transmits data over the network.After the software is installed. Find the file you downloaded and double-click it. 2.If you do not already have one.4 Email The act of using email stores data on your machines. Click the Save button. 5. except Windows Explorer. Major email clients such as Microsoft Outlook and Mozilla Thunderbird can be configured to work smoothly with encryption software. 6. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and its free cousin GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG) are the standard tools for doing this. 3. click on the link to begin the download process. After the download is finished. The usual measures apply to managing the copies of emails (both sent and received) that are kept on your own machines. then selecting File/New/Folder. Email usually travels through a number of separate hops between the sender and receiver. Follow these simple steps for downloading software.First you will be asked if you want to save the file. 1. End-to-End Encryption of Specific Emails Encrypting emails all the way from the sender to the receiver has historically been difficult.speed of your connection. plug-ins. and the available types of encryption for those steps. then locate the Temp file folder on your hard drive and double-click to open it. New programs are usually installed in the Program files folder. delete the file in your Temporary files folder to free up space on your hard drive 8. Encrypt your drives and decide upon and follow an appropriate data deletion policy. making it a simple matter of clicking a button to sign. Next. .A series of installation screens directs you through the process. To speed things up. the transmission protocols used for those steps. although the tools for achieving this kind of end-to-end encryption are getting better and easier to use.If you are really bored. highlighting your hard drive (typically the c: drive). many large files are compressed. Both of these programs can provide protection for your email in transit and also protect your stored data. encrypt and decrypt email messages. you can watch the file as it downloads.

Client-to-Mail Server Encryption If you use POP or IMAP to fetch your email. messages are passed between mail servers without encryption. Data Stored on Second.and Third-Party Machines There are two main reasons why your emails will be stored on computers controlled by third parties. employers and webmail hosts of those you correspond with. This would commonly be an ISP. get your service provider or systems administrator to fix that. ensure that you only access it using HTTPS rather than HTTP. make sure it is encrypted POP or IMAP. In most cases. If you use a webmail service. then there is a third party who obtains (and may store) copies of all of your emails. Copies of messages will also be scattered across computers controlled by the ISPs. emails are typically relayed along a chain of SMTP mail servers before reaching their destination. or a webmail provider. You can use your mail client to look at the headers of any email you've received to see the chain of servers the message traveled along. an employer. Storage by your Service Provider: If you do not run a personal mail server.Figure 7. If your mail server doesn't support the encrypted version of that protocol.1 Message route and transmission protocols Server-to-Server Encrypted Transit After you press "send". But there is a standard called SMTP over TLS which allows encryption when the sending and receiving servers for a given hop of the chain support it. Make sure your email software is configured so that it deletes messages off of your ISP's .

5: You can now read the content of the email and reply if you wish by clicking on the arrow at the top right hand of the email for reply or by clicking Reply underneath the message.4. Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an email 1: Log into your Gmail account so that you are on the dashboard (main page) of your account.1 Opening and Sending Emails and Attachments When you receive an email from friends or family. almost every email you send and receive will be stored in at least one other place. 3: The inbox shows a list of emails received. If you use webmail or IMAP. The one towards the left shows who the email is from. arranged in columns. Keep in mind that with major webmail services. just like opening an envelope to read a letter. copies might be made on their ISP or firm's mail or backup servers. The content of PGP/GnuPG encrypted emails will not be accessible through these third parties. 4: Once you've identified an email you wish to open. although the email headers (such as the To: and Subject: lines) will be. Once you've opened and read the email and then returned to the inbox. the one in the centre gives the subject of each email. IMAP or webmail leaves copies of messages on the server. you can find out what they've written by opening it. Storage by Those You Correspond With: Most people and organizations save all of the email they send and receive. 8. Therefore. . For security use PGP to encrypt those messages. This guide explains how to open an email in a Gmail account. or using end-to-end encryption for sensitive communications. or send them by some means other than email. delete messages immediately after reading them. the read email will be displayed in normal. Running your own mail server with an encrypted drive. regardless of the practices and procedures you follow. although other email applications will follow very similar steps. and you'll find the time and date when each one was received in the right-hand column. it may take months before the message is really deleted. 2: Go to your inbox. If you haven't opened and read an email.mail server after it downloads them by using POP to fetch your mail. non-bold text. this information will appear as bold text in the list. Be aware that even if you use PGP. In addition to the personal machine of the person you sent/received the message to/from. those you communicate with could be subject to subpoenas or requests from law enforcement to decrypt your correspondence. click on the line that shows the information about that email. are the best ways of mitigating these risks.

