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# Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

## School of Electrical Sciences

Electrical Technology Laboratory

List of Experiments
1. (a) Characteristics of Incandescent Lamp.
(b) Measurement of power consumption of Fluorescent Lamp.
2. (a) Verification of Superposition theorem.
(b) Verification of Thevinins theorem.
3. Study of RLC series circuit.
4. Calibration of Energy meter.
5. Three-phase power measurement using 2-Wattmeter method.
6. (a) Power measurement using 3-Ammeter method.
(b) Power measurement using 3-Voltmeter method.
7. Open Circuit and Short Circuit test on 1-Phase Transformer.
8. Speed control of D.C. Shunt Motor by Field Flux control and
Armature Voltage control method.
9. Open Circuit Characteristic of D.C. Generator.
10. External & Internal Characteristics of D.C. Generator.

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 1(a)
CHARACTERISTICS OF INCANDESCENT LAMP
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To obtain the Volt-Ampere (V-I) characteristics of Incandescent Lamp.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No
1

Instrument/Equipment
Incandescent Lamp

Type

Specification

Tungsten

Quantity

## 200 Watt, 230 V

1 No

Filament
2

Voltmeter

MI

0 300 V

1 No

Ammeter

MI

0 - 1000 mA

1 No

1- variac

Iron core

230 V, 4 A

1 No

Connecting Wires

Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

THEORY:
If an electric current is passed through a fine metallic wire heat as well as light energy is radiated when the
temperature is very high. The incandescent lamp consists of an evacuated glass bulb having a fine wire filament. Tungsten
is the most commonly used metal for filament lamps. Resistance of the filament can be calculated by below formula.

## V = Voltage across lamp in volt.

I = Current through the lamp in ampere.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
A
0 1000 mA

Ph
FUSE

LAMP
200 W, 230 V

230V
1-Phase
Supply

0 300 V

N
DPST
SWITCH

1 Phase Variac

## Circuit diagram for V-I characteristic of Incandescent Lamp

PRECAUTION:
1. Connection should be right and tight.
2. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching on the supply.
3. Instruments should be connected in proper polarity and range.
4. Do not touch any non-insulated part of any instrument or equipment.

5. Be ensured the zero setting of instrument is on right position. Avoid parallax error.
PROCEDURE:
1. Choose the appropriate ratings of the Ammeters, Voltmeters.
2. Set up the circuit as shown in circuit diagram with the lamps and instruments as indicated.
3. Set the variac at zero output voltage before switching on the power supply.
4. Increase the variac output voltage in steps of 20V to 30 V, until the rated voltage is obtained. At each step, note
the readings of Voltmeter and Ammeter and record them in Table- 1.
5. Repeat step- 4 for decreasing output voltage from rated voltage to zero volts.

OBSERVATION:

TABLE- 1
Sl. No.

Supply Voltage(Volt)

Current (Amp.)
Inc.

Dec.

Mean

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

REPORTS:
a) Plot I as a function of voltage V.
CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
2. Why do the readings differ for increasing and decreasing values of the lamp voltages?
3. State whether a lamp rated 230V, 60W can be used on both ac and dc supply. Give reasons for your answer.
4. Explain the advantages of using tungsten wire as filament material in incandescent lamps.

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 1(b)
MEASUREMENT OF POWER CONSUMPTION OF FLUORESCENT LAMP
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
a) Connection and measurement of power consumption of a Fluorescent lamp.
b) Measurement of its Pick-up and Cut-off Voltage.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

## Fluorescent Lamp with

Fittings

Voltmeter

Ammeter

Type

Specification

Quantity

40 Watt, 230 V

1 No

MI

0 300 V

1 No

MI

0 - 200 mA

1 No

1- variac

Iron core

230 V, 4 A

1 No

Wattmeter

LPF

1 A, 300 V

1 No

Connecting Wires

Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

THEORY:
The fluorescent tube consists of a glass tube. The tube contains argon gas at low pressure and one or two drops of
mercury and inside surface of the tube is coated with a thin layer of fluorescent material in the form of powder. The
coating material used depends upon the colour effect desired may consists of zinc silicate, cadmium silicate or calcium
tungsten. These organic chemicals are known as phosphorus which transforms shot wave invisible radiation into visible
light. A Choke is connected in series with the tube which acts as ballast in running condition and provides a high voltage
impulse or surge for instantaneous time for starting the tube light. The filament which is connected with a starter only to
start the tube light in the other words it is called as starting switch.

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
STARTER

CHOKE

Watt meter
M

0 200 mA
C

FLUORESCENT LAMP40 W

Ph
FUSE
230 V 1 phase
supply

V
1 phase
variac

0 300 V

DPST
SWITCH

## Circuit diagram for Fluorescent Lamp

PRECAUTION:
1. All connections should be tightened.
2. Reading of the meter should be taken correctly.

