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75 Aufrufe9 SeitenRadiation solved with lattice boltzmann methods.

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Radiation solved with lattice boltzmann methods.

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75 Aufrufe

Radiation solved with lattice boltzmann methods.

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j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / c o m p fl u i d

using lattice Boltzmann methods

Richard McCulloch, Hitesh Bindra

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 22 December 2014

Received in revised form 7 May 2015

Accepted 28 May 2015

Available online xxxx

Keywords:

Radiation

Lattice Boltzmann

Conjugate heat transfer

Porous media

a b s t r a c t

In the past, lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) have been extensively developed for momentum and

energy transport in single-phase and multi-phase uid systems. Recently, LBM based algorithms have

been developed and applied to fundamental Radiative Transport Equations (RTE), including radiation

material interactions and were found very convenient to model radiative energy exchange between

radiation and material medium. This work advances the development of Lattice Boltzmann Equations

(LBE) for radiative transport by integrating them with existing LBEs for energy and momentum transport

for solving multi-physics problems. The multi-physics example problems of thermal energy transport

where radiation, conduction and convection all are considered as important modes are modeled via this

integrated LBM. These integrated LBM models are used to solve one and two dimensional problems, and

highlight the advantage of this approach for solving multi-physics problems in a single framework. First

example involves modeling radiative and conductive heat transfer in one-dimensional slab using LBM.

The numerical results are compared with existing benchmark P1 solutions. Next example is the simulation of two-dimensional radiative porous burner with hot walls. This problem is simulated with two

numerical models: a homogenous porous media and a heterogenous model of packed obstacles which

have differential scattering and absorption interactions. The homogenous model uses analytical velocity

eld and provides a simpler approach, but has limitations in providing detailed analysis. In heterogenous

model velocity eld, temperature eld and radiation eld are computed with a set of coupled LBEs. Fluid

owing through heterogenous porous media undergoes conjugate heat exchange with obstacles and also

interacts with isotropic incident radiation. These two-dimensional example cases with different material

properties are solved with D2 Q 16 LBE template.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The advancement in the eld of high temperature materials

over the period of last two decades has potential to completely revolutionize the energy industry with the design of high efciency

systems. With the higher temperature in the energy system applications, radiation heat transfer becomes equally important along

with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer.

Therefore, the radiative mode of heat transfer with conduction

and convection has growing signicant practical importance in

many engineering applications [13]. Some of these industrial

applications include the manufacturing of glass, design of insulating material, weather forecasting, porous burners, solar collectors,

high temperature nuclear reactors etc. In the past, most of the

commercial and academic codes and calculations for the

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 785 532 3039.

E-mail address: hbindra@ksu.edu (H. Bindra).

to surface boundary conditions. There are very few numerical

codes which solve the radiative transport within the participating

media where conduction and convection calculations are performed. The radiative portion in a multi-physics set-up requires

tremendous computational effort due to the complexity of radiation interaction within a medium which is directionally sensitive

process.

The RTE solutions are computationally expensive due to the fact

that at each point of evaluation all the radiative sources within the

medium have to be accumulated from their initial starting point to

the point of interest. This recursive nature of the RTE is compounded by the fact that not all radiation in the media has the

same energy, thus another dimension must be accounted for during the simulation. Moreover, radiation transport from a point to

the surrounding regions is highly directional dependent therefore

higher degree of angular resolution is required in computations

[411]. This implies there are additional independent variables

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

0045-7930/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: McCulloch R, Bindra H. Coupled radiative and conjugate heat transfer in participating media using lattice Boltzmann

methods. Comput Fluids (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

independent variables for RTEs as compared to standard continuum mechanics equations, Monte Carlo methods are preferred

over deterministic solvers [12]. But Monte Carlo methods are not

so convenient for conventional continuum mechanics problems

such as uid mechanics or convectiondiffusion of scalar quantities. Therefore, a new approach or framework is required for

multi-physics problems with radiation transport as one of the signicant physical processes. Some new multi-physics problems

involving radiationmaterial interactions at mesoscale such as

photo-thermal heating and mixing and optical tweezers have not

been understood quantitatively as they required mutually coupled

modeling tool between radiation transport and particle transport.

