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LAUNCHING OF SUB-4

METRE SUV: HYUNDAI


ABC

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF
MANAGEMENT LUCKNOW
SUMMER INTERNSHIP
PROJECT
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYDRAULIC
POWER PACK FOR LUMMUS BALER

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Mr NILKANTHA K DOLE
SENIOR MANAGER MECHANICAL MAINTENANCE

PREFACE

Each and every report is prepared with a purpose. This report is


also prepared focusing on interpreting the relevant information
of my two month summer internship (May-July, 2014). The
objective of this project was to study the existing hydraulic
pack of the LUMMUS Baler at RIL-PMD and comparing it with the
hydraulics of the AUTEFA Baler and develop and design a new
system for the former.
The initial stages of the project involved developing an
elementary understanding of the different plant processes and
getting acquainted with the equipment, their operating
principles, and design and performance parameters. The next
stage was a data collection process, wherein a survey was
conducted for collection of appropriate data which would later
be used to evaluate different performance parameters for the
equipment.
Finally, the vendors were contacted for implementing the
changes desired based on the study to help improve the
efficiency and reduce the power consumption of the LUMMUS
Baler.
I would like to thank Mr Nilkantha K Dole, my mentor, for his
constant guidance and the immensely helpful discussions on
various issues encountered during the course of the project. I
am also grateful to Mr Sanush, Mr J P Mahale and Mr Puneet
Singh for providing me with the necessary information.
Looking forward to the reply of my readers, mentors, and my
teachers that has always been a great source of inspiration and
motivation for me.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of
any task is incomplete without the mention of the people
whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant
guidance and encouragement crown all the efforts with
success.
I am grateful to Reliance Management for giving me an
opportunity to enhance my skills as a mechanical engineer by
allowing me to join this esteemed organization as a summer
trainee.
I am highly obliged to Mr Muralidhara Rao, my Project Leader
and Mr Nilkantha K Dole, my Mentor, for their invaluable
guidance throughout my project.
I would also like to thank Mr Sanush Arthakad, Mr J P Mahale
and Mr Puneet Singh for all their valuable assistance in project
work.
Also my heartfelt thanks to Mr Ashok Pabbawar, Mr
Hanmantgad and Mr Aniket for providing me the necessary
congenial atmosphere and their support during the course of
my internship.
While working on this project I realized that a company like
Reliance is not only a store house of able engineers but also
proficient managers and that every project done over here
requires a true blend of technical and managerial skills.
Thanking all once again
AMAN GUPTA

CONTENTS
I PREFACE
II ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
III EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Ril Overview
1.2 Ril Patalganga Manufacturing Division Overview
1.3 PSF Plant Process
1.4 Drawing Process
1.5 Cutting Process
1.6 Packaging Process

2 LUMMUS BALER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


2.1 Hydraulic System Block Diagram
2.2 Solenoid Valve Operation
2.3 Sequence of Motion

3 AUTEFA BALER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


3.1 Pre-Press System
3.2 Main Press System
3.3 Press Box Lifting System
3.4 Cooler-Filter Unit

4 MAINTENANCE

4.1 Denison Vane Type Double Pump


4.2 Denison Goldcup Axial Piston Pump
4.3 Checking of Solenoid Valves and Related
Abnormalities

5 CALCULATIONS
5.1
5.2
Balers
5.3
5.4

Power Consumption Cost


Calculating Maintenance required by the two
Efficiency of Pumps in LUMMUS Baler
Flow Rate Required for Different Processes

6 RECOMMENDED FLOW DIAGRAMS


7 RECOMMENDATIONS
8 REFERENCES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This summer internship is a part of my 7 th semester curriculum.
I was selected by Reliance for this summer internship and was
assigned a project at the Patalganga Site.
The title of me project was

STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF


HYDRAULIC PACK OF LUMMUS
BALER.
This project was carried out to study the existing
hydraulic pack of the LUMMUS Baler and compare it

with the AUTEFA Baler and design and develop a


similar system, i.e. more compact and efficient, for the
former.

The hydraulic system of the LUMMUS Baler consists of


a central hydraulic oil tank with a pumping unit
assembly consisting of two pumps, one double vane
pump (approximately 100 GPM capacity at shaft end
and 67.5 GPM capacity at the cap end) and one piston
pump (approximately 46 GPM capacity) run by a 125
HP motor, on each side of the tank. The discharge from
the pump is supplied to the top and bottom ram of the
baler through a complex hydraulic circuit consisting
sixteen solenoid valves.

The requirement of new system arises because the


same process which is being done by the LUMMUS
Baler is done by the AUTEFA Baler. But the cost to
pack 1000 bales in the former is approximately 2.8
lakhs compared to 75 thousands by the latter and
the system is also quite complex and cumbersome.