3. Be ensured the zero setting of instrument is on right position. Avoid parallax error.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Set the variac to its zero position and switch on the power supply.
3. Gradually vary the variac till the lamp glow. Take the reading of Voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter. This will give
the pick-up voltage of fluorescent lamp.
4. Go on increasing the voltage using variac to maximum 230V and observe the reading of three meters. The
wattmeter reading will give the power consumed by the fluorescent lamp.
5. Gradually go on decreasing the voltage by variac till the fluorescent lamp glows off. This will give the cut-off
voltage of fluorescent lamp.
6. Switch OFF the supply.

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

OBSERVATION:
TABLE- 2
Sl.
No.

Supply voltage in
Volts (V)

Current in
Amp. (I)

## Pick-up voltage- ________

Power consumed in
Watts (P)

## Cut-off voltage- ________

CALCULATIONS:
Power factor (cos) = Power consumed (P) / (Supply voltage circuit current).

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. What is the function of Starter in fluorescent lamp?
2. Write the technical specification of fluorescent lamp and indicate what type of Power is being measured by
Wattmeter?
3. What is the function of Choke [Ballast] in fluorescent lamp?

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 2(a)
VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To verify the Superposition theorem.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

25, 3A

1 No

Rheostat

Tubular

26, 4 A

1 No

Rheostat

Tubular

6, 5 A

1 No

Ammeter

MC

0 - 1A

1 No

Multimeter

Battery

Rectifier Unit

Connecting Wires

Digital
Dry Cell

Cu

1 No
12V, 7.2 AH

1 No

0-220V, 10 A

1 No

1.5 sq. mm

As required

THEORY:
Superposition theorem states that current through or voltage across an element in a linear bilateral network is
equal to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source. This theorem is very
handy tool for solving networks with more than one source. The most obvious advantage of this method is that it does not
require use of mathematical methods like determinants to find required current or voltage. Instead superposition theorem

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

allows us to calculate cumulative effect of multiple sources on an element, by knowing individual effects on element by
each source. Particular attention must be given to polarity of voltages & direction of currents while applying this theorem.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

R1

R2

R3

+
V1

+
V2

+
A
0 1A

## Verification of Superposition Theorem

PRECAUTION:
1. Connection should be right and tight.
2. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching on the supply.
3. Instruments should be connected in proper polarity and range.
4. Do not touch any non-insulated part of any instrument or equipment.
5. To avoid parallax error note down readings by standing parallel to the meter.

PROCEDURE:
1. Make a circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. The values of resistors and supply as shown in the circuit are the
suggestions only and any other values may be taken depending upon the availability of components in the
laboratory.
2. Remove source V2 and close the circuit through a link preferably through a wire. Measure I3due to source V1.
Record V1and I3 in the observation table.
3. Now put V2 in the circuit and remove V1. Close the circuit through a link in place of V1. Measure I3due to source
V2. Record V2 and I3 in observation table.
4. Now connect both the sources simultaneously and measure I3 record the result in observation table.
5. Compare the measured and calculated values of currents and draw conclusions.

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

OBSERVATION:
Table-1
Sl.
No.

Voltage
Source-1
(V1)
in Volt

Voltage
Source-2
(V2)
in Volt

Current
through R3
due to V1 (I3)
in Amp.

Current
through R3
due to V2
(I3)
in Amp.

Current
through R3
due to both
sources (I3) in
Amp.

I3 + I3
in Amp.

Remark

CALCULATIONS:

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. Can we apply the principle of superposition in a network having more than two sources?
2. Explain why the superposition principle does not work for power in the elements of a circuit?
3. Explain why it is advisable to remove the source and complete the circuit by a link instead of short circuiting the
terminals of the supply while remaining in the circuit.

10

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 2(b)
VERIFICATION OF THEVENINS THEOREM
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To verify Thevenins Theorem.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl. No. Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

25, 3 A

1No.

Rheostat

Tubular

26, 4 A

1 No.

Rheostat

Tubular

6, 5 A

1 No.

Ammeter

MC

0-1A

1 No.

Multimeter

Battery

Rectifier Unit

Connecting Wires

Digital

1 No.

## Dry Cell 12V, 7.2AH

0-220 V, 10 A
Cu

1.5 sq. mm

1 No.
1 No.
As required

THEORY:
Thevenins theorem states that Any two terminals AB of a network composed of linear, passive& active
elements may be replaced by simple equivalent circuit consisting of an equivalent voltage source VOC in series with an
equivalent resistance RTH. The voltage source VOC is equal to the potential difference between two terminals AB caused by
active network with no external resistance connected to these terminals. The series resistance RTH is equivalent resistance
looking back into the terminals AB with all sources within network made inactive.

Where

+
IL = Load current, VOC = Open circuit voltage.
=

11

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

R1

R2

RTH
RL

+
V1

+
V2

RL

VTH

A
0 1A

## Circuit diagram for verification of Thevenins Theorem

PRECAUTION:
1. Connection should be right and tight.
2. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching on the supply.
3. Instruments should be connected in proper polarity.
4. Do not touch any non-insulated part of any instrument or equipment

PROCEDURE:
1. Choose the appropriate ratings of the Ammeters, Voltmeters, and Rheostat as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set up the circuit as shown in Figure.
3. Start the rectifier unit by keeping variable knob at exactly zero point. Increase the rectifier output to a required
4. Measure Thevenins voltage and Thevenins resistance by a voltmeter and Multimeter by following proper
method.
5. Make Thevenins equivalent circuit and find out the load current (IL). Compare it with IL.

