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Engineering Standard

Geotechnical

CRN CS 410
FORMATION AND EARTHWORKS
Version 1.0
Issued August, 2011

CRN DMS REFERENCE:


CRN-ENG-AMS-SYD-STA-0029

Owner:

Asset Management & Engineering Services Manager

Approved by:

C Francis, Principal Civil Engineer

Authorised by:

G Dewberry, Asset Management & Engineering Services Manager

Disclaimer. This document was prepared for use on the CRN Network only. John Holland Rail Pty Ltd makes no
warranties, express or implied, that compliance with the contents of this document shall be sufficient to ensure safe
systems or work or operation. It is the document users sole responsibility to ensure that the copy of the document it is
viewing is the current version of the document as in use by JHR. JHR accepts no liability whatsoever in relation to the use
of this document by any party, and JHR excludes any liability which arises in any manner by the use of this document.
Copyright. The information in this document is protected by Copyright and no part of this document may be reproduced,
altered, stored or transmitted by any person without the prior consent of JHR.

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CRN Engineering Standard - Geotechnical


Formation and Earthworks

CRN CS 410

Document control
Revision
1.0

Date of Approval
August, 2011

Summary of change
First Issue. Includes content from the following former RIC standards:
C 1100, TS 3421, TS 3422, CSI 031

Summary of changes from previous version


Section

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Summary of change

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CRN Engineering Standard - Geotechnical


Formation and Earthworks

CRN CS 410

Contents
1
2

Purpose, scope and application ............................................................................................................. 4


References ................................................................................................................................................ 4
2.1
Australian and International Standards ......................................................................................... 4
2.2
CRN documents ............................................................................................................................ 4
2.3
Other references ............................................................................................................................ 4
2.4
Definitions ...................................................................................................................................... 4
3
Engineering authority .............................................................................................................................. 6
4
Design requirements ................................................................................................................................ 6
4.1
General .......................................................................................................................................... 6
4.2
Design investigation ...................................................................................................................... 6
4.3
Design flood level .......................................................................................................................... 7
4.4
Formation....................................................................................................................................... 7
4.5
Documentation .............................................................................................................................. 7
5
Cuttings ..................................................................................................................................................... 8
5.1
Excavation ..................................................................................................................................... 8
5.2
Batter slopes .................................................................................................................................. 9
6
Embankments ........................................................................................................................................... 9
6.1
Embankment base ......................................................................................................................... 9
6.2
Embankment material .................................................................................................................. 10
6.3
Compaction standards ................................................................................................................. 10
6.4
Sampling and testing ................................................................................................................... 10
6.5
Drainage blanket ......................................................................................................................... 11
6.6
Embankment profile ..................................................................................................................... 11
6.7
Rock facing of embankments ...................................................................................................... 11
7
Capping layer .......................................................................................................................................... 11
8
Earthworks near structures ................................................................................................................... 11
8.1
General ........................................................................................................................................ 11
8.2
Construction................................................................................................................................. 12
8.3
Excavation ................................................................................................................................... 13
9
Tolerances for earthworks .................................................................................................................... 13
9.1
Vertical tolerances ....................................................................................................................... 13
9.2
Horizontal tolerances ................................................................................................................... 14
10
Drainage .................................................................................................................................................. 14
11
Train examination areas and walkways ............................................................................................... 14
12
Rehabilitation of formation .................................................................................................................... 14
Appendix 1 Single track cross section ........................................................................................................ 15
Appendix 2 Double track cross section ....................................................................................................... 16

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CRN Engineering Standard - Geotechnical


Formation and Earthworks

CRN CS 410

Purpose, scope and application


This Standard establishes design requirements and acceptance standards for embankments,
cuttings and earthworks capping layer.
It is applicable to all Country Regional Network (CRN) mainline and siding tracks.