LBM has been proposed as a new method for solving multi physics

problems involving RTE. However, most of the effort was focused

on coupling Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) or other conventional deterministic methods for solving RTEs with the LBM based

uid transport or convectiondiffusion solvers [1316]. Recently,

LBM based algorithms have been developed to solve RTE problems

[1722]. This paper proposes the use of those LBM algorithms for

solving coupled multi physics examples. The problems shown in

this paper extend the application of LBM to non-linear temperature

driven coupled conductionradiation and coupled convection

radiation in different one-dimensional and two-dimensional

geometries.

This paper is divided into three main sections. The next section

discusses theoretical background on RTE, its coupling with material energy transport and adoption of LBM to solve those coupled

interactions. The subsequent section describes problem set-up,

numerical details and results for conductionradiation and convectionradiation examples solved using the LBEs. In this section,

thermal energy transport in a simplied version of porous burner

is modeled with convection, conduction, and radiation simultaneously. In the last section nal conclusions are provided.

using total cross-section or attenuation coefcient b ja js as a

parameter. The heat transport system where radiative transfer in

participating media is signicant, coupled simulation of Eqs. (1)

and (2) is required. The velocity eld in Eq. (2) is computed from

uid-momentum transport equations. The LBE solvers for uid

momentum and energy transport are now widely used for single

phase and two phase calculations. Thus, LBE solver for Eq. (1) will

help in building a single framework to solve uid momentum,

energy and radiation transport. The LBE solutions for uid momentum and energy (convectiondiffusion) transport has been discussed extensively in the past, so this work will use some of

those widely accepted algorithms for the numerical examples. The

LBE for the general form of RTE (Eq. (1)) will be discussed in the following subsection.

2.2. Lattice Boltzmann method for RTE

The standard Lattice Boltzmann Equations (LBE) model as

derived previously in several studies is the discrete model in space,

time and lattice velocities. This discrete model is used to evaluate

distribution function for different lattice velocities. The LBE equations conserve the continuum mechanics equations for the macroscopic quantities such as mass, momentum and kinetic energy. A

similar analogue for linear form of the general Boltzmann equation,

which describes radiative transport process, has been developed

with discrete angular directions for radiation eld [1719]. The

distribution function or radiation intensity for each angular direction provides information for current and ux required in thermal

energy balance calculations. The LBE for solving the radiation

transport equations were formulated by Ma et al. [19], and were

shown to conserve macroscopic energy ux using Chapman

Enskog expansion. They used a standard RTE with source term

but without the scattering integral

2. Mathematical formulation

@Ir; X; t

X rIr; X; t ra Ir; X; t sX r; t:

@t

The radiationmaterial interaction can be considered as equilibrium interaction, where radiation and material energies reach an

instantaneous equilibrium, or non-equilibrium interaction, when

there is a lag between radiative energy and material energy. The

non-equilibrium interaction of radiation and material energies is

modeled by coupling the radiation transport equation (RTE) with

the material energy balance equation [23]. Assuming homogenous

materials and isotropic scattering, the set of governing equations

for non-equilibrium radiative transfer can be written as

@Ir; X; t

1

rTr; t4 Ir; X; t

X:$Ir; X; t ja

@t

4p

Z

1

Ir; X; tdX Ir; X; t

js

4p 4p

Sr; X; t

by Bindra et al. [20] to incorporate weighted summations for scattering integrals. Using the taylor series expansion on these discrete

LBEs, it can be shown that these equations are rst order accurate

in space and time. In this current work we will use this formulation

to solve the RTE form stated in the previous section. The equivalent

LBE for this RTE, Eq. (1), is

h

i

IX r XDt; t Dt IX r; t ja wX Tr; t4 IX r; t Dt

"

#

X

js wX IX0 r; t IX r; t Dt

X0

sX r; tDt:

1

5

For a two dimensional Cartesian LBE lattice, Eq. (5) reduces to

and

qC p

@Tr; t

qC p v :rT r:krT

@t

Z

Ir; X; tdX rTr; t4

ja

2

4p

time t in the direction X; Tr; t is the temperature; v is the

velocity eld of the uid (material) stream; ja is the absorption

cross-section; js is the scattering cross-section; Sr; X; t is the

volumetric energy source; C p is the specic heat; and r is the

bIi x; y; t ja wi Tx; y; t4 js wi

!