OBSERVATION:
Table-2
Sl.
No.

Observed
Current
(IL)
(in Amp.)

VTH
(V)

RTH
(From
Multimeter)
()

Computed
IL=VTH/(RTH+RL)
(in Amp.)

from equivalent
circuit. (in Amp.)

Remark

12

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

CALCULATIONS:
The load current IL can be calculated as I =
L

Vth
Rth + RL

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. What type of ammeter and voltmeter (MI or MC) will you use and why?
2. Can you suggest an alternative procedure for the determination of RTH?
3. Is there any restriction for choice of circuit elements?

13

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 3
STUDY OF RLC SERIES CIRCUIT
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
Measurement of current, voltage and power in R-L-C series circuit excited by single phase A.C. supply.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

100, 2.5A

1 No

Inductor

Air core

30 mH, 5 A

1 No

Capacitor

Oil

70 F, 660 V

1 No

Ammeter

MI

0 - 2.5/5 A

1 No

Voltmeter

MI

0 150/300 V

3 Nos

Voltmeter

MI

0 30 V

1 Nos

Wattmeter

LPF

2.5/5 A, 75/150/300 V

1 No

1- variac

Iron core

230 V, 4 A

1 No

Connecting Wires

Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

THEORY:
R

VR

VL

VC

I
V

A series R-L-C circuit is shown in the above figure. According to Kirchhoffs voltage law.
V = V R + V L + VC

14

= I ( R + j ( L

1
))
C

= IZ

## Where, Z is the impedance of the Circuit.

The current though the circuit is given by, I = V / Z
In a series R-L-C circuit:

## L > 1 / C then current lags the voltage

If L < 1 / C , then current leads the voltage
If L = 1 / C , then current and voltage are in phase.

1. If
2.

3.
The phasor diagrams for R-L-C series circuit for:
(a)

L = 1 / C

(b)

L > 1 / C

& (c)

## L < 1 / C , is shown below

XL

XL

XL

XL - XC

IR

IR

IR

XC - XL

XC
XC
V

XC

Fig (a)
For unity power factor

Fig - (b)
For lagging power factor

Fig ( c)

15

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
2.5/ 5 A , 75/ 150/ 300 V
LPF Watt meter
A
0 5A

VL

VR
V

Ph

0 150 V
FUSE

VC

0 30 V

0 150 V

230 V 1 phase
supply

1 phase
variac

0 150 V

DPST
SWITCH

PRECAUTION:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## All connection should be tight.

The meter should of proper range.
Check zero setting of all meter.
While varying the value of Variac note that current in circuit should not exceed safe limit.

PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

## Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.

Set the variac to minimum voltage position.
Switch on AC Supply.
Set the variac output voltage 90 V.
Note down the reading of all meters.
Change the setting of Rheostat with fixed position of variac take the reading all the meters.
Change the setting of variac.
Repeat the step 5 and 6.
Record the observation as per table.

OBSERVATION:
S. No.

Observation

Calculation

Remarks

VR

VL

VC

R=

XL=

XC=

Cos

Z=

Volt

Amp

Volt

Volt

Volt

Watt

VR/I

VL/I

VC/I

P/VI

V/I

16

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

REPORTS:
1. Plot the phasor diagram using the experimental data.

CALCULATIONS:

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. What is power factor in AC circuit and write its importance?
2. What do you mean by Impedance of AC Circuit and what is its units?
3. Define resonance in AC Circuit? What will be consequences when circuit attends resonance?

17

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 4
CALIBRATION OF ENERGY METER
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
Connection and testing of a 1- Energy meter by (a) Short run Test (b) Long Run test.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Voltmeter

MI

0 - 300 V

1 No

Ammeter

MI

0 10 A

1 No

Energy meter

## 230 V, 20 A, 6000 Rev/kWh

1 No

Stop watch

Connecting Wires

Induction
Standard type
Cu

1 No
2 kW, 230 V
1.5 sq. mm

1 No
As required

THEORY:
Energy meter is an integrating instrument, which is used to measure the consumption of electric energy consumed
by a residence, business or an electrically powered device. It measures energy in kWh (Kilo Watt-Hour) and is an
integrating meter. The principle of operation of an energy meter is similar to that of a wattmeter except rotating disc. The
number of revolutions made by the disc is counted with the help of a gear train and read on the dial directly as unit (i.e. 1
unit = 1 kWh). Constructionaly it is nearly same with respect to an induction wattmeter, except that the pointer of the
wattmeter is replaced by a breaking magnet and a spindle.
A single-phase induction type energy meter consists of the following parts:
1. Moving system
2. Operating mechanism
It consists of (i) Series magnet
(ii) Shunt magnet
(iii) Breaking magnet
3. Recording mechanism

18

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

L1
A
0-10A

CC1
PC1

CC2
PC2

Ph
SINGLE PHASE
ENERGY METER

FUSE
230 V 1 phase
supply

V
0 300 V

2 kW LAMP

DPST
SWITCH

L2

PRECAUTION:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Connection should be right and tight.

Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching on the supply.
Instruments should be connected in proper polarity and range.
Do not touch any non-insulated part of any instrument or equipment.
Be ensured the zero setting of instrument is on right position. Avoid parallax error.

PROCEDURE:
1. Select suitable ranges of the ammeter and voltmeter such that energy meter can be tested over its complete range.
2. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
3. Before switching on the supply, ensure that the Lamp load switches (all) are open (off).
4. Note down the initial reading of the energy meter.
6. Switch on the supply and wait for the red indicator of the energy meter disc to come in the front. At this moment
start the stopwatch. Note down the voltmeter and ammeter readings.
7. Measure the time (T) for (N) revolutions (say 20 revolutions) switch off the stopwatch immediately. Switch off
the supply.
and tabulate the observation in the table.

19

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

OBSERVATION:
Sl.
No.

Voltage
(V)

Current
I (A)

Time
T (s)

Energy
Recorded
by the meter Em

Actual Energy
Consumed During N rev.
Ea=(V.I.T)/(1000x3600)

Percentage Error
(Em-Ea)/Ea x 100

REPORTS:
Plot % Error as a function of Load Current.

CALCULATIONS:
For observation no. :
Power consumed by the load = VI watt.
Time taken to complete 20 revolutions = t secs.
Actual energy consumed = VIt/(1000 3600) kwh
Energy read by the energy meter = No. of revolutions/Meter constant
% Error = [(Actual energy-Measured energy) /Actual Energy] 100
Note : Slow speed of rotating disc for positive error Beneficial for consumer
Fast speed of rotating disc for negative error Beneficial for supplier

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:

20

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 5
THREE PHASE POWER MEASUREMENT
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To study about 3- power and to measure the power in a 3- system with balanced and unbalanced loads
separately by Two-Wattmeter Method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

100 , 5A

3 Nos

Voltmeter

MI

0 600 V

1 No

Multimeter

Digital

Ammeter

MI

Wattmeter

UPF

3- variac

Connecting Wires

1 No
0 2.5/5 A

3 Nos

2.5/5 A, 600 V

2 Nos

Iron core

415 V, 15 A

1 No

Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

THEORY:
A wattmeter is an instrument with a potential coil and a current coil so arranged that its deflection is proportional
to VI cos, where
V = rms voltage applied across the potential coil.
I = rms current through current coil.
= phase angle between V & I.
The 3-phase power can be measured by 3-single phase wattmeters having current coils in each line and potential
coils connected across the given line and any common function. Since this common junction is completely arbitrary, it
may be placed on any one of the three lines. The wattmeter connected to that line will show a zero reading.

21

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

So according to Blondels theorem in an N-wire circuit, only (N-1) number of wattmeters are required to measure the
power.
So 2-wattmeter method measures the power of 3-phase star/delta connected balanced/unbalanced loads.
The total power supplied, is given by,W = WA + WB = V3 VLILcos (Algebric sum).
SINGLE PHASE
WATTMETER

WA

3-phase

WB

CURRENT COIL

PRESSURE COIL

3( )

## Power factor, cos = 1

If one of the wattmeter tends to read negative, the pressure oil is reversed, but the reading of the wattmeter must
be taken on negative.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
2.5/ 5 A , 600V
UPF Wattmeter
R

FUSE
R

0 5A

100 T , 5 A

V
3 phase
Supply

0 600 V

3 phase
Variac

100 T , 5 A
0 5A

B
C
TPST
SWITCH

A
M
0 5A

100 T , 5 A

2.5/ 5 A , 600V
UPF Wattmeter

22

2.5/ 5 A , 600V
UPF Wattmeter
R

FUSE
R

0 5A

100 T , 5A

V
3 phase
Supply

V1

0 600 V

3 phase
Variac

0 150 V

100 T , 5 A

0 5A
V

B
C
TPST
SWITCH

V2

0 150 V

A
M
0 5A

100 T , 5 A

2.5/ 5 A , 600V
UPF Wattmeter

V3
0 150 V

## Fig-2 Circuit Diagram for unbalanced load

PRECAUTION:
1. Connection should be right and tight.
2. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching on the supply.
3. Instruments should be connected in proper polarity and range.
4. Do not touch any non-insulated part of any instrument or equipment.
5. Be ensured the zero setting of instrument is on right position. Avoid parallax error.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.- 1
2. Adjust the rheostats for the maximum resistance.
3. Switch on the supply.
4. Read the meters to obtain V , I , I and I . Note the wattmeter reading W and W (Note the multiplying factor on
L

the wattmeters).
5. Vary the load resistance and obtain at least five sets of observations, the current should not exceed the limit 4 A.
6. Tabulate the readings and check the results by completing the calculations indicated in the table-1.

23

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.-2.
2. Adjust the three rheostats at the maximum values.
3. Switch on the supply and set the autotransformer to 415 V.
4. Take five sets of observation for different rheostat settings such that the reading of I , I and I in each set is
1

appreciably different to create unbalanced loading condition. The current should not exceed the limits in each
arm.
5. Tabulate and check the result by completing the computations indicated in Table:-2.