References

2.1

Australian and International Standards


AS 1289

Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes

AS 3798-2007 Guidelines on earthworks for commercial and residential developments

2.2

2.3

CRN documents
CRN CS 215

Transit Space

CRN CS 330

Miscellaneous Structures

CRN CS 420

Track Drainage

CRN CP 301

Structures Construction

CRN CP 411

Earthworks Materials

Other references
Nil

2.4

Definitions
Borrow Pit:

Excavation made for the procurement of material

Capping Layer:

Layer of compacted material that provides a sealing layer to the


earthworks.

CBR:

Soaked California Bearing Ratio, determined on a compacted sample.

Cohesionless Soil:

Material consisting mostly of sand and gravel mixture, generally with less
than 5% fines (i.e., particles finer than 75 m diameter).

Cohesive Soil:

Material consisting mostly of silt and clay and has a well-defined


moisture-density relationship when tested in accordance with
AS 1289.5.1.1 or AS 1289.5.2.1.

Collapsible Soil:

Soil that may suffer a significant decrease in volume under load or when
it becomes nearly saturated, which may have existed in this metastable
state for a long time

Compaction:

The process whereby the density of soil is increased by mechanical


means. This typically involves, rolling, impact or vibration, or a
combination of these processes.

Contaminated Material:

Material that may contain toxic substances or soluble compounds


harmful to environment, water supply or agriculture.

Cutting:

An earth or rock excavation that is made below an existing surface to


create the railway formation.

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CRN CS 410

Dispersive soil:

Soil that has the ability to pass rapidly into suspension in the presence of
water

Earthworks:

The activities covered by this standard

Earthworks Level:

Level at the centre of the earthworks prior to placing of the capping layer.

Embankment:

An earth or rock fill structure above an existing and/or excavated


surface to create the rail track formation.

Expansive Soil:

Soil that will suffer a high volume change when in contact with water.
Any increase or decrease in the moisture content of such soil, would
cause swelling or shrinkage, respectively. This type of soil is also called
Reactive Soil and Swelling Soil.

Formation:

The earthworks structure including all foundation, structural treatment


and capping layer, on which ballast is laid

Formation Level:

Finished level at the centre of the formation preparatory to laying ballast.


It includes the capping layer.

Formation Width:

Width at formation level

Foundation Treatment:

A special layer or treated zone at the base of a formation for the purpose
of reinforcing, strengthening or drainage.

General Fill:

The zone below the structural zone of the embankment.

Geosynthetics:

Prefabricated sheet made of polymeric materials which may be


permeable or non-permeable. This material may be used as filterdrainage (if permeable) or foundation reinforcement.
It includes
geotextile, geonet, geogrid and geocell.

Geotechnical Engineer:

A person with delegated engineering authority for geotechnical design


activities relating to earthworks.

Rail Level:

Design level of the running surface of the rails.


superelevated track, it is the low rail.

Relative Compaction

For cohesive soils, the dry density ratio determined in accordance with
AS 1289.5.4.1, or the Hilf density ratio determined in accordance with
AS 1289.5.7.1.

In the case of

For cohesionless soils, the density index determined in accordance with


AS 1289.5.6.1.
Relative Density:

The field dry density expressed in terms of maximum/minimum densities


established by laboratory test (used for cohesionless soils).

Right of Way:

The strip of land over which railroads are built.

Rockfill:

Fill compacted almost exclusively of fragments of broken rock. It


generally consists of a large portion of gravel, cobble, and larger sized
fragments, and may contain large open voids.

Shoulder Distance:

Distance from the track centreline to the edge of the formation.

Soluble Soil:

Soil containing perishable particles such as gypsum or rock salt.

Stockpile:

Placement of material that has been selected, loaded, transported and


unloaded in a heap outside the confines of a borrow pit or of an
excavation that forms part of the works.

Structural Zone:

The upper zone of the embankment below the capping. Its thickness
varies from 500mm to 1000mm, depending on the CBR of the general
fill.

Top Soil:

A natural surface soil that may contain organic matter.

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CRN CS 410

Engineering authority
Design and selection of infrastructure detailed in this standard for use on the CRN may only be
undertaken by persons who have been granted appropriate Engineering Authority by the Principal
Civil Engineer.:

Design requirements

4.1

General
Earthworks and formation design includes:
-

cuttings

embankments

capping layer.