X

Ij x; y; t ja wi sx; y; t ;

j

6

where Ii x; y; t is the discrete angular neutron ux in the ith lattice

direction at x; y location at time t. Lattice velocities v i;x and v i;y are

chosen such that the distance traveled by particles in a discrete

time interval Dt i.e., v i;x Dt and v i;y Dt equals to the distance between

Please cite this article in press as: McCulloch R, Bindra H. Coupled radiative and conjugate heat transfer in participating media using lattice Boltzmann

methods. Comput Fluids (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

Fig. 1. Various 2D LBM lattice arrangements showing (a) D2 Q 4 , (b) D2 Q 8 , and (c) D2 Q 16 lattices.

directional weighting factor or weights for each direction of

travel. Fig. 1 illustrates these discrete model directions in a

two-dimensional cartesian space

In two-dimensions, the most commonly used template for LBE

is D2 Q 8 , which has 8 directions 1 8 (Fig. 1), and the standard

corresponding notation for v i can be written as

vi

8

p

i1p

>

< v cos i1

i14

;

sin

2

2

p

i5

p

i5

p

>

: 2v cos 2 p4 ; sin 2 p4

i58

vi

are equal to v and for diagonal directions i 5 8 are equal to

p

2v . The weights wi for directions with the same speeds are equal

because of symmetry. The weights for each cardinal and diagonal

direction lead to isotropic generalized lattice tensors of rank 2

and 4 [24,25]. This is achieved by conservation of lattice angular

moments up to the fourth order over scattering or any other radiation interaction. In case of an isotropic function wl, the odd

moments vanish,

8

X

v ia wi

wll dl 0

1

i1

8

X

v ia v ib v ic wi

wlla lb lc dl 0;

1

i1

Table 1

Weights wi for different two-dimensional lattice.

Lattice

14

58

9 16

D2 Q 4

D2 Q 8

D2 Q 16

0.25

0.20

0.196

0.05

0.028

0.013

8

i1p

i1p

>

i14

>

> v cos 2 ; sin 2

>

< p

i5p

i5

p

2v cos 2 p4 ; sin 2 p4

i58

>

>

>

p

>

: 5v cos i9p p ; sin i9p p

i 9 16

4

8

4

8

13

as illustrated in Fig. 1 are tabulated in Table 1.

As stated earlier in the introduction, momentum and energy

transport in continuum media has been studied by various

researchers in the past using lattice Boltzmann methods.

Therefore, the details or background on those can be found in listed

references. Appropriate version of Eq. (2), i.e. material energy

equation, with associated boundary conditions and corresponding

LBE will be stated from the literature for particular example studies in the following section.

3. Numerical examples

3.1. 1D Example: conduction and radiation

Z

8

X

wi

wldl 1

1

i1

8

X

v ia v ib wi

1

i1

8

X

wlla lb dl dab

v ia v ib v ic v ig wi

i1

10

11

1

12

These moment equations are solved for the D2 Q 8 LBE system, and

the weights for cardinal and diagonal directions are obtained as 15

1

and 20

, respectively. D2 Q 8 LBE system has been shown to be adequate for modeling uid mechanics problems in two dimensions,

but in the case of RTEs a higher number of angular discretization

schemes may be required where the non-diffusive transport mechanism of radiation is important. Therefore, a higher order angular

discretization scheme D2 Q 16 is adopted, which has 1 8 directions

as described in D2 Q 8 and additional directions 9 16 with specic

lattice velocities (Eq. (13)) as shown in Fig. 1.