The efficiencies of the different pumps used in the


LUMMUS Balers hydraulic pack was also calculated
which came out to be 67.5% at the shaft end of the
Double Vane Pump, 65.2% at the cap end of the
Double Vane Pump and 74.5% for the axial piston
pump and thus these pumps can be replaced by higher
efficiency pumps.

Recommending that the pumping unit consisting two


pumps on each side, to be replaced by modified
pumping assembly consisting or VICKERS Double Vane

Pump or VOITH Gear pump (with flow rates up to 500


GPM and pressure of 3500 PSI) mounted above the
Hydraulic oil tank run by a single motor of adequate
power.

In the meantime, oil used, Servosystem 46 to be


replaced by Servosystem 68 which is more viscous at
the working temperature which improves efficiency as
internal leakage will be reduced reducing the pressure
loss. Also, the tramper system of the other two
LUMMUS Baler should also be upgraded to hydraulic
pre-press.

Keeping this in mind, the flow rates required for the


different processes, that takes place during the Baler
pressing processes, was calculated. After calculating
the exact flow rates required, REXROTH, a hydraulic
system developers company, was contacted and
informed about our requirements and their engineers
visited our plant and further discussions are being
done with them.

INTRODUCTION
RIL OVERVIEW
The Reliance Group, founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (19322002), is Indias largest private sector enterprise, with
businesses in the energy and materials value chain. Groups
annual revenues are in excess of US$ 34 billion (as stated on

www.ril.com). The flagship company, Reliance Industries


Limited, is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest
private sector company in India.
Backward vertical integration has been the cornerstone of the
evolution and growth of Reliance. Starting with textiles in the
late seventies, Reliance pursued a strategy of backward vertical
integration in polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics,
petrochemicals, petroleum refining and oil and gas exploration
and production to be fully integrated along the materials and
energy value chain.
The groups activities span exploration and production of oil
and gas, petroleum refining and marketing, petrochemicals
(polyester, fibre intermediates, plastics and chemicals), textiles
and retail.
Reliance enjoys global leadership in its business, being the
largest polyester yarn and fibre producer in the world and
among the top five to ten producers in the world in major
petrochemical products.

RIL PATALGANGA MANUFACTURING


DIVISION OVERVIEW
The Patalganga plant (PG) is spread over 200 acres on the
banks of the river Patalganga, 70 kilometres from Mumbai. It
consists of polyester, fibre intermediates and linear alkyl
benzene manufacturing units.

DETAILS

Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total

Complex Area: 200 acres


Power required : 55 MW
Employment : 3000
Investment: Over 3000 crores INR
manufacturing units : 5
Captive Power Generation : 100 MW

PRODUCTS

Para Xylene (PX) from Naphtha


Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) from Para Xylene
Polyester Filament Yarn ( PFY) from PTA & MEG
Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) from PTA & MEG
Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) from Kerosene - n paraffin

LOGISTICS
Naphtha/Kerosene is transported through pipeline from
BPCL, Mumbai using optical fibre cable for supervisory
control (SCADA)
Complex is well connected by road, located 7 kilometres
from National Highway.(NH4)
Nearest Railway Station (APTA) is 3 kilometres from the
site on Konkan railway track.

MANUFACTURING UNITS
The plant can be broadly divided into two manufacturing
divisions:
Petrochemical Division: This division comprises of PTA,
PX and LAB manufacturing plants.
Fibre Division: This division comprises of the PSF and
PFY manufacturing plants.

Petrochemical Division:
Plant

Purified Terephthalic
Acid
Para-Xylene

Process
Licenser
I . C . I .(U . K .)

Start
Date
Feb ,1998

Raw Material

Para-Xylene

U .O . P .(USA )

Nov , 1998

Naphtha

Linear Alkyl Benzene

U .O . P .(USA )

Nov , 1987

Kerosenen
Paraffin

Process
Licenser
DuPont

Start
Date
Oct ,1982

PTA, MEG

DuPont

Mar , 1986

PTA, MEG

Fibre Division:
Plant

Polyester Filament
Yarn
Polyester Staple
Fiber

Raw Material

Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) Plant


Process:
Various stages involved in the production of polyester staple
fibre are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Polymerization
Spinning and Tow collection
Drawing, heat setting, crimpling and after treatment
Cutting and Baling

Drawing Process:
Draw machine (DM) or Draw Line (DL) is fundamentally an
arrangement of rotating equipment. There are sets of rollers
(modules) at different temperatures and speeds through which
spun polyester tow (bunch of millions of fibres) is passed. At
different stages water and finish solutions are applied and
removed from the polyester tow. When it comes out of the
machine, it had acquired some important fibre properties such

as tenacity, dye ability, crimp, etc. The final product of drawing


machine comes to the cutter/baler section.
Draw machine is divided in five major parts on the basis of
product flow.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Feed modules and Draw modules


