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DRYING

October 28, 2015

Drying

Transfer of liquid from a wet solid into an


unsaturated gas phase

Moisture Movement

Two types:
Capillary

Mechanism
Diffusion Mechanism or Molecular Diffusion
Granular or crystalline

Amorphous, fibrous, or
gel-like

Crushed rock

Eggs

Titanium dioxide

Detergents

Zinc sulfate monohydrate

Starch

Sodium phosphates

Soybean extract

Capillary Mechanism

For beds of particulate solids or crystalline


solids
Movement of liquid within the solid
Results

from a net force arising from differences


in hydrostatic head and in surface tension effects
Surface

tension causes pressure under a curved liquid


surface to be different from that of a flat surface. For a
sphere of radius r,

2
P
r

Molecular Diffusion

For relatively homogeneous solids such as


fibrous organics, gel-like substances or porous
cakes
Ficks Law:
2

dX
* d X
DL
2
dt
dx

Simplest case: constant DL*


Drying

would occur from one face of a slab, with


the bottom and sides which are insulated

General Drying Behavior


Typical drying curve for constant drying
conditions, moisture content as a function of
time
Moisture content, X

Time, t

General Drying Behavior


Typical drying rate curve for constant drying
conditions, drying rate as a function of
moisture content
A

C
Drying rate, R

E
Moisture content, X

General Drying Behavior


Typical drying rate curve for constant drying
conditions, drying rate as a function of time

A
Drying rate, R

C
B

E
Time, t

General Drying Behavior


Unsteady-state period
(A-B)
Solid

temperature
adjusts until it reaches
a steady-state
In some cases, the
extent of drying in this
period could be
ignored

A
C
Drying rate, R

B
D

E
Moisture content, X

General Drying Behavior


Constant Rate Period
(B-C)
T

= Twet-bulb
Rate of liquid diffusion
from within the solid to
the external surface =
rate of evaporation
from surface
surface is
completely covered with
a thin film of liquid, and
maintained throughout
the period

A
C
Drying rate, R

B
D

External

E
Moisture content, X

General Drying Behavior


Constant Rate Period
(B-C)
does not vary
with moisture content
Depends on solid
structure of solid

Rate

capillary:

short
constant-rate period

C
Drying rate, R

B
D

Diffusion:

E
Moisture content, X

General Drying Behavior


Constant Rate Period
(B-C)
at the critical
moisture content
Diffusion of liquid to
the external surface
becomes insufficient to
replace the liquid
being evaporated
= critical moisture
content

Ends

C
Drying rate, R

B
D

E
Moisture content, X

General Drying Behavior


First Falling Rate
Period (C-D)
Liquid

on surface
starts to
deplete

A
Drying rate, R

C
B
D

E
Moisture content, X

= second critical
moisture content

General Drying Behavior


Second Falling Rate Period
(D-E)
No more liquid is present on
the surface
Drying occurs from within the
solid

A
Drying rate, R

C
B
D

E
Moisture content, X

= equilibrium
moisture content

General Drying Behavior

At the end of drying, when R=0, any moisture


content in the solid is defined as the
equilibrium moisture content, XE
Some

materials can be completely dried such that

XE=0
For others, the solid will contain significant
moisture content no matter how long the drying is
continued

Calculation of Drying Time

Drying rate:

WS dX
R
A dt

where
R: drying rate, lb liquid evaporated per hr-ft2 of
solid surface
WS: mass of dry solid, lb
: bulk moisture content of solid, lb liquid/ lb dry
solid

Calculation of Drying Time

Drying time:

WS
t
A

X 2

X 1

dX
R

where
1 : initial moisture content (time = 0)
2 : final moisture content

Constant Rate Period

Constant rate (Rc) depends upon the heat and


mass transfer coefficients from the drying
medium to the solid surface
Rc kY Yi YV M a

hV

TV Ti

In most cases, heat is transferred primarily by


convection

Constant Rate Period

For air drying, experimental results give the ff.


correlation:

hV 0.0128G

0.8
V

where
hV: Btu/hr-ft2-oF
GV: gas mass velocity, lb/hr-ft2

Constant Rate Period

Total time for constant rate period is

WS
X C X 1
tC
ARC

Critical Moisture Content

Depends on the pore structure of the solids


Has weak dependence on drying rate

Falling Rate Period

In many cases, the drying curve during the


falling rate period approaches a line from
to
Thus, the rate at any time during the falling
rate period is:
RC
R

X X E X C X E

X X E
R
RC
X C X E

Falling Rate Period

Total time to reach moisture content 2 during


the falling rate period is
t
WS X C X E X 2 dX
tCdt ARC X C X X E
X C

WS X C X E X 2 X E
t t C
ln
ARC
X C X E
When the equilibrium moisture content is
negligible,
WS X C
X 2
t t C
ln
ARC
X C

Equilibrium
Moisture Content
Depends on:
Structure of solid
Temperature of gas
Moisture content of gas

Solid Types
Crystalline

Amorphous

Examples

Inorganic solids, particulate


beds

Organic solids, fibrous


materials, gel-like substances

Solid structure

Unaffected by moisture

Structure affected by moisture


removal

Initial moisture
content

Moisture found in the


Moisture is an integral part of
interstices between particles, or the solid structure, trapped
in open pores
within fibers or fine pores

Liquid diffusion

Unhindered, primarily by
capillary mechanism

Slow, primarily by molecular


diffusion

Drying curve
characteristic

Bulk of drying is under


Constant Rate Period (CRP)

Very short CRP, high XC, bulk


of drying is under 2nd Falling
Rate Period

Equilibrium moisture
content

Nearly zero

Significant

Types of Moisture

Unbound moisture

Bound moisture

Moisture in excess of the


equilibrium moisture
content corresponding to
saturation humidity

Liquid which exerts a


vapor pressure less than
that of the pure liquid

Free moisture content

Liquid which is removable


at a given temperature
and humidity; may include
both bound and unbound
moisture

Example 18.1of Foust


Raw cotton of 0.7 g/cm3 density when dry is to be
dried in a batch tray drier from a moisture content
of 1 g H2O/g dry solids to 0.1 g H2O/g dry solids.
Trays are 60 cm square and 1 cm thick and are
arranged so that drying occurs from the top
surface only with the bottom surface insulated. Air
at 750C with a 500C wet-bulb temperature (Y =
0.122 mol H2O/mol dry air, %sat = 20%) circulates
across the pan surface at a mass flowrate of 2500
kg/hr-m2. Previous experience under similar
drying conditions indicates that the critical
moisture content will be 0.4 g H2O/g of dry solids,
and that the drying rate during the falling rate
period will be proportional to the free moisture
content. Determine the drying time required.

Drying Equipment

Tray Dryers
Conveyor and Tunnel Dryers
Particulate Dryers
Slurry and Paste Dryers
Spray Dryers

Tray Dryers

Simplest type
For batch drying small-capacity operation
Suitable for laboratory operations
Trays may be solid-bottomed pans or they
may have a screen base

Conveyor and Tunnel Dryers

Material in the form of sheets


Conveyors to make it continuous

Particulate Dryers

For free-flowing particulate material


Rotary

Dryer

Plate

Dryer

Flash

Dryer

Slurry and Paste Dryers

Rotary Vacuum
Dryer
Usually

used for
batch drying

Drum Dryer
Usually

used for
batch drying

Spray Dryers

To produce fine powders for dilute solutions,


slurries, gel, or emulsions