a one dimensional participating media has been studied previously

in a slab geometry [23,26]. These studies used other deterministic

methods (such as DOM, Finite Volume, Spherical Harmonics) for

solving the radiation transport part and here LBM is used for simulating both radiation and conduction modes. This particular

example of slab geometry, considered here, has two walls (boundaries) at xed temperatures. One of these walls is at higher temperature as compared to rest of the media. Due to this temperature

difference there is heat ux due to radiation and conduction

effects. The radiative eld contributes to material temperature

which contributes back to the radiative eld. The geometry and

boundary conditions for this problem are shown in Fig. 2. The

one-dimensional representation forms of Eqs. (1) and (2) modeling

radiative intensity and material temperature are obtained from

Ref. [23] as Eqs. (14) and (15),

Z

dIx; l ja

j 1

rT 4 s

dx

4p

2 1

Z 1

2

d T

Ix; ldl:

k 2 ja rT 4

1

dx

14

15

Please cite this article in press as: McCulloch R, Bindra H. Coupled radiative and conjugate heat transfer in participating media using lattice Boltzmann

methods. Comput Fluids (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

wi s v i Dt; t Dt wi s; t Dt

wi s; t 1 xwi hs; t4 xwi

!

X

wj s; t :

23

transfer parameters.

temperature, r is the StefanBoltzmann constant, ja is the absorption coefcient, and js is the scattering coefcient. In Eq. (15), k is

thermal conductivity of the material. The non-dimensional forms

of these equations are given by Eqs. (16) and (17).

Z

dw

h4

x 1

1 x

w

w dl

ds

4p

2 1

Z

1

@2h 1 x 4

h

w dl

@ s2

N

1

16

17

quadrature and wi are the weights associated with ith direction.

The time-step Dt is chosen to be equal to ds or Ds as commonly

used

approach

for

lattice

Boltzmann

methods.

The

non-dimensional temperature h is the coupling variable between

radiative and material energy equations.The LBE for material energy

transport equation (Eq. (17)) is derived in literature [27] as Eq. (24),

1

eq

fi fi

0:5Dt

Z 1

1x 4

h

w

d

l

Dt

wm

i

N

1

f i s ~

ei Dt; t Dt f i s; t

e2s

1

where f i are the distribution functions associated with each microei and corresponding weight wm

to compute

scopic direction ~

i

non-dimensional temperature. The microscopic direction vectors

and corresponding weights wm

i are obtained from literature [27].

Lattice speed of material energy transport equation is represented

eq

by es DDst . The equilibrium function f i is given in Eq. (25)

eq

f i wm

i h

coefcient, x jajsjs is the scattering albedo, and h TTR is dimen-

sionless temperature. The temperature T R can be any reference temperature but here it is convenient to choose from one of the

boundaries. The dimensionless quantity N rkjT a3 is the

R

that relates radiative and conductive heat uxes.

The boundaries or walls are held at different temperatures of

hL 1 and hR 0:5 for the left and right walls, respectively.

Boundary conditions for the radiation equation are calculated

based on emissivities of the walls along with the known temperatures at the boundary, as shown in Eq. (18).

ww h4w

1 e

lw dl

18

lw

24

X

f i:

25

26

energy transport (or temperature) equation see Ref. [27].

The steady-state results with two direction LBM in one

dimension D1 Q 2 using w1;2 wm

1;2 0:5 are compared with P 1

benchmark solutions. The effect of Stark number N, or the radiationconduction parameter, is shown in Fig. 3. These calculations

are performed for perfectly black body surfaces e 1 and used

1

Dt Ds 160

. Other examples as shown in Fig. 4 depict the impact

of emissivity value for non-black body surfaces. All the results

obtain from different numerical exercises show that LBM results

are in good agreement with the P1 results.

