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EIA Breakdown

During the production of phenol, there is a purge stream that goes into the atmosphere. This
purge stream consists of Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide, both of which are found in air.
Nitrogen makes up around 78% of normal air so there is no risk caused by this release.
Carbon Dioxide, however, is considered to be a greenhouse gas and it would be beneficial to
the environment to have something in place to absorb this emission.
The main waste from this process is hydroquinone which is hazardous to the environment.
This waste comes out of the reaction as a liquid however at standard atmospheric conditions
is a white granular solid and should be stored away in light-proof containers which are
labelled as corrosive.
Another waste that is sometimes formed is another derivative of phenol and closely related to
hydroquinone. It is pyrocatechol and is also found as a liquid waste in the process but is a
white powder at standard conditions. This is also hazardous to the environment and must be
stored in air tight containers and away from oxidising agents.
With an average equivalent noise of 92dB(A) in chemical plants, (Sehrndt & Parthey, 1995)
there is a huge emphasis on this impact. High levels of noise have a large impact on local
wildlife like birds and deer, which would otherwise live nearby the plant.
It is important for both human safety and wildlife impact that noise reduction is taken into
account. Possible ways to do this would include ensuring connections and joins on plant
structures are secure to prevent vibrations and adding insulation to noisy rooms to help
prevent the vibrations from reaching the outside of the plant.
The visual impact of a chemical plant doesnt affect the environment much and is more of a
social impact, however the addition of a chemical plant to the area will create an eye-sore. It
can be helped by the painting of plant items like chimney stacks and buildings to either blend
into the area or lessen the visual impact.
An increase in human foot flow through an area will mean certain facilities must be put into
place. This can include extra sewage networks and the building of roads and transport links.
This will have a major impact on the carbon footprint by bringing more cars to the area and
the major building works required to put services in place will bring its own problems to the
Water Resource
A chemical plant will have a massive impact on local water sources in multiple ways:

They will cause a drain on local lakes and rivers if water is taken from these areas for
cooling, with some plants requiring many tonnes of water per day.
Leakage to groundwater will mean that there is a potential that some of the chemicals used in
the plant will drain through to the water table, and move in to local pumping stations and the
rivers and lakes in the area. This will be a major problem for plants and animals, as well as
the human consumers of the water, potentially poisoning them. If any process water contains
traces of the dangerous chemicals, then it is vital that it is not released through standard
drainage and it must be treated by the proper methods laid out in their respective Material
Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
Soil and Geology
For similar reasons to the water impact, waste products can possibly seep into the ground and
have a devastating effect on the soil around it. This could mean that the areas nearby become
unsuitable for planting any plants and crops. Any wildlife that eats plants that does grow in
these areas could also be permanently damaged by this. Similar to above, it is vital that all
waste products are handled and treated properly to avoid any potential contamination.
Flora and Fauna
For reasons highlighted above, the flora and fauna will be directly affected by the addition of
a chemical plant to the area. The areas above highlight some of the impacts on the wildlife
but also to be considered is the actual build of the plant, which will cause the uproot of many
of plants and animals from their habitats. Trees may need to be cut down and farmlands
removed, which take along with it, the many ecosystems that reside there. While there isnt
any mitigation for plants that are already built, care must be taken when canvassing an area
for a new plant to ensure that as little disturbances are caused as possible. Help can be found
by consulting with the local wildlife conservation teams such as RSPB in the UK.
It is possible that some chemical plants have an impact on the local climate with certain
chemicals having an effect on things like acid rain. Fortunately, there are no foreseeable
problems with this process that would have any effect on the climate in the immediate area.
Any chemical plant is bound to have a massive drain on the local energy grid so in order to
keep nearby communities powered, it may be necessary to have a separate power network for
the plant. This may include the addition of a substation to the grounds of (or nearby) the plant
or even a direct link to a nearby power station. This would also help safety of the plant, by
ensuring that no power loss occurs to monitoring equipment during operation which keep the
plant from disaster.

