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The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences

ISSN: 2411-0132(E), 2411-5487(P)


Vol-1, Issue (10):394-397
www.theexplorerpak.org

IMPACT OF MODERNIZATION AND CHANGING TRADITIONAL VALUES OF RURAL SETUP


IN DISTRICT KHUSHAB
Muhammad Shahzad1, Muhammad Nadir Shahzad2, Summer Fatima4, Shahid Hussain4, Touqeer
Ahmed3
1
2
University of Sargodha, Quaid.i.Azam University Islamabad, 3Area Manager Innovative development
strategies Pvt.Ltd, 4PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi
Corresponding Author
Muhammad Shahzad
University of Sargodha
Lashari003@gmail.com
Abstract: The purpose of present study is to explore the impact of modernization on traditional values of rural
setup of khushab. Modernization is considered a transition from traditional towards modern society. Thus it affects
the socio-cultural patterns of the society. The universe of the present study was district Khushab and a convenient
sampling technique was used to extract a sample of 50 respondents from the whole population. The study
concludes that family system has been severely affected by modernization and hence nuclear family system is the
inevitable product.
Key Words: Modernization, Family system, Traditional values, Rural setup

INTRODUCTION
Using the term Modernization is referred to a
gradual transition of society from traditional
towards modern. A traditional society is based on
agrarian while modern society is organized by
industrial functions. Traditional societies have a
unified and single system, the power remains in
one hand while at the opposite end modern
societies are based upon plurality and
heterogeneity Charlton and Andras 2003).
Modernization as a process of changes in
economic as well as cultural aspects of the
society (Haviland 2002). The traditional societies
use the scientific knowledge gained from the
modern societies and apply it on their own
societies, this application of scientific knowledge
which is borrowed from the west creates changes
in their traditional culture. The family system,
cultural patterns, religious system and their
normative structure changes as a result of the
foreign rules and procedures.
Social and cultural changes in societies are due to
modern societies, as individuals adopt the
principles of modern world (Feldman and Hurn

1966). Their priorities, loyalties, occupations,


normative structure and religious affiliations
change due to modernization.
Family is the basic and utmost important unit of
the society. The family system is changing
gradually. Traditional societies had joint and
extended family systems which are no gradually
changing into nuclear family system. Nuclear
family system is the product of modern societies
(Francis 1991).
Modernity is a sense or idea of discontinuing the
present with the past. It is the idea of change in
social as well as cultural process (either through
improvement or decline) in society and the
present life is different from life in the past
(Hooker 1996).
Traditional societies are extensively changing and
engaged in accepting and borrowing the cultural
traits from modern societies, these cultural traits
can be marriage rituals and their proportional
situation among society (Bal 2000).
Modern technology has elevated the social status
of women in family and at the same time has put
the fabric of social relationships at the stake.

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Much distress has been noticed in social


relationships, especially between spouses.
Religious institutions have also lost their grounds;
people are becoming more secular, rational and
scientific thus negatively affecting the structure
of family (Elkind 1992).
Modern technology has affected the traditional
setup of society. Priorities of people have
changed. In Pakistan the internet users are
increasing day by day and it is quite evident from
the survey that people are integrated through
this communication source. On the other hand
family institution has been badly effected and
ignored; this is all due to the advancement in
technology which is the product of modernity.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Talcott Parson and Neil Smelser gave a model
consisting distinctive features of the modern
societies and put an ample light on complexities
of the institutions in the modern world. The
exploration of the model provided the structures
of the modern as well as traditional societies. The
features of the traditional societies consists of
social cohesion, less democratic, strong social
bonding, less participatory towards development.
The other side of the picture provides a glimpse
of the modern societies which are technologically
advance, less interactive and normative structure
is followed at very low level. The researchers and
modernization theorists keeping in mind these
features of societies contribute in the form of
their intellectual abilities for advancement and
development of existing world and could