Grid convergence study was performed for N 0:01 and e 1

case, the global error was computed as a function of grid size.

of the wall, hw is the temperature at the wall and lw denotes integration domain over half-space on each wall. This problem has been

previously solved using P1 approximation (Ref. [23]), and those

solutions will be used as benchmark for comparison. The P 1 approximation for this one dimensional problem can be represented as

Eqs. (19)(22) (for details see Ref. [23]),

2

d G

3h4 G 0

ds

2

d h 1 4

h G

ds2 N

dG 3 eL

h4 G 0

ds 2 2 eL L

dG 3 eR

h4 G 0

ds 2 2 eR R

19

20

s0

21

s1

22

R1

where G 1 w dl is the non-dimensional total radiative ux, and

eL and eR are the emissivities of the left and right faces respectively.

The LBE for one-dimensional slab RTE (Eq. (16)) can be written as an

analogue to generic form (Eq. (5))

Fig. 3. Temperature prole for varying stark numbers. N is the Stark number which

relates the interaction between radiation and conduction. hL 1; hR 0:5hL and

e1 e2 1.

methods. Comput Fluids (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

require fully coupled computer simulations of radiative heat transport with conjugate heat transfer in porous media. Talukdar et al.

[29] modeled similar problem in two dimensions using LBM for

evaluating the convective ux and Finite Volume Method (FVM)

for the radiative ux. In this example a porous media is placed

between two plates and uid is allowed to ow through the media.

The geometry and boundary conditions for this problem are shown

in Fig. 6. Steady State thermal transport with convection, conduction and radiation in two dimensional homogenous porous media

is governed by Eq. (28)

qC p U

P

k i wi Gk2

:

kGk2

@2T d T

@x2 @y2

!

@qr @qr

@x

@y

28

respectively. In Eq. (28), the left-hand side terms are convection

terms, and the right-hand side terms represent conduction and

radiation heat transfer in the uid/solid continuum. The radiative

heat ux terms are explicitly modeled as

EDs

@T

@T

V

@x

@y

27

reduces linearly with grid size. As mentioned in the previous section the current form of LBE for radiative transport is a rst order

accurate method, which can be easily deduced by taylor series

expansion of the LBE for RTE. Other established MOC and DOM

methods for RTE are also rst order accurate method (Ref. [28]).

3.2. Radiationconvection in two-dimensional rectangular geometries

3.2.1. Homogeneous radiative porous burner

The high temperature practical applications such as a radiative

porous burner involve coupled radiative, conductive and convective heat transfer in a highly complex geometrical conguration.

Porous burners are getting increased attention due to their ability

to burn very low combustion energy materials or to allow higher

degree of thermal mixing. This is achieved by uniform material

mixing and allowing the transmission of radiative heat uxes

absorbed by the outer walls, which conduct and convect heat in

the axial direction away from the combustion chamber via uid

Z

@qr @qr

ja rT 4

Ix; y; XdX

@x

@y

X4p

29

axial direction (x-direction), and assuming fully developed velocity

eld, the non-dimensional form (Eq. (30)) of the governing energy

transport equation in the porous media was derived in Ref. [29].

2

@h

2 @ h

bW @ Wr

@ sx

Pe @ s2y

2NPe @ sy

30

The left-hand side of Eq. (30) is the convection of heat due to the

bulk motion of the uid passing through the channel. It is assumed

that the velocity in the transverse direction (y direction) is negligible, thus temperature is only convected axially, or in other words

convection is considered only for the x direction. The rst term

on the right hand side of Eq. (30) represents temperature diffusion

throughout the media in the transverse direction, where

2U W qC

Pe m k p is the Peclet number which relates the rate of convection to the rate of diffusion. It is assumed that in the axial direction

diffusion is negligible, thus diffusion is only considered in the

transverse direction of thickness W. The dimensionless thicknesses

in this example are dened as sx Wx and sy Wy , and dimensionless axial velocity u UUm . The second term on the right-hand side

of Eq. (30) is the thermal source term due to radiation. The stark

number as dened earlier in previous example is slightly modied

to N 4rbkT 3 , where T R is the reference temperature used to

R

non-dimensionalize the energy equation, and Wr rqTr4 is the

R

radiative heat ux can be simplied to

Z

@ Wr

bW1 x h4

w dX

@ sy

X4p

31

two-dimensional RTE (Eq. (32))

@w

@w

h4

x

l g

bW 1 x

w

4p

4p

@ sx

@ sy

!

w dX

32

X4p

additional term g @@w

sy , where g is the directional cosine in second

e 1 case.

dimensions was modeled using D2 Q 4 LBM in the previous work

[20] for uniform (constant) temperature everywhere in the domain

and the results compared well against the S2 DOM solutions. The

methods. Comput Fluids (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

1

Fig. 6. Homogenous porous burner with hot radiating walls. Thickness in y-direction (W 1); Aspectio Ratio = 4 and Grid spacing = 100

. The length scales used in picture are

in number of grid points.

