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operation represents in this graph is that, which required to operate the relay when time setting multiplier set at 1.

From the Time / PSM curve of a typical relay shown below, it is seen that, if PSM is 10, the time of operation of relay is 3 sec. That means, the relay will take 3 seconds to complete its operation, with time setting 1.

It is also seen from the curve that, for lower value of plug setting multiplier, i.e. for lower value of fault current, the time of operation of the relay is inversely proportional to the fault current.

But when PSM becomes more than 20, the operating time of relay becomes almost constant. This feature is necessary in order to ensure discrimination on very heavy fault current flowing through sound feeders.

Calculation of Relay Operation Time

For calculating actual relay operating time, we need to know these following operation.

• 1. Current setting.

Step – 1

From CT ratio, we first see the rated secondary current of CT. Say the CT ratio is 100 / 1 A, i.e. secondary current of CT is 1 A.

Step – 2

From current setting we calculate the trick current of the relay. Say current setting of the relay is 150% therefore pick up current of the relay is 1 × 150% = 1.5 A.

Step – 3

Now we have to calculate PSM for the specified faulty current level. For that, we have to first divide primary faulty current by CT ratio to get relay faulty current. Say the faulty current level is 1500 A, in the CT primary, hence secondary equivalent of faulty current is 1500/(100/1) = 15 A current flowing through sound feeders. Calculation of Relay Operation Time For calculating actual relay operating time, we need to know these following operation. 1. Current setting. 2. Fault current level. 3. Ratio of current transformer . 4. Time / PSM curve. 5. Time setting. Step – 1 From CT ratio, we first see the rated secondary current of CT. Say the CT ratio is 100 / 1 A, i.e. secondary current of CT is 1 A. Step – 2 From current setting we calculate the trick current of the relay. Say current setting of the relay is 150% therefore pick up current of the relay is 1 × 150% = 1.5 A. Step – 3 Now we have to calculate PSM for the specified faulty current level. For that, we have to first divide primary faulty current by CT ratio to get relay faulty current. Say the faulty current level is 1500 A, in the CT primary, hence secondary equivalent of faulty current is 1500/(100/1) = 15 A Step – 4 " id="pdf-obj-0-62" src="pdf-obj-0-62.jpg">

Step – 4

Now, after calculating PSM, we have to find out the total time of operation of the relay from Time / PSM curve. From the curve, say we found the time of operation of relay is 3 second for PSM = 10.

Step – 5

Finally that operating time of relay would be multiplied with time setting multiplier,

in order to get actual time of operation of relay. Hence say time setting of the relay is

0.1.

Therefore actual time of operation of the relay for PSM 10, is 3 × 0.1 = 0.3 sec or 300

m

Calculate IDMT over Current Relay Setting (50/51)

  Calculate setting of IDMT over Current Relay for following Feeder and CT  Detail Feeder Detail: Feeder Load Current 384 Amp, Feeder Fault current Min11KA  and Max 22KA. CT Detail: CT installed on feeder is 600/1 Amp. Relay Error 7.5%, CT Error 10.0%, CT over shoot 0.05 Sec, CT interrupting Time is 0.17 Sec and Safety is 0.33 Sec.  IDMT Relay Detail:  IDMT Relay Low Current setting: Over Load Current setting is 125%, Plug  setting of Relay is 0.8 Amp and Time Delay (TMS) is 0.125 Sec, Relay Curve is selected as Normal Inverse Type. IDMT Relay High Current setting :Plug setting of Relay is 2.5 Amp and Time Delay (TMS) is 0.100 Sec, Relay Curve is selected as Normal Inverse Type

Calculation of Over Current Relay Setting:

(1) Low over Current Setting: (I>)

  Over Load Current (In) = Feeder Load Current X Relay setting = 384 X  125% =480 Amp Required Over Load Relay Plug Setting= Over Load Current (In) / CT Primary Current  Required Over Load Relay Plug Setting = 480 / 600 = 0.8  Pick up Setting of Over Current Relay (PMS) (I>)= CT Secondary Current X Relay Plug Setting  Pick up Setting of Over Current Relay (PMS) (I>)= 1 X 0.8 = 0.8 Amp  Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) = Min. Feeder Fault Current / (PMS X (CT Pri. Current / CT Sec. Current))
  Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) = 11000 / (0.8 X (600 / 1)) = 22.92 -1).  Operation Time of Relay as per it’s Curve  Operating Time of Relay for Very Inverse Curve (t) =13.5 / ((PSM)-1).  Operating Time of Relay for Extreme Inverse Curve (t) =80/ ((PSM)2 -1).  Operating Time of Relay for Long Time Inverse Curve (t) =120 / ((PSM) -1).  Operating Time of Relay for Normal Inverse Curve (t) =0.14 / ((PSM) 0.02  Operating Time of Relay for Normal Inverse Curve (t)=0.14 / ( (22.92)0.02-1) Actual operating Time of Relay (t>) = Operating Time of Relay X TMS  = 2.17 Amp Here Time Delay of Relay (TMS) is 0.125 Sec so   =2.17 X 0.125 =0.271 Sec Grading Time of Relay = [((2XRelay Error)+CT Error)XTMS]+ Over shoot+ CB Interrupting Time+ Safety  Total Grading Time of Relay=[((2X7.5)+10)X0.125]+0.05+0.17+0.33 = 0.58 Sec  Operating Time of Previous upstream Relay = Actual operating Time of

Relay+ Total Grading Time Operating Time of Previous up Stream Relay = 0.271 + 0.58 = 0.85 Sec

(2) High over Current Setting: (I>>)

  Pick up Setting of Over Current Relay (PMS) (I>>)= CT Secondary Current X Relay Plug Setting  Pick up Setting of Over Current Relay (PMS) (I>)= 1 X 2.5 = 2.5 Amp  Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) = Min. Feeder Fault Current / (PMS X (CT Pri. Current / CT Sec. Current))  Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM) = 11000 / (2.5 X (600 / 1)) = 7.33  Operation Time of Relay as per it’s Curve Operating Time of Relay for Extreme Inverse Curve (t) =80/ ((PSM)2 -1).  Operating Time of Relay for Very Inverse Curve (t) =13.5 / ((PSM)-1).   Operating Time of Relay for Long Time Inverse Curve (t) =120 / ((PSM) -1).  Operating Time of Relay for Normal Inverse Curve (t) =0.14 / ((PSM) 0.02 -1).  Operating Time of Relay for Normal Inverse Curve (t)=0.14 / ( (7.33)0.02- 1) = 3.44 Amp  Here Time Delay of Relay (TMS) is 0.100 Sec so  Actual operating Time of Relay (t>) = Operating Time of Relay X TMS  =3.44 X 0.100 =0.34 Sec Grading Time of Relay = [((2XRelay Error)+CT Error)XTMS]+ Over shoot+ CB Interrupting Time+ Safety  Total Grading Time of Relay=[((2X7.5)+10)X0.100]+0.05+0.17+0.33 = 0.58 Sec  Operating Time of Previous upstream Relay = Actual operating Time of Relay+ Total Grading Time.  Operating Time of Previous up Stream Relay = 0.34 + 0.58 = 0.85 Sec