Annealer rollers
Crimper
Relaxer zone
Tow pack section

Drawing process steps:


Tow which is collected from spinning machines in cans is
later kept in creel area and is routed through guides and
fed to pre-feed pan of the draw machine.
Here the tow is washed with finish solution and then this
water and solution is removed by compressing through nip
rollers.
Then tow is pulled by eight feed rollers in a section which
is called Feed module, through the pre-feed pan.
From the feed module tow goes in Draw Module 1 (by
passing through a soft water spray draw zone (SDZ))
which contains a set of eight draw rollers which are faster
than the feed section rollers.
Then it is pulled in second draw module which is added for
producing higher tenacity products.
After this tow goes to dewatering roll assembly where
water or finish solution is squeezed away from the tow.
Then it enters the annealer section where it passes over a
series of nineteen heated rollers to set the draw
properties. This section is used to produce a high annealed
fibre which has high modulus and shrinkage.
Now it is quenched by spraying cold water on it. After that
it passes through a chute where finish solution is sprayed
on it.

Next the puller rolls pull the tow and feed it into the
crimper assembly.
For regular or mid tenacity products the draw rope is
pulled directly by puller rollers from the second draw
module and fed to the crimper.
From the crimper, tow is distributed onto a relaxer belt
which passes the fibre through a controlled temperature
relaxer oven for drying.
Last section of oven is called cooling zone which reduces
the temperature of fibre.
After cooling, the rope band is pulled from the relaxer
belts by two pliable belts running in nip.
Then, the rope band from the puller belts falls into an
oscillating cutter box from there it is taken to the cutter.

CUTTING PROCESS:
In Lummus Baler, the tow is cut into required cut lengths in the
Lummus cutters. The cut fibre is then shifted from the cutter to

the press box through a integral distribution system consisting


of the Y-chute, a pair of diverters and a constant bale weight
system. The flow of the fibre is due to gravity only. The fibre is
pressed inside the box through a mechanically driven tramper
assembly.
In the Autefa baler, the fibre is cut to the required length in the
Newmag cutter and then is shifted to the press box through a
constant bale weight system and pusher arrangement. The
fibre is pressed I the box by a hydraulically operated prepress
(tramper).

PACKAGING PROCESS:
The balers in PSF plant are the final processing units for the
ready product which is packed into bales weighing around 375

kgs and dispatched to market. The Dupont drawlines are


catered to by the Lummus Balers, while the Newmag drawline
is catered to by the Autefa Baler. The first sets of equipment
are interlinked by a batch process while the latter is interlinked
directly, with the Newmag drawline product being fed directly
to the Autefa baler.
In Lummus Baler, the tow is cut into required cut lengths in the
Lummus cutters. The cut fibre is then shifted from the cutter to
the press box through a integral distribution system consisting
of the Y-chute, a pair of diverters and a constant bale weight
system. The flow of the fibre is due to gravity only. The fibre is
pressed inside the box through a mechanically driven tramper
assembly.
The final pressing and packaging of fibre into capsule bags is
carried out hydraulically, with the operating fluid being
Servosystem 46. The reservoir capacity is about 2900 litres.
The bale is pressed between top and bottom rams, whose
movements and cycles of operation are sequentially controlled
through a series of solenoid valves.
In the Autefa baler, the fibre is cut to the required length in the
Newmag cutter and then is shifted to the press box through a
constant bale weight system and pusher arrangement. The
fibre is pressed I the box by a hydraulically operated prepress
(tramper).
The fibre is pressed hydraulically and packed into capsule bags.
The bale is pressed between top ram and the bottom plate. The
movement and cycle of operation of the top ram is sequentially
controlled through a series of solenoid valves. The operating
fluid here also is Servosystem 46, and the reservoir capacity is
1600 litres.

LUMMUS BALER HYDRAULIC


SYSTEM
Hydraulic System Description:
Contains following components

Vane type double pumps


Axial piston pumps
Solenoid operated valves (SOV)
Non return valves (NRV)
Pump control manifold
Press control manifold
Top ram hydraulic cylinder
Bottom ram hydraulic cylinder
Hydraulic oil tank of 2900 lit capacity
Oil filters
Oil heat exchangers

The general arrangement of the pumping system consists two


pumps, one vane pump and one piston pump, installed one at
each end, on a common drive shaft. There are two such units,
one on each side of the Hydraulic oil tank. These units are each
driven by a motor of 125 HP.
The pump suction is through filters located inside the hydraulic
oil tank. The pump discharge lines go to the pump control
manifold where one SOV having pressure relief setting is
provided for each pump, i.e. three on each side manifold. There
are also NRVs provided for each pump.
When the Hydraulic system is idle or depressurized, the pumps
are not stopped. Their discharge is diverted to the oil tank
through the SOV. When the SOV is activated, the oil passage to
the tank is blocked and the oil is supplied to the circuit through
the NRV. If the system pressure goes beyond the pressure relief
setting of the SOV, the oil gets diverted to the oil tank and the
pressure in the system is maintained at the setting pressure.