LBE equation for RTE (Eq. (32)) with the constant temperature hc

everywhere in the media can be obtained, by re-writing Eq. (6)

with dimensionless variables, as

DtbW wi 1 x

h4c

!

X

wi sx ; sy ; t xwi wj sx ; sy ; t : 33

j

accurate due to use of only four angular directions in

two-dimensional planar geometry. As expected in solving RTE

the accuracy of solution increases with number of directions.

Higher angular resolution results, i.e. S4 scheme agree with the

exact solution [10]. The S4 conguration has been shown

[10,9,23] to be sufcient to capture the radiative heat transfer physics in two-dimensional rectangular or square enclosures.

Therefore, Eq. (33) was solved with higher angular directions i.e.

D2 Q 8 and D2 Q 16 lattice congurations with weights shown in the

Table 1. Similar to other existing LBE algorithms, problem is solved

by explicit time marching which requires the condition Dtb < 1 for

stability. Results shown in the Fig. 7, abstained from D2 Q 16 LBE

template with 16 directions match well with the benchmark

DOM S4 results. Therefore the two-dimensional problems studied

in this work use D2 Q 16 stencil for solving RTEs and are coupled

with established LBE models for convectiondiffusion models.

The simplication of the geometry into homogeneous porous

media enables the evaluation of velocity eld analytically. An analytical expression for ow inside homogeneous porous media was

obtained from literature [30], i.e.

usy ; c

34

parameter c and dimensionless sy . For c ! 0, a non-porous media,

the velocity prole asymptotically approaches a laminar Poiseuille

ow velocity prole. The velocity eld scaled with maximum

Poiseuille ow velocity of 0.1 porosity parameter value of 0.1

(results shown in Fig. 8) is then substituted in the energy

equation which can be solved using LBM.

Mishra et al. [31] derived LBE to solve material energy equation

with radiation term as a source. The radiation source term was

computed using collapsed dimension method and then substituted

into the LBE form of energy equation. LBE models for convection

diffusion equations with source term have been developed in the

past [32,33]. Based on these existing LBE models for solving

convectiondiffusion equations with source terms, the LBE form

of Eq. (30) can be written as Eq. (35).

@f i

1

eq

~

fi fi

ci rf i

1

2

@t

2Pecs 0:5Dt

bW

wi

rWR

2NPe

35

~

ci ~

u

eq

:

f i wm

h

1

i

cs

36

In Eq. (36) ~

ci is the unit vector in the streaming direction and cs DDsts

is the lattice speed. D2 Q 5 LBE template with appropriate weights for

distribution functions wm

i as mentioned in the literature [32] for

convection diffusion equation were used for these computations.

1

always maintained greater than 0.6, which has been reported by

Huang et al. [32] ensures stable solution for solving convectiondiffusion equations with source terms.

The physical example problem as presented in Fig. 6, has two

walls maintained initially at higher temperature than the porous

medium. These walls dissipate thermal energy into the porous

media with fully developed uid ow via radiative, conductive

and convective heat transfer. This computations are performed

P

Fig. 7. Total radiative ux

i wi solutions with Lattice Boltzmann and Discrete

Ordinate methods in a square enclosure. The results are line plots for

sx 0:5; hc 1 and all the walls kept at zero dimensionless temperature.