New lines shall be constructed on a corridor wide enough to accommodate earthworks and
formation designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements in this document. The
corridor shall also accommodate associated drainage and access roads as detailed in relevant
CRN engineering standards.

4.2

Design investigation
Before any earthwork activity is undertaken, all necessary assessment and investigation shall be
carried out to determine the nature and extent of the work.
In the preliminary assessment, planning and design of earthworks, the following items shall be
considered:
-

Site investigation (Survey and Geotechnical)

Adjoining property (Drainage issues and other impacts)

Preservation items

Rehabilitation (Clean up and revegetation)

Drainage (Surface and subsoil)

Erosion and siltation (Prevention and mitigation)

Sloping ground, (Issues associated with drainage, stability and erosion)

Slope stability (Stability of temporary and/or permanent slopes)

Cuttings and trenches, (Stability of excavation and impact on adjoining structures)

Retaining walls, (considered if required to reduce batter slopes or support adjacent structures)

Problematic soils requiring special consideration including reactive (expansive) soils,


dispersive soils, collapsible soils, soluble soils, soft-compressible soils, and potential acid or
sulfate soils.

Properties of fill material (Maximum dry density, Optimum moisture content)

Surcharging of slopes

Calculation of quantities

Geosynthetics (Geotextile, Geogrid, etc.) Appropriate use of.

Construction vibrations, (Impact on adjacent structures and properties)

Non-potable water to be used for soil compaction

Contamination of soil, (disposal and/or treatment of)

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Formation and Earthworks

4.3

CRN CS 410

Design flood level


Where track is on a flood plain, the formation level shall be designed so that it is not overtopped in
a 1 in 100 year flood, subject to environmental impact assessment in accordance with legislation
and assessment of the impact of potential flooding on earthworks and other structures.

4.4

Formation
The formation for single track mainlines and single track sidings shall comply with the appropriate
dimensions shown in Appendix 1.
The formation for double track mainlines and double track sidings shall comply with the appropriate
dimensions shown in Appendix 2.
The formation for multiple track mainlines and multiple track sidings shall comply with the
appropriate dimensions shown in Appendix 2, subject to the requirement that the water from one
track shall not cross another track to get away. For example, if there are three tracks, there shall be
at least one subsurface centre drain.
Shoulder distances shall comply with the requirements detailed in Table 1.
Shoulder distance (mm)
Plain track
Main line

4250

Siding

3000

Main line or siding with parallel access road

5500

Special Requirements
Shunters and guards parallel walkways

4250

Train Examination areas

5500

Train Examination areas with parallel access road

7750

Clear width of road from back of any structure

3000

Table 1 - Shoulder width

Track centres shall be in accordance with Engineering Standard CRN CS 215 Transit Space.
Where reduced shoulder distances exist due to physical constraints, an assessment shall be made
of the need for safety refuges, handhold devices and limited clearance signs. The requirements
are specified in Engineering Standard CRN CS 330 Miscellaneous Structures.

4.5

Documentation
All activities of earthworks shall be documented. Appropriate documents should be prepared in the
following stages:
-

Investigation and planning;

Design and specification;

Construction.

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CRN CS 410

Cuttings
The design of cuttings shall be subject to a geotechnical investigation and design and shall take
into account the potential for failure to adversely impact on the track, property, infrastructure, rail
personnel and the public.
Design of cuttings shall provide for excavation of material within the limits of the batters, including
benching and terracing of cut batters; cleaning of batter surfaces; treatment of cutting floors; and
foundation treatment below the track. Cuttings in both soil and rock should provide a stable, safe
foundation for the structure.
Benching in cuttings shall be provided in both soil and rock as necessary