The oil is supplied from each of the Pump control manifold to


the press control manifold through a single hose pipe. There are
ten SOVs mounted on the Pressure Control Manifold block to
control the sequence of motions of the Top and Bottom Rams.
The oil return from the Press Control manifold is through two
hoses to two separate headers. There is an oil filter provided in
each of the return oil headers after which the two lines join
each other and oil is taken to tank in a single line thereafter.

BASIC COMPARISION B/W THE TWO TYPES OF


BALERS
S.
No.
1
2

PARAMETERS

LUMMUS

AUTEFA

CAPACITY
PRODUCTS

BALE SIZE

300 TON
SEMI DULL,
TRILOBAL, SUPER
HIGH TENACITY
4 ft. X 3 ft. X 2 ft.

4
5
6
7

BALE WEIGHT
TOW DENIER
TOW FEED
TENSION
STAND
ARRANGEMENT
CUTTER REEL
MOUNTING
CUTTER BLADE
FIXING

5000 KN
SEMI DULL,
TRILOBAL, SUPER
HIGH TENACITY
1.27 m X .64 m X .
96 m
375 kg
2.6 million
220 m/min
POWER
CONTROLLED

8
9

10
11

HYDRAULIC
TANK
PUMP
SPECIFICATION

375 kg
1.6 million
220 m/min
POWER
CONTROLLED
BOLT MOUNTED
(1)
REEL HAS TO BE
REMOVED FROM
POSITION
2900 Lit.

BOLT MOUNTED (42


mm)
ON POSITION

VANE PUMP
T5ED

VOITH-IPH(internal
gear pump)

1600 Lit.

12

PISTON PUMP
P6P

BOX FILLING

GRAVITY FEED
INTO THE BOX

VICKERS VANE TYPE


DOUBLE PUMP
3525V
VICKERS SINGLE
VANE PUMP 35V
BY PUSHER UNIT

LUMMUS BALER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM

The above Block Diagram shows the connections of the sixteen


solenoid valves in the existing Hydraulic Circuit and the Table
shows which valves are in the operating condition for the
different process being performed in the Baler.
LUMMUS BALER SOLENOID VALVES OPERATION
SOLENOID VALVE
Bottom Ram Up
Top Ram Down
Top & Bottom Ram
Down
Bottom Ram Down
Top Ram Down
(Press)
Top Ram Up

0
1
O
O
X

0
2
O
O
X

0
3
O
O
O

0
4
X
O
X

0
5
X
O
X

0
6
X
O
O

0
7
X
X
X

0
8
X
X
X

0
9
X
O
O

1
0
O
O
O

1
1
X
X
O

1
2
X
O
X

1
3
O
X
X

1
4
X
X
O

1
5
O
X
X

1
6
X
X
X

X
O

X
O

O
O

X
O

X
O

X
O

X
X

X
X

X
O

O
O

X
X

X
O

X
X

O
O

X
X

O
O

SEQUENCE OF MOTIONS
1) Bottom ram up
2) Top ram down
3) Top & bottom ram down

4) Top ram down (press)


5) Top ram up
6) Top ram up (clams closed)
7) Bottom ram down (alternate)

AUTEFA BALER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Hydraulic system description:
The hydraulic oil used in the Autefa Baler hydraulic System is
Servosystem 46, the same as that used in Lummus Baler
hydraulic system. The Autefa Baler hydraulic system consists of
four subsystems:

Prepress system
Main press system
Press Box Lifting system
Cooler-Filter unit

Prepress system
It is equivalent to the tramper arrangement in the Lummus
baler. The main difference is that in the Lummus Baler, the
tramper is driven by a motor through a chain and sprocket
arrangement, while in the Autefa Baler the tramper is operated
by a hydraulic cylinder.
Oil is supplied to the prepress circuit by the cover end pump of
the Vickers Flat-plate type Double Vane pump (90 lpm

discharge capacity). There are five SOVs provided to control the


operation of the Prepress cylinder.

Main Press System


It is equivalent to the Top and Bottom Ram arrangement on the
Lummus balers. The main difference is that in the Autefa baler,
there is no Bottom Ram cylinder, i.e., the Bottom Ram is
stationary and there are two cylinders for the operation of the
Top Ram.
Oil is supplied to the Main Press circuit by the Voith internal
gear pump (183 lpm discharge capacity). There are six SOVs
provided to control the operation of the Main Press cylinder.

