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Answer sheet

- Jay Rameshbhai Patel
- 7698585237

Answer: 1

In 1972 the United Nations Stockholm Conference on the Human
Environment recognized that we had a responsibility to "protect
and improve" the environment for both present and future
generations. In 1992, we are faced with defining and
implementing this commitment to future generations in the
context of environmentally sustainable development.
Environmental externalities are focused primarily on the costs
that the present generation bears in polluted air, water, and soils
from industrial development, in deforestation, and in other
aspects of economic development. The discount rate is used to
consider future costs and benefits, again from the perspective of
the present generation.
For Example as case in the classic Island of Palmas Arbitration,
which involved a dispute between the United States and the
Netherlands over sovereignty of the small Pacific island. As
described by Judge, the doctrine has two elements: that acts
should be judged in light of the law at the time of their creation;
and that rights acquired in a valid manner may be lost if not
maintained in a manner consistent with the changes in
international law. The principle has been subsequently applied in
a number of cases before the International Court of Justice,
including the Minquiers and Ecrehos Case, The Western Sahara
Case, The North Sea Continental Shelf Case, and the Aegean Sea
Continental Shelf Case. While the first element of the
intertemporal doctrine has been widely accepted as a basic
principle, the second has been controversial.
For example, in the 1971 Namibia Advisory Opinion,when the
World Court considered whether South Africa's presence in
Namibia by virtue of its 1919 League of Nations Mandate
continued to be valid, it concluded that the meaning of "sacred
trust" had evolved to "self-determination and independence of the
people," which did not sustain South Africa's claim. While the
Court did not refer to intertemporal law, MacWhinney has
correctly characterized it as embracing it.Similarly, Judge Elias
notes that the doctrine of intertemporal law has also applied to
the customary law of sovereign immunity.The doctrine of

divergent opinions and approaches to the precise formulation of the doctrine. Another case example. .intertemporal law applies to treaties as well as to customary international law. “On April 20. Uruguay authorized construction of one of the largest pulp mills in the world in 2005. and retroactive application. 2010.Customary international law doctrines. and to monitor and prevent pollution of the water and riverbed. however. concerning Uruguay’s authorization for pulp mills on the banks of the Uruguay River. the continuing validity of a treaty in the face of changed circumstances. which forms the international boundary between the two countries. The Court scrutinized factual evidence from both sides in detail. The deliberations of the International Law Commission in drafting the convention on the law of treaties revealed. and found no breach had occurred. and the North Atlantic fisheries Case. although the doctrine of intertemporal law is not explicitly mentioned. Over strenuous objections from Argentina. such as pacta sunt servanda and rebus sic stantibus. the International Court of Justice (ICJ) announced its judgment in a high-stakes environmental dispute between Argentina and Uruguay. The Court also examined Argentina’s claim that Uruguay breached substantive treaty obligations to coordinate with Argentina through a bilateral river management agency. The Court rejected all other claims in light of these two decisions. which has been converting wood chips into paper pulp on the banks of the River since November 2007. There are several intertemporal issues raised by treaties: the proper interpretation of a treaty over time. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties contains specific provisions addressing these issues. as indicated in The Grisbadarna Case. respond to the intertemporal question of the continuing validity of treaties.

despite an effort by Argentina to bring them in. This Insight highlights some points of particular interest in the judgment of the Court and discusses the multiple advocacy strategies used by both parties. Linking such effects to the lives of ordinary people is critical in order to build the political support for climate policies.This judgment is a significant step forward in the ICJ’s jurisprudence on environmental law and on shared watercourses. it would define states’ obligations and responsibilities with respect to emissions under international law. which was the basis for the Court’s jurisdiction. The Court recognized environmental impact assessment as a practice that has become an obligation of general international law in these situations. the decision relies on the 1975 Statute of the River Uruguay (1975 Statute). Moreover. . the overall global discussion on climate change would be advanced by the articulation of clear baseline standards of responsibility. For the first time. in addition to having historic value. it would have the power to positively reshape the international approach to greenhouse gas emissions.“ The ICJ is an appropriate recourse because. which will ultimately strengthen the international negotiation process. It further found that general international law does not prescribe the scope or content of such assessments. as national representatives would appear in the Hague to highlight the challenges facing their countries. For the most part. The Court has also fleshed out the definitions of “sustainable development” and “equitable and reasonable use” of shared transboundary watercourses by interpreting those terms in light of the facts of this case. Irrespective of how precisely the ICJ might rule. The Court does not interpret other multilateral environmental agreements. the very process of generating debate in the world’s highest court might help to highlight the human toll of climate change.