6: Email text can be formatted in a similar way to text in a word document. or open the folder to which the document has been saved by clicking Open folder. type in the first recipient's email address. 3: A new blank email will open up. 2: Click Compose from the dashboard options. 3: Another box will pop up asking if you want to 'Open'. In the 'To' box. To download. 4: To include someone else in the email to 'keep them in the loop'. 5: The subject field allows you to give the recipient an idea of the topic of your email.6: When you've finished reading your email. type in the email address of the recipient. 4: Find a place to save your document and download it to your computer. Click Save. You can also create bullet points and check the spelling of your email. How to send an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to send an email 1: Log in to your Gmail account. in the 'To' address box. which will open another field. . Then type a comma and make a space. Click on the icon 2: The email will open up with the attachment shown at the bottom and you will be offered two options: view the attachment via an internet page or download the attachment to your computer. colour and size using the formatting icons. click back to inbox icon to close the email and go back to the list of emails in your inbox. How to open an attachment Follow these step-by-step instructions to open an attachment 1: An email with an attachment will have a paperclip icon next to it to show that there is something attached to the received mail. click Download. Step 7: Type your message in the main body field of your email. 5: Click Back to Inbox to go back to your list of received emails. Adding an email address to the 'Cc' field means that that person will receive a copy of the email and all the other recipients will see their email address. like a heading. 'Save' or 'Cancel' the download. To send to multiple recipients. the person will get a copy of the email but no other recipient will see that address. You can change the font style. to separate this address from the next email address. Type in the second address and continue. click on the Cc or Bcc. 'Cc' means 'carbon copy' and 'Bcc' means 'blind carbon copy'. you may be offered another dialogue box with further options: open the document itself by clicking Open. Step 8: Click Send. If an email address is put into the 'Bcc' field. inserting a comma and a space between each subsequent address. Once the document has been downloaded.

type your recipient's email address in the 'To' field. 2: Go to your inbox. you can retrieve it from the 'Drafts' folder by clicking Drafts and then clicking the correct item in the 'Drafts' folder list. Finish the email and click Send as normal. 3: Peruse the inbox for emails to be deleted. click Send How to delete an email Follow these step-by-step instructions to delete an email 1: Log into your email account. 5: Browse through your Windows folders until you reach the document you want to attach to your email. In all areas of computer use. 5:The selected email will be deleted. You can also delete an email by opening it and then clicking the delete icon.Step 9: The email you've sent will now be stored in the 'Sent Mail' folder on your Gmail dashboard. Alternatively. This will add the document as an attachment to your email. 6: You can tell that your document has been attached to you email by its file name appearing in blue text at the bottom of the compose window. How to email a document Follow these step-by-step instructions to email a document 1: Log in to your email account so that you are on the dashboard (front page) of your mail account. 7: To send your email. Step 10: Click Save Now at the top of the email to save the unfinished email to your 'Drafts' folder. A number of reasons can be identified for this rising threat. The increasing interconnection of the world's computer networks is a an issue . 2: Click Compose. Highlight this by clicking on it and then click Open. 3: Once your new email is open. When you decide that you are ready to send it.5 Security and Privacy Security is becoming an increasing concern for computer users. then following the same steps. 8. you can reply to an email that you've received by double-clicking on it in your list of received emails. Then put a title for your email in the 'Subject' box and type your message. click the 'select' box to the far left of the each email so that a tick appears in the box 4: Click the delete icon. the threats posed by malicious and criminal activities are increasing. These range from the increasing interconnection of the world's computers to the increasing technological sophistication of the general population. 4: Click where it says Attach a file to attach a file.