OBSERVATION:
Table-1:
Sl.
No.

V in

I in

I In

I in

W in

W in

(V)

(A)

(A)

(A)

(W)

(W)

Calculated power
(Wc) = (V /3) (I +I +I )
L

(W) =
(W1 +W2)

Error =
W - Wc
Wc
*100%

Table- 2:
Sl.
No.

VL
in
(V)

V1
in
(V)

V2
in
(V)

V3
in
(V)

I1

I2

I3

W1in W in

in
(A)

in
(A)

in
(W)
(A)

(W)

## Calculated power (Wc)

= (V1I1+ V2I2 + V3I3)

(W) =
(W1 +W2)

Error =
W - Wc
Wc
*100%

CALCULATIONS:

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. What do you understand by a balanced three-phase load?
2. How would you measure power using a) Three watt meters and b) One wattmeter for balanced/unbalanced loads?
3. Is it possible to measure power factor of the balanced (three phase load by two-wattmeter method)?

24

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 6(a)
POWER MEASUREMENT USING THREE AMMETER METHOD
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To measure the power of a single phase AC circuit by three Ammeter method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

100 , 2.5 A

1 No.

Rheostat

Tubular

26 , 4 A

1 No.

Inductance

Air core

60 mH, 5 A

1 No.

Ammeter

MI

0 - 5/10 A

1 No.

Ammeter

MI

0 2.5/5 A

2Nos.

Voltmeter

MI

0 75/150/300 V

1 No.

Wattmeter

L.P.F.

10A,300V

1 No.

1- variac

Iron core

230 V, 10 A

1 No.

Connecting Wires

Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

THEORY:
We know in a dc circuit, the power is given by the product of voltage and current where as in AC circuit it is
given by the product of voltage, current and power factor. For this reason, it is not possible to find power in an AC circuit
simply from the reading of a voltmeter and ammeter. In ac circuits power is normally measured by Wattmeter. However,
this method demonstrates that the power in a single phase ac circuit can also be measured by using 3-ammeters.

25

## The phasor diagram of 3-Ammeter method is shown below

I2

I1

I3
I12 = I22 + I32 +2I2I3Cos()
Power factor (Cos) = (I12 -I22 - I32 ) / 2I2I3
Power Consumed by the load = I3*V*Cos

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Watt meter,
A

I1

I3

0 5A

0 10 A

I2

10A, 300V
L

26 T ,4 A

Ph
0 2A
V

FUSE
230 V 1 phase
supply

0 150V
100 T , 2. 5 A

60 mH, 5 A

N
DPST
SWITCH

1Ph Variac

## Circuit Diagram for three ammeter method

PRECAUTION:
1. Connection should be right and tight.
2. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching on the supply.
3. Instruments should be connected in proper polarity and range.
4. Do not touch any non-insulated part of any instrument or equipment.
5. Be ensured the zero setting of instrument is on right position. Avoid parallax error.

26

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the 1- variac at minimum position.
3. Switch on the supply and vary the output voltage of the variac in such a way that it should not exceed 120 V.
4. Note down the observations and switch off the power supply.

OBSERVATION:
Observation
Sl. V in
I1 in
No. (Volt.) (Amp.)

Calculation

I2 in
I3 in
Wattmeter
(Amp.) (Amp.) (W)

Cos

## Cos P in Q in VoltWatt Amp(Wc) Reactive

S in
voltAmp

%Error =
(W-Wc)/Wc

REPORTS:
1. Choose the proper current and voltage scales and draw the vectors I, V1, V2& V3 , measure the angle &
Or
2. By using triangle law find & .

## W: Wattmeter Meter reading, Wc: Calculated Power

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. Draw the Circuit & Vector diagram to measure the power of a single circuit by 3 Ammeter method
2. Draw and define the power triangle of an AC circuit.

27

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 6(b)
POWER MEASUREMENT USING THREE VOLTMETER METHOD
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To measure the power of a single phase AC circuit by three Voltmeter method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

100 , 2.5 A

1 No

Rheostat

Tubular

26 , 4 A

1 No

Inductance

Air core

60 mH

1 No

Ammeter

MI

0-5A

1 No

Voltmeter

MI

0 150/300 V

2Nos

Voltmeter

MI

0 75 V

1 No

Wattmeter

L.P.F.

10A, 300V

1 No.

1-variac

Iron core

230 V, 10 A

1 No

Connecting Wires

Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

THEORY:
Let I be the reference Vector
V2 in phase with I

V3
V1

V1=V2+V3

## V12 = V22 + V32 +2V2V3Cos()

Power factor of the load (Cos) = (V1 -V2 - V3 ) / 2V2V3
2

V2

28

## Power Factor of entire circuit = cos

Active Power Consumed by the Load W= V3ICos watt
Reactive Power Consumed by the load Q= V3Isin VAR
Apparent Power Consumed by the Load S= V3I VA
Power Consumed by entire circuit = V1ICos watt

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
V

V2
Watt meter

10A , 300V

0 300 V
M

A
0 5 A

100, 2.5A
C

26, 4A

Ph
V

FUSE
230 V 1 phase
supply

V
0 300V

0 75 V
60mH , 5A

N
DPST
SWITCH

1 Ph Variac

## Circuit Diagram for three voltmeter method

PRECAUTION:
1. Connection should be right and tight.
2. Check the circuit connection thoroughly before switching on the supply.
3. Instruments should be connected in proper polarity and range.
4. Do not touch any non-insulated part of any instrument or equipment.
5. Be ensured the zero setting of instrument is on right position. Avoid parallax error.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the 1- variac at minimum position.
3. Switch on the supply and vary the output voltage of the variac in such a way that it should not exceed 120 V.
4. Note down the observations.
5. Switch off the power supply.