has been transferred to the central government. in the absence of suitable institutions in the state to use the money. on directions of the Supreme Court. The bill was passed by the Lok defeated in the Rajya Sabha in February 2009. has to be eventually transferred back to the states once they set up these institutions. The proposed law will set up authorities at the national level as well as the state level to use these funds. A standing committee. . which studied the bill.Answer: 2 The Manmohan Singh government had come up legislation in 2008. with a similar Sabha but got parliamentary recommended More than Rs 38.000 crore has been collected by various state governments over the years for compensatory afforestation. The money. The money. then the withdrawal of the bill. lying unspent.

which currently are being kept in Nationalised Banks and are being managed by an ad-hoc body.To accelerate the CA activities.  Establishment of a Monitoring Group to assist the National Authority in monitoring and evaluation of activities undertaken from amounts released from the National CAF and State CAFs. The species raised are non native to the areas where they are planted. in an efficient and transparent manner.  Constitution of a State Authority in each State and Union Territory to manage and utilise the amounts credited to the State CAFs. 2015 in Parliament. security and. of the amounts realised in lieu of forest land diverted for non-forest purpose. Therefore there is no consolidation of OGF (old growth forest) but fragmentation of them.  But recent CAF Bill has many flaws which have been highlighted by environmentalists as:  1. the Union Cabinet on 29 April 2015 gave its approval for introduction of the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill. The bill promotes breaking of large forest land into smaller patches which disrupts landscape connectivity. transparency in utilization of these amounts. This causes degradation of indigenous or . The proposed legislation seeks to provide an appropriate institutional mechanism. 2. affecting dispersal of animals. It also seeks to provide safety. to ensure expeditious utilization.  Constitution of a National Authority to manage and utilise amounts credited to the National CAF. The Bill provides for among other things: Establishment of the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF) and the State CAFs to credit amounts collected by State Governments and Union Territory Administrations to compensate loss of forest land diverted for non-forest purpose. creates new edges that expose forest to exploitation and severe degradation. both at the Centre and in each State and Union Territory.

and the funds to be transferred. on yearly basis. Bill also does not provide for natural restoration and regeneration of degraded forest  The need of the hour is to promote consolidation of OGF.) planted trees in Bhadra river basin which has destroyed natural grassland over there. 3. restoring degraded ecology and using funds for non-native plantations only in extreme case when forest is extremely degraded with no trace of native species Expenditure of the National CAMPA is proposed to be met from the funds to be retained in the National Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAF) from the accumulated funds transferred to it by the ad-hoc CAMPA. E. to the National CAF from a part of the funds credited by user agencies directly into State CAFs. This should be taken into account. This was highlighted by Parliamentary Standing Committee on Science & Technology. Environment & forest.native species. 4. The compensatory afforestation has only increased tree cover as VDF(very dense forest) and MDF(moderately dense forest) has declined.g KIOCL ( Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. .

 The Bill states that all money collected for ‘additional compensatory afforestation’ and ‘catchment area treatment . Whereas CAMPA has the power to manage and monitor funds. The Bill does not make it mandatory for the government to revise NPV at periodic intervals. about 42% has been completed as of May 2008. The Bill also requires CAMPA to ‘accomplish’ the afforestation work.My Key Analysis opinions:  CAMPA should release money to the states to carry out afforestation work.  Net Present Value (NPV) is used to estimate the loss of environmental services that are provided by the forest area which is being diverted. it does not have any power to direct implementation agencies (which are state government bodies) to comply.  Of the total required afforestation. Some states have completed less than 1% while other states have completed almost 90% of the required afforestation. The Bill states that NPV calculations may be revised periodically by an expert committee.