Press Box Lifting System


In Lummus baler, the revolving unit is lifted by a pneumatic
cylinder through a leverage arrangement through the central
beam. Bottom ram moves up towards the box and the bale is
formed in the box which is at a height from the ground. The top
and bottom ram hold the bale between their faces and both
move down simultaneously to bring the bale to the wiring
position. The bale is pressed when it reaches the ground level,
i.e., when it is not in the box. Both, the Top and Bottom ram are
moved with the help of one hydraulic cylinder each only.
In Autefa Baler, the revolving unit is lifted by six hydraulic
cylinders. The bale is formed in the box which is at ground
level. There is no bottom ram. The top ram moves down with
the help of two hydraulic cylinders (Main Press) and presses the
bale. Once the bale is pressed, the press box shell is lifted up
by the two hydraulic cylinders to clear the way for wiring.
Unlike in Lummus Balers, the bale is pressed when it is still in
the box.

Oil is supplied to the press box lifting circuit by the shaft end
pump of the Vickers Flat-plate type Double Vane pump (149
lpm discharge capacity). Theere are five SOVs provided to
control the operation of the Press Box Lifting cylinders and the
revolving unit lifting cylinders.

Cooler Filter Unit


A cooler-filter unit with a separate pump is provided in the
Hydraulic System. The pump circulates the oil the cooler-filter
unit to maintain the oil temperature and purity. The pump
operation is controlled by the temperature of the oil in the tank.
The pump circulating the oil is a Vickers Single Vane Pump (230
lpm discharge capacity). One SOV controls the flow of chilled
water to the cooler depending on the temperature of the oil in
the tank.

MAINTENANCE
Many changes have already been made in the existing system
to help in maintaining the system properly
New cooling system were installed in the Hydraulic pack of the
Baler as the heat given out by the hydraulic unit was so much
that it was quite difficult to even stay in the room where the
system is installed. The new cooling system has made it
possible to stand near the hydraulic system and perform
various tasks.
The pre-press or the Tramper system of the Baler two was
changed. Earlier the bulky chain and pulley mechanism was
being used, which was very prone to various faults and was
very heavy and its maintenance also required lot of power and
resources, which was replaced by a hydraulic system which is

very efficient and easily operated and requires less power as


compared to the earlier system.

Denison Vane Type Double Pump


Typical Operational Characteristics of DENISON Vane
Type Double Pump
SHAFT END PUMP
SPEE
D

THEO.
DISPL.

THEO.
DELIVERY

(RPM)

(ml/rev)

(GPM)

INPUT POWER vs PRESSURE


1000 PSI

2000 PSI

3000 PSI

(HP)

(HP)

(HP)

1200

212

67.2

45.9

80.6

120.2

1800

212

100.8

68.3

122.7

181.6

2200

212

123.2

83.0

150.0

220.0

CAP END PUMP


SPEE
D

THEO.
DISPL.

THEO.
DELIVERY

(RPM)

(ml/rev)

(GPM)

INPUT POWER v/s PRESSURE


1000 PSI

2000 PSI

3000 PSI

(HP)

(HP)

(HP)

1200

143.6

45.0

28.5

54.9

82.3

1800

143.6

67.5

43.5

84.0

120.0

2200

143.6

82.5

53.2

102.9

152.7

The internal parts of this pump are lubricated by the operating


fluid; therefore, preventive maintenance is limited to keeping

the fluid in the system clean. The system filters should be


replaced frequently and if a suction strainer is used it must not
be allowed to become restricted. When possible, dirt should not
be allowed to accumulate on the pump or around the shaft
seal. All fittings and bolt should be tight. It is important that the
suction or inlet piping and fittings are tight and in good
condition to prevent air from being drawn into the system.
In the event the pump does not perform properly or
malfunction occurs,
TROUBLE SHOOTING OF DENISON VANE TYPE DOUBLE PUMP
TROUBLE
External Leakage

Leakage at fittings

Loss in pump RPM


under load
Pump not
delivering oil

PROBABLE CAUSE
1) Seal Failure
2) Damaged Casting
3) Damaged or defective
seal b/w housing &
mounting cap
1) Cracked or damaged
flange or fittings
2) Damaged or defective
flange threads
3) Damaged or defective ORing seal
4) Burr on mating surfaces
Power source too small for
pump being used.
1) Pump does not prime
2) Wrong direction of shaft
rotation
3) Tank fluid level too low
4) Fluid inlet line or suction
strainer is choked
5) Air leak in suction line
6) Fluid viscosity too heavy
to pick up prime.
7) Broken pump shaft or
internal parts.