29

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

OBSERVATION:
Sl. I in
No. (Amp.)

V1 in
(Volt.)

Observation
V2 in
V3 in
(Volt.) (Volt.)

Wattmeter
(W)

Cos

Cos

Calculation
P in
Q in Volt- S in
Watt Ampvolt(Wc) Reactive
Amp

%Error=
(W-Wc)/Wc

REPORTS:
1. Choose the proper current and voltage scales and draw the vectors I, I1, I2 & I3 , measure the angle & .
Or
2. By using triangle law find & .

CALCULATIONS:
%Error = (W-Wc) / Wc

## W: Wattmeter Meter reading, Wc: Calculated Power

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. Draw the Circuit & Vector diagram to measure the power of a single circuit by 3 Ammeter method
2. Draw and define the power triangle of an AC circuit.

30

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 7
OPEN-CIRCUIT AND SHORT-CIRCUIT TEST ON TRANSFORMER
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
(a) To perform open circuit test on a 1- transformer.
(b) To perform short circuit test on the same transformer.
(c) Calculate the complete parameters of the equivalent circuit of the transformer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Voltmeter

MI

0 150/300 V

2 Nos

Voltmeter

MI

0 30/60 V

1 No

Ammeter

MI

02A

1 No

Ammeter

MI

0 10 A

1 No

Ammeter

MI

0 10/20 A

1 No

Wattmeter

LPF

2 A, 150 V

1 No

Wattmeter

UPF

10 A, 75 V

1 No

1-variac

Iron core

230 V, 10 A

1 No

Connecting Wires

Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

Machine specification:
Sl.No
1.

Machine
1- transformer

Specification
1- Transformer :-1.5 kVA

Quantity
1 No

230/115 V, 50 Hz

31

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

THEORY:
Open circuit test: In this test low voltage winding is connected to a supply of normal voltage and frequency and the high voltage
winding is left open. The primary winding draws very low current hardly 3 to 5 percent of full load current when this
condition. As such copper losses in the primary winding will be negligible. Thus mainly iron losses occur in the
transformer under no load on open circuit condition, which are indicated by the wattmeter connected in the circuit.
Hence, total iron losses = W0 (Reading of wattmeter).
Power drawn W0 = Vo I0 cos0
Thus no load power factor cos0 = W0/V0I0
Core loss component of no load current Iw = I0 cos0
Magnetising component of no load current Im = I0 sin0
Equivalent resistance representing the core loss R0 = V0/Iw
Magnetising reactance representing the Magnetising current Xm = V0/Im

Short circuit test: In this test, low voltage winding is short-circuited and a low voltage hardly 5 to 10 percentage of the rated voltage
of the high voltage side is applied such that rated current flows through the winding. This test is performed at rated current
flowing in both the windings. The iron losses occurring in the transformer under this condition is negligible, because of
very low applied voltage. Hence, the total losses occurring under short circuit are mainly the copper losses of both the
winding, which are indicated by the wattmeter connected in the circuit. Let the various reading be Wsc , Vsc & Isc.

Wsc
I 2 sc
V
Z = sc , X = Z 2 R 2
I sc
R=

Where,
R = equivalent resistance
X= Equivalent leakage reactance
Z= Equivalent impedance

32

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
2 A,150 V LPF
WATTMETER
M

0 150 V

0 2 A

Ph
FUSE
1 phase
variac

230 V 1 phase
supply

HT

LT

V
V
0 300 V

DPST
SWITCH

10 A, 75 V UPF
WATTMETER
A
0 10 A

0 30 V

Ph
FUSE
230 V 1 phase
supply

HT

1 phase
variac

LT

A
0 20 A

DPST
SWITCH

## Fig- 2 Circuit Diagram for S.C Test

PROCEDURE:
Open circuit test: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the Fig-1.
2. Ensure that the setting of the variac is at low output voltage.
3. Switch on the supply and adjust rated voltage across the transformer circuit.
4. Note down the readings of all the meters.
5. Switch-off the a.c. supply.

33

## Short circuit test: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig-2.

2. Ensure that the setting of the variac is at low output voltage.
3. Switch on the supply and increase the voltage applied slowly, till the current in the windings of the transformer is
4. Note down the readings of all the meters.
5. Switch-off the a.c. supply.