causing you to loose files or cause your word or excel software to not work properly. Most email viruses are . hence their name as in the Trojan Horse. Viruses can find their way onto the computer in many different ways. The basic types of viruses are Worm Viruses: Worm viruses are self-contained programs that remain hidden and propagate via email or duplication. What a particular virus will do to your computer depends on how it was programmed when created. such as the hard drive. it can be transmitted by email. Trojan viruses pretend to be a legitimate piece of software. by floppy disks or by CDs. 8. particular those that have been burnt on a computer infected by viruses. as well as affect the computers hardware. causing hard drives to reformat. Like biological viruses. like the monitor. spreading the infection to other files. causing the computer to become unstable. video drivers to be deleted or the operating system to stop running. in downloads from the internet. From there. or a file in the computer's operating system. deleting files and re-writing system files.5. All of this increases the stakes for malicious and criminal users. 8. Boot viruses: Boot viruses attack the boot sectors on your hard drive and interfere with your computer's basic operation. Trojan viruses: Trojan viruses pretend to be other software. modify existing software so that when run. Macro viruses: Macro viruses tend to attack data files. particular when operating system files are deleted.1 Computer Viruses A computer virus is a program that is designed to damage or disrupt the normal functions of your computer and its files.5. making your operating system run strangely or even corrupt it all together. data file. While this may cause the monitor to stop working properly. but in reality can attack your hard drives. the legitimate program spawns copies of the virus. viruses only attack files in the computer. computer viruses attach themselves to a host. Computer viruses can cause very serious damage to the computer's program and data files. which is then forwarded on in email or other files. like word documents and spreadsheets. through network connections. They do not attack the computer's hardware. Plain text email messages normally do not spread viruses. mouse or keyboard. it replicates itself.2 E-mail Viruses Email is probably the most common method for spreading viruses. However. some viruses will attack the files that operate your computer's hardware. usually a program file.because more and more companies are connecting to the Internet.

can result in damage to your computer. For a virus contained in an email message to attack your computer.3 Minimising Exposure to Viruses The best way to minimize the chances of getting a virus infection is to be pro active and follow some basic steps we have outlined below.5. it is recommended that: • you do not forward the email. or come from a free email source. • Try to use an email client for checking your email which does not automatically execute or opens attachment . • Make sure that you regularly scan your computer for viruses using your antivirus software. if followed. These emails. • Make sure that you regularly up date your anti virus software definitions. Virus hoaxes are typically alerts that are passed on by naive users who think they are helping people out. 8. The reality is that most of these warnings are designed to cause fear or simple confuse people. more often than not are merely hoaxes. • you do not follow the instructions contained in the email or forward the email to others. or in email messages containing embedded executable code. To protect yourself against email viruses it is important that you do not open attachments from senders you don't know. • Scan floppy disks before opening them. like open an attachment or open a html link embedded in the message. If you receive a message warning you about viruses. Purchase and Install anti-virus software. • Virus scan any new programs or other files that may contain executable files before you run or open them. it will normally require your computer to executive some code. sent on by well meaning people. • you ignore all such emails unless they are clearly from an authoritative source. • Do not open emails or email attachments that have been sent by a strange person or organization. Make sure the software you select is compatible with your computer's operating system. and offers an update service. If you use an email client to check your email. while seeming to alert you to a real virus treat.spread via attachments to email messages. In some cases such messages contain instructions that. you may receive "Virus Warning" emails. like hotmail or yahoo. and back up their claims with references to credible sources. avoid clients that automatically open attachments Virus Hoaxes: From time to time.