Fig. 8. Velocity prole for the case of both non-participating (left) and participating

(right) media as obtained from analytical expression Eq. (34). Dimensionless

velocity at the inlet (sx 0) is 1 for all sy .

methods. Comput Fluids (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

e 1. In the case of a non-participating media, b 0 and radiation

does not affect the temperature of the uid in the channel as there

is no absorption or scattering within the media (Fig. 9). For the case

of participating media b 2 and radiation emitted from hot walls

is absorbed by the homogeneous porous matrix resulting in higher

temperature distribution in the domain. It can be seen in Fig. 10

that the radiation interaction causes the entire domain to heat

up instantaneously after entering the channel.

Due to the assumption of homogeneity, which allowed the use

of a single porosity parameter c, the approach used in this problem

cannot capture differential scattering and absorption in a real porous matrix. Therefore, accurate analysis of thermal transport at

high temperatures can only be considered reliable if heterogenous

medium with anisotropic properties is modeled.

boundary conditions for this problem are shown in Fig. 11. The size

of each obstacle is 0:1 0:1. The velocity eld around the obstacles

is solved by LBM and then substituted in energy transport equation. Conduction, convection, and radiation from the walls, obstacles and uid media were solved simultaneously. In other words

all the multi-physics processes involved here are simulated via a

fully coupled LBM solver. The uid ow in continuum regime is

modeled using the non-dimensional steady-state form of Navier

Stokes equations for incompressible ow with no body force along

with the continuity equation (Ref. [34])

@u

@u

@p

1 @2u @2u

u

v

@ sx

@ sy

@ sx Re @ s2x @ s2y

u

The detailed analysis of radiationconductionconvection in

heterogeneous porous media with realistic void fraction of

3040% and much smaller characteristic dimension of thermal

transport as compared to the entire geometry will be computationally challenging task. Moreover, the analytical velocity prole used

in the homogeneous case will no longer be valid for this

heterogeneous region. A simple heterogenous model with few

solid obstacles is used for the detailed analyses of coupled radia

@v

@v

@p

1 @2v @2v

v

@ sx Re @ s2x @ s2y

@ sx

@ sy

!

37

@u

@v

0

@ sx @ sy

In these equations u and v are non-dimensional velocities in the sx

and sy directions, respectively, p is non-dimensional pressure,

Re 2Umm W is the Reynolds number and m is the kinematic viscosity.

The LBEs to solve this classical non-dimensional uid mechanics

problem have been developed and presented in listed [24,37] and

several other references. The most commonly used LBE form is

@g k

1

g k g eq

~

ckf rg k

k

2 1

@t

2mc 0:5Dt

38

fs

with the BGK approximation [3537] is shown in Eq. (39).

"

f

g eq

k wk 1

porous media i.e. without any radiation absorption in the domain. Steady state

temperature distribution shows negligible temperature gain in the media due to nill

radiation absorption and very high Peclet number.

ckf DDstx ^i

39

Dsy ^

j is

Dt

wkf

is the weight of the k-th direction

1

and q is the density. The standard D2 Q 9 with weights 36

for diagonal

directions, 19 for cardinal directions and 49 for the stationary microscopic velocity [24] were used for solving uid mechanics problem.

The equation governing the temperature distribution is given

by Eq. (40).

ux

Fig. 10. Temperature distribution inside heterogeneous porous media with strong

radiation absorption. Steady state temperature distribution equilibrates to the

temperature of bounding hot walls throughout the domain.

~

ckf ~

u 1 ~

ckf ~

u

1~

u2

2

4

2

2 c2fs

cfs

cfs

@h

@h

2 @2h @2h

uy

@ sx

@ sy Pe @ s2x @ s2y

!

bW @ Wr @ Wr

2NPe @ sx

@ sy

40

The signicance of individual terms in Eq. (40) and its LBE form

are identical to the homogeneous case and the LBE form of this

convectiondiffusion equation is identical to the homogeneous

case. The radiative heat ux term rWr is computed using Eqs.

(31)(33) as described before. The uid mechanics in this problem

Fig. 11. Heterogeneous Porous Burner with large ow obstacles with differential material properties. Size, aspect ratio and grid size are chosen to be exactly same as

homogeneous case.

methods. Comput Fluids (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compuid.2015.05.024

Fig. 12. Velocity prole around the ow obstacles solved with LBM.

