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OBJECTIVES

To examine the temperature profile and determine the rate of heat transfer resulting from
radial heat conduction through the wall of cylinder.
To investigate the influence of thermal insulation upon the conduction of heat between
adjacent metals.

SUMMARY
The main purposes of this experiment is to examine the temperature profile and at the
same time to determine the rate of heat transfer resulting from radial heat conduction through
the wall of a cylinder and also to investigate the influence of thermal insulation upon the
conduction of heat between adjacent metals. The variables involved in this experiment are
power (Watts), temperature (oC), and types of insulation materials. Based on the results
acquired in experiment 1 (Radial Module), it was observed that as the power (Watts)
increases from 10 Watts (Test A) through 15 Watts (Test B) to 20 Watts (Test C), the
temperature recorded fairly increases for each thermocouple temperature (TT oC) by which
shows a directly proportional relationship. However, the power (Watts) and the difference in
temperature (dT) increases when the distance of the thermocouples is closer to the heat
supply, and vice versa. As for experiment 2 (Linear Module), the results were observed in
which directly creates a hypothesis. The temperature varies when different insulation
materials were used. It was also observed when the power is at a constant value of 20 W, and
the thermocouple temperature is consistently increasing, the temperature recorded decreases
which shows and proves the best insulator between all the three insulation. In addition to that,
for experiment 1 (Radial Module), the average thermal conductivity for Test A (10 W) is
7.376 W/mK, for Test B (15 W) is 6.526 W/mK, and the average thermal conductivity for C
(20 W) is 7.376 W/mK. As for the insulators in experiment 2 (Linear Module), the average
thermal conductivity for paper is 0.02808 W/mK, the average thermal conductivity for cork is
0.06331 W/mK, and the average thermal conductivity for the blank is 0.3231 W/mK. A trend
graph/temperature profile was generated to demonstrate the relationship between the

difference in temperature (dT) and difference in distance/displacement (dx). From that, based
on the results recorded and the theory stated, the objectives were achieved.

INTRODUCTION
This experiment is about the principles of heat transfer in conduction. In this
experiment, there are two ways to practice heat conduction; Radial Module and Linear
Module. The principles involved in this experiment is Fouriers Law in which states that heat
flow rate (Q) is proportional to the temperature differences (dT) and cross-sectional area (A)
per unit length (dx) where the thermal conductivity (K) is a constant. In conjunction to that
statement, thermal energy (heat) will always maneuver from warmer objects to cooler
objects.
For Radial Module (Experiment 1), the process will first begin by starting the flow of
the coolant and connecting the heater supply lead to the control panel. Next, connect the six
sensors (TT1,2,3,7,8,9) to the Radial Module. Then, set the power supply to 10 W, 15 W, and
20 W respectively and wait for the readings to stabilize before selecting the numbered sensor
to take its temperature readings. The set-up is as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Radial Module

For Linear Module (Experiment 2) on the other hand, similar steps as for the Radial
Module will be taken but with constant power supply of 20 W. The power supply will be in
the OFF position first and the six sensors (TT1,2,3,7,8,9) will be connected to the Linear
Module. Next, connect the heater supply lead for the Linear Module to the control panel.
Then, place the insulating material (Paper/ Cork/ Blank) in the specimen section and switch
on the power supply. Wait for the readings to stabilize for about 5 minutes before selecting
the numbered sensor to take its temperature readings. Also, wait for similar time after
changing between insulating material. The set-up is as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Linear Module

THEORY
The Fouriers Law states that the rate of heat transfer through a material is proportional to
the negative gradient in the temperature and to the area, at right angles to that gradient,
through which the heat is flowing [Anonymous A, 2013]. The relationship is as shown
below :

Q=
Where :
Q = Heat flow rate, [W]
A = Cross-sectional area of the conduction, [

dT = Changes in temperature, [K]


dx = Changes in displacement, [m]

m2 ]
k = Thermal conductivity of the material, [W/mK]

Heat always conducts from warmer objects to cooler objects. The composition of a
material affects its conduction rate. For cylinders, Fouriers Law states that the heat flux (Q)
is proportional to the temperature differences per unit length. The proportionality constant is
the thermal conductivity (k) [J. C. Diaz, 2013]. The relationship is shown below :

Q=Where :
Ri = Inner radius, [m]
Ti = Inner section temperature, [K]
Ro = Outer radius, [m]
To = Outer section temperature, [K]
Q = Heat flow rate, [W]
L = Thickness of the material, [m]
k = thermal conductivity of the material, [W/mK]

The higher the value of k (Thermal conductivity of material), the better insulator the
material is, and vice versa.