Benzene (Science Lab, 2013)

Hazard Identification

Benzene is classified as an irritant as well as been a classified (A1) carcinogenic and

classified (possible) mutagenic. It is toxic to bone marrow, blood and the central nervous
system and is also possibly toxic to the liver and kidneys.
First Aid
In case of contact with eyes; remove any contact lenses and immediately wash eyes with lots
of warm water for at least fifteen minutes. Seek medical help straight away.
In case of contact with the skin, wash with plenty of water and cover any irritated skin with
an emollient or anti-bacterial cream. All contaminated clothing must be cleaned before being
used again.
In case of inhalation, move to fresh air supply and give help breathing with respirators if
required. If further symptoms appear, seek medical attention.
Fire and Explosion Data
Benzene is classified as a flammable substance. It has an auto ignition temperature of
497.78C and produces Carbon Dioxide and Monoxide when combusted. If a fire occurs then
it must be extinguished using alcohol foam, water spray or fog.
Accidental release Measures.
If there is a small spill then it should be mopped with an inert material and the waste put into
an appropriate container, then disposed of. A larger spill will require the prevention of
drainage to sewers or confined areas and the spillage mopped with an inert material.
Handling and Storage
It should be kept in a locked area until required for use and should be kept away from heat
sources and sources of ignition. Any storage containers must be grounded to prevent
electrical spark ignition and should be kept in a well ventilated area.
Personal Protection
Goggles, a lab coat and a vapour respirator are required when handling benzene and in case
of a large spill, a full protective suit is required, including boots and self-contained breathing
Nitrous Oxide

Hazard Identification
Pressurised gas containers may explode if heated. Nitrous Oxide is also an aggressive
oxidising agent, so may cause or intensify fire.
First Aid
In case of inhalation, move victim to fresh air and help breath with apparatus. Keep the
victim from moving and seek medical attention immediately
There are no adverse health effects if it comes in contact with skin or eyes and ingestion is
not considered as a route of exposure.
Symptoms of exposure include; dizziness, headaches and nausea.

Fire and Explosion Data

Nitrous oxide is considered as an oxidising agent and will intensify fires if it comes into
contact with it.
Exposure to fire may cause containers to explode and may produce nitrogen dioxide and
nitric oxide; toxic gases. If a fire occurs then it must be extinguished with dry powder, carbon
dioxide or water fog/spray.
If possible, the flow of gas should be stopped and any containers moved away from the heat.
Accidental Release Measures
On accidental release then the area must be evacuated and any potential ignition sources must
be eliminated. The product must be prevented from accessing sewers or enclosed areas and
breathing apparatus must be used if in the exposure area.
Handling and Storage
Never use in areas with direct flames or electrical heating devices. Containers must be airtight with an operating valve attached. The container must be kept free of oils and grease and
must be inspected for leaks on a regular basis.
Personal Protection
Eye protection must be worn when handling pressurised gases and working gloves and safety
boots are required if moving containers.
If a leak occurs, then self-contained respiration gear is required and a gas-tight chemical
protective suit must be worn.

Hazard Identification
Pressurised gas containers may explode if heated
Suffocation may occur if breathed in high concentrations
First Aid
If exposed to high concentrations then move the victim to a well ventilated area, with plenty
of fresh air. Apply breathing aid if required and seek immediate medical assistance.
There are no adverse health effects if it comes in contact with skin or eyes and ingestion is
not considered as a route of exposure.
Fire and Explosion Data
Heat may cause containers to explode but material will not burn. In case of fire then
extinguish source and spray water to cool containers.
Accidental Release Measures
In case of accidental release then evacuate the area and ventilate the area thoroughly. Prevent
leak from entering sewers or enclosed spaces and wear self-contained breathing apparatus if
in the exposure area.

Handling and Storage

Keep in air-tight container with a release valve and store below 50C in a well ventilated
area. Never use with a direct flame or electrical heating device, to prevent raising the pressure
inside the container. Containers must be inspected regularly for corrosion or leaks.
Personal Protection
Eye protection must be worn when handling pressurised gases and working gloves and safety
boots are required if moving containers.
If a leak occurs, then self-contained respiration gear is required and a gas-tight chemical
protective suit must be worn.

Hazard Identification
Hydroquinone is an irritant and permeator of the skin and is hazardous in case of ingestion
and inhalation. It is toxic to lungs and the nervous system.
First Aid
In case of eye contact wash eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may
be used. Seek immediate medical help.
In case of contact with skin, wash with running water and a non-abrasive soap. Cold water
may be used and medical attention should be sought if irritation persists.
In case of inhalation, move victim to a well ventilated area and use breathing apparatus if
In case of ingestion, do not induce vomiting and seek immediate medical help.
Fire and Explosion Data
The product may become combustible at high temperatures with products of combustion
being carbon dioxide and monoxide.
In case of a fire use water spray, fog or foam.
Accidental Release Measures
In case of a spill, use appropriate tools to put spilled material into a container then dispose of.
Handling and Storage
Keep container away from heat and sources of ignition and in a dry, cool place. Avoid storing
near strong oxidising agents
Personal Protection
Goggles, lab coat and dust respirator are required and in case of a spillage, self-contained
breathing apparatus must be worn.

Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

Land Uses

Since the plant will be located in a rural area there will be a great impact to area nearby.
Similar to ideas discussed in the EIA part of the report, any farmland that is near the plant
will need to be moved. This will cause livelihoods to be destroyed, with farmers and nearby
shops possibly needing to be moved elsewhere. It will also have an effect on fisheries (see
Water in EIA) and nature walks in surrounding parts of the wilderness (see Flora and Fauna
in EIA).
It would be ideal for the plant to be placed in an area that will minimise the risk of leaving
people without homes and jobs.

The urban impact of a chemical plant wont be as high as the rural impact however there will
be significant changes to the local towns and cities, with an increased foot flow and
improvements to travel links being required. This can be seen in both positive and negative
lights; with helping the local economies by bringing in more people to shops etc. On the other
hand, significant delays may be caused while services are being improved as well as running
the risk of increased congestion and pollution to the area.

Local industries will be significantly impacted, especially during the commissioning of the
plant. It would be likely that local builders and other skilled workers will be used to get the
plant built. This would only last during the building stage however, as it would be unlikely
that the required skills are available for the running of the plant.
There may also be a negative impact on the local industries, with competition for work, it is
possible that there is a loss in productivity in the existing industrial areas.
Recreational Uses

There wont be as big of an impact in regards to recreational activities, however, there will be
an impact as pointed out above, with nature trails and fisheries.
On the other hand, it is possible that an increase in local workforce, may bring more
recreational areas such as Public Houses and Cinemas as some down time will be required
after working long periods.

The landscape is guaranteed to change if a plant is built in the area, which while spoil the
view for many of the residents of the area. It is not usual for communities to be happy with
ugly structures being placed near them, so it must the benefits of the plant must clearly
outweigh this downside to sit right with the locals.

As discussed in the EIA, painting of chimney stacks and buildings can help with scar on the
landscape caused by the plant.

It is vital during the building of the plant that no places of historical or cultural importance be
disturbed as this will shine a negative light on the plant with the local communities.
This is something that most communities will feel deeply about so in order to avoid any
public backlash, consulting with local heritage centres will be required before going ahead
with the build of the plant and any infrastructures nearby.

Population Density

During the building of the plant there will be a huge increase in population density if work is
provided from out with the area. Builders and contractors may move to the area while it is
being built as it may be easier than a commute every morning for the time of the build.
With the size of the plant it would be expected that there will be around 100 permanent
workers. These workers will most likely live in the local towns and travel to the plant daily.
This influx of people will mean that the population of the towns will go up leading to the
requirement for more houses to be built around town to facilitate. It is important that the
towns dont become too overcrowded though, with consideration for safety as well as
ensuring local infrastructure can cope.

As pointed out above, there will be around 100 permanent workers and more temporary
contractors working on the plant. It would be beneficial to the community to employ, where
possible, from the local populations. With the world still being an economic turmoil, there
will be many people looking to take a job and if they have the right skills, there would be no
downside to employing these people in the plant.

An increase in population brings with it many hazards. An increase is vehicle traffic will
bring with it road safety dangers, especially from the towns to the plant are shared with other
members of the public, for instance school children.
Another hazard to consider would be the fallout if an accident were to occur in the plant.
With many volatile and dangerous chemicals involved, the local residents will need to be
briefed on what to do if an accident were to occur. Even if the plant is far outwith the
boundaries of the towns, the affected radius could be huge, with gas plumes and debris.
While unlikely, it must still be considered a possibility.
An obvious, but still noteworthy, hazard would be the plant itself. The plant must be fenced
and all dangerous areas locked securely away to prevent trespassers, whether malicious or
not, from being injured if they get onto the property.

In order to account for the increase in workers travelling to the plant and living in the area,
there must be an assessment of the local infrastructure. Workers moving to the area will need
be reliant on existing infrastructures being able to support them, with schools and shops being
among the considerations.
By assessing the increase on hazards to the area, it is also obvious that there will need to be a
sufficient emergency service in place. Injuries will need to be treated accordingly and any
accidents will need to be actioned by properly trained fire and rescue teams.
It is vital that all medical personnel and emergency response teams are properly briefed on
what is happening at the plant, with specific emphasis on what to do if something goes
wrong. They must be equipped to handle the possible accidents that can occur on site to
prevent major catastrophe.