Pump not
delivering pressure

1) Relief valve setting too


low
2) Relief valve sticking open
3) Vane hold out pins not

POSSIBLE REMEDY
1) Replace seal
2) Replace Casting
3) Replace seal

1) Replace flange or fitting


2) Replace flange
3) Replace O-Ring seal
4) Remove burr
Provide larger power source.
1) Bleed air from system
2) Check rotation arrows on
identification plate & cam
ring
3) Add fluid and check level
to be certain suction line
is submerged
4) Clean strainer of all
foreign material
5) Tighten and seal
connections. Replace seal
6) Use lighter viscosity fluids
7) Replace damaged parts
as per instruction manual
1) Reset relief valve
2) Check for defective or
malfunctioning valves
3) Disassemble and check
pins for burrs or damage

Noisy or erratic
operation

Seal failure

loading vanes
1) Air leak at inlet or suction 1) Check for leaks by
line
pouring system fluids
around joints and listen
for change in sound level.
Tighten as required.
2)
Check bolts for proper
2) Housing and mounting
torque
cap separation
3) Reset or clogged inlet
line or strainer
3) Clean strainer and
4) Excessive pump RPM
clogged lines
(cavitation)
5) Worn vane holdout pins
4) Provide power source that
or clogged oil feed holes
does not exceed max
in pins
pump RPM
6) Worn bearings
5) Disassemble as per the

Excessive inlet pressure

instruction manual
6) Disassemble and replace
Decrease inlet pressure

Denison Goldcup Axial Piston Pump


Typical Characteristics of DENISON Goldcup Axial Piston
Pump
SPECIFICATION
Displacement
Pressure, Ports A & B
Max continuous
Max intermittent
Speed, max continuous
Flow, Ports A & B
at 3000 RPM
Flow, Replenishing Pump
at 3000 RPM
Replenishing Pressure
Servo Pressure
Mounting
Shaft

TERM
ml/rev

GOLDCUP 6
98

GOLDCUP 7
119

PSI
PSI
RPM
GPM

5000
6000
3000
77.9

5000
6000
3000
94.2

GPM

13.9

13.9

PSI
PSI
SAE
SAE

Weight with rotary servo

lbs.

200
335.535
C-2 bolt
C-Spline or
key
175

200
335.535
C-2 bolt
C-Spline or
key
`

TROUBLE SHOOTING OF DENISON GOLDCUP AXIAL PISTON


PUMP
Effects of trouble
Noisy pump

Possible
cause
Air in fluid

Cavitation in
pump or
motor
rotating
group

Misaligned
shaft
Mechanical
fault in pump
Erosion on barrel
ports and port
plates
High wear in pump
and motor

Air in fluid
Cavitation
Excessive
loads
Contaminant
particles in
fluid
Improper
fluid
Improper
repair
Unwanted
water in fluid

Heating of fluid

Excessive
pump
leakage
Relief valve
Heat
exchanger

Faults which need remedy


Leak in suction line; leak at shaft seal; low
fluid level; turbulent flow; excessive
pressure drop in inlet line from pressurized
reservoir; suction line strainer acting as an
air trap
Fluid too cold/viscous/heavy; shaft speed
too high; suction line too small; suction line
collapsed; suction strainer too small; suction
strainer too dirty; operating altitude too
high; replenishment pressure too low;
replenishment flow too small for dynamic
conditions
Faulty installation; distortion in mounting;
axial interference; faulty coupling; excessive
overhung loads
Piston & shoe looseness or failure; bearing
failure; incorrect port plate selection; eroded
or worn parts in displacement control
Same as above
Same as above
Reduce pressure settings; reduce speed
Improper filter maintenance; filters too
coarse; introduction of dirty fluid to system;
reservoir openings & breather; improper line
replcmnt
Fluid too thick or thin for operating temp
range; breakdown of fluid with
time/temp/shearing effects
Incorrect parts/ procedure/dimnsns
Condensation; faulty breather or strainer;
heat exchanger leakage; water in make up
fluid
Recheck case drain flow and repair as reqd;
fluid too thin; improper assembly
Set too low; instability caused by back
pressure, worn parts
Water turned off or too little flow; eff
reduced by mud or scale deposits;
intermittent hydraulic fluid flow

reservoir

Too little fluid; entrained air in fluid; heat


pickup from adjacent equipment

CALIBRATION/PRESSURE
CHECKING
OF
INDIVIDUAL SOLENOID VALVES AND RELATED
ABNORMALITIES
S.
NO.

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

CHECKPOINT

PRESSURE
PROBLEM
SETTING/ RELATED TO
STATUS
ABNORMALIT
Y
Isolate all other solenoids
1100 PSI
Valve setting
and check pressure at X4
low
with top & bottom ram at
Pump pressure
bottom position
low
Isolate all other solenoids
2400 PSI
Valve setting
and check pressure at X4
low
with top & bottom ram at
Pump pressure
bottom position
low
Isolate all other solenoids
4200 PSI
Valve setting
and check pressure at X4
low
with top & bottom ram at
Pump pressure
bottom position
low
Isolate all other solenoids
1100 PSI
Valve setting
and check pressure at X5
low
with top & bottom ram at
Pump pressure
bottom position
low
Isolate all other solenoids
2400 PSI
Valve setting
and check pressure at X5
low
with top & bottom ram at
Pump pressure
bottom position
low
Isolate all other solenoids
4200 PSI
Valve setting
and check pressure at X5
low
with top & bottom ram at
Pump pressure
bottom position
low
a) Check whether top ram
Yes
S7 fails to
goes up
open
b) Check extrude pressure at 1200-1600
S8 fails to
X6 when top and bottom
PSI
open & S7