and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands have seen a reduction in forest cover. Union of India case. the Supreme Court issued several orders regarding the valuation of forests and management of afforestation funds. some states such as Madhya Pradesh.States with the largest amount of area under forest cover include Madhya Pradesh. moderately dense forest (10%).N Godavarman Thirumalpad vs. Arunachal Pradesh. and open forest (9%). Chattisgarh. Chattisgarh. which is approximately 21% of the total geographic area. For example. tsunami destruction. dam projects.  India has 677 thousand square kilometres of forest cover. Since the Act came into force. and Maharashtra. the Forest (Conservation) Act.1% of forest cover) were lost due to shifting cultivation. the Supreme Court directed the centre to pool money from the diversion of forest land into a central . approximately 11. and legal and illicit tree felling.plan’ should be deposited in CAF. (The case was filed in 1995 and a final judgement is still pending. 1980 specifies conditions under which the central government may grant permission for the diversion of forest land for no forest purposes.  In the T.500 square kilometers of land has been diverted for non-forest purposes across the country. 410 applications for forest clearances are pending with the centre and 1. Currently. The Forest Survey of India 2005 classifies forest cover as land with either very dense forests (2%). Manipur.494 applications are pending with the states.  Several laws govern the use and protection of forest land in India. Gujarat. In these states. The Bill does not provide a definition for either term. approximately 728 square kilometres of forest land (about 0. while several northeast states have the highest proportion of geographic area under forest cover. Orissa. All projects that are approved for diversions of land are required to pay money for afforestation (planting of trees) work elsewhere.) In 2002. Assam. Nagaland. Between the Forest Surveys of 2003 and 2005.

5 per cent a year. and another 12 per cent from gas. The Bill also creates a permanent Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) to manage and utilize these it still remains small in comparison to energy from fossil fuels. The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill. Because of its 7. the Supreme Court ordered the creation of an ad hoc Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority to collect all afforestation money. India’s annual per capita emissions are low at 1. estimated at 40 per cent-plus of its population of 1. and the country will double its share of total . as the prevalence of huge rich-poor disparities and lack of access to electricity for two-fifths of the population.9 tonnes and only about one-third of the world average. But they account for a tiny proportion both of India’s total GHG emissions and of the 58 per cent increase in its emissions that occurred between 1994 and 2007. the dependence of its major river systems on the Himalayan glaciers (which are melting rapidly). vulnerability to cyclones on the East Coast. India is especially vulnerable to climate change. 2008 creates the Compensatory Afforestation Fund to collect all money from the diversion of forest land for afforestation purposes. and loss of forests and wetlands. India’s GHG emissions are projected to grow at a high 3. In 2006.500 kilometre-long coastline.2 billion. Answer: 3 India has the largest number of absolutely poor people of any country of the world. Although renewable energy generation. especially from wind turbines. More than half of India’s emissions are accounted for by the energy sector. is growing. This number reflects not so much the efficiency of the economy or frugal use of energy. Sixty-eight per cent of India’s electricity comes from coal.

This Policy Brief provides an assessment of current state of play in the area of environmental diplomacy and suggests options for India to engage more effectively in reshaping SSC. it is a matter of time before India could emerge as a key player in guiding multilateral processes and shaping the future of SouthSouth Cooperation. India drew up a National Action Plan on Climate Change in 2008. The only constraint India accepts on its emissions is that they will never exceed those of the North in per capita terms. . strongly insists on equity and the CBDR principle. from promoting solar power and energy efficiency. India should further enhance SouthSouth cooperation through an action plan including the establishment of a cooperation platform focussing on issues such as climate change. The most significant are the solar and energy efficiency missions. especially when the Prime Minister of India is keen for India to play a lead role on issues such as climate change negotiations. and driven by an anxiety to ward off international pressure for a more proactive climate policy. This was done in haste. If India could sustain its efforts to work with both developing and developed countries on issues of mutual interest. water and the Himalayan ecosystem. and intellectual property rights. although this has been weakened by BASIC’s formation and evolution. according to a new paper. with eight “missions” dealing with different categories. India categorically refuses binding climate obligations. India can play a leadership role to inspire developing countries in environmental policy-making. traditional knowledge. and demands equal per capita entitlement for every person to global natural resources. Using its experience. emissions by 2035 from 5 per cent (in 2010). to agriculture. India is a strong advocate of multilateralism in climate matters and boasts of a leadership role in the G77. Some of these “missions” have not yet been finalised or fully fleshed out.