recommend the normative fluctuations that are


utmost important for less developed countries
(Parson 1967; Smelser 1969).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The universe of the present was District Khushab
which is located between Sargodha and
Mianwali. Khushab consists of three tehsils
namely Khushab, Quaidabad and Noorpur thal.
Tehsil Quaidabad was selected and a sample of
50 respondents was extracted from the
population on the basis of convenience. The data
was collected through face to face interviews.
The tool was designed in English as well as in
Urdu as the habitants of the area was not well
educated and could not properly understand
English. To communicate with the respondents a
native language speaker was hired for assistance.
After the data collection it was analyzed through
spss and interpreted.
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION
This part of the tool was based on four categories
Likert scaling and the responses of the
respondents
have
been
presented
in
percentages. The questions regarding their
perception towards modernization containing
their likeness and dis-likeness of modernization,
changing their ways of life, traditional values
system, religious system, family system, effects
on cultural dress patterns and values which are a
hurdle in adopting the traits of the modern
world. The results of these items are listed in the
table
and
interpreted
below.

Table.1: Perception of the respondents regarding modernization


Strongly
Agree
Agree
F.
%
F.
%
I like modernization
7
14.0
22
44.0
I think that modernization has
changed the ways of life of
23
46.0
23
46.0
people
I think that modernization has
changed
the
traditional
23
46.0
26
52.0
dressing of people
Modernization has impact on
6
12.0
32
64.0
my family
Modernization has impact on
23
46.0
21
42.0
religious system
I think cultural values are
11
22.0
23
46.0
hurdles in modernization

F.
7

%
14.0

Strongly
Disagree
F.
%
14
28.0

8.0

0.0

50

100.0

2.0

0.0

50

100.0

16.0

8.0

50

100.0

6.0

6.0

50

100.0

14

28.0

4.0

50

100.0

Disagree

Total
F.
50

%
100.0

395

Table 1. The data represents the responses


regarding modernization. The first query which
was asked from the respondents was their
likeness towards modernization and the
responses were as follows: majority of the
respondents i.e. 44.0 % agreed with the
statement, that they liked modernization while a
smaller proportion of 14.0 % were not in favor of
modernization. During enumeration and data
collection it was investigated why they do not like
modern societies and modernity as a whole; they
argued that they love their traditional values and
modern society creates disturbance and conflicts
with their cultural traits.
The next statement which was asked from the
respondents regarding changes in their ways of
life, a huge proportion of the respondents 46.0
strongly agreed while only 8.0 % denied and
stated that their ways of life are as they were
before modernization. The note taking activity
helped a lot to investigate that how their ways of
life has been changed. They argued that only a
few years back the situation was totally different,
people had a lot of time for each other but now
everyone is busy with their own matters and
social cohesiveness has nearly vanquished.
When the respondents were asked about
changes in their dress patterns due to
modernization, a huge proportion 52.0 % agreed
with the statement that modern world has
altered the dress patterns replaced by different
foreign dressing styles and only 2.0 % which is the
disagreed and stated that they only wear their
cultural dress which was shalwar kameez and
dhoti kurta which shows their belongingness
with their traditional value system.
Family is considered a basic unit of the society.
The respondents were asked whether it has been
affected or not? Majority of them 64.0 % agreed
while a minute 8.0 % disagreed with the
statement. Another important aspect included in
the questionnaire was the impact on their
religious system. The responses showed that
majority of them i.e. 46.0 % had a view that their
religious system has been changed due to
modernization and only 6.0 % disagreed. Last but
not least, the cultural is considered a barrier

towards adopting traits of the modern world, so


it was decide to investigate and know the
perception of respondents regarding this. A huge
segment of the respondents 46.0 % stated that
cultural values are hurdle towards adoption of
modernity and 4.0 % were not in favor of this,
they had a view that cultural values and
modernity can stand parallel with each other.
CONCLUSION

We can conclude from the above results that the


society is going under transition and is becoming
modernized because the normative structure,
cultural traits, value system, dress patterns, and
family system have all been strongly affected and
altered due to the modern world. The
technological advancement has fed people with
new culture traits, diffusing alien features into
the societies. Traditional and cultural traits are
considered a sign of recognition and identity of
any nation and this very core has been
permanently replaced by the western world. So
there is a dire need to save and preserve our
cultural identity. The researchers and social
scientists should play their role in this concern to
save their identity.
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2003 The modernization imperative.
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1992 The Hurried Child. Reading, Mass:
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Feldman, Arnold S., and Christopher Hurn


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396

1991 The Dilemmas of Development


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2015The Explorer Islamabad Journal of Social Sciences-Pakistan

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