5.1

Excavation
Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, dimensions and slopes specified in the design.
The excavated faces shall be neatly trimmed and the top edges of the cuttings neatly rounded.
Under cutting of the slopes shall not be permitted under any circumstances.
Excavation shall be carried out in such a manner as to prevent erosion or slip; working faces shall
be limited to safe height and slopes as advised by the geotechnical engineer, and surfaces shall be
drained to avoid ponding and erosion.
Batters will generally require fattening at the ends of cuttings owing to the presence of less stable
material. In all cuttings, undulations in the general plane of the batter shall not be permitted.
Overhanging and loose or unstable materials likely to slip shall be cut back, removed or stabilised.
Rock cuttings and exposed surfaces shall be excavated so as to obtain smooth, uniformly trimmed
surface.
Excavation at the base of cutting shall be finished at a level to suit the capping thickness, with
cross falls and cess drains provided.
Where the subgrade in the floor of the cutting has a CBR that exceeds that of the structural fill for
the adjacent embankment, the floor of the cutting shall be ripped and recompacted for a depth of
300 mm, to provide the equivalent CBR.
Where the subgrade in the floor of the cutting has a CBR less than 8, it is to receive similar
treatment as would embankment material as set done in Section 6.2.
Prior to placing formation materials and carrying any designed foundation treatment, the cutting
floor shall be tested and inspected by the Geotechnical Engineer.

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5.2

CRN CS 410

Batter slopes
Batter slopes in soil and rock cuttings in excess of 3 m high and closer than 6 m from the track
centreline, shall be determined on the advice of the Geotechnical Engineer.
Unless shown otherwise in the design or as advised above, cutting slopes shall be in accordance
with Table 2.
Material

Slope
Horizontal

Vertical

Sand

2.5

1.0

Clay, loose gravel

2.0

1.0

Sandy clay, boulder clay, compacted gravely soil, talus

1.75

1.0

Highly jointed, weathered rock

1.5

1.0

Sound shale dipping sharply towards railway formation,


tight cemented gravel *

1.0

1.0

Ordinary rock *

1.0

1.0

Solid well bedded rock *

0.25

1.0

Table 2 Batter slopes


* Maximum height without bench 7 m.
* Batter slopes in rocks shall be confirmed by the Geotechnical Engineer.

Slopes shown in the design represent the estimated requirements for the expected types of
material found during the site investigation and will be subject to re-determination on the basis of
site inspection and investigation during excavation by the Geotechnical Engineer.
Where benches are required, the minimum requirements shown in Table 3 shall apply.
Access

Benching requirements

where access for


maintenance is
required

Bench width shall be a minimum of 4 m graded at an appropriate angle such as


1V:10H back into the batter

Where access for


maintenance is not
required

Minimum bench width may be less than 4 m, provided the long term integrity of the
bench in providing and maintaining batter drainage can be demonstrated
Table 3 Benching requirements

Slope support systems to allow steeper design batters in soil and weathered rock materials may be
appropriate to minimise the lateral extent of cutting, particularly on steeper slopes or where
property acquisition is required. Such works shall be based on specific geotechnical design..

Embankments

6.1

Embankment base
The natural ground at the base of the embankment plus a clearance of 2 metres shall be prepared
by the removal of unsuitable material. Unsuitable material includes topsoil, peat and other highly
organic soils, logs, stumps, perishable material, rubbish, material susceptible to spontaneous
combustion, free draining materials susceptible to scouring, very fine sand, silt and organic clay
and material with a CBR<1

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CRN CS 410

Where unsuitable material exists in excessive depths the advice of the Geotechnical Engineer is
required
Sloping ground or rock surfaces steeper than 1V:7H, on which fill material is to be placed, shall be
benched in the form of horizontal terraces at a width suitable for construction plant for the full width
of the sloping ground to be filled

6.2

Embankment material
Embankment materials shall comply with Engineering Specification CRN CP 411 Earthworks
Materials.
The embankment shall consist of two zones of embankment material:
-

General Fill

Structural Zone.

The thickness of the structural zone (H) is determined by the following relationship with the general
fill in the embankment:
-

for general fill with CBR* of 3 to 8%, H = 500mm

for general fill with CBR* of 1 to 3%, H = 1000mm.