India has recently approved a national mission for a Green India. But they can transform the future only if they have skills. wells. . Thus we can become leader in world in the field of the Environment and Climate Change. urban wastes. All in all India has the world's largest youth population despite having a smaller population than China.It must be preserved and protected from all type of pollutant. Accordingly. builders and leaders of the future. Answer: 4 Introduction Water is sustenance of the life cycle . health. one can expect a significant shift in India’s approach to international relations. carbon sequestration and hydrological services. On land the natural water system is being polluted by the addition of Industrial wastes.but man is disturbing water bodies as rivers. over the coming years. in favour of unambiguously articulated national interests. It also aims at increasing forest-based incomes for three million forest-dependent family. but in its pure form any type of contamination . decision-making. and real choices in life. The human body and other living organisms require it. Green India focuses on improving the delivery of ecosystem services. seas. including biodiversity. creators.A clear indication that the large young population will support the national leadership to take a proactive. Young people are the innovators. pesticides and related pollutant. firm and nationalist approach to governing India. and improve the quality of forest cover on another five million hectares. This initiative strives to increase the forest/tree cover on five million hectares of forested and non-forested land. streams.

1988). and lakes without adequate treatment. states have the exclusive power to regulate water supplies. This is the first law passed in India whose objective was to ensure that the domestic and industrial pollutants are not discharged into rivers.Water is good solvent . “water pollution is a distortion of the aquatic ecosystem. water law is largely state based. The main function of the CPCB ‘shall be to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the states’. water storage.” In Scientific sense. which since the Government of India Act. with regard to water pollution. hydropower and fisheries. Thus. water pollution is such a change which ‘adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem in terms of the living organism. Oxygen content. for the purposes of irrigation and to support marine life. free from ‘impurities’. Law in India In general. the presence of toxins and so on.Therefore it is rarely found. This Act paved the way for the creation of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs). The reason is that such a discharge renders the water unsuitable as a source of drinking water. drainage and embankments. Hence. Thus. Reasons for Reforms  Water needs to be ‘managed’ in an ‘efficient’ and financially sustainable manner  Law and policy changes are related and partly dictated by global influence . The practical and rational definition of water can thus be following. irrigation and canals. The Water Act of 1974 (Amendment. This is due to the constitutional scheme. except in chemical laboratory. 1935 has in principle given power to the states to legislate in this area.“The presence of deleterious matter in such quantities to make the water unsuitable for its designated use. Parliament did adopt an act in 1974. Even rain water has dissolved some gases in it.

such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Law and policy changes are related and partly dictated by global influence In the water sector. the principle of full-cost recovery allows the water service providers to pass all costs of production and services onto water consumers. and the application of water pricing. While water pricing is expected to reduce waste and pollution and lead to efficiency in water use. including full-cost recovery principles and trading of water rights. Domestic push for reforms – water law is often outdated and/or incomplete Water needs to be ‘managed’ in an ‘efficient’ and financially sustainable manner Traditionally. The latter is expected to ensure the financial viability and sustainability of the scheme. These institutions take advantage of their bargaining power throughout the negotiations of structural adjustment loans to impose modifications to core . dams and water treatment plants. several State governments have received loans from International Financial Institutions. which means the focus is on providing more and more supply with the belief that it will satisfy the needs and achieve progress as well. water resource management and development and water supply are sectors dominated by government through its various departments such as irrigation department and public works department. Major strategy followed by the government was to build more and more infrastructures such as irrigation canals. This is generally known as supply oriented approach. to water law reforms. The main implication of this economic perspective is that it makes local institutions and communities responsible for water supply and environmental sanitation with community participation and capital cost sharing.