DISCUSSION
An experiment on determining the rate of heat transfer resulting from heat conduction

through both radial and linear pattern of a cylinder, as well as to observe the influence of
thermal insulation towards heat conduction was conducted by operating on the Heat
Conduction Apparatus.
Two experiments were conducted; the first experiment, which is to determine the
radial heat transfer at the Radial Module of the apparatus. The control panel was connected to
the Radial Module and the system was switched on. The wattmeter was then set to 10 Watts,
followed by 15 Watts and 20 Watts. Each numbered thermocouple/sensor was selected with a
5 minutes wait before each setting to obtain a steady state condition, and the displayed
temperature was recorded. For the second experiment, it is about the linear heat transfer with
the influence of several types of insulators (Paper, cork, and blank) at the Linear Module of
the apparatus. Similar steps were conducted as the Radial Module but with uniform power
supply of 20 Watts. Data obtained from both experiments were recorded and was then used to
calculate the thermal conductivity (k), of each material.
For experiment 1, Ti of 39.3 C and To of 32.4 C were obtained for given power
supply of 10 Watts. Ti of 43.5 C and To of 31.8 C were obtained for power supply of 15
Watts, and for power supply of 20 Watts, Ti of 47.6 C and To of 33.8 C were obtained. For
experiment 2 (Constant power supply of 20 Watts), Ti of 112.3 C and To of 32.6 C were
attained for the paper insulator. Ti of 122.6 C and To of 32.2 C were attained for cork
insulator, and for blank insulator, Ti of 72.3 C and To of 31.2 C were attained. For the Radial
Module, the calculated values for the average thermal conductivity (k) acquired for power
(Q) of 10 W, 15 W, and 20 W were 7.376 W/mK, 6.526 W/mK, and 7.376 W/mK. Whereas
for Linear Module (Constant Q = 20 W), thermal conductivity (k) of 0.02808 W/mK was
obtained for paper insulator, 0.06331 W/mK for cork insulator, and 0.3231 W/mK for blank
insulator. The higher the value of k, the better insulator it becomes and vice versa. The best
insulator among the three materials is cork, followed by paper, and blank.

Theoretically, Fouriers Law of Heat Conductivity states that the heat flux (Q), is
directly proportional to the temperature difference (dT) per unit length (dx) [J.C. Diaz, 2013],
which means the lowest dx has the highest Q and dT. It was observed that when power was
supplied to both modules, the thermocouple with the least distance to the power supply has
the highest rate of heat transfer and temperature, while the thermocouple with the most
distance has the lowest rate of heat transfer and temperature. It can be observed that the
results agreed with the theory stated. Trend graphs/Temperature profiles were plotted to
support the statement. Hence, it can be deduced that the objectives of this experiment were
achieved.
There are several possibilities that might have contributed to the errors that occurred
during the experiment. Among those errors is physical errors (caused by experimenters). The
experimenters might not have waited for the readings to stabilize first and have recorded
down the wrong readings, which could lead to an abnormal trend of results. Not just that, the
experimenter may not have focused well during the experiment and may have recorded down
the readings of the parameter in the field of another parameter. By doing so, it will disrupt the
results, and the trend graphs will not result as expected. Other than that, the experimenter
may be careless and accidentally set a higher/lower power supply than it was supposed to
thus, resulting in different temperature values.

TEMPERATURE PROFILE RADIAL MODULE


Constant distance between sensors = 1 cm

Radial Module
50
45
40
35
30
25
Difference in temperature, dT (C)
20
15
10
5
0
Sensor 1

Test A (10 W)
Test B (15 W)
Test C (20 W)

Difference in displacement, dx (m)

Radial Module
14
12
10

Thermal conductivity, k (W/mK)

Test A

Test B

Test C

2
0
Sensor 1

Sensor 6

Difference in displacement, dx (m)

TEMPERATURE PROFILE LINEAR MODULE


Constant distance between sensors = 1 cm
Constant power supply = 20 W

Linear Module
140
120
100

Difference in temperature, dT (C)

80

Paper Insulator

60

Cork Insulator

40

Blank Insulator

20
0
Sensor 1

Difference in displacement, dx (m)

Linear Module
0.5
0.4
0.3

Thermal conductivity, k (W/mK) 0.2

Paper Insulator
Cork Insulator
Blank Insulator

0.1
0
Sensor 1

Difference in displacement, dx (m)

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the length (m), power (Watts), the inner radius (m), the outer radius
(m), inlet temperature (K) and the outlet temperature (K) are essential in determining the
thermal conductivity (W/mK) of the insulation material. The thermal conductivity for
experiment 1 (Radial Module) and experiment 2 (Linear Module) were calculated using a
specific formula. The thermal conductivity was acquired to show how good of an insulator
the insulation material is. By the end of the experiment, the objectives were achieved which
are to examine the temperature profile and to determine the rate of heat transfer resulting
from radial heat conduction through the wall of a cylinder and also to investigate the
influence of thermal insulation upon the conduction of heat between adjacent metals. Overall,
this experiment has been a success as the results obtained were supported much with the
theory.