* (Soaked California Bearing Ratio, Standard Compaction).


Material for use in the structural zone shall comply with CRN CP 411.

6.3

Compaction standards
To achieve a stable and durable embankment, the material shall be prepared and compacted as
specified below.
The Compaction standards shall be as follows:
Compaction A:

Compaction B:

Cohesive soils - Not less than 100% maximum dry density as determined
by AS 1289 Tests 5.1.1 and 5.3.1 (Standard Compaction)

Rock fill or cohesionless soils - No visible deflection of surface under 10


tonne vibratory rollers after 6 to 8 passes.
Not less than 95% maximum dry density as determined by AS 1289 Tests
5.1.1 and 5.3.1 (Standard Compaction).

Embankments shall be compacted to:

6.4

General Fill:

Compaction B

Structural Zone:

Compaction A

Sampling and testing


After compaction of each layer, sampling locations will be selected for moisture content and relative
density tests.
Field (in-situ) density and laboratory tests shall be carried out in accordance with Australian
Standards. The test results must be representative of the tested layer at its full depth, width and
length.
Proof rolling shall be carried out on all layers to detect any possible soft or unstable pocket.

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Proof rolling must not exhibit visible deformation, rutting, or yielding and/or show signs of distress
or instability. Should any of the above occur the affected material shall be reworked and re-tested
with subsequent confirmation of compliance to include test rolling.

6.5

Drainage blanket
Where specified or directed by the Geotechnical Engineer, a free draining filter layer consisting of
hard durable crushed rock, river gravel or slag which is called drainage blanket, shall be provided
under the embankment.

6.6

Embankment profile
Embankment batter slopes up to a height of 3 meters, shall be 2:1 (horizontal: vertical). For higher
embankments, the batter slopes shall be determined by stability analysis taking into account of
materials properties, height, foundation conditions, static and dynamic loading, and potential
seepage forces . Advice shall be sought from the Geotechnical Engineer if there is any doubt
concerning the embankment stability.
Batters of 3:1 may be used where grassing is necessary or where stock have to cross the line.
The completed batter must be free of rills running down the face of batter. Any loose material on
the batter shall be promptly removed as the work progresses.

6.7

Rock facing of embankments


Where shown in the design, embankment batters (including embankments at bridge structures)
shall be provided with a facing of clean, hard, durable rocks (Rip-rap) separated from the earth fill
embankment with a graded filter or geotextile sheet in accordance with specifications given by
CRN CP 411. Rock facing shall be placed outside of the general embankment dimensions.

Capping layer
The capping layer shall be constructed in a single layer having a compacted thickness of minimum
150 millimetres.
The material shall be spread in uniform horizontal layer so as to achieve the specified compacted
thickness for the full width of the capping layer. Capping shall be laid on subgrade with a minimum
CBR of 8%.
Capping material shall comply with CRN CP 411.
Compaction shall achieve a minimum relative dry density of 95 per cent Maximum Dry Density as
determined by AS 1289, Test 5.2.1.
The capping material shall be well mixed throughout the layer so that all voids are filled. The top of
the final layer shall be graded and trimmed, and material shall be added as necessary to produce a
uniform surface of the sealing layer.

Earthworks near structures

8.1

General
For the purpose of this section, structures include bridge piers and abutments, wing walls, box
culverts, pipe culverts, headwalls, tunnels, retaining walls, platform walls, noise walls, signal
gantries and towers.