For instance. Instead. The World Bank’s 2004 Strategy does not promote law conditionality but it has indirectly justified and fostered its use in Bank loans as a way to ensure that borrowing countries implement the proposed reforms. This has led to a situation where there is no comprehensive water law in India. A comprehensive water law common to the whole territory of India is very difficult given the fact that the state governments have the power to make laws. The bases for reforms     Water as an economic good Shrinking the role of the government Decentralisation and participation Privatization The key aspects of water law reforms  Drinking water – from ‘supply’ to ‘demand-led’ paradigm  Rural water supply and urban water supply . rules and laws for the different uses and different bodies of water.domestic laws and policies of states in exchange for the disbursements. there are separate laws to regulate water for the different uses and different sources of water. Domestic push for reforms – water law is often outdated and/or incomplete The existing water laws are characterized by a number of different principles. This practice is known as conditionality and the adoption of new laws is often linked to the implementation of projects. the World Bank’s Uttar Pradesh Water Sector Restructuring Project required the State government to set up a Water Tariff Regulatory Commission and prepare a draft legislation specifying the functions and responsibilities of the Regulatory Commission.

 Water quality regulation – towards stronger regulation  Sanitation: increasing emphasis  Irrigation law – ‘decentralisation’ through water user associations  Groundwater – new legislation based on ‘old’ principles  New water institutions – taking away power from the government The impacts of ongoing law reforms  Water is turned into a tradable property.  Weaker groups are sometimes negatively impacted.  Limited understanding of decentralisation and participation  Conservation is only a front for reforms that are not environment friendly  Democratic ideals are not fully realised An agenda for future action  Enforcing the right to information. in particular the poor.  Disconnection becomes a basic feature of water law. transparency and accountability in the water sector  Ensuring the implementation and enforcement of the fundamental human right to water  Towards a drinking water legislation  Ensuring that states effectively devolve power recognised in the constitution to democratically elected local bodies  Ensuring an ‘integrated’ perspective on water that is centred on people and the environment  Advocate for participatory and democratic way of introducing and implementing water law and policy reforms  Advocate for human right to sanitation . women and children.  Provision of drinking water reduced – public sources of water are gradually disappearing.

In many cases. toxic. Thus it is required to change and/or accept the new reforms. This shows that degraded water quality can contribute to water scarcity as it limits its availability for both human use and for the ecosystem. these sources have been rendered unsafe for human consumption as well as for other activities. organic.Conclusion Water pollution is a serious problem in India as almost 70 per cent of its surface water resources and a growing percentage of its groundwater reserves are contaminated by biological. and inorganic pollutants. such as irrigation and industrial needs. .

transportation and the products we depend upon. as do the energy and raw materials for housing. religion and ethics are important elements of society. The environment surrounds society because our need for food. Society in turn. exists entirely within the environment. but they are not primarily based on exchanging goods and services. Our basic requirements – of air food and water – come from the environment. society is more than just the economy. society and the economy as three circles within circles. Friends and families. music and art. water. raw materials and air society can never be larger . indicating how this linkage could be understood. The economy is here assumed to exist within society because all parts of the human economy require interaction among people.Answer: 5 Figure 1 is one such illustration. showing the relationship between the environment. However.

The natural resources are fish. To make Sustainable Development.  Manufactured capital Manufactured (or human-made) capital is what we traditionally consider to be capital: produced assets that are used to produce other goods and services.  Natural capital Natural capital is sometimes sub-divided into. The ecosystem services are for example air and water filtration and decomposition and . tools. namely. Some examples are machines. A frequent classification is four types of capital. energy and mineral services. 1999). human capital and social capital. water. natural capital. natural resources. more concrete. ecological or ecosystem services and aesthetic capital (Hart.than the environment. timber. several writers have transformed these pillars into different types of capitals to be able to more easily illustrate the linkages and trade-offs between them. manufactured capital. buildings and infrastructure.