Fig. 13. Temperature contour for the entire 2-D domain with radiatively transparent obstacles (b 0).

Fig. 14. Temperature contour for the entire 2-D domain with radiation absorbing

obstacles (b 2 and N 0:001).

is not affected by the thermal calculations so this model only presents one-way coupling with the uid model. The parameters

Re 100; Pe 1600 and inlet maximum velocity usx 0 0:1

are used for these calculations to maintain similarity with the

homogeneous case in simulating uid ow and the role of convection term in energy transport. The inlet velocity prole was chosen

to be Poiseuille ow. The velocity calculations as obtained from the

solutions of LBE (Eq. (39)) are presented in Fig. 12.

After obtaining the velocity eld and initialized radiation eld,

Eq. (40) is solved using its LBE form (Eq. (35)). The temperature

and radiative elds are mutually coupled, so they were solved iteratively. The resulting temperature proles for different material

properties of obstacles are shown in Figs. 13 and 14. The uid

media in both these cases is assumed to absorb negligible radiation. In the rst case, the solid obstacles are assumed to be

non-absorbers. The results show no temperature change in solids

and the uid near boundaries is hot due to convection near the

walls. Due to very high Peclet number Pe 1600, there is no

change in the uid temperature away from the walls. The second

case is modeled with the absorbing and conducting material. As

uid is almost transparent to radiation, the wall radiation instantly

starts heating up the obstacles and raise its temperature. Therefore

the uid eventually gets heated up from the wall and obstacles

both due to convection and conduction.

4. Conclusions

The LBM based RTE models are extended for their application

into coupled multi-physics problems. The results of this work on

a potential in solving coupled multi-physics problems. A benchmark problem with conductionradiation heat transfer in slab

geometry was solved using LBE model and results are in good

agreement with the benchmark P1 results. The effect of stark number and wall emissivity on thermal behavior is studied. Grid convergence study was performed which showed that LBE for RTEs

is a rst order accurate method. D2 Q 8 and D2 Q 16 LBE templates

were used to model radiative transport in two-dimensional square

enclosures with constant temperature hc 1 throughout the

domain, to check the validity of these LBE templates for solving

RTE problems. The results were found to be in good agreement

with existing S4 solutions in the literature [10]. Higher angular

resolution template D2 Q 16 was selected to model the radiation

transport in porous radiative burners in two dimensional rectangular geometry. Porous radiative burner is modeled using homogenous approximation and analytical velocity eld of the uid

stream. The results obtained show qualitative effect of the radiation transport in homogeneous participating media. The challenges

of this modeling approach are highlighted and LBM based

single-framework approach for solving multi-physics in a

heterogenous model is presented. The uid transport around the

solid obstacles, conductionconvection modeling in the entire

domain (soliduid) and radiation transport are solved using

LBEs. A fully coupled LBE model is developed and simulation

results are presented for a simplied heterogenous porous media.

The effect of material properties in the entire spatial domain is

studied and results can be physically analyzed. This work involves

only one-way coupling with the uid model i.e. no feedback is provided to the uid model based on thermal calculations. However,

with this example, LBE approach for modeling the phenomenon

of radiative heating of obstacles and in-turn conjugate heating of

uid stream is demonstrated. Due to its simplied single framework model, LBM is well-suited and has clear advantage over other

deterministic/stochastic numerical techniques for modeling novel

mesoscale applications of photo-thermal heating and optical

tweezers where uid motion is directly or indirectly impacted by

radiation heat transport. Although there is signicant effort

required in the area of LBM based solutions to RTEs prior to its

implementation for solving practical problems. One of the important future task is to improve the accuracy of the method i.e.

exploring the LBE schemes with order of accuracy higher than rst

order. Second important aspect is to understand rigorously the

numerical stability envelopes of using LBE as a single framework

for solving multiphysics problems. Finally, extending the LBM for

solving multienergetic RTEs is important to explore its advantages

as compared to existing multienergetic algorithms in solving RTEs.

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