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8.2

CRN CS 410

Construction
Care shall be exercised in constructing earthworks within 5m of structures to avoid damage to the
structures.
Hand held compaction equipment shall be used within this distance and adjacent to the structure
as defined in Table 4:
Structure

Compaction Method

Bridge abutment and wing


walls

Hand held compaction equipment for full structure height for a distance of
2/3 H from wall (H = overall height of structure)

Pipe Culverts

Hand held compaction equipment for distance D from pipe to top of pipe
(D = diameter of pipe)

Box culverts & culvert wing


walls & retaining wall

Hand held compaction equipment for full structure height for a distance 2/3 H
from wall (H = overall height)
Table 4 Compaction of earthworks near structures

Selected backfill shall be placed adjacent to structures in accordance with the requirements of
Table 5. The selected backfill shall consist of a granular material having a maximum dimension not
exceeding 50mm and a plasticity index, determined in accordance with AS 1289.3.3.1, neither less
than 2 nor more than 12. In the table, H = overall height of the structure.
Selected Backfill

Structure Type

Width

Height

Bridge Abutments

2m

Box Culverts, Precast Culverts

H/3

H + 300mm

Corrugated Steel Pipes and Arches

0.5 m

H + 500mm

Retaining Walls

H/3

Table 5 Select fill adjacent to structures

The fill shall be placed in horizontal layers with a compacted thickness between 75mm and
100mm.
Layers shall be placed simultaneously on both sides of box culverts to avoid differential loading.
Compaction shall start at the wall and proceed away from it.
The existing slope behind the structures shall be cut in the form of successive horizontal terraces,
each terrace being at least 1m in width and 600mm in height.
In case of spill-through abutments, rocks shall not be dumped against the columns or retaining
walls but shall be built up evenly by hand placing around or against such structures.
In the case of framed structures, embankments at both ends of the structure shall be brought up
simultaneously and the difference between the levels of the embankments at the respective
abutments shall not exceed 500mm unless otherwise specified in the design or within the
specifications.
Adjacent to weep holes, free draining filter material encapsulated in a suitable geotextile fabric
should be placed, horizontally for at least 300mm from, and vertically for 450mm above the weep hole. Free draining material must be provided by broken stone or river gravel consisting of clean,
hard, durable particles graded from 50mm to 10mm such that:
-

the maximum particle dimension does not exceed 50mm; and

no more than 5% by mass passes the 9.5mm AS sieve.

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8.3

CRN CS 410

Excavation
Care should also be exercised when excavating within 5m of structures (for example near bridge
abutments or platforms when benching into slopes for embankment widening or when excavating
for track reconditioning).
When excavating adjacent to structures, there is a risk that the footings may be undermined or the
structure destabilized, resulting in structural failure and potential collapse.
Excavations in the vicinity of structure footings are therefore not permitted unless documented
engineering advice and approval are obtained.
No excavation should be made within this 5m distance without prior analysis of structure stability
with respect to the effects of the excavation.
No excavation shall be made below the base of the footings of any structure (for example bridges,
retaining walls and station platform walls) without prior analysis of structure stability with respect to
the effects of the excavation.
The approval will be in the form of a certification by a competent geotechnical/structural engineer
with relevant engineering authority, based on the results of an appropriate geotechnical and/or
structural investigation.

Tolerances for earthworks


Tolerances for different sections of earthworks shall comply with the following provisions:

9.1

Vertical tolerances

9.1.1

In embankments

9.1.2

9.1.3

Top of the structural zone + 0mm to 50mm

Top of the general fill zone + 40mm to 40mm

In cuttings
-

Floor of cut (top of common earthworks): other than rock + 40mm to 40mm

Floor of cut (top of common earthworks): rock + 0mm to 80mm

Top of Structural Zone: other than rock + 0mm to 50mm

At transitions between cut and fill


-

9.1.4

Top of benches and berms


-

9.1.5

Floor of cut to fill transition +0 to 50mm

Top of benches and berms +50 to 50mm

Capping layer
-

The finished surface of the capping shall be within 25mm of the design level and:

The algebraic difference of the deviations from the correct level for any two points 20 metres
apart on the centreline shall not exceed 15mm.

The deviation from a three (3) metre straight edge laid on the surface parallel to the centreline
shall not exceed 10mm.