healthy society. and work skills. reflecting that in the long run none of the indicator can be achieved at the expense of the others. It consists of the social networks that support an efficient. The political and legal structures.  Human capital Human capital generally refers to the health. For example. governmental efficiency. cohesive society. and social justice.  Social capital Social capital. civic organisations and co-operatives. which promote political stability. then this would not be considered development and would threaten social cohesion. norms and networks that people can draw upon to solve common problems and to create social cohesion. well -being. are also a part of stock of social capital. Examples of social capital include neighbourhood associations. but on a societal rather than an individual level.the aesthetic capital is understood the “beauty” of the nature surrounding us. Similarly. motivation. The target indicator therefore reflect the . These elements not only contribute to a happy. Each of the target indicator in this diagram has equal importance. partly due to that tourism has become an increasingly important economic sector. Social capital refers to those stocks of social trust. This is consistent with the notion of meeting needs and maintaining options. economic growth should not compromise the cohesion of society. and facilitate social and intellectual interactions among its members. democracy. if the environment is preserved to the extent that no economic activity can take place. This type of capital has become important. but also improve the opportunities for economic development through a productive workforce. and the productive potential of individual people. like human capital. which could come about if a small group had control of all the productive assets of a country. Types of human capital include mental and physical health. is related to human wellbeing. education.

balancing act that needs to take place in order to ensure a development path is sustainable. The target indicator are not intended to represent a sustainable development strategy. or directions. Living within environmental limits means using the natural resources of the planet in such a way that the systems that regenerate them are not damaged beyond repair. policy goals. This includes both critical levels of natural capital and preserving biodiversity to ensure the maintenance of options for current and future generations. Economic efficiency . Environmental responsibility Environmental responsibility acknowledges the importance of living within the limits of the Earth’s resources.

rather than falls apart. for example. Social cohesion has implications for the ability of a society to work together to achieve long-term goals and respond to changing conditions. or put another way. and the economy. Culture. our standard of living and provide for the material needs of people within these limits we will need to use the resources we have more efficiently. The three target indicator relate to managing a portfolio of assets across society. the environment. Social cohesion is about why a society holds together. or even maintain. sense of belonging to a culture and/or sub-culture may enhance well-being. is included as an element of social cohesion in this framework. This is commonly understood in the concepts of capital and labor productivity. If we are to continue to increase. Social cohesion Social cohesion refers to how well people can meet their needs in society and maintain levels of unity and harmony within society. while for a society it is the strength of the connections across distinct sub-populations or groups that impacts on social cohesion. Efficiency can be expressed in terms of productivity.Economic efficiency relates to achieving a greater output per unit of inputs. achieving the same output with fewer inputs. we identified following principles that defines current scenarios . and can also be extended to our environment. which is often described as the fourth pillar of sustainability. For an individual. They take into account levels of critical capital and balance the needs of the current generation with maintaining options for future generations. Levels of unity and harmony within society will be influenced by perceptions of fairness and people's abilities to fully participate in social and civic life. measuring the intensity of carbon or water use in terms of volumes per unit of value added. Protecting our environment will require limits to be placed on the resources used. From each of the three target indicator. .

4c Avoiding irreversibility Ensuring the protection of New Zealand’s resources. 2b Limits for non-renewable Ensuring that the activities and functions that currently rely on nonresources renewable resources are available to future generations. in terms of the health of of biodiversity ecosystems and species. Risks 4a Management of biosecurity population. Consumption of resources 2a Limits for renewable Ensuring that the consumption of renewable resources does not exceed resources their long-term rates of natural regeneration. Using renewable resources efficiently to avoid unnecessary wastage of resources that may be needed by future generations. from adverse ecosystems impacts of human activities and pests. and genetic diversity. and plants and animals from damaging Avoiding irreversible adverse effects of human activities on ecosystems and the services they provide. unique natural risks pests and diseases. Dependence on non-renewable resources is reduced through technological development or shifts to renewable resources. Principles of environmental responsibility: Principles Description Ecosystems and biodiversity 1a Preservation and protection Preserving the dynamic diversity of nature.Ensuring that the release of non-degradable pollutants into the degradable toxins environment is prevented wherever possible. and the services that ecosystems provide. Rate of change 5a Taking into consideration the Balancing the rate of human intervention in nature with the time needed time needed for natural for the natural processes required for the environment to respond and processes regenerate. Materials and wastes 3a Limits for degradable waste Ensuring that the release of hazardous or polluting substances into the and toxins environment does not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment. Concentrations are kept below established critical levels necessary for the protection of human health and the environment. 4b Apply the precautionary Lack of full scientific certainty is not a reason for postponing measures to approach prevent environmental degradation or restoration of ecosystems where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage. 3b Avoidance of non. Access and value of the environment 6a Access to the environment Encouraging access to the natural environment . 1b Maintenance and restoration Safeguarding the natural processes important for the functioning of of the ecological integrity of ecosystems. Maintaining or restoring viable populations of indigenous species.