When you purchase software. whether for business or personal use. There are different kinds of piracy and risk associated with them. Respecting intellectual property rights laws benefits everyone. not the actual software.Intellectual Property. downloading. There are fines and penalties for being out of compliance. It strengthens economies. unauthorized reproduction and illegal distribution of an item or product. Any discs they burn for you or email attachment sent to you should be treated . sharing. stimulates technological progress. you are pirating. Casual copiers are statistically more likely to have PCs infected with malware.5. That license is what tells you how many times you can install the software. but they can be challenging due to widespread theft associated with counterfeiting and trafficking of pirated goods. Your unwitting involvement in such activities may also leave you open to threats and blackmail. and gives customers the genuine software experience they deserve while protecting them from becoming victims. artists. selling. you are actually purchasing a license to use it. The exclusive rights and legal protections of IP come in the form of copyrights. Casual Copying: This is where a friend or colleague gives you a copy of an application. 8. or installing multiple copies onto personal or work computers. This can be done by copying. If you make more copies of the software than the license permits. Software piracy is the unauthorized copying or distribution of copyrighted software. Obtaining software this way entails all same risks as dealing with criminals for any other reason along with the risk that the software will not be operational and you will not be entitled to any support. meaning having more licenses installed than you have entitlements for. creates job opportunities. These protections encourage innovation and creativity. Despite persistent rumors to the contrary this is in fact illegal. distributing illegal images and video or decrypting stolen passwords and credit card codes. We will attempt to explain them as follows. so it is important to read it. musicians and authors. Criminal and Counterfeit: This is where processional criminals sell unsuspecting victims goods that appear genuine but are not. have severe ramifications. This malware can be used to spy on you to steal identity information and passwords and to secretly use your computer for other criminal activities such sending spam. trademarks and patents. businesses.4 Software Piracy Piracy is the mislicensing. protects honest workers from losing their jobs to criminals. Many criminal software pirates also make extra money by being paid to distribute malware with their products. Piracy & License Compliance Intellectual property (IP) represents original creative works and innovations belonging to inventors.

with that in mind. As proof of purchase is often required for technical support
you will not be able to benefit from free technical support and critical upgrades.
P2P or Filesharing: This is where pirated applications are uploaded to a
global network where anyone can download a copy of them. Malware
distribution and Identity Theft are major criminal operations and P2P networks
are an ideal way for them to distribute their dangerous software. Very often
files downloaded from such networks will pass all security checks because
they look like normal software.
8.5.5 Software License Compliance
Compliance is either a state of being in accordance with established
guidelines, specifications, or legislation or the process of becoming so.
Software, for example, may be developed in compliance with specifications
created by some standards body, such as the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE), and may be distributed in compliance with the
vendor's licensing agreement. In the legal system, compliance usually refers
to behavior in accordance with legislation. Licence compliance is operating
within the terms and conditions that apply on the license that is purchased.
Software compliance is being able to demonstrate that you have the correct
number of licenses paid for and accounted for on your systems compared and
matched to what you have installed.
Software license compliance and being compliant means;
* Knowing what software you have installed
* Knowing what software licenses you have purchased
* Knowing that your installations do not exceed your license purchases
* Knowing what software is being used
* Knowing the details of your software license usage rights & restrictions
* Maintaining compliance while significantly reducing overall software costs
8.6 Protection Mechanisms
The increasing range of attacks that can be made against computer systems
must be countered by a relatively small number of protection mechanisms. We
shall consider some of the protection mechanisms in this section.
8.6.1 Encryption
Encryption is a technique that uses math to transform information in a way that
makes it unreadable to anyone except those with special knowledge, usually
referred to as a "key." Encryption provides a very strong technical protection
against many kinds of threats and this protection is often easy to obtain. Users
can protect their data against attack by encrypting it. This involves turning any