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9.2

CRN CS 410

Horizontal tolerances
The width of the base and top of cuts and fills and the widths of benches and berms shall not to be
less than specified dimensions. Maximum positive tolerance is 300mm, unless approved by the
Geotechnical Engineer.
The width of the capping layer from the design centreline to the finished top of embankment slopes
or toe of batters in cuttings shall be not less than the dimensions required by Table 1.
When the capping layer is tested with a three (3) metre straight edge laid perpendicular to the
centre line the deviation from design profile shall not exceed 10mm concavity.

10

Drainage
Cess drains; sub-surface drains, top drains and interceptor drains shall be provided for cuttings and
shall comply with the requirements in Engineering Standard CRN CS 420 Track Drainage.

11

Train examination areas and walkways


Where train examination areas or walkways are provided, they shall meet the following
requirements:

12

They shall be free draining, permitting uninterrupted flow of water from the track formation
away from the track

They shall not impact on the performance or maintenance of track infrastructure,

They shall be suitable for the purpose for which they have been designed.

Rehabilitation of formation
In rehabilitating the formation, the following shall be taken into account when preparing the work
plan and design:
-

Investigation and assessment of ground condition by the Geotechnical Engineer;

Rectification of drainage deficiencies;

Removal and disposal of failed ballast to the formation level;

Removal and disposal of failed formation material;

Provision of capping material on the original formation;

Provision of structural

Provision of hard rock fill to replace soft subgrade

Provision of trench (ballast filled) drains;

Repair/rectification of degraded, ineffective, blocked or sagging culverts..

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Formation and Earthworks

Single track cross section


CL

Appendix 1

CRN CS 410

Shoulder Distance

Shoulder Distance

Rail Level
1.5 :1

1.5 :1

1000 min.

Ballast

1 in 30

Formation Level

1 in 30

1 in 10

Earthworks Level

Capping Layer
Batter Slope

Natural

Surface

EMBANKMENT
Where space permits,
increase this distance to
allow for mechanized
maintenance equipment.

Batter Slope

CL

1000 min
Shoulder Distance

Shoulder Distance

Batter Slope

1.5 :1

1.5 :1
Ballast

1 in 30

1 in 30
Capping Layer

ROCK

Additional area to be used


for drainage where grade in
cutting is less than 1 in 200
or where additional drainage
is required.

EARTH

CL

CUTTING

Shoulder Distance

Shoulder Distance
1250

50 min.

Rail Level
1.5 :1

1 in 30

1 in 30
1 in 30

1.5 :1

Formation Level

Earthwork Level

1 in 30
Capping Layer

Typical section where shunters and


guards walkways are required.

Typical section where examinations


areas are specified.

SPECIAL WIDTH REQUIREMENTS

JHR
CRN-ENG-AMS-SYD-STA-0029

UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED

Page 15 of 16
Version 1.0

CRN Engineering Standard - Geotechnical


Formation and Earthworks

Appendix 2

CRN CS 410

Double track cross section

Shoulder Distance

Track Centres

Shoulder Distance

Rail Level

1000 min.

1.5 :1

1.5 :1
Ballast

1 in 30

1 in 30

1 in 10
Natural

Capping
Layer

Surface

Formation
Level
Earthworks Level
Batter Slope

EMBANKMENT

Where space permits,


increase this distance to
allow for mechanized
maintenance equipment.

Batter Slope

1000 min.

Shoulder Distance

Track Centres

Shoulder Distance
Batter Slope

1.5 :1

1.5 :1
Ballast

1 in 30

1 in 30
EARTH

ROCK

Capping Layer

Additional area to be used


for drainage where grade in
cutting is less than 1 in 200
or where additional drainage
is required.

CUTTING

Shoulder Distance

3 :1

1.5 :1

3 :1
1.5 :1
1 in 30

1 in 30

1 in
30

Subsurface Drain

Capping
Layer

1 in 30

Surface Drain

CENTRE DRAIN
Shoulder
Distance
50 min.
1.5 :1
1 in 30
1 in 30
Capping
Layer
Typical section where shunters and
guards walkways are required.

SPECIAL WIDTH REQUIREMENTS

JHR
CRN-ENG-AMS-SYD-STA-0029

UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED

Page 16 of 16
Version 1.0