OBSERVATION:
Sl.No

Vo

## Short circuit test

Io

Wo

Vsc

Isc

Wsc

CALCULATIONS:
Sl.No

Coso

Iw

Im

Ro

Xm

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. Why indirect testing of large size transformer is necessary.
2. What type of losses occur in the primary and secondary winding of transformer
3. Which parameters of the equivalent circuit of a transformer can be found through Short-circuit test.
4. Why the HV side of transformer is kept open in Open circuit test?
5. Justify that the power drawn by the transformer under no-load is equal to the iron losses and under short circuit
6. What will happen to the transformer, if a ratted voltage is applied during the short circuit test?

34

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 8
SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To perform the speed control of a DC shunt motor by field flux control & armature voltage control method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

200 , 1.5 A

1 No

Rheostat

Tubular

100 , 5 A

1 No

Ammeter

MC

0-2A

1 No

Voltmeter

MC

0 300 V

1 No

Tachometer

0 5000 rpm

1 No

Connecting Wires

Digital
Cu

1.5 sq. mm

As required

Machine specification:
Sl.No
1.

Machine
D.C. Shunt Motor

Specification
D.C. Shunt Motor :- 3.7 kW, 1500 RPM
220 V , 19.7 A , Excitation- 220 V/0 .95A

Quantity
1 No

THEORY:
If V is the applied voltage across the motor terminals, Eb is the back e.m.f. developed, then V = Eb + Ia.Ra
Where Ia and Ra are the current and resistance in the armature circuit respectively.
But, Eb = ZNP/60A = KN
Hence V= KN + Ia.Ra
i.e N= K (V Ia.Ra)/

35

## This shows that:

An increase of Ia.Ra drop will decrease the value of speed if V remains constant. Speed varies inversely to the
field flux and hence varies inversely as the exciting current. If below saturation, by increasing the resistance in the
armature circuit, motor can be operated at speed below rated speed. By increasing the resistance in the field circuit a
motor can be operated above rated speed.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
3 point starter
L

A
100T, 5 A
+

F1

0 2 A

200T, 1. 5 A

FUSE

DC SUPPLY
220 Volt.

A1
V

0 300 V

F2

DPST
SWITCH

A2

## Circuit Diagram for speed control of dc shunt motor.

PRECAUTION:
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. The motor armature rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. The motor should be in no load condition throughout the experiment.
4. The motor should run in anticlockwise direction.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the machine under test as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the D .C supply and start the D.C shunt motor with the help of three point starter by keeping the
external resistance (Field rheostat) in field circuit at its minimum and in the armature circuit at its maximum
position.

## Case- A (Armature voltage control)

1. Adjust the field current at normal value (corresponding to normal speed).
2. Keeping the field current constant, vary the voltage across the armature by varying the armature rheostat towards
its maximum value in minimum 5 steps and note down the experimental datas.

36

## Case- B (Field flux control )

1. Adjust the voltage across the armature at its rated value.
2. Keeping this voltage constant , decrease the field current of the motor by varying the field rheostat towards its
maximum value in minimum of 5 steps and note down the experimental datas.

OBSERVATION:
Case A
No. Of
Observations

Armature Voltage
(Volts)

Speed (RPM)

## Field Current (Amps)

Field Current
(Amps)

Speed (RPM)

Armature Voltage
(Volts)

Case B
No. Of
Observations

REPORTS:
Draw curves showing :
1. Speed vs Armature voltage , with field current constant.
2. Speed vs Field current , with armature voltage constant.

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. Is it possible to obtain the speed higher than the rated speed by armature control discuss ?
2. Why speed control is essential from industrial point of view ?
3. Is it possible to obtain speeds lower than the rated value by using field control ?

37

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 9
OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTIC OF DC GENERATOR
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
a) To conduct open circuit test on a given separately excited dc generator and to plot the characteristic curves.
b) To determine critical resistance of the field circuit and critical speed.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

300 , 1.7 A

1 No

Rheostat

Tubular

200 , 1.5 A

1 No

Ammeter

MC

02 A

1 No

Voltmeter

MC

0 300 V

2 Nos

Tachometer

Connecting Wires

Digital
Cu

0 - 5000 rpm
1.5 sq. mm

1
As required

Machine specification:
Sl.No

Machine

1.

## D.C. Motor coupled with D.C.

Generator.

Specification
D.C. Shunt Motor :-5 HP , 1500 RPM
220 V , 19.7 A , Excitation- 220 V/0.95 A
D.C. Generator :-3.5 kW, 220 V, 16 A, 1500 rpm
Excitation- 220 V/0.85 A

Quantity
1 Set

THEORY:
It is also known as Magnetic or Open-Circuit characteristics (O.C.C.). It shows the relation between the no-load
generated e.m.f. of armature E0, and the field or exciting current If, at (N) rated speed of that machine. It is just the
magnetization curve for the material of the electromagnets. Its shape is practically the same for all generators whether
separately excited or self-excited.

38

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
3 point starter
L

A1
+

A1

F1

F1

+
200,1.5A

FUSE

DC SUPPLY
220 Volt.

0 300 V
F2

F2

DPST
SWITCH

A2

A2

FUSE
DC SUPPLY
220 Volt.