RECOMMENDATIONS
There are steps that can be taken to prevent these types of errors from occurring. To
prevent physical errors (caused by experiments) from occurring, experimenters have to focus
and be patient for the readings to stabilize before recording any data. Also, work together to
record data, and not just be dependent on just a team member. Next, in order to prevent
recording the wrong data, team members should reconfirm with each other on the results to
acquire the readings which best fit. Besides that, to prevent conducting a slow process, those
who conduct the experiment should read the lab manual prior to conducting the experiment.
Furthermore, even before conducting the experiment, each team should request assistance
from available technicians to check whether the experiment is faulty or not, to avoid
unwanted results.

TUTORIAL
EXPERIMENT 1
1. Plot of the temperature, T versus distance, r. Calculate the thermal conductivity, k.

Radial Module
50
45
40
35
30
25
Difference in temperature, dT (C)
20
15
10
5
0
Sensor 1

Test A (10 W)
Test B (15 W)
Test C (20 W)

Difference in displacement, dx (m)

Linear Module
140
120
100

Difference in temperature, dT (C)

80

Paper Insulator

60

Cork Insulator

40

Blank Insulator

20
0
Sensor 1

Difference in displacement, dx (m)

EXPERIMENT 2
1. Plot the temperature profile in the heater and cooler to determine the temperature
gradient across the insulating disc. Determine the thermal conductivity of paper and
cork.

Temperature gradient across the insulating disc


140
120
100

Difference in temperature, dT ( C)

80

Paper Insulator

60

Cork Insulator

40

Blank Insulator

20
0
Sensor 1

Difference in displacement, dx (m)

2. Comment the influence of insulators upon the conduction of heat transfer between
the heater and the cooler.
Conduction is the transfer of heat from one molecule to another through a substance.
When something hot gain contact with something cold, heat transfer will occur through
the touching of the surface of the particular cold substance. Thus, making the particular
substance burn which spreads the heat around which then makes it warm [R walder,
2013]. Moreover, the influence of insulators upon the conduction of heat transfer between
the heater and the cooler is to reduce the rate of heat transfer in which in this experiment
shows the difference in heat transfer between insulators which are the paper, the cork, and
the blank because not all substances conduct heat at the same speed [Anonymous B, 2003
- 2013].
3. How this material can inhibit conduction?
Less dense materials are better insulators. The denser the material, the closer its atoms are
together. That means the transfer of energy of one atom to the next is more effective. Poor
conductors of electricity are also poor heat conductors/good insulators. Metals that
conduct electricity allow free electrons to roam through the material. This enhances the
transfer of energy from one area to another in the metal. Without this ability, the materials
used like the paper, the cork, and the blank insulators do not conduct heat well
[Anonymous C, 2013].
.

4. Suggest practical uses for insulating materials.


a) Reduced noise levels:
The use of thermal insulation can reduce disturbing noise from neighbouring spaces or
from outside. This will enhance the acoustical comfort of insulated buildings [Dr.
Mohammad S. Al-Homoud, 2013].
b) Fire protection:
If the suitable insulation material is selected and properly installed, it can help in
retarding heat and preventing flame immigration into building in case of fire [Dr.
Mohammad S. Al-Homoud, 2013].
c) Environmental benefits:
The use of thermal insulation not only saves energy operating cost, but also results in
environmental benefits as reliance upon mechanical means with the associated emitted
pollutants are reduced [Dr. Mohammad S. Al-Homoud, 2013].
d) Vapor condensation prevention:
Proper design and installation of thermal insulation helps in preventing vapor
condensation on building surfaces. However, care must be given to avoid adverse effects
of damaging building structure, which can result from improper insulation material
installation and/or poor design. Vapor barriers are usually used to prevent moisture
penetration into low-temperature insulation [Dr. Mohammad S. Al-Homoud, 2013].
e) Customer satisfaction and national good:
Increased use of thermal insulation in buildings will result in energy savings which will
lead to [Dr. Mohammad S. Al-Homoud, 2013]:
Making energy available to others.
Decreased customer costs.
Fewer interruptions of energy services (better service).
Reduction in the cost of installing new power generating plants required in meeting

increased demands of electricity.


An extension of the life of finite energy resources.
Conservation of resources for future generations.

REFERENCES

1. [Anonymous A, 2013],
Thermal Conduction,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_conduction,
[26th September 2013]
2. [J.C. Diaz, 2013],
Fouriers Law,

http://www.ens.utulsa.edu/~diaz/cs4533/flowheat/node4.html,
[28th September 2013]

3. [R walder, 2013],
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_heat_is_transferred_between_a_hot_and_a_cold_obj
ect_by_conduction,
[29th September 2013]
4. [Anonymous B, 2003 - 2013],
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-conduction.htm,
[29th September 2013]
5. [Dr. Mohammad S. Al-Homoud, 2013],
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132304001878,
[29th September 2013]
6. [Anonymous C, 2013],
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/thermal_insulation.htm,
[29th September 2013]