message into a coded form that the intruder cannot read. Encryption is
conceptually similar to the "secret codes", the idea is to take a normal humanreadable message (often called the plaintext message) and transform it into
an incomprehensible format that can only become comprehensible again to
someone with secret knowledge:
Plaintext message + Encryption algorithm + Key = Scrambled message
Decryption algorithm + Key + Scrambled message = Plaintext Message
A simple encryption system would be to change each letter in your message to
a set number of letters later in the alphabet. The specific number of spaces
you move down the alphabet for each letter is the secret key. If the key is two, A
becomes C, B becomes D, C becomes E, etc. Using that encryption system,
the plaintext message "INSECURE" would become "KPUGEWTG.” There
are various different approaches to encryption;
· secret key encryption: In this approach, you have an algorithm which hides
the message. in order to decode any file, you need a key to extract the original
message. For example, if you take the position of any character in the
alphabet and add two positions to it you can get a coded message. A -> C, B ->
D, C -> E, D -> F and so on. In order to decode this message you need to know
the system that was used and you also need to know the key, that is that you
must more the characters two places to the left to get the original message. If
you moved the characters four places or five places the whole thing would fail.
· public key encryption: Basically, you have two keys. One is used to
encrypt the message. anyone can have this as a means of sending you a
secret. You also devise an algorithm which means that nobody else can
decode the message without another second key that is kept secret. This will
be covered in more detail in third and fourth year courses.
Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are a very powerful and general tool that can
be used to encrypt all of the communications between participating
computers. VPNs can be used to improve the privacy and security of protocols
that are not encrypted (or not securely encrypted) by default. The biggest
catch with VPNs is that all of the computers participating in them must be
running the same VPN software, and must be correctly configured to
communicate with each other. In general, this means that deploying a VPN is
a non-trivial task requiring significant systems administration time.
Organizations that need to arrange secure access to intranet web servers, file
servers, print servers and similar facilities should deploy VPNs.
8.6.2 Digital Signature
A digital signature is an electronic signature that can be used to authenticate

the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of a document, and
possibly to ensure that the original content of the message or document that
has been sent is unchanged. Digital signatures are easily transportable,
cannot be imitated by someone else, and can be automatically time-stamped.
A digital signature can be used with any kind of message, whether it is
encrypted or not, simply so that the receiver can be sure of the sender's
identity and that the message arrived intact. Assume that you have a public
key system. Instead of keeping the key that you use to decode a message
secret, keep the key that you use to encode the message a secret. this means
that you can give everyone the key that you need to decode a message but
only one person will know how to encode a message so that the decryption will
work. Because only one person can correctly encode the data, this system is
like adding a signature to a message, recipients know its from you because
only you know how to encode the data.
8.7 Access control
Ultimately, the security of most systems depends upon associating lists of
privileges with either users or system resources. For example, when you logon you typically give a password. This then sets all of your privileges with the
system. If you are a member of the support staff then you will be able to do
more things than a member of academic staff. This technique is known as a
capability based approach
8.7.1 Unauthorized Access
This is when a person who does not have permission to connect to or use a
system gains entry in a manner unintended by the system owner. The popular
term for this is “Hacking”. Nobody wants that someone access to his/her
system in unauthorized way. To secure your computer and prevent any
unauthorized access from other people or software programs we can use the
following;
1. Operating system and software patches and updates:There is no such
thing as perfect software, often a software program may have several issues
and could potentially have security vulnerabilities that can leave your
computer open to attacks that compromise your computer and your data.
Software patches, updates, and drivers are made available, often for free, to
consumers to help keep a software program and operating systems running
properly and secure. If the program you are using does not have any type of
method of checking for updates on its own it is up to you to verify the program
is up-to-date. Often this can be done by visiting the web site of the developer
who created the program. A listing of third-party companies and links to each

* When creating a password. Get a hardware or software firewall: We highly recommend all users have some type of firewall solution. * Create a BIOS password. Software firewall: A software firewall is a software program that you install on your computer that helps protect that computer from unauthorized incoming and outgoing data. root. Default passwords such as password. Often many home users who have a home network use their network router as a firewall solution.of their pages can be found on our third-party support page. It is recommended at least once every few months. add numbers or other characters to the password to make it more difficult to guess. There are two types of firewall's your computer and/or network can have. Instead use a password manager. Hardware firewall: A hardware firewall is a hardware device that is connected to your network. . for example: 1mypassword23!. 2. * Do not use sticky notes around your computer to write down passwords. 3. admin or no password will allow easy access to your computer or your Internet account * Change passwords often. Passwords: Make sure a password has been set on computer.

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