Design of RC Structural Elements for Shear

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Design of RC Structural Elements for Shear

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Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Chennai-600 036, India

Email: garao@iitm.ac.in

25-Mar-14

Beam subjected to pure bending moment

Sectional View

Deflected Shape of Beam

Stresses developed in beam under pure bending moment

Neutral Surface/Axis

horizontal planes

Equilibrium of Forces

Vertical Shear Force

Bending Moment

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to delamination of fibers

Beams with and without Planks

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a

V = +P

V = -P

M=Va

5

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Diagonal Tension

V

V

V

Diagonal Crack

V

V

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Cracking in RC Beams

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Types of Cracks

Type and formation of cracks depend on span-to-depth ratio of

beam and loading.

For simply supported beam under uniformly distributed load,

three types of cracks are identified.

1.Flexural Cracks: form at the bottom near mid span and

propagate upwards.

2.Web Shear Cracks: form near neutral axis close to support and

propagate inclined to the beam axis.

3.Flexure Shear Cracks: These cracks form at bottom due to

flexure and propagate due to both flexure and shear.

25-Mar-14

Formation of cracks for a beam with large span-to-depth ratio and uniformly

distributed loading is shown.

b) Growth of flexural cracks and formation of flexure shear and web shear

cracks.

Fig. 7 Formation of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam

1. Components of shear resistance at a flexure shear crack are shown in the

following figure.

The notations in the previous figure are as follows.

Vcz = Shear carried by uncracked concrete

Va = Shear resistance due to aggregate interlock

Vd = Shear resistance due to dowel action

Vs = Shear carried by stirrups

Magnitude and relative value of each component change with increasing load.

Modes of Failure

For beams with low span-to-depth ratio or inadequate shear

reinforcement, the failure may be due to shear.

Failure due to shear is sudden as compared to failure due to

flexure.

Five modes of failure due to shear are identified.

1. Diagonal tension failure

2. Shear compression failure

3. Shear tension failure

4. Web crushing failure

5. Arch rib failure

Mode of failure depends on span-to-depth ratio, loading, crosssection of beam, amount and anchorage of reinforcement.

to inadequate shear reinforcement.

compression flange above the tip of the inclined crack.

diagonal cracks propagate horizontally along the bars.

Web crushing failure: concrete in the web crushes due to

inadequate web thickness.

subsequently crush. There can be anchorage failure or failure of

the bearing.

Design for shear is to avoid shear failure; beam should fail in

flexure at its ultimate flexural strength.

Design involves not only design of the stirrups, but also limiting

average shear stress in concrete, providing adequate thickness of

web and adequate development length of longitudinal bars.

Behavior of RC members under Shear (including combined

loads with other loads) is very complex

1. Non-homogeneity of materials

2. Presence of Cracks and Reinforcement

3. Nonlinearity in Material Response

i. Based on results of extensive tests on small size members with

simplifying assumptions

ii. No unified and universally accepted method for prediction of shear

strength of beams without web reinforcement

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17

va = Aggregate Interlock forces (35-50%)

vd = Dowel action from longitudinal bars (15-25%)

Total Resistance = (vcz + vay +vd ) (For Beams without stirrups)

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18

1. Strength of Concrete (fc)

2. Percentage of Flexural (Tensile) Reinforcement (t)

3. Shear Span-to-Depth Ratio (a/d)

4. Depth of Member (d)

5. Size of Aggregate (da) ?????

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19

Ultimate Strength

Shear Strength

'

fc

Qualitative variation of ultimate and Diagonal cracking strength with

Compressive Strength of Concreet

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20

Ultimate Strength

Shear Strength

%Tens. Steel

% Tension Steel

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21

Shear Strength

Ultimate Strength

a/d

a/d ratio

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22

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23

Failure Mechanisms

Deep Beams (a/d < 1)