300, 1.7A

02A
V

0 300 V
DPST
SWITCH

## Circuit Diagram for O.C Test on dc generator

PRECAUTION:
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.
4. The generator must rotate in proper direction.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the d.c motor and the d.c generator as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the potential divider feeding the field circuit of the generator for zero output voltage.
3. Switch on the d.c supply to the d.c motor and start it using the three point starter.
4. Adjust the speed of the d.c motor to rated value by varying the resistance in the field circuit.
5. Record the generated e.m.f due to residual magnetism.
6. Switch- on the d.c supply across the field circuit of the generator.
7. Vary the field current of generator in steps and record its value and the corresponding generated e.m.f of the
generator. Observations should be continued upto the generated voltage 25 percent higher than the rated voltage
of the generator.
8. To plot the field resistance line, record the voltage across the field of the generator.
9. Switch off the d.c supply, to stop the motor and also to disconnect the generator field.

39

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

OBSERVATION:
Sl. No

Vo

If

CALCULATIONS:
Calculate the critical resistance and critical speed as follows:

## Air gap line

OCC

Rc =

Vc
I fc

Nc =

V2
N
V1

Rsh
A

V1

Voltage

Nc

V2

Vc

Rc

Ifc

Field current

REPORTS:
1. Draw curves showing- Vo Vs If
2. Draw the field resistance line on the magnetization characteristic.

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. Initial portions of Open circuit characteristic [O.C.C.] is almost straight line. Why?
2. What is the significance of residual magnetism?
3. Define critical resistance of the field circuit of D.C. Generator.
4. What is critical speed of the generator?

40

## Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar

School of Electrical Sciences
Electrical Technology Laboratory
Experiment No- 10
EXTERNAL & INTERNAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DC GENERATOR
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:
a) To conduct load test on a given separately excited dc generator and to draw the characteristic curves.
b) To deduce the internal characteristic from the above.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Instruments/Equipments:
Sl.No

Instrument/Equipment

Type

Specification

Quantity

Rheostat

Tubular

200 , 1.5A

1 No

Rheostat

Tubular

300 , 1.7A

1 No

Ammeter

MC

0 10/20 A

1 No

Voltmeter

MC

0 - 300 V

1 No

Tachometer

Digital

0 5000 rpm

1 No

Resistive

4 kW, 230 V

1 No

Multimeter

Connecting Wires

Digital
Cu

1 No
1.5 sq. mm

As required

Machine specification:
Sl.No

Machine

1.

## D.C. Motor coupled with D.C.

Generator

Specification
D.C. Shunt Motor :-5 HP , 1500 RPM
220 V , 18.6 A , Excitation- 220 V/ 0.95 A
D.C. Generator :-2.2 kW, 220 V, 13 A, 1500 rpm
Excitation- 220 V/0.85 A

Quantity
1 Set

41

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

THEORY:
The load characteristics on extended characteristics of d.c. generator represents the graphical relationship between
the terminal voltage and the load current, the generator being operated at constant rated speed and with the same
excitation as under no load condition. The nature of this characteristic depends upon the following factors.
1. Voltage drops in the armature winding, Interpol and compensating windings.
2. Voltage drop at the brush contact.
3. Voltage drop due to armature reaction.
External characteristic of the generator indicates the fall in the terminal voltage as the load on the generator increases.
The internal characteristic of shunt generator can be obtained by adding the voltage drop in the armature winding
(IaRa) to the external characteristic plotted experimentally.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
3 point starter
L

0 20 A
A1

A1

200 T , 1.5 A

FUSE

DC SUPPLY
220 Volt.

F1

F1
G

F2

DPST
SWITCH

0 300 V

Resistive
4 kW

F2
A2

A2

+
FUSE

DC SUPPLY
220 Volt.

300, 1.7A
DPST
SWITCH

## Fig-1 Circuit Diagram for Load Test on dc generator

PRECAUTION:
1. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position.
2. The generator field rheostat should be kept at maximum resistance position.
3. At the time of starting, the generator should be in no load condition.
4. The generator must rotate in proper direction.

42

## IIT BHUBANESWAR, SES, ET Lab.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the rheostat so that there is maximum external resistance in the field circuit if the generator.
3. Switch on the d.c supply of the d.c motor and start it with the help of 3-point starter.
4. Adjust the speed of the motor to rated value by varying the resistance in the field and armature circuit of the
motor.
5. Adjust the field current of the generator by its field rheostat so as to obtain rated voltage at no load.
6. Switch on the resistive load & Note down the load current and the terminal voltage.
7. Repeat step-6 for various values of load current; fill the full load current of the generator.
8. Switch off the load on the generator.
9. Switch of the d.c supply to stat the motor.
10. Measure armature resistance (Ra) of the dc generator using multimeter.

OBSERVATION:
Sl. No

Terminal Voltage(VL)

E = VL+IaRa

REPORTS:
Draw graphs showing1. VL Vs IL
2. E Vs Ia

CALCULATIONS:
E = VL+IaRa

CONCLUSION:

DISCUSSION:
1. Why the voltage drop is so sharp in case of shunt Generator?
2. What should be done if the D.C. shunt Generator fails to build up?
3. What are the reasons of fall of terminal voltage of a D.C. Shunt Generator?

43