ram together comes down


S8 Check whether the pressure
at X4 and X7 are almost
equal when top ram moves
up
S9 a) Check the pressure at X7
while top ram moves
down
b) Check pressure at X7 with
solenoids de-energised
and top ram moving down
S10 Check whether top and
bottom ram moves when
operated
S11 Check whether extrude
pressure at X6 and X9 is
equal when top and bottom
ram together comes down

Yes

fails to close
S8 fails to
open

375-500
PSI

Valve setting
wrong

1500 PSI

Valve setting
wrong

Yes

Valve fails to
open

SO THE MAJOR ISSUES RELATED TO


MAINTENANCE THAT WE FACE IN CASE OF
LUMMUS BALER COMPARED TO THE AUTEFA
BALERS ARE:
Valves in the complex 16 valve arrangement get
stuck quite often.
Pumps used in the hydraulic system have become
obsolete and are no longer available in the market.

There is a high leakage loss of the Servosystem 46


oil as it travels through a long and complex circuit.

CALCULATIONS
Existing System
Power Consumption Cost:
From the collected data, the number of bales packed from 1 st
March, 2014 to 31st April, 2014, by different balers was

No. of
Bales

LUMMUS
Baler 1
6721

LUMMUS
Baler 2
6819

LUMMUS
Baler 3
6636

AUTEFA
Baler
8282

So, on an average, in two months, no. of bales packed by a


LUMMUS Baler is 6725 whereas, by an AUTEFA Baler is 8282.
Therefore, time taken to make 1000 bales in a LUMMUS Baler is
approximately 9 days and in an AUTEFA Baler is approximately
7 days.

Thus, Power consumed to make these 1000 bales is:

1) LUMMUS BALER:
Power consumed by motor: 250 HP = 186.5 KW
No. of hours working in a day: 21 hours
No. of days required: 9 days
No. of hours system runs: 9x21 = 189
Cost of electricity: 7.98 per unit
Total cost: 186.5x189x7.98 = 281283
2) AUTEFA BALER:
Power consumed by motor: 75 HP = 55.95 KW
No. of hours working in a day: 24 hours
No. of days required: 7 days
No. of hours system runs: 7x24 = 168
Cost of electricity: 7.98 per unit
Total cost: 55.95x168x7.98 = 75008

Calculating Maintenance required by the two Balers:

201
0
201
1
201
2
201
3
201
4

LUMMUS PUMPS
CHANGED
3

AUTEFA PUMPS CHANGED

One pump approximately costs 6 lakhs, so the approximate


expenditure in maintaining the pumps every year is
approximately 14.5 lakhs whereas there was no such need in
the AUTEFA Baler.

This shows that if we replace the system, approximately 25


thousands will be saved every day.
Thus, if we even spend 1 crores in the project, we will start
saving approximately in one year.

Flow Rate required for the different processes


associated with the hydraulics of the Baler:
We know that the
Diameter of the cylinder = 14
Stroke length during bottom ram up movement = 51
Stroke length during top ram down movement = 105
Stroke length during top & bottom ram down movement = 51
Stroke length during top ram down (press) movement = 27
Stroke length during top ram up movement = 150

Volume of oil displaced per inch movement of the piston in the


cylinder is given by
V = R2H
Where,
V is the volume of oil displaced
R is the radius of the cylinder
H is the height with which piston moves

Therefore,
V = (7)2(1) = 153.9 in3
And as 1 in3 = 0.00433 US gallons so,
Volume of oil displace by 1 in movement of piston = 153.9 x
0.00433 = 0.6667 US gallons

Therefore, volumes to be displaced during different processes


are:

Volume of oil displaced during bottom ram up movement = 51


x 0.6667 = 34 gallons
Volume of oil displaced during top ram down movement = 105
x 0.6667 = 70 gallons
Volume of oil displaced during top & bottom ram down
movement = 51 x 0.6667 = 34 gallons
Volume of oil displaced during top ram down (press) movement
= 27 x 0.6667 = 18 gallons

Volume of oil displaced during top ram up movement = 159 x


0.6667 = 106 gallons

Based on the above calculation, the basic design that we


require for the various processes is drawn below. The flow rate
required for these processes is mentioned below the designs
but the diagram shows the flow rates that the existing system
requires in accordance with the pressure requirements.