customary use. 7c Financial position Limiting the accumulation of debt to a level that does not limit investment options for future generations. International connection 10a World economic activity from which all parties can benefit Ensuring that through world activity. one nation’s needs are met without compromising the needs of other nations. 9b Promoting resilience in the economic system Encouraging a long-term outlook in the economic system to predict risks and adopt sustainable responses. Rate of change 9a Socially compatible rate of change Ensuring the economic system achieves the needed change without jeopardising social cohesion. 8b Economic efficiency Ensuring resources are used efficiently. Subjective living conditions . 8c Development of knowledge and skills to meets the needs of economic development Ensuring organisations and individuals have the knowledge and skills to meet the needs of economic development. and matauranga Mäori (traditional knowledge). Protecting and promoting human health. 7b Maintenance of infrastructure Ensuring infrastructure is maintained at an acceptable level. Efficiency and innovation 8a Investment in innovation Promoting and investing in research and development activities. 6b Protection of Mäori values Recognising and protecting Mäori values and use of the environment and use of the environment including the practice of kaitiakitanga. Options are created for current and future generations.  Principles of social cohesion: Principle Description Objective living conditions 11a Meeting needs 11b Promoting health Ensuring the basic needs of the population are met over the long term.for recreation and for recreation and tourism tourism as long as use is not inconsistent with the conservation of any natural resource. Individuals can take reasonable actions to meet material and nonmaterial needs that extend beyond basic needs.  Principles of economic efficiency: Principles Description Economic system 7a Economic system meets the needs of society Ensuring economic activity meets the needs of individuals and society effectively.

social. Knowledge and skills 14a Development of individual knowledge and skills Ensuring each member of society has the opportunity to gain knowledge and skills to enhance their well-being and to participate fully in society. Individual development is limited where it impinges on the well-being of other individuals in current or future generations. Governance 15 a Civil and political rights Protection of civil and political rights. 17 d Mäori cultural identity Recognising and valuing Mäori culture as an essential and unique element of New Zealand culture. 15 c Government effectiveness Ensuring government functions in an open. cultural. and accessible manner. fair. 17 b Cultural diversity Ensuring cultural diversity is freely expressed. 18b Integration of disadvantaged groups Promoting the integration of disadvantaged groups of the population into economic. effective. Equality of opportunity. and political life. access to resources 13b Limits to individual freedom Ensuring each member of society has the same rights and Society strives to achieve an equitable distribution of access to resources and options. 15 b Civic and political participation Civic and political participation is promoted. particularly in the Pacific. Culture and identity 17 a Historic heritage Protecting and promoting New Zealand’s historic heritage.12a Satisfaction and happiness Maintaining and promoting opportunities for the current generation to find satisfaction and happiness in life without compromising the opportunities for future generations. access to resources 13a Equal opportunities and opportunities. International assistance 16a Development cooperation Providing assistance to developing countries to move toward sustainable development. and valued. 15d Partnership between Mäori and government Strengthening partnership between Mäori and the New Zealand Government as recognised by the Treaty of Waitangi. Social connectedness 18a Social participation Social participation is promoted. . 17 c Cultural identity New Zealanders have a strong sense of identity based on their distinct heritage and cultures. respected.