Arch action

Compression Chord

Anchorage Failure

Bearing Failure

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24

V

W

Crushing of Concrete

V

25-Mar-14

25

a

e

b

d

h

g

a

25-Mar-14

26

A phenomenon related to change in strength with member size,

decrease in strength with increase in member size

i) material heterogeneity and

ii) discontinuities (flaws) to flow of stress either in the form of

a. micro cracking before application of any load

b. load induced micro cracking or

c. macro cracking

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27

failure mode highly brittle - small deflections and lack of ductility

shear strength related to tensile strength of concrete

Evidence

Sudden failure of Wilkins Air force depot warehouse in Shelby, Ohio (1955)

due to Hyogo-Ken Nambu Earth Quake in 1995

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28

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29

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30

Ultimate Strength: load corresponding to the total and

complete failure due to shear and diagonal tension

Diagonal Cracking Strength: load corresponding to formation

of first fully developed inclined crack

a. An inclined crack is considered to be fully developed when it has

progressed sufficiently towards both the mid span and the support

while intersecting the tensile reinforcement

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31

How is it measured in the laboratory?

1. Normally, visual methods are deployed to measure the diagonal

cracking loads in the laboratory

2. load at the onset of formation of first diagonal crack

3. when the diagonal crack crosses the mid height of the beam

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32

1) are based on diagonal tension cracking and

2) by using a suitable multiplication factor, strength of short

or deep beams is obtained

3) Need to be re-examined

Owing to complex nature of stress distribution, Code Provisions

for prediction of shear strength are Empirical in Nature for

Beams without Web Reinforcement

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33

ACI - 2002

Vu d

'

=

+

v c 0.16 f c 17.2

Mu

vc = 0.17

f 'c

0.3 f ' c

MPa (6)

MPa 6 (a)

Simplified

Mu

Vu d

'

v c = 3.5 - 2.5

0.16 f c + 17.2

Vu d

Mu

0.5 f ' c

(7)

(ACI - 1999)

Mu

2.5 and

where 3.5 - 2.5

Vu d

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MPa

Vu d

1.0

Mu

34

BS 8110 - 1997

0.79 100 As

vc =

m bv d

Where

100 As

3.0,

bv d

25-Mar-14

1/ 3

1/ 4

400 f cu

d 25

400

1.0,

d

v c = (Eqn.8)

a

d

m = 1.25

for a

1/ 3

MPa (8)

and

f cu 40.0 MPa

< 2.0

35

IS 456-2000

0.85 0.8f ck ( (1 + 5 1)

v cr =

6

MPa (9)

0.62 f ck

Where 0.8 fck = Cylinder strength in terms of cube strength and

0.85 reduction factor = 1/m ~ 1/1.2

and

25-Mar-14

0.8f ck

=

1.0

6.89

v cr

2

= (Eqn.9)

a/d

36

Nominal Shear stress = Vu

v

bd

Where

Vu = shear force due to design loads

b = breadth of the member which for flanged sections shall be

taken as the breadth of web bw and

d = effective depth

25-Mar-14

37

IS 456-2000

0.85 0.8f ck ( (1 + 5 1)

c =

6

MPa 0.62 f ck

0.85 reduction factor = 1/m ~ 1/1.2

and

25-Mar-14

0.8f ck

1.0

6.89

v cr

2

= (Eqn.9)

a/d

38

25-Mar-14

39

Calculate the nominal shear stress and compare with the shear

strength of RC beams from Table 19 of IS 456-2000.

If the nominal shear stress v exceeds the shear strength c of RC

beams without shear reinforcement, then the beam needs to be

designed for shear reinforcement.

When v is less than c obtained from Table 19, minimum shear

reinforcement is provided which is given by

Asv

0.4

>

bsv

fy

sv

25-Mar-14

Asv f y

0.4b

40

I. When the shear stress is greater than shear strength given in

Table 19 (IS 456), shear reinforcement shall be provided in any of

the following forms

a. Vertical stirrups

b. Bent-up bars along with stirrups and

c. Inclined stirrups

Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry a shear force equal to

[Vu cbd ]

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41

25-Mar-14

42

For vertical stirrups

Asv . f sv

Vs =

d

sv

For single bar or single group of parallel bars all bent up at the

same cross-section

Vs = sv . Asv . sin

= angle between the inclined stirrup or bent up bar and the axis

of the member not less than 450

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43

Truss Analogy

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44

Truss Analogy

1.Action of vertical and inclined (stirrups) shear reinforcement may

be described by the analogous truss action.