Efficiencies of the different pumps of the LUMMUS


Baler:
The efficiency of the pump is given by:
=

Q x p
Pinput

Where,

is the efficiency of the pump


Q is the flow rate supplied by the pump in

m /sec
3

p is the pressure difference across the pump


in Pascal
Pinput is the input power given to the pump in
Watt
OR
Qx
=

x p x (6894.76)
( 0 .0038
60 )
Q x p
=
x 0.00058
P input x 746

Where,

Pinput

is the efficiency of the pump


Q is the flow rate supplied by the pump in GPM
p is the pressure difference across the pump

in PSI
Pinput is the input power given to the pump in
HP

vane A is the efficiency of the shaft end of the vane type double
pump
Vane A =

Q x p
x 0.00058
Pinput

Here we know, Q = 99 GPM


p = 1000 PSI
Pinput = 85 HP
Vane A =

99 x 1000
x 0.00058
85
Vane A =0.675

vane B is the efficiency of the cap end of the vane type double
pump
Vane A =

Q x p
x 0.00058
Pinput

Here we know, Q = 65 GPM


p = 1000 PSI
Pinput = 50 HP
Vane A =

65 x 1000
x 0.00058
50
Vane B =0.652

piston is the efficiency of the variable displacement piston pump


piston =

Q x p
x 0.00058
Pinput

Here we know, Q = 45 GPM


p = 1000 PSI
Pinput = 35 HP
piston =

45 x 1000
x 0.00058
35
piston =0.745

These are the theoretical efficiencies but since the pumps do


not work at their mentioned pressure and power, the
efficiencies are little less than the calculated values.

81 GPM

212.5 GPM

212.5 GPM

TANK

BOTTOM RAM UP

As calculated above, while the bottom ram goes up, 34 gallons


of oil is displaced and the existing system takes approximately
12 seconds in the process, so, the flow rate required to move
the bottom ram up is
34 x 5 = 170 GPM

The above mentioned flow rates are in accordance with the pressure required in the
existing system.

425 GPM

163 GPM

212.5 GPM

212.5 GPM

TANK

TOP RAM DOWN

As calculated above, while the top ram goes down, 70 gallons


of oil is displaced and the existing system takes approximately
20 seconds in the process, so, the flow rate required to move
the top ram down is
70 x 3 = 210 GPM

The above mentioned flow rates are in accordance with the pressure required in the
existing system.

240 GPM
92 GPM

92 GPM

240 GPM

212.5 GPM

TANK

TOP AND BOTTOM RAM DOWN

As calculated above, while the top & bottom ram goes down,
34 gallons of oil is displaced by the each and the existing
system takes approximately 8 seconds in the process, so, the

flow rate required to move the top ram up is


7.5 = 255 GPM

34 x

The above mentioned flow rates are in accordance with the pressure required in the
existing system.

425 GPM

163 GPM

212.5 GPM

212.5 GPM

TANK

TOP RAM DOWN (PRESS)

As calculated above, while the top ram goes down during


pressing operation, 18 gallons of oil is displaced and the

existing system takes approximately 4 seconds in the process,


so, the flow rate required to move the top ram down is 18 x 15
= 270 GPM
The above mentioned flow rates are in accordance with the pressure required in the
existing system.

555 GPM

212.5 GPM

212.5 GPM

TANK

TOP RAM UP

As calculated above, while the top ram goes up, 106 gallons of
oil is displaced and the existing system takes approximately 20
seconds in the process, so, the flow rate required to move the
top ram up is
106 x 3 =
318 GPM
The above mentioned flow rates are in accordance with the pressure required in the
existing system.

46 GPM

120 GPM

120
GPM

212.5 GPM

BOTTOM RAM DOWN

TANK

As calculated above, while the bottom ram goes up, 34 gallons


of oil is displaced and the existing system takes approximately
20 seconds in the process, so, the flow rate required to move
the top ram up is
34 x 3 = 102 GPM
The above mentioned flow rates are in accordance with the pressure required in the
existing system.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Recommending that the pumping unit consisting two


pumps on each side, to be replaced by modified pumping
assembly consisting or VICKERS Double Vane Pump or
VOITH Gear pump (with flow rates up to 500 GPM and
pressure of 3500 PSI) mounted above the Hydraulic oil
tank run by a single motor of adequate power.

In the meantime, oil used, Servosystem 46 to be


replaced by Servosystem 68 which is more viscous at the
working temperature which improves efficiency as
internal leakage will be reduced reducing the pressure
loss. Also, the tramper system of the other two LUMMUS
Balers should also be upgraded to hydraulic pre-press.

Keeping this in mind, the flow rates required for the


different processes, that takes place during the Baler
pressing processes, was calculated. After calculating the
exact flow rates required, REXROTH, a hydraulic system
developers company, was contacted and informed about
our requirements and their engineers visited our plant
and further discussions are being done with them.

REFERENCES