2.In a simple truss, the upper and lower chords are in compression

and tension respectively; the diagonal members, called web

members, are alternately in compression and tension.

3.Shear strength of RC beam may be increased by use of shear

reinforcement similar in action to tensile web members in a truss.

4.Shear reinforcement must be anchored in compression zone of

concrete and is usually hooped around longitudinal tension

reinforcement.

25-Mar-14

45

Design of Stirrups

sv = spacing of links

Number of links crossing 450 diagonal crack

Total strength of vertical stirrups

Spacing of stirrups required=

N =

d

sv

Vs = 0.87 f y ASV

d

sv

0.87 f y Asv

d

0.87 f y Asv

= ( v c )bd sv =

sv

b( v c )

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46

Horizontal length over which the bar is effective can be taken as equal to d(cot +

cot ), where = direction of shear compression, = angle at which the bars bent

Let sv = spacing of bent bars. Then the number of effective bars in this region are

(

cot + cot )(d d ' )

N=

sv

Vs = Asv (0.87 f y

= Asv (0.87 f y )

25-Mar-14

(

cot + cot )(d d ' )

)sin

sv

sv

47

Section near the supports can be assumed to have enhanced

shear strength.

Shear failure at sections of beams and cantilevers without shear

reinforcement normally takes place on a plane making an angle

300 with the horizontal.

Enhance shear capacity at sections near supports as would be

done in design of brackets, ribs, corbels etc.

25-Mar-14

48

supported on members in compression, and tension

30

av

(b) Face of support in compression

25-Mar-14

49

Beams with varying depth are encountered in RC.

Beam depth is varied according to the variation of bending

moment and shear force.

1. Case (a): Bending moment increases numerically in the direction

in which effective depth increases.

2. Case (b). Bending moment decreases numerically in the direction

in which effective depth increases.

25-Mar-14

50

Case (a)

Case (b)

H

V

C

H

M = H Jd

S.S. Beam

Cantilever

25-Mar-14

51

M

V= Vw

tan for case(a)

d

M

V= Vw +

tan for case(b)

d

25-Mar-14

52

When flexural reinforcement in beams is terminated in

tension region, at that section it should satisfy

a) shear at cut-off point does not exceed two-thirds of combined

strength of concrete and steel. s > [1.5 c ]

b) Additional stirrups should be provided along each terminated

direction over a distance from the cut-off point equal to

three-fourth effective depth, equal to A' = 0.4 b s

su

Spacing of stirrups

25-Mar-14

<

d

8

fy

Total area of bars

53

1. Restrains the growth of inclined cracking.

2. Ductility is increased and gives warning before failure.

3. In an unreinforced web, such reinforcement is of great value if

a member is subjected to an unexpected tensile force or an

overload.

4. A minimum area of shear reinforcement is required whenever

the total factored shear force Vu is greater than one-half the

shear strength provided by concrete kVc.

5. Need to increase minimum shear reinforcement as concrete

strength increases to prevent sudden shear failure by inclined

cracking.

25-Mar-14

54

Deep Beams

Depth much greater than normal, in relation to their span, while

thickness is much smaller than either span or depth.

Main loads and reactions act in plane of member to achieve a

state of plane stress in concrete

Members with span-to-depth ratio of about 5 or less, or with

shear span, a, less than about twice depth are called deep beams.

25-Mar-14

55

l

(b). loads suspended along the tension edge

a

(c). loads distributed through depth

56

25-Mar-14

Deep Beams

Examples of Deep Beams found in:

Column offsets,

Walls of rectangular tanks and bins,

Floor diaphragms

Shear walls,

in folded plate roof structures

Behavior of deep beams is significantly different from that of the

normal beams, requires special consideration in analysis, design,

and detailing of reinforcement.

25-Mar14

57

Deep Beams

Deep Beams (a/d < 1)

Arch action

Compression

Chord

Arch Rib Failure

Anchorage Failure

Bearing Failure

25-Mar-14

58

25-Mar-14

59

25-Mar-14

60

25